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Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary and Pornography, Analysis of Nature. Ralph Waldo Emerson first published Nature in 1836. The essay served as one of the founding documents of the difference between theory, Transcendental Club, whose members would come to include future Transcendentalist luminaries like Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Bronson Alcott. Pornography? The Club convened its first meeting a week after the Park, publication of Nature , led by Control of Internet Emerson. The critical reception of his seminal work has shifted over time. Nature was once dismissed as a gospel of selfishness, naive optimism, and narrow parochialism. Difference Between Theory X And Theory? However, scholars, with the benefit of hindsight, now understand his work as not only the harbinger of Transcendentalism, but also a modern rethinking of Stoicism, Plato, and Kant. In this essay, Emerson outlines his initial ideas about the fundamental relationship of humanity with nature, which he would develop further in later essays.

His conception of this relationship was revolutionary for its time when many thought of humanity as separate from and above the rest of the natural world, and of nature as the mere reflection of human will/manipulation, a means for human ends. Introduction and Nature. Our age is retrospective, Emerson begins. It builds on the sepulchers of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. While earlier generations beheld God and nature face to Control of Internet Pornography, face, the present merely sees the world through the problem with immigration, eyes of the past. Troubled by this trend, Emerson asks, Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe?

Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of theirs? After all, the sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. In this way, Emerson opens his essay with a sweeping dismissal of those tools of insight based on the past, and a demand to understand the Pornography, world - that is, God and enigmatic, nature (two sides of the Control of Internet Pornography Essay, same coin for Park Essay him) - instead through our own personal, direct relationship to and revelations about the world. The rest of the introduction is spent outlining what such an of Internet Pornography understanding would entail and require - its methods, aims, and definitions. As the title of his essay suggests, he grounds his approach to understanding the world in Nature, which along with the Soul, composes the universe. Essay? By Nature, Emerson includes everything that is not me (i.e., separate from the Soul), both nature [as conventionally understood, i.e., those essences unchanged by humans, like a tree or a river] and art [those essences mixed with the will of humans, like a house or a canal], all other men and my own body. Of Internet Pornography? Like the Stoics, Emerson believed that in nature could be found the source of moral principles and between y, well being. However, in the present age, he argues, few adult persons can see nature.

Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. Control Of Internet Pornography? For seeing/understanding nature entails not only asking what nature is Park Essay or how it operates, but also to what end is nature? To pursue such an understanding of nature - an inquiry he believes allied to science, all of which aims to Control of Internet, find a theory of nature - he does not appeal to other authorities on Park Ranger Service the subject, past or present, but rather his own experience to Control, craft a theory he believes self-evident and self-validating. While this may not seem scientific in terms of objectivity, he argues, Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is harwood barn owl that it will explain all phenomena. His success in crafting such a theory arguably derives from his ability to immerse his readers in his own experiences, as with the passage, Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear.

Another famous passage describes his experience as a transparent eyeball, a conduit for Control Pornography Essay God as he stands in nature: Here [in the woods] I feel that nothing can befall me in Types life, - no disgrace, no calamity (leaving me my eyes), which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, - my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into of Internet infinite space, - all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or parcel of God. In the with illegal, next sections, Emerson outlines in detail and in Pornography Essay ascending order of barn importance the components of the relationship of Control of Internet Essay humanity and nature: the common uses/aspects of and Sources Essay nature (see Commodity, Beauty, and Language), our lived experience vis-a-vis nature (see Discipline), and the manifestation of the universal/divine (what he calls, Reason) in of Internet Essay nature (i.e., Transcendentalism; see Idealism, Spirit, and Prospects). The most obvious and tangible aspect of the relationship between humanity and nature is the practical usefulness of nature as a source of raw material and energy. Emerson observes that all parts of nature - as material, process, and result - work toward the benefit of humanity: “The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the beth cruzan, animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man.” He further illustrates this process in his admiration of a tide-mill, which, on the seashore, makes the tides drive the wheels and grind corn, and which thus engages the assistance of the moon like a hired hand, to grind, and wind, and pump, and Control of Internet Pornography, saw, and difference theory x and theory y, split stone, and roll iron. However, Emerson argues the use of nature as commodity is the lowest of benefits, and quickly moves on Control of Internet Essay to less material gifts and aspects.

In this section, Emerson describes the ways in which nature provides humanity with its ideas and standards of beauty. “The standard beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms the totality of nature.” Emerson asserts this is because such is the enigmatic quotes, constitution of things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for Control of Internet Pornography Essay themselves,” as evidenced by the creations of artists (e.g., poets, painters, sculptors, musicians, architects). In other words, it is a given based on the relationship of humanity with the natural world: The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty.” Ultimately, no reason can be asked or give why the soul seeks beauty, which includes 1) physical beauty, 2) moral beauty (or virtue), and harwood barn owl, 3) intellectual beauty (or truth). As beauty is grounded in nature, so is language. Emerson asserts, Nature is the vehicle of thought, and offers three main components to Control of Internet Pornography, this observation. First, words are signs of natural facts. Based on etymology, Emerson illustrates how not only words like apple are rooted in nature (i.e., the visible, concrete, and cruzan, tangible aspects of the external world), but also most abstractions. For example, supercilious is from the of Internet Pornography Essay, Latin super cilia , which means raising the eyebrow. Another example, not mentioned by Emerson, is consider, which comes from the difference between x and theory y, Latin con siderare , meaning to study the stars. Next, Emerson says, “Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts,” which emphasizes the use of nature to express our ideas. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the Control of Internet Pornography Essay, mind can only beth, be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. Of Internet Pornography Essay? As enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is nancy cruzan a torch.

A lamb is innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love. Emerson asserts that if you go back in Pornography Essay history, language becomes more image-based, and in the earliest stages it is and Sources of Conflicts all poetry based on natural symbols. In modern times, Emerson argues, our language has become corrupted by secondary desires - the desires for money, pleasure, power, and Control Pornography Essay, praise - rather than the simple and fundamental desire to communicate our thoughts without loss (i.e., with the images and symbols of nature). As such, our language has ceased to create new images based on visible nature, the old words have become perverted and abstracted, and the obviousness of his point is difficult to see. Enigmatic? As he will later say in The Poet, language is now fossil poetry, filled with dead metaphors and words cut away from their roots. Finally, Emerson argues, Nature is the symbol of spirit, an of Internet assertion grounded in Platonist idealism. Park Service Essay? Basically, the reason why people, especially writers, can successfully use nature in their language (e.g., as image, trope, noun, verb) is not simply because of the meaning they confer upon nature, but rather because nature itself is a language. Have mountains, and waves, and Control of Internet, skies, no significance but what we consciously give them when we employ them as emblems of Ranger Service our thoughts?

The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are metaphors, because the whole of nature is Pornography a metaphor of the human mind. That is, nature is an expression of the laws and ideas (i.e., the quotes, metaphysics) that underpin the visible world. By tapping into Pornography Essay the language of with illegal immigration nature, humans are able to in turn express the laws and ideas of the world. Emerson suggests this is of Internet why popular proverbs of gwen harwood barn owl different nations usually consist of a natural fact, like a rolling stone gathers no moss, a bird in the hand is Pornography Essay worth two in the bush, and the last ounce broke the camel's back. In this section, Emerson describes how our lived experience vis-a-vis nature is a discipline, or rather, a multifaceted education for understanding intellectual truths (Understanding) and and Sources of Conflicts, moral truths (Reason). In regard to intellectual truths, Emerson observes that every aspect of our everyday engagement with the world (e.g., space, time, food, climate, animals) and matter (e.g., its solidity, inertia, form, divisibility) teaches us lessons that form our common sense about the world (e.g., about difference, likeness, order, particularity, generality).

Furthermore, each encounter teaches us about power, about the ability for Control humans to shape nature according to theory x and theory y, their will. Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the of Internet Pornography, Savior rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material that he may mold into what is useful. In regard to moral truths, our engagements with nature teaches us about the Ranger, premonitions of Control Pornography Reason - by which Emerson means the universal soul, his Transcendentalist conception of God - and thus shape our conscience. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion; that every globe in the remotest heaven, every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life, every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to beth cruzan, the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine, every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and wrong, and of Internet, echo the Ten Commandments. This entails that despite the infinite variety of natural processes and forms, they all embody a version of the moral law of the universe, which illustrates the unity of Nature - its unity in variety. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over difference between x and y it; the air resembles the light that traverses it with more subtle currents; the light resembles the heat that rides with it through Space. Creatures are only a modification of one another; the likeness between them is more than the difference, and their radical law is one and the same. Essay? A rule of difference between one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature.

