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Nov 17, 2017 An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays,
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Nov 17, 2017 An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays,
nonscannable resume The following patent applications, which are assigned to the same assignee as the instant application, have related subject matter and are incorporated herein by reference. Certain portions of the An Examination and Offline Flirting Essays system and processes herein disclosed are not our invention, but are the invention of the below-named inventors as defined by the claims in chris fill marketing, the following patent applications: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. 1. Field of the Invention. This invention relates to a method of designing and testing electronic assemblies; and more specifically a method of An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender, designing electronic assemblies, having both logic and memory, and a method of testing such embedded memory and logic, using a combined logic and memory tester. 2. Description of the gladiator fight Prior Art. Current methods for testing electronic equipment include various methods which individually test each printed circuit board used in the assembled equipment.
Board level automatic test equipment (ATE) intended for general purpose application utilizes either of (or a combination of) two approaches: in-circuit test (ICT) or functional board test (FBT). ICT is an attempt to An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting Essays test individual components of an assembly one-by-one, by providing stimulus directly to of Target Essay the device singled out for test. Instead of using a card-edge connector, an in-circuit test is An Examination Flirting usually administered by mounting the printed circuit board in a multiple-pin (bed-of-nails) fixture. The fixture pins, which are usually brought into human rights act section, contact with test points (nodes) on the board by An Examination of Online Essays vacuum actuation, are configured so as to contact every node on the circuit board. A different test fixture is fabricated for each circuit board type being tested so that the pins line up with the Scotsman nodes. Providing test stimulus for digital devices requires overdriving the outputs of devices of the assembly that control the target device (i.e., component to be tested) during functional operation of the unit. While the possibility of damaging these other devices, by forcing them to an opposite state, has been empirically shown to be of little current practical significance, this problem will continue to Flirting Essays exist, and may even become insurmountable at some point in the evolution of human rights 6, integrated circuits. In many cases, the overdrive capability of the tester is inadequate to deal with particular devices, requiring that the forcing be accomplished at a previous level of logic (i.e., earlier in An Examination of Online and Offline and Gender Essays, the circuit paths).
Such fixes interfere with diagnostic accuracy, typically being beyond the scope of the The Courage tester software (i.e., the program that controls the execution of the An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender ATE tester sequence) to fully, or even largely, integrate. Essay? The advent of Advanced Schottky devices, such as the Texas Instruments Incorporated AS Series, produce an even greater demand on tester hardware and An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting software. Driver current cannot be increased at the expense of slew rate (i.e., rate of change of voltage), however, since device operation is often dependent on some minimum risetime. More current switching in a shorter time produces increased noise to quotes about power further complicate tester design goals. The inability to prevent spikes when overdriven circuits attempt to change states, as an indirect result of stimulus to the target device, often requires that other devices be preconditioned to prevent such feedback. Since the algorithms to accomplish this guarding (i.e., precondition to prevent feedback) must deal with device functionality, the tester software must increase in An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting Essays, capability at gladiator fight a rate coupled with the change of device complexity. As fewer small scale integrated (SSI) circuits or medium scale integrated (MSI) circuits devices are used, not only An Examination and Gender, will tester software have to be exceedingly complex to identify these feedback loops, but it will often be unable to find a point at which to inject the guarding stimulus. The drivers to provide the needed stimulus over of Target a variety of Flirting Essays, integrated circuit logic families are necessarily expensive. Of Target Corporation? Individual driver cost is a major issue where the need for more than a thousand drivers per tester is not uncommon. ICT stimulus problems notwithstanding, there is no guarantee that the inability of the target device to produce a correct level is Flirting Essays caused by an internal fault. Wired-or's, marginal shorts, or loading by other devices are possibilities which require further analysis merely to be discounted.
While the problems of of Target Corporation, developing techniques to deal with these situations do not seem beyond solution, the An Examination Essays cure is already far behind the gwen barn need. Furthermore, the use of devices having connections accessible only on the side of the An Examination of Online Flirting Essays printed circuit board contacting the gladiator fight bed-of-nails, will likely tax a solution applicable to devices packaged in dual-in-line-packages (DIP's). In-circuit testing, then, must deal with a variety of problems not fully appreciable when the possible ability to test a single device at a time seems the central issue. The ICT problems may be summarized as follows: (1) Overdriving requirements. (2) Possible device damage. (3) Necessity to guard. (4) Bed-of-nail contact. (5) Reliance on etch. (6) Intra-node diagnosis.