So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of Nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. Finally, Emerson asserts the amount of moral influence each encounter has on an individual depends on the amount of truth it illustrates to Essay, the individual, which cannot be easily quantified. Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? How much tranquility has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of nancy beth cruzan stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? In the preceding sections, Emerson focuses on the uses and benefits of of Internet nature. In Idealism and Spirit, he shifts to questions of nancy beth cruzan what nature is. Such questions are based on his Idealism, and thus do not mean what is of Internet Essay nature composed of, but rather, is there a higher reality or law behind nature, and gwen harwood owl, does visible nature really exist?

In part, his new line of questions is one of epistemology - how do we know what we know? He first offers the claim of the radical Idealist, who believes reality is fundamentally constructed by the mind: In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul. However, he also denies the extreme conclusion that reality, and thus nature, does not exist independent of the Control Essay, mind: Any distrust of the permanence of laws [e.g., gravity] would paralyze the faculties of man. He settles the issue by showing how various aspects of culture - including 1) motion (which affirms the internal reality of the observer due to nancy, the feeling of the sublime that arises from the difference felt between the observer/human and the spectacle/nature, as when seeing the shore from a moving ship), 2) poetry (which affirms the reality of the soul by the way in which poets conform nature to their thoughts and makes them the words of the Reason or the soul), 3) philosophy (which like poetry, affirms the reality of the soul by the way in which philosophers animate nature with their thoughts and makes them the words of Reason, except in this case for Truth rather than Beauty), 4) intellectual science (which generates insight based on abstract ideas and of Internet Essay, thus the spirit), and 5) religion and ethics (which degrades nature and quotes, suggests its dependence on the spirit) - convince us of the reality of the external world, of nature and spirit, and thus tend to imbue us with a moderate form of idealism: It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, and azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an Control of Internet Pornography Essay accident and effect. As a qualification to the discussion of Idealism in the previous section, Emerson asserts that Idealism is ultimately an introductory hypothesis (like carpentry and chemistry) about nature. If it only denies the existence of matter, or external reality, as with extreme Idealism, then it of quotes no use to him, for it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. In other words, Idealism is Control of Internet Pornography Essay useful to think with insofar as it informs us of the distinction between the soul and the world/nature. By recognizing this distinction, and the existence of each, we can then understand their relation to one another - that is, how spirit (the Supreme Being, the Universal Soul) acts through us, as the life of the Park Ranger Service Essay, tree puts forth new branches and Control Essay, leaves through the pores of the old, and thus is between y not subject to the human will, as with the rest of the Essay, world/nature.

In this last section, Emerson argues it is better approach the world as a naturalist than as a student of quotes empirical science. Compared to the precision and experiments of the scientist, the naturalist employs self-discovery and humility, and thus continues to learn about his relation to of Internet Essay, the world, and remains open to the secrets of nature. The naturalist will pay attention to the truth and to the real problems to enigmatic, be solved: It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in of Internet Pornography Essay his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form. Emerson uses this comparison as a metaphor for a more general criticism of the present approach humanity takes toward nature based on pure understanding (that is, of the intellect) without Reason (that is, with spiritual insight). However, there are occasional examples of how humanity might act with both: Such examples are, the traditions of gwen owl miracles in Control Pornography Essay the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the slave-trade; the miracles of gwen barn owl enthusiasm, as those reported of Essay Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and cruzan, the wisdom of children. Until humanity begins to Control of Internet Essay, act with both understanding/intellect and reason/spirituality towards nature, to repair its relationship with nature and the world, humanity remains disunited with itself and the world lacks unity. To correct this trend, Emerson argues people need to acquire a new, educated way of seeing the world, by which he means the Transcendentalist approach he has laid out in the previous sections.

So we shall come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect (“What is difference between theory truth?), as well as that of the affections (“What is good?”), by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/self-reliance-and-other-essays/study-guide/summary-nature in Control of Internet Essay MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Self Reliance and Other Essays Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Self-Reliance Nature The Over-Soul Circles The Poet Experience The Divinity School Address The Dial Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Ralph Emerson Biography. Self Reliance and Other Essays Questions and theory x and theory, Answers. The Question and Answer section for Self Reliance and Other Essays is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. This speaks to a few themes. I think that generally it speaks to man finding his own individuality and identity.

The passage indicates that life is about being satisfied with one's plot of Control Essay land and making the best of it rather than coveting other. What do you mean by dwlf? Study Guide for enigmatic quotes Self Reliance and Pornography Essay, Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays study guide contains a biography of Ralph Emerson, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for Self Reliance and Other Essays.

Self Reliance and Other Essays essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Self Reliance and Other Essays by nancy cruzan Ralph Waldo Emerson. E-Text of Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays E-Text contains the full text of Self Reliance and Other Essays.

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An introduction to Control the Unified Modeling Language. Getting started with visual modeling of barn owl your software. Published on June 15, 2003. This content is Pornography part # of # in the series: UML basics. This content is part of the series: UML basics. Stay tuned for additional content in this series. Way back in the late twentieth century #8212; 1997 to be exact #8212; the Types and Sources of Conflicts Object Management Group (OMG) released the Unified Modeling Language (UML). One of the purposes of UML was to provide the of Internet Essay development community with a stable and nancy cruzan common design language that could be used to develop and build computer applications.

UML brought forth a unified standard modeling notation that IT professionals had been wanting for years. Using UML, IT professionals could now read and disseminate system structure and design plans #8212; just as construction workers have been doing for years with blueprints of buildings. It is now the twenty-first century #8212; 2003 to be precise #8212; and UML has gained traction in our profession. On 75 percent of the resumes I see, there is a bullet point claiming knowledge of UML. However, after speaking with a majority of Control Pornography these job candidates, it becomes clear that they do not truly know UML. Typically, they are either using it as a buzz word, or they have had a sliver of exposure to UML.

This lack of understanding inspired me to write this quick introduction to nancy beth UML, focused on the basic diagrams used in visual modeling. Control Pornography Essay? When you are finished reading you will not have enough knowledge to put UML on your resume, but you will have a starting point for digging more deeply into the language. Consistently deliver high-quality software faster using DevOps Continuous Delivery. Edit your code anywhere with Git repos and issue tracking, deliver continuously with an illegal immigration, automated pipeline, get Insights to improve quality, and Control Pornography Essay more. As I mentioned, UML was meant to be a unifying language enabling IT professionals to model computer applications. The primary authors were Jim Rumbaugh, Ivar Jacobson, and Grady Booch, who originally had their own competing methods (OMT, OOSE, and Booch). Eventually, they joined forces and brought about an with, open standard. (Sound familiar? A similar phenomenon spawned J2EE, SOAP, and Control of Internet Essay Linux.) One reason UML has become a standard modeling language is that it is nancy programming-language independent. (UML modeling tools from IBM Rational are used extensively in J2EE shops as well in Control of Internet Pornography Essay .NET shops.) Also, the UML notation set is a language and not a methodology.

This is Park Ranger important, because a language, as opposed to a methodology, can easily fit into Control of Internet Pornography Essay any company's way of conducting business without requiring change. Take advantage of powerful Bluemix services and infrastructure offerings to Essay build, deploy, and run your apps in the cloud. Give it a try! Since UML is not a methodology, it does not require any formal work products (i.e., artifacts in IBM Rational Unified Process lingo). Yet it does provide several types of diagrams that, when used within a given methodology, increase the of Internet ease of understanding an application under development. There is owl more to Control Pornography Essay UML than these diagrams, but for my purposes here, the diagrams offer a good introduction to Types and Sources of Conflicts the language and the principles behind its use. By placing standard UML diagrams in your methodology's work products, you make it easier for Control of Internet, UML-proficient people to join your project and quickly become productive. The most useful, standard UML diagrams are: use case diagram, class diagram, sequence diagram, statechart diagram, activity diagram, component diagram, and quotes deployment diagram.

It is beyond the scope of Pornography Essay this introductory article to go into great detail about each type of diagram. Instead, I will provide you with enough information for a general understanding of each one and then supply more details in later articles. A use case illustrates a unit of functionality provided by the system. The main purpose of the use-case diagram is to Park Ranger help development teams visualize the functional requirements of a system, including the relationship of Control Pornography Essay actors (human beings who will interact with the system) to essential processes, as well as the Types relationships among different use cases. Essay? Use-case diagrams generally show groups of use cases #8212; either all use cases for difference theory x and y, the complete system, or a breakout of a particular group of use cases with related functionality (e.g., all security administration-related use cases). To show a use case on a use-case diagram, you draw an oval in the middle of the diagram and put the name of the use case in the center of, or below, the oval.

To draw an actor (indicating a system user) on Control of Internet Pornography Essay a use-case diagram, you draw a stick person to the left or right of your diagram (and just in case you're wondering, some people draw prettier stick people than others). Use simple lines to depict relationships between actors and use cases, as shown in Figure 1. A use-case diagram is typically used to communicate the nancy beth cruzan high-level functions of the system and the system's scope. Control Of Internet Essay? By looking at Types our use-case diagram in Figure 1, you can easily tell the functions that our example system provides. This system lets the Pornography band manager view a sales statistics report and the Billboard 200 report for difference between x and theory y, the band's CDs. It also lets the record manager view a sales statistics report and the Billboard 200 report for Control Pornography Essay, a particular CD. The diagram also tells us that our system delivers Billboard reports from an external system called Billboard Reporting Service. In addition, the absence of use cases in this diagram shows what the system doesn't do. For example, it does not provide a way for a band manager to listen to songs from the different albums on the Billboard 200 #8212; i.e., we see no reference to a use case called Listen to harwood barn Songs from Billboard 200. This absence is not a trivial matter. Control? With clear and simple use-case descriptions provided on such a diagram, a project sponsor can easily see if needed functionality is present or not present in the system. The class diagram shows how the difference between x and y different entities (people, things, and data) relate to of Internet Pornography Essay each other; in other words, it shows the static structures of the system.

A class diagram can be used to display logical classes, which are typically the kinds of things the enigmatic quotes business people in an organization talk about #8212; rock bands, CDs, radio play; or loans, home mortgages, car loans, and interest rates. Class diagrams can also be used to show implementation classes, which are the things that programmers typically deal with. An implementation class diagram will probably show some of the same classes as the Control of Internet Pornography logical classes diagram.The implementation class diagram won't be drawn with the same attributes, however, because it will most likely have references to things like Vectors and HashMaps. Figure 2: Sample class object in a class diagram. In my experience, almost every developer knows what this diagram is, yet I find that most programmers draw the relationship lines incorrectly. For a class diagram like the one in Figure 3, you should draw the inheritance relationship 1 using a line with an enigmatic, arrowhead at the top pointing to the super class, and the arrowhead should be a completed triangle . [Note: For more information on inheritance and other object-oriented principles, see the Java tutorial What Is Inheritance?] An association relationship should be a solid line if both classes are aware of Control each other and nancy cruzan a line with an open arrowhead if the Control of Internet Essay association is nancy known by only one of the of Internet classes.

Figure 3: A complete class diagram, including the beth class object shown in of Internet Pornography Figure 2. Enigmatic? In Figure 3, we see both the of Internet Essay inheritance relationship and two association relationships. The CDSalesReport class inherits from the Report class. A CDSalesReport is associated with one CD, but the CD class doesn't know anything about the Ranger Essay CDSalesReport class. The CD and the Band classes both know about each other, and of Internet Essay both classes can be associated to one or more of each other. A class diagram can incorporate many more concepts, which we will cover later in this article series. Sequence diagrams show a detailed flow for a specific use case or even just part of immigration a specific use case. They are almost self explanatory; they show the of Internet Pornography Essay calls between the different objects in their sequence and nancy beth cruzan can show, at a detailed level, different calls to different objects. A sequence diagram has two dimensions: The vertical dimension shows the Control of Internet Pornography sequence of messages/calls in the time order that they occur; the horizontal dimension shows the object instances to which the messages are sent. A sequence diagram is very simple to draw.

Across the top of between theory x and theory y your diagram, identify the class instances (objects) by Control of Internet Essay, putting each class instance inside a box (see Figure 4). In the box, put the class instance name and class name separated by a space/colon/space : (e.g., myReportGenerator : ReportGenerator). Gwen Harwood Barn? If a class instance sends a message to another class instance, draw a line with an open arrowhead pointing to Control of Internet the receiving class instance; place the name of the message/method above the Types and Sources of Conflicts Essay line. Of Internet Pornography? Optionally, for Types, important messages, you can draw a dotted line with an Control Pornography Essay, arrowhead pointing back to the originating class instance; label the return value above the dotted line. Personally, I always like to include the return value lines because I find the extra details make it easier to read.

Reading a sequence diagram is very simple. Start at the top left corner with the driver class instance that starts the sequence. Then follow each message down the diagram. Remember: Even though the example sequence diagram in Figure 4 shows a return message for each sent message, this is Service optional. Figure 4: A sample sequence diagram. By reading our sample sequence diagram in Figure 4, you can see how to create a CD Sales Report. The aServlet object is our example driver. aServlet sends a message to of Internet Pornography the ReportGenerator class instance named gen. The message is labeled generateCDSalesReport, which means that the ReportGenerator object implements this message handler. On closer inspection, the generateCDSalesReport message label has cdId in parentheses, which means that aServlet is passing a variable named cdId with the message.

When gen instance receives a generateCDSalesReport message, it then makes subsequent calls to the CDSalesReport class, and Park Ranger Service Essay an actual instance of a CDSalesReport called aCDReport gets returned. The gen instance then makes calls to the returned aCDReport instance, passing it parameters on each message call. At the end of the sequence, the gen instance returns aCDReport to Control Pornography Essay its caller aServlet. Please note: The sequence diagram in Figure 4 is arguably too detailed for a typical sequence diagram. However, I believe it is simple enough to understand, and it shows how nested calls are drawn. Also, with junior developers, sometimes it is of Conflicts Essay necessary to break down sequences to this explicit level to help them understand what they are supposed to of Internet do. The statechart diagram models the different states that a class can be in and how that class transitions from state to state. It can be argued that every class has a state, but that every class shouldn't have a statechart diagram.

Only classes with interesting states #8212; that is, classes with three or more potential states during system activity #8212; should be modeled. As shown in Figure 5, the notation set of the statechart diagram has five basic elements: the difference between theory y initial starting point, which is drawn using a solid circle; a transition between states, which is Control of Internet Essay drawn using a line with an open arrowhead; a state, which is drawn using a rectangle with rounded corners; a decision point, which is drawn as an open circle; and one or more termination points, which are drawn using a circle with a solid circle inside it. To draw a statechart diagram, begin with a starting point and Ranger Essay a transition line pointing to the initial state of the class. Draw the Essay states themselves anywhere on the diagram, and then simply connect them using the state transition lines. Figure 5: Statechart diagram showing the various states that classes pass through in gwen barn owl a functioning system.

The example statechart diagram in Figure 5 shows some of the potential information they can communicate. For instance, you can tell that loan processing begins in the Loan Application state. Pornography Essay? When the pre-approval process is done, depending on problem immigration the outcome, you move to either the Control of Internet Pornography Loan Pre-approved state or the Loan Rejected state. This decision, which is made during the transition process, is shown with a decision point #8212; the empty circle in the transition line. By looking at beth cruzan the example, a person can tell that a loan cannot go from the Loan Pre-Approved state to the Loan in Maintenance state without going through the Control of Internet Pornography Loan Closing state.

Also, by looking at our example diagram, a person can tell that all loans will end in either the Loan Rejected state or the Loan in Maintenance state. Activity diagrams show the procedural flow of difference between x and theory y control between two or more class objects while processing an activity. Activity diagrams can be used to model higher-level business process at the business unit level, or to model low-level internal class actions. In my experience, activity diagrams are best used to model higher-level processes, such as how the company is currently doing business, or how it would like to do business. This is because activity diagrams are less technical in appearance, compared to sequence diagrams, and business-minded people tend to Pornography Essay understand them more quickly. An activity diagram's notation set is similar to that used in a statechart diagram. Like a statechart diagram, the activity diagram starts with a solid circle connected to difference theory x and the initial activity.

The activity is modeled by drawing a rectangle with rounded edges, enclosing the activity's name. Activities can be connected to other activities through transition lines, or to decision points that connect to different activities guarded by Control, conditions of the decision point. Of Conflicts Essay? Activities that terminate the modeled process are connected to a termination point (just as in a statechart diagram). Optionally, the activities can be grouped into swimlanes, which are used to indicate the object that actually performs the activity, as shown in Control Pornography Figure 6. Figure 6: Activity diagram, with two swimlanes to indicate control of activity by two objects: the band manager, and the reporting tool. In our example activity diagram, we have two swimlanes because we have two objects that control separate activities: a band manager and x and theory a reporting tool. The process starts with the band manager electing to view the sales report for Control of Internet Pornography, one of his bands. The reporting tool then retrieves and Park Ranger Service displays all the bands that person manages and asks him to choose one. After the Pornography Essay band manager selects a band, the reporting tool retrieves the sales information and displays the sales report.

The activity diagram shows that displaying the report is the last step in the process. A component diagram provides a physical view of the with illegal immigration system. Its purpose is to show the Control of Internet Pornography Essay dependencies that the software has on the other software components (e.g., software libraries) in the system. The diagram can be shown at a very high level, with just the large-grain components, or it can be shown at the component package level. [Note: The phrase component package level is a programming language-neutral way of referring to class container levels such as .NET's namespaces (e.g., System.Web.UI) or Java's packages (e.g., java.util).] Modeling a component diagram is best described through an example. Figure 7 shows four components: Reporting Tool, Billboard Service, Servlet 2.2 API, and JDBC API. The arrowed lines from the Reporting Tool component to Types of Conflicts the Billboard Service, Servlet 2.2 API, and JDBC API components mean that the Reporting Tool is dependent on those three components. Figure 7: A component diagram shows interdependencies of various software components the of Internet Pornography Essay system comprises. The deployment diagram shows how a system will be physically deployed in the hardware environment.

Its purpose is to nancy show where the Control of Internet Essay different components of the system will physically run and how they will communicate with each other. Since the diagram models the physical runtime, a system's production staff will make considerable use of this diagram. The notation in a deployment diagram includes the notation elements used in a component diagram, with a couple of gwen harwood additions, including the concept of Control Pornography a node. A node represents either a physical machine or a virtual machine node (e.g., a mainframe node). To model a node, simply draw a three-dimensional cube with the enigmatic name of the node at the top of the cube. Use the naming convention used in sequence diagrams: [instance name] : [instance type] (e.g., w3reporting.myco.com : Application Server). Of Internet? The deployment diagram in Figure 8 shows that the users access the Reporting Tool by using a browser running on their local machine and connecting via HTTP over their company's intranet to the Reporting Tool. This tool physically runs on the Application Server named w3reporting.myco.com. And Sources Of Conflicts Essay? The diagram shows the Reporting Tool component drawn inside of IBM WebSphere, which in of Internet Essay turn is drawn inside of the node w3.reporting.myco.com. The Reporting Tool connects to its reporting database using the Java language to IBM DB2's JDBC interface, which then communicates to the actual DB2 database running on the server named db1.myco.com using native DB2 communication.

In addition to with illegal talking to Pornography Essay the reporting database, the Report Tool component communicates via SOAP over HTTPS to the Billboard Service. Although this article provides only a brief introduction to Unified Modeling Language, I encourage you to difference between x and theory start applying the information you have learned here to your own projects and to dig more deeply into of Internet Essay UML. There are several software tools that help you to integrate UML diagrams into your software development process, but even without automated tools, you can use markers on a whiteboard or paper and pencils to problem illegal immigration draw your UML diagrams and still achieve benefits. Essay? Sign in or register to add and subscribe to comments.

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E-Business Strategy Development: an of Internet Pornography, Fmcg Sector. The paper aims to examine the tensions created at tier-1 level relating to the adoption of theory x and theory y e-business solutions for B2B activities. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on the literature to describe the technological options for achieving e-commerce, focusing particularly on of Internet Pornography Essay Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and internet-mediated e-commerce. It then explores the Types and Sources of Conflicts Essay current uptake of e-commerce, and the drivers and barriers that relate to its adoption. The theoretical issues identified are explored empirically using data gathered from a case study of Control Essay Princes Soft Drinks. We will write a custom essay sample. on E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector or any similar. topic specifically for you. A detailed survey of organisations within its supply base was conducted in order to enigmatic quotes inform the development of its future e-business strategy. Findings The results of the survey indicate a lack of enthusiasm among Princes supply chain members for the adoption of e-commerce generally and for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions in particular.

Research limitations/implications The empirical survey is limited to the UK soft drinks sector and Essay allows for difference between y, the development of Pornography descriptive findings. These findings, discussed within the theoretical context of the Types paper, have potentially wider implications for the FMCG sector as a whole. Practical implications The work has significant implications for the development of Princes e-business strategy, and by extrapolation for other companies operating in of Internet Essay, similar commercial environments. Originality/value The paper reports original empirical research in the commercially important FMCG sector. Its value stems in part from the examination of the supply chain tensions created at tier-1 between powerful e-committed retailers and e-reluctant industrial suppliers. Keywords Electronic commerce, Internet, Fast moving consumer goods Paper type Case study Introduction Electronic commerce (e-commerce) refers to the conducting f business transactions over electronic/computer networks, including the internet, (Barnes and Hunt, 2001) and nancy cruzan therefore encompasses processes related to the buying, selling and trading of products, services and Control of Internet information, (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002).

There has been considerable publicity given to the use of with e-commerce in business-toconsumer (B2C) markets, where transactions involving such activities as ordering goods, personal banking and share trading are becoming increasingly commonplace. However, the use of e-commerce for business-to-business (B2B) transactions has been widely identified as an area with ignificant potential for. Page 2 E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector Essay. cost saving and future revenue generation (Barnes and Hunt, 2001). For businesses, B2B can mean electronic interaction with members of the Pornography supply base, i. e. for inbound procurement, and Types with customers for Essay, transactions relating to their procurement activity. In the current business environment the adoption of ecommerce is seemingly unavoidable . Enigmatic Quotes? . . e-commerce is no longer an alternative, but an imperative. [However] many companies are struggling with the most basic problem: what is the best approach for establishing and doing business in the digital economy? (Lee, 2001, p. 49). This suggests that, in Pornography, moving into an e-commerce business environment over which there is enigmatic quotes little choice there is a need to develop an ebusiness strategy that will inform and direct future operations. Lee goes on to argue that in Pornography Essay, addressing this problem, there is no simple prescription or established business model for companies or industries and that developing an of Conflicts, e-capability often entails making a paradigm shift, radically altering traditional approaches to doing business (Lee, 2001). Of Internet? It follows that the development of an and Sources, e-business strategy is uniquely challenging and essential.

Such a strategy should concern not only the appropriate technology choices of tools and solutions, but also the coherence and integration of these choices with other company processes (Cagliano et al. Of Internet Pornography? , 2003) and with their wider strategy for enigmatic, supply chain management (Smart and Harrison, 2002). The empirical component of this paper presented after theoretical background explores the Pornography situation faced by Princes, a tier-1 supplier in the UK soft drinks industry. It considers the difficulties faced by first tier The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www. meraldinsight. com/1359-8546. htm Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 11/4 (2006) 353362 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 1359-8546] [DOI 10. 1108/13598540610671806] 353 organisations in the supply chains for FMCG (also known as Consumer Packaged Goods Cox, 2003/2004), and the implications of these for the development of e-business strategy. Within the broad definition of e-commerce, it is problem illegal clear that there are alternative technological routes by which ecommerce can be achieved the internet being only one possibility. Moreover, both within the literature and in ractice, there is confusion over the terminology used in this area, with some authors using the term e-commerce synonymously with that of e-commerce mediated via the Control Pornography internet, or I-commerce (e. g. Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004, Yen and Ng, 2003). The increasing accessibility of the problem with illegal internet and the wide availability of standard browsers is Control of Internet Essay encouraging the problem with expansion of e-commerce via the internet (Gunasekaran et al. Control Of Internet? , 2002). However, technology options for conducting commerce electronically still include telephone, facsimile, electronic mail (email), Electronic Data. Interchange (EDI) together with the internet. Types Of Conflicts? Structuring their discussion of the impact of Control e-commerce on operations, Gunasekaran et al. (2002) distinguish between the gwen principal contemporary options email, EDI and the internet. This distinction mirrors the structure of the Control Essay empirical research undertaken in quotes, support of this paper.

The three options are discussed below. Email was one of the first applications to run on the internet and Pornography Essay involves the direct transmission of text messages between 2 users. Using email provides the simplest form of nancy beth cruzan ecommerce. It replaces paper, fax and telephone communication between members of of Internet Essay a supply system (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It is quick and uncomplicated, but lacks the sophistication provided by EDI and internetmediated e-commerce solutions.

Developed to facilitate business transactions between trading partners, EDI technology provides organisations with the means to develop e-commerce capabilities and thereby to eliminate the delays and errors generally associated with traditional procurement systems. It provides a (limited) collection of standard message formats that businesses may se to exchange data including, for and Sources, example, orders, delivery notes and invoices (Beynon-Davies, 2004). Control Of Internet? It has been in harwood barn owl, existence for over 20 years and of Internet Essay has been championed mostly by large manufacturing and retail companies who use it to nancy link suppliers into their business processes. Of Internet? On the inbound supply-side of an organisations operations, improved record accuracy, lower data entry costs, reduced inventory holdings and improved inventory turn ratios are cited as benefits; whilst on the outbound demand-side improved responsiveness to orders and enquiries and increased usiness opportunities are cited (Davis and OSullivan, 1998). Unfortunately, the illegal immigration technological solutions developed for EDI are generally customer led and frequently proprietary in of Internet, nature. Standardisation of approaches is restricted (Beynon- Davies, 2004) and difference between the cost of participation can be high. Consequently, EDI technology-enabled e-commerce is typically characterised by closed groups of Control of Internet users whose transaction volumes are high, as it is these organisations that are most likely to benefit from the expected improvements in operational efficiency. The costs of switching between EDI ystems are also high (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000), and this limits the ability of group members to go elsewhere. As a consequence, e-commerce facilitated by EDI has tended to be limited to larger organisations with stable supply chain structures. It is less popular with smaller organisations or those in non-stable supply networks where the costs of participation are prohibitive. Increasingly, the internet is being promoted as a means to Ranger facilitate collaboration between members of supply chains, to result in cost savings, more efficient operations, improved customer service and potential for Pornography Essay, innovation and new usiness opportunities (e. g. Wagner et al. , 2003, Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Baldwin et al. , 2001, Timmers, 2000).

Internet technology differs from conventional EDI technology in several important ways. It is relatively inexpensive. It is problem with illegal immigration based on open standards and therefore supports numerous applications, which can process small transaction volumes cost effectively and can be configured to accommodate changes in users with ease (Hawkins and Control of Internet Pornography Essay Prencipe, 2000). It is also a public network that is globally available, providing access to customers and suppliers worldwide. Moreover, pplications are not limited to inter-firm transactions.

Internet and Web technology can be used within the organisation to manage workflow, co-ordinate activities and improve process efficiency through the sharing of information (Rowlatt, 2001, Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). Intranets, the term used to describe these private communication networks, secured behind firewalls (Beynon-Davies, 2004) are typically based on groupware[1] applications (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). As such, they can be extended to encompass other firms that an organisation has a commercial relationship with. The resulting Extranet configurations can be used to with illegal facilitate closer relationships with customers and suppliers, to improve the co-ordination of (supply chain) activities, and to improve communications between the functions and individuals of an organisation (Davis and OSullivan, 1998). The benefits cited for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions over proprietary EDI solutions are summarised as speed, consistency, immediate access, lowered transaction costs, flexibility and extensibility i. e. the potential to Pornography access further applications via a web-server (Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004). Conversely, internet-mediated solutions are said not to match the robustness and capacity of EDI for carrying out B2B ecommerce (Lee, 2001). Despite the obvious benefits offered by internet-mediated e-commerce there is little indication that its functionality is being widely harnessed in difference theory theory y, practice (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Wagner et al. , 2003). Evidence suggests that smaller businesses, in of Internet, particular, are failing to appreciate its potential benefits (Williams, 2001) and that the Essay majority of e-commerce transactions continue to be associated with conventional EDI technologies and larger organisations (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). The following section draws on a range of published literature to develop a macro view of the of Internet causes of this and of the scale of the Types problem.

The adoption of e-commerce solutions in supply chains In order to link with the subsequent empirical work within the paper, this section is Control Essay structured around the perspective of a tier-1 FMCG organisation, interacting demand-side with its retail customers and supply-side with its ingredient and raw material suppliers. However, the data, upon which it draws, is between theory theory y not specific to the FMCG sector. Essay? E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Enigmatic Quotes? Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 354 For some time, EDI has been the Control of Internet Pornography Essay technological choice of large manufacturing and quotes retail companies for managing transactions within their supply chains. (e. g. Beynon-Davies, 2004, McIvor and Humphreys, 2004). For these major commercial and industrial players, e-commerce has become their preferred way of operating and, provided their suppliers buy-in to of Internet Essay the technology, represents an effective and efficient means of conducting e-commerce. Therefore, for these organisations, there is little need to consider the pportunities offered by the internet. Additionally, it has been said that the beth cruzan internet has provided no new sales opportunities for FMCG retailers, and Pornography Essay that they therefore have little incentive to Park Ranger Essay develop online interaction (Brown, 2000). Although this has been identified specifically at the demand-side of Control Pornography retailers, it may be expected that they would have an enigmatic quotes, equivalent reluctance to develop internet-mediated ecommerce solutions on their supply-side. Pornography? Thus, there may be little incentive to move away from the traditional EDI interaction with their tier-1 suppliers. On the difference between x and y supply-side, there is far less consensus and tandardisation of approach. Individual companies may supply many customers some using EDI, others using more conventional business approaches.

In this situation the arguments for considering the relatively flexible and accessible internet-mediated e-commerce appear compelling. However, evidence suggests that industry is not rushing to adopt ebusiness and that attitudes are predominantly reactive (Wagner et al. , 2003). There is Control Pornography Essay typically a mis-alignment between internet standard functionality and harwood owl the traditional inhouse IT infrastructure used to run operations. This creates a reluctance to change which, together with the non-strategic erspective adopted by industry, means that opportunities to re-shape business around I-commerce are being missed (Wagner et al. , 2003). The scale of the Control problem has been highlighted in a number of Ranger Essay surveys, which are summarised in Table I. Empirical data on the micro reasons manufacturers are apparently so reluctant to adopt e-commerce is scant and typically limited to Control Pornography the identification of generalisable factors drawn from multiple sector studies. Enigmatic? Table II draws on of Internet published literature to develop a view of the factors that are thought to be influencing decisions to develop e-commerce capabilities using internet technology.

These are classified as either drivers or barriers. The drivers for adoption have been categorised as either reactive or proactive, and either strategic or tactical (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). Hawkins and Prencipe (2000) found that tactical drivers were the most dominant particularly the desire to reduce costs and that firms were becoming more proactive. A later study found that improvements in supply chain relationships were considered more important than cost reductions and improvements in efficiency (Clegg, 2001). Gwen Harwood Barn Owl? In this case, the drivers seem to be strategic rather than tactical in nature. It has also been noted that the approach most frequently adopted, particularly amongst organisations already conducting business through conventional channels, is exploratory and experimental (Williams et al. , 2001, Malone, 2001). Control Of Internet Essay? This suggests that a cautious and possibly opportunistic view of the quotes technology prevails and that an Pornography Essay, important factor influencing the Essay extent and effectiveness with which e-commerce is adopted may be an organisations perception of the risks and benefits associated with the technology. The preceding sections of the paper have introduced the principal options for developing a B2B e-commerce apability, and have explored the current status of ecommerce implementation. Of Internet Pornography? In the following section, a case study from the UK FMCG industrial sector is presented. Analysis of the case supports much of the earlier discussion and provides empirical evidence of the status of the adoption of B2B e-commerce in x and, the supply base of Princes Soft Drinks, UK. A case from the FMCG sector The case study concerns the development of an e-business strategy for Princes Soft Drinks.

It presents a survey of the companys supply base, and discusses how the findings of this informed the strategy development process. By contrast to the Table I Summary of surveys undertaken into the adoption of e-commerce Source Findings e-commerce enquiry conducted by of Internet Essay the UK Office for National Statistics (Williams, 2001) 70% of smaller businesses in the manufacturing sector were using computer technology Less than 50% had internet access in the food and clothing sector 66% of manufacturers had no immediate plan to develop e-commerce for selling or buying products Regional surveys within the UK (Scotland Wagner et al. , 2003; and Wales Quayle, 2002) Reluctance on the part of SMEs to trade electronically and to use the internet to achieve this 0% of those using e-commerce were doing so only because of pressure from nancy cruzan, their major customers (Quayle, 2002) European-wide study (Cagliano et al. , 2003) Use of internet-mediated e-commerce within manufacturing supply chains described as low Multiple sector survey of 120 international companies (Dutta and Biren, 2001) Only 25% of companies recognised the Essay strategic importance of internet technology and were using it to nancy beth cruzan develop new business models by re-engineering their supply chains and to explore new ways of of Internet Pornography adding value International study (Baldwin et al. Nancy Cruzan? 2001) More advanced use of the internet in technologically advanced countries such as UK, France, Germany, USA than those that lack technological infrastructure, e. g. Slovenia E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 355 multiple sector surveys considered in table I, the survey conducted as part of this study is focussed within the UK soft drinks supply chain. As such, whilst adding to the findings of previous studies, it also elaborates on them by of Internet Essay providing a ore detailed company perspective of the issues. Practical context: the FMCG sector Within the FMCG supply chain a distinction is with made between consumers the end users of a product, and customers retailers through which products are sold to consumers (Cox, 2003/2004). Typically, manufacturers of FMCG products must use retailers to access their consumers and as a consequence the balance of Control of Internet Pornography Essay power in the tier-1 distribution channel is on the side of a small number of extremely powerful, competing names, such as Wal-Mart, Marks and Spencers, Sainsbury, Tesco, etc. These organisations, by irtue of their position in the supply chain, are the difference between theory x and theory change agents in Essay, the FMCG sector, often instigating moves which have profound implications for harwood owl, tier-1 suppliers, e. Of Internet? g. the introduction of product tracking using bar coding technologies provided suppliers with little alternative but to do the same.

A more recent example is the demands Wal- Mart have made on theory y their top 100 suppliers to use RFID (radio frequency identification) tagging (Lamb, 2003). If the Control of Internet Pornography Essay expected savings materialise as expected, other retailers will follow and tier-1 suppliers will have to respond. These nitiatives reflect a general shift from of Conflicts Essay, a focus on volume and internal efficiency to an external one on value and consumers (OKeeffe, 2001). This OKeeffe refers to as the change from the supply chain management era to Control Essay the network era, key components of the change being summarised in Table III. However, this by no means describes the sector as a whole. The UK soft drinks industry, continues to adhere to the earlier supply chain management model characterised by fierce price competition, with powerful buyers and traditionally weak sellers (OKeeffe, 2001); i. e. an nvironment in which cost reduction is a management mantra.

Tier-1 companies in the FMCG supply chain typically produce finished products for eventual sale to consumers via retailers and as such form the interface between a small number of powerful retail customers and a plethora of smaller industrial suppliers of both specialised and commodity products. Thus tier-1 organisations wishing to develop an ebusiness strategy can find themselves in the unenviable position of being squeezed between e-committed retailers on the outbound side and e-reluctant suppliers on the inbound ide, a situation with the potential to create considerable tension for the parties concerned. Princes soft drinks The Princes Food Group is wholly owned by the Mitsubishi Corporation and problem is the largest UK supplier of own-label processed grocery products. The Soft Drinks division within the group is the Control major supplier of difference between theory theory fruit juices, carbonated, ready-to-drink and dilute-to-taste soft drinks in the UK. It principally supplies own-label drinks to major supermarket retailers. Control Of Internet Pornography? It is and Sources of Conflicts Essay a market where there has been much negative Table II Drivers and barriers to the adoption of e-commerce. Drivers (reactive R, proactive P, strategic S, tactical T) Barriers Pressure from others in the supply chain (R) Internal pressure to maintain an e-commerce presence (R) Re-structuring of the supply chain (P,S) Exploration of new business models e. g. the role of Essay intermediaries and distributors (P,S) Cost reduction e. g. transaction processing, inventory holding, purchase price (P,T) Improved process efficiency e. g. reduced lead times, improved procurement and production practices and harwood logistics (P,T) Business process integration integration of purchasing and sales with other business functions (P,T) Improvements in supply chain relationships (P,S) Costs of acquiring and maintaining an e-commerce capability (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Clegg, 2001) Concerns about security and control (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Lack of knowledge of the internet and e-commerce (Williams, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Lack of senior management understanding, attitude and vision (Clegg, 2001) Lack of skills/technology/training in-house (Clegg, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Resistance from of Internet Pornography Essay, employees based on fear, inertia, lack of enigmatic faith (Quayle, 2002) Poor availability of external skills (Clegg, 2001) Resistance from suppliers unwilling to Essay drop proprietary systems and between theory a lack of equipment and time (Quayle, 2002) System compatibility (Clegg, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Incoherence and perceived lack of security and flexibility internet-specific (Quayle, 2002) Table III Key components of alternative business eras in Control of Internet Pornography, retail supply Supply chain management era Network era The age of reason: efficiency The age of possibility: opportunity Taking costs out Putting value in Introverted Customer-focused Chain starts at the DC (distribution centre) Chain starts with the consumer Logistics productivity Marketing productivity.

Physical distribution Information management Economies of scale Network economics Negative feedback Positive feedback Focus on volume Focus on enigmatic value Source: OKeeffe, 2001 E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Essay? Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 356 pressure on prices to the extent that suppliers have been forced to cut costs, improve process efficiency and push price reductions back up the supply chain to Park Ranger Essay lower tier suppliers. Figure 1 illustrates the position of Princes within its supply network. In 2001 it became clear that Cotts Beverages UK, one of Princes major competitors, was enjoying business benefits from the implementation of an internet-based supply chain management software solution (Tinham, 2001). Facing intense pressure in the FMCG marketplace, the report that Cotts were enjoying significant benefits from internet-based fulfilment generated considerable interest within Princes. If Cotts system was delivering reduced supply chain costs and improved supply chain processes then the ensuing business benefits of lower selling prices and improved delivery adherence represented a significant competitive threat. Since the of Internet Essay early 1990s Princes had been communicating electronically downstream with the major supermarket retailers using EDI. Different technological approaches were used for different customers meaning that Princes has had to invest in barn owl, alternative solutions in order to Control of Internet trade downstream. The use of EDI enabled transactional data to be imported into and exported out of SAP Princes Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system quickly and accurately. The use of EDI, together with the integration of transactional data into Princes SAP system, had increased the effectiveness of the companys outbound, demand-side supply chain. During this period however, communication with suppliers had remained largely unchanged, relying on a combination of telephone, fax and the traditional postal service.

During the latter part of the 1990s, Princes had explored the Park Ranger possibility of adopting EDI links with suppliers, but high costs and technological issues had prevented its adoption. At this time, with the rise of the internet, communication with suppliers was increasingly taking place via Email. Whilst this often proved more effective than telephone communication, it was generally nable to handle the Control transactional data that was required and with this was frequently sent via fax or post. The company began to pilot an application called Business Connector which used the internet to of Internet Pornography Essay transmit transactional data between organisations that operated a SAP ERP system. However, whilst SAP is the global leader in providing ERP solutions for large organisations its adoption is far from universal and many companies large and small make use of alternative ERP packages. Thus, Princes use of this application had been restricted to only a small number of its total supply base (i. Gwen Harwood? e. to those that used SAP). The company was aware of many national and multinational manufacturers that were implementing internet-based systems to improve the quality and the value of the of Internet Pornography information that they exchanged with their business partners, the objectives of enigmatic such collaborative initiatives being to improve the overall performance of the supply chain (Fernie et al. , 2000). Faced with this knowledge, the need to review supply-side (inbound) transactional mechanisms and the potential threat posed by Control Essay Cotts, Princes felt compelled to explore the opportunities that the new and emerging B2B solutions could create within a FMCG supply chain.

In particular, they were interested in between theory y, establishing the positions and views of the organisations within their supply base on the adoption of possible B2B solutions and what the current and Control Essay anticipated impact of the internet on B2B communication and business transactions might be. Nancy? The results of the investigation were to inform the development of Control Essay a B2B ecommerce strategy that would take the company forward into of Conflicts Essay the twenty-first century. As a tier-1 business within an aggressive market, Princes was in a very challenging position, squeezed between ecommitted customers on its demand-side and potentially ereluctant uppliers on its supply-side. In order to develop and implement future strategic direction for the use of ecommerce in all its B2B interaction, there was an urgent need to investigate the Essay existing position of its supply-side partners, and to determine the prevailing degree of enthusiasm for e-commerce. Study design issues Prior to difference theory y undertaking this research, Princes knowledge of its suppliers views on e-commerce was largely anecdotal. Control Of Internet Pornography? The development of future strategy without formal knowledge or Figure 1 The Princes soft drinks supply network E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study. M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 357 understanding in this area would have been unwise. Nancy Cruzan? There was therefore a critical need to carry out an exploratory study that would yield clear findings for the particular case of Control Pornography this supply chain.

In the sense that it should allow the enigmatic quotes company to focus on understanding the dynamics present within a single setting (Eisenhardt, 1989) and to develop an enhanced understanding of real world events (McCutcheon and Meredith, 1993), the study needed to be case-based. Within he development of the case study however, it was considered essential to gather the views of as many members of the supply network as possible. Detailed dyadic data relating to a single supplier relationship with Princes, whilst interesting, would be inadequate for of Internet Pornography Essay, the purposes of this work; it would not truly reflect the views of all supplying organisations, nor would it necessarily gather the multi-disciplined perspective necessary to inform the development of an e-business strategy. Enigmatic Quotes? Accordingly, a study design based on the collection of data through a supply-base wide survey was considered most appropriate. Survey research, i. e. Of Internet? he statistical analysis of data gathered by beth large-scale data collection techniques such as postal questionnaires (Barnes, 2001), is the most popular approach used in OM research, representing approximately 60 per cent of the published research in this field (Forza, 2002). A major advantage of this approach is that the techniques used are recognised and largely approved of by the research community. Additionally, data collection can be undertaken quickly and for relatively little cost. Essay? The means by beth which the questionnaire is administered can have a significant influence on response rates and Control Essay hence the value of the results obtained. In this case, care needed to be taken in the design of the questionnaire and also its method of implementation to ensure that as comprehensive picture as possible from the supply chain could be built up. Study methodology and limitations Princes procurement strategy had been to work in partnership with a small number of harwood owl suppliers who themselves were major players within their particular sectors, and to develop strong relationships with them. As a consequence of of Internet Pornography this consolidation strategy, Princes supply base consisted of approximately 100 suppliers.

Of these, 61 ere selected to take part in the survey. The selection criteria applied was that the volume of business from each should exceed 1 per cent of quotes Princes annual purchases. A survey questionnaire was designed for which completion would be unsupervised. It was structured around the following key themes and Control of Internet topics: . Gwen Harwood Owl? current approaches adopted by suppliers in relation to B2B strategy and Control Pornography current communication methods; . suppliers views of the owl specific electronic communication channels, i. e. EDI, Email and internet/websites; and . Control Of Internet Essay? a section on enigmatic organisational details. The majority of the Control of Internet Essay questions were of the closed type as these were felt to be most suitable for the easy unsupervised completion of the questionnaire, but where it was thought that qualitative data might improve the understanding of the issues, open questions were also included. Given the beth relatively small number of responses possible it was considered important that a high response rate was achieved. To this end, the 61 supplier companies were contacted prior to dispatch of the questionnaires to identify the appropriate respondent by name, to encourage their cooperation and to ask if they would participate in the study. 4 (88 per cent) responded positively and Control Pornography were sent the questionnaire. Park Ranger Service? Of these, 39 completed questionnaires (72 per cent of the 54) were received in time for the subsequent analysis. Whilst this response does not cover the entire Princes supply base, it is estimated that it represents over 85 per of Internet cent of all annual procurement transactions measured by value and volume. Enigmatic Quotes? Additionally, the responding organisations included all but two of the companys top 20 suppliers (measured by annual value).

The constitution of the respondents means that the findings of the research are ikely to Pornography Essay reflect the views of those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Types Princes and possibly to of Internet Pornography Essay those that have a positive view of e-Business. A research methodology incorporating interviews with the collaborating suppliers would have facilitated a higher level of analysis that would undoubtedly have led to greater depth of understanding. However, the Ranger Service primary purpose of the study was for the rapid collection of data that would inform the development of strategy. Control? The findings are largely descriptive. Study findings Of the respondents, 51 per cent indicated that their rganisations had formulated a B2B strategy. Of these, several had not yet started implementation and most had not completed it. Of the Ranger Service Essay strategy-formulators, 33 per Pornography Essay cent identified the use of EDI as part of the strategy, and 28 per cent mentioned the use of difference between theory x and theory y their SAP ERP systems within it. Business integration with XML-based documents, along with the development of websites and portals were other common themes. Of those without a B2B strategy, all indicated that they expected to formulate one. The percentage of of Internet Pornography Essay this group looking to their key customers to contribute to the formulation totalled 63 per cent.

All survey respondents currently used at least two methods of communication with their business partners, and the majority used at least four methods. The most popular methods of communication were email, fax, and phone, used by 92 per cent, 92 per cent and 90 per cent of quotes respondents respectively. By contrast, use of the internet (excluding email) had only a 13 per Control Pornography Essay cent adoption rate. Whilst the traditional postal service was no longer used by approximately 40 per cent of the sample, its use remained far more widespread than non-Email communication via the internet. In line with the literature-based discussion earlier in the aper, respondents views of the 3 options were sought: EDI, email and the internet/websites. The adoption of email as a channel for B2B communication has been rapid and far-reaching and has been described as the primary technical focus for organisations involved in developing an nancy beth, e-commerce capability (Clegg, 2001). Of the survey respondents, 95 per cent used email and many saw it as equally essential to business as the telephone or computer.

It was used for both demand-side and supply-side transactions. Transactional security and difficulties of backoffice integration were considered important issues, but the peed, ease of Control Pornography use and low cost of email meant that it remained the preferred medium of many organisations and for many transaction types. It is seen as less useful for payment and invoicing transactions than for transactions such as notification of order acceptance, dispatch confirmation, forecasting, ordering and between theory x and acknowledging receipt. Most users E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 358 process email messages by printing or downloading to preadsheet software, although 15 per cent of Control respondents are able to Types and Sources of Conflicts Essay integrate some of the Control of Internet Pornography messages directly to internal business systems. The disadvantages cited for email included the high volumes of email communication (including junk mail), inefficient processing methods and lack of security.

The percentage of respondents who expect the and Sources Essay importance of email as a B2B communication channel to increase numbered 97 per cent. Control Of Internet Essay? Of the gwen owl respondents, 59 per cent were using, or had used, EDI. Of these, 70 per cent had adopted it because it was a requirement from their customers. There was no indication of the importance of this channel for individual businesses relative to other channels, but intuitively this adoption rate seems high. This may be explained by of Internet Essay the relatively high adoption rate in the FMCG sector as a whole, where as discussed earlier tier-1 suppliers are frequently required to use it by the major retailers and distributors who appear to have the power to force its adoption (Hill and Scudder, 2002). A number of Princes suppliers described as dual suppliers in Figure 1 are themselves tier-1 suppliers to retailers and nancy beth would therefore already be using EDI (e. . the Essay sugar suppliers).

Others supply to customers in the chemical industry where use of EDI is with illegal relatively high. Additionally it may have been influenced by the fact that the average turnover of the responding companies was ? 372m, suggesting that small organisations were not equally represented in the sample. In the survey, EDI is most used for Control of Internet, conducting supply-side transactions, with comparatively few on the demand-side. Of those using EDI, more than 50 per cent had interfaced it with their internal business systems. Others either download the EDI output to spreadsheet systems or use hard copies. The major reason cited for non-adoption of EDI by the other respondents was lack of demand from their customers rather than for cost or technology reasons. There appears to be a possible link between the adoption of EDI and company turnover with adopters tending to have higher turnover than non-adopters. Of all respondents, 59 per Park Ranger Service cent believe that they will be using EDI for business transactions in the future. Only 35 per cent of Control of Internet Pornography respondents felt that the importance of EDI would increase as a channel for B2B communication.

Overall, this suggests that the scope for beth, uture EDI adoption is limited, with those perhaps that have already invested in the technology continuing to derive benefit from it. The most cited advantage perceived for Control of Internet Essay, using EDI is the between theory y efficiency gains that derive from its use for transaction handling. Other benefits mentioned but with much lower frequency included improved partnerships, reduced costs, and volume efficiency. Pornography Essay? Evidence that supports an observation made by Hill and Scudder (2002) following their survey of the use of EDI in Service Essay, the American food industry as a vehicle for improving supplier coordination that companies may see. EDI as a tool for improving efficiencies rather than a tool for developing supply chain management (ibid, p. 383).

The most cited disadvantages relate to costs, inflexibility and of Internet technical complexity. Nancy? Others included general poor adoption rates, the need for dedicated one-to-one links, the of Internet danger of obsolete technology, security and the multiplicity of standards. Although 67 per cent of respondents claimed to use the internet (excluding its use for email) to communicate with partners, only 13 per cent were regularly using internet platforms for business communication. Of the adopters, rivate exchanges were the predominant platform used, although this may be because many of Princes suppliers are already hooked into an exchange that has been set up by one of their competitors. General websites are the second most used platform. A wide range of business processes were being executed through the internet, including both demand-side and supply-side transactions. Harwood? Examples included ordering, order acceptance, dispatch notification, and delivery receipt. Less common uses are for invoicing, forecasting, and payment.

Unlike EDI, the of Internet majority of problem with immigration messages transmitted hrough the internet were processed manually and were not interfaced directly into internal business systems. Of Internet Essay? The most commonly cited reason for harwood owl, the lack of adoption of internet B2B communication was that this did not represent a business priority. Other reasons included the view that the technology was still too immature to be of significant benefit, and that customers did not want to use it. Of Internet Pornography? However, all respondents expect its use to increase in the future. As shown in Figure 2, perceived benefits of using the quotes internet to communicate included lower costs, ease of use, high availability of nformation, flexibility and speed.

These benefits were expected to contribute to business benefits such as improved customer service, forecasting and business integration, increased processing and Pornography labour efficiency, stronger business partnerships, and reduced processing errors, transaction costs and nancy beth cruzan inventory holdings. As indicated in Pornography, Figure 3, perceived disadvantages included security issues, a lack of universal standards, insufficient technical knowledge, loss of personal interaction, and the inefficiency of the internet. Respondents identified technological needs in order to implement internet ommunication including requirements for an XML infrastructure, for software middleware[2] and for integrative hardware. Study summary As summarised below, the quotes studys findings indicated that the development of a B2B procurement strategy needed to take account of three key factors: Technical issues Technical barriers to the implementation of generic B2B software solutions were found to be: . the immature nature of the B2B marketplace and Control of Internet of the software available within it; . the problem with immigration lack of universal standards for e-Business middleware that can integrate internal business processes with e- Business messages and transactions; and a lack of evidence of the ability of B2B software to Pornography synchronise supply chains, to between theory theory improve collaboration or to deliver sufficient return on investment (Fontanella, 2001). Particularly important to Princes was the costs already sunk in Essay, the companys ERP system (SAP). This had given the company a high degree of internal integration with many business processes being automated and capable of sharing information easily. Difference Theory Theory? Thus, MRP, purchasing and accounts modules worked together to automate the procurement process from order generation through to settlement. Documentation was also generated automatically and could e channelled via a variety of media; currently the preferred channel was automated fax. The e-commerce proposal for any future implementation needed to take account of of Internet Pornography these issues. Gwen Barn? E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 359 Customer/commercial issues Competition within the grocery retail industry continues to be intense and retail customers continue to exert pressure on their tier-1 suppliers.

Price pressures increased during the time in which this research was undertaken. In such a business climate, the justification for capital investment can be problematic. Clearly, this very practical commercial constraint also applied to Princes suppliers. Thus, there was a need for solutions that would minimise capital and other forms of investment. Supplier issues It was clear that the approaches taken to B2B varied between Princes suppliers. The technical sophistication of their approaches to internal business processes also varied from leading edge ERP systems to those using stand alone PCs. It was evident that few had coherent strategies for developing future B2B initiatives. Thus, any solution reached by Princes had to be capable of of Internet Pornography operating over a variety of channels and communicating in problem immigration, a variety of formats. Control Essay? Furthermore, in order to achieve full integration of the supply chain, information needs to flow seamlessly up and down the chain in the same way that using internal business systems enables the exchange of data within an individual organisation. Partnerships incorporating mutual trust are a prerequisite of securing the open exchange of information between agents, which is necessary to integrate inter-business processes.

Cultural change is necessary to develop such artnerships, which must be based on trust, collaboration and Figure 2 Perceived advantages of internet communication Figure 3 Perceived disadvantages of internet communication E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 360 a unified vision of the illegal supply system. For many of Princes suppliers, the volume of trade does not justify the financial and resource-based investment needed to develop this level of collaboration and for others, the nature of the trading elationship precludes its achievement. High levels of interbusiness integration and Control Essay collaboration are not considered appropriate for enigmatic quotes, all partnerships. Control Pornography Essay? Thus the B2B solution for Princes would have to be based around a few key suppliers (typically those with a high volume of transactions) whilst providing functionality for trading with others. Discussion and nancy beth cruzan conclusions The constitution of the respondents to the Princes survey means that the findings of the of Internet Essay research are likely to reflect the views of those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Princes and possibly to those that have a positive view of ecommerce. Given this, the findings are somewhat depressing. The lack of enthusiasm for e-commerce in general and for internet-mediated solutions in particular, supports the evidence summarised earlier in the paper that industry is not yet ready for full scale adoption of internet-mediated B2B e-commerce.

However, although it has shown the theory y use of internet-enabled transactions to be limited, a notable statistic is the number of Control Pornography respondents that use email to communicate within the supply chain and who see it as growing in importance. Perhaps, where the benefits are clear and difference between the osts and risks acceptable, companies are willing to of Internet Pornography adopt new technology, to identify its limitations and to and Sources exploit its potential. Control Of Internet Pornography Essay? This case-based evidence supports the findings of Hawkins and gwen harwood barn owl Prencipe (2000), that manufacturing organisations are tactically orientated. Equally clear is the fact that they are predominantly reactive rather than proactive in their approach. The adoption of contemporary e-commerce solutions requires co-operation with external members of the supply chain. Considering the particular position of tier-1 suppliers in FMCG chains where the nature of relationships has raditionally been transactional and adversarial, it is clear that the development of an e-commerce strategy is extremely problematic. As evidenced within this study, these organisations are squeezed between powerful e-committed retail customers and e-reluctant suppliers.

The cautious, customer driven approach adopted by the Princes suppliers is Control Essay understandable, but difficult to incorporate into a one-sizefits- all supply-side e-commerce strategy. For Princes, the findings of the survey meant that the development of difference x and theory a coherent, universal e-commerce strategy for of Internet Pornography, its supply-side was not possible. The majority of its suppliers additionally supplied other tier-1 and retail customers, with the result that they were unwilling and enigmatic unable to invest in Control, a Princes-specific approach. Princes only feasible option at this stage was therefore to continue with a piecemeal approach to supplyside e-commerce in the hope that technical developments would ultimately lead to improved accessibility and greater standardisation. As shown in Figure 1, Princes is squeezed between multiple retailers and multiple suppliers. Whilst there is some coherence of approach to gwen harwood barn e-commerce among the retailers (EDI) the study has found that there is no common approach r purpose within the Control of Internet Essay supply base. Princes finds itself forced to adopt different prescribed systems at problem with immigration, its demand-side but unable to develop a unified approach at Control Essay, its supply-side. Arguably this uncomfortable position is Types Essay a general feature of tier-1 supply within the FMCG sector.

In addition to informing strategy development for Princes, this study may have more far-reaching implications within the FMCG sector and beyond. For organisations (suppliers) with just one customer who wants to trade using a particular approach (e. Of Internet Pornography Essay? g. And Sources? EDI) the Control of Internet Essay associated investment may be seen as too large and uncertain. On the other hand, if the supplier has several ustomers demanding the enigmatic same approach then the of Internet Pornography investment may more easily be justified. Where customers demand different approaches, the supplier must apportion the investment among the different relationships. This process of investment may ultimately lead to cruzan structural changes within the industry via the development of a range of tier-1 supplier types, defined by their approach to the use of e-commerce. At one extreme will be small specialised suppliers using the same solution across all their relationships, and at the other will be large organisations that can afford to maintain several means of electronic trading.

As a supplier, Princes falls within the latter category, whilst the majority of its own suppliers fall into the middle ground of having multiple customers, insufficient financial resource to fund a variety of solutions and hence little enthusiasm for e-commerce. As shown in figure 1 a few exceptional dual suppliers fall into the same category as Princes typically where they supply directly to the retailers also. Of Internet Essay? This view of future industry re-structuring has parallels to developments within the automotive industry where tier-1 suppliers have increased in power and size, and are able to rade with a range of customers using alternative e-commerce solutions[3]. Notes 1 Groupware is a range of software tools and difference between theory y associated technology that is used to Control Pornography support groups of people working together. Typically, this includes a number of of Conflicts Essay personal computers, laptops or other terminals connected in real time by a network. The span can range from a single room to full global reach achieved by internet links. 2 Middleware is defined here as a separate software application that interfaces between two disparate applications and enables the transfer of information and he synchronisation of Control Pornography activities between the two applications. 3 The ideas discussed in the final paragraph were stimulated by the comments of an anonymous reviewer.

We are grateful for the contribution.