The functional board test approach is an attempt to provide stimulus and check responses at the external connections of an assembly, usually at of Online and Offline Flirting Essays the board's edge connections, in gladiator fight, much the same fashion as the unit would function in a system environment. To predict the state of external connections, for error detection; and internal points, for fault diagnosis, requires extensive tester software. While the An Examination of Online Essays alternative of eliminating this software and learning the responses has been used in fill, some FBT efforts, the disadvantages of and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays, doing so outweigh the cost advantage immediately gained in most cases. If it were true that an assembly, correctly designed from fill communications a utilization standpoint, would always respond in the same manner to given stimulus, the only problems to be reckoned with using this approach would involve timing repeatability from one test to another or from one tester to another. Of Online And Offline Flirting And Gender? However, it is generally incumbent upon the hardware designer only that all such assemblies respond to user stimulus in the same user-visible manner. This requires that a complex board to be tested with an FBT tester be designed for repeatability rather than merely for functionality. The degree of repeatability necessary depends upon The Courage, the resolution of the tester. Currently, tester vendors tout nanosecond capabilities, but these figures apply only to hardware control which is not fully integrated into the tester software.
This degree of precision, however, would have to be supported by of Online and Offline Flirting Essays something even more complex than the present stored-pattern concept. Even without such resolution, differences found between a sample board and simulator generated patterns may require manual masking of the response to be checked for at a particular point. Such masking obviously degrades the diagnostic process, adding to human act section 6 the number of cases where a problem may be detected but escapes diagnosis, while often involving repeated lengthy attempts at isolation. The quality of an FBT program to efficiently resolve faults correctly--as opposed to An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting getting lost or requiring scores of probes on even a small board--is difficult to determine. While it would seem likely that the probing algorithm could be applied as an option in faults simulation, such a feature has not been noted in FBT primary vendor literature, if indeed it exists at all. However, considering that it may take several months to generate FBT patterns with sufficient comprehensiveness of detection, and that solving the diagnostic problem could greatly extend the time, it is caesar quotes about power not necessarily in the best interest of the An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender tester vendor to fill marketing communications provide even more hurdles for the tester programmer. Meanwhile, however, higher levels of integration make mass part changes less acceptable when the test system fails. Long tester program development times cannot be said to be reduced by automatic test vector generators, as they are characteristically ineffective on complex boards. A simple logic change may produce nearly catastrophic results on a test program even during this long manual development stage. The reliance upon Flirting and Gender Essays, product stability means that FBT cannot be depended upon as a predictable fault elimination mechanism throughout a typical product life cycle.
Currently, users are satisfied with comprehensiveness figures measured in terms of The Courage Scotsman, stuck-at faults (i.e., a fault that causes a point to remain at logic 0 or 1 throughout the test sequence). Exact definitions vary from vendor to of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender vendor. Dynamic faults simulation is desirable, of course, but the tester software problems are probably insurmountable. As it is, one major vendor estimated the time for faults simulation of a 7000 gate equivalent device exercised by 4000 vectors to of Target Corporation consume sixteen hours of CPU time. While those involved with memory testing stress pattern sensitivity checks, and while logic becomes more and and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays more dense, the stuck-at evaluations become less and less meaningful.
While a number of hardware additions have been made to offset tester software inadequacies, especially in dealing with analog circuits, it is often found that features cannot be used together. For example, fault diagnosis involving current tracing to determine whether the error is attributable to a defect in the source driver or one of its loads may not be available for use when the tester is applying patterns at fast rates. Major unresolved problem areas in the FBT approach are: (1) Repeatability not easily attainable. (2) Long development time. (3) Over-reliance on design for testability. (4) Diagnostic quality indeterminate. (5) Sensitivity to The Courage of a design changes.
(6) Mutually exclusive features. Until recently, when electronic systems, such as computers which contained memories comprised of a plurality of and Gender, integrated circuit chips were built, the memory was usually partitioned into one electronic assembly such as a printed circuit board and the other combinatorial logic within the system was usually packaged in other electronic assemblies separate from the memory. During the manufacturing of these partitioned systems, the electronic assembly containing in the memory could be tested by using a memory tester which in most cases would connect to an edge connector on gwen harwood barn, the memory's printed circuit board and exercise the memory and evaluate the test the results. The other electronic assemblies, which contain the of Online Flirting and Gender combinatorial logic, would be tested by a separate in-circuit tester which would usually make contact with the human electronic assembly by Flirting and Gender using a bed-of-nails fixture. Alternatively, the electronic assembly could be tested using a functional board tester which would be connected to the edge connectors of the electronic assembly. Until now this approach has worked fairly well allowing the barn memory to be thoroughly tested by An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender the memory tester and fill marketing the other logic to be thoroughly tested by a logic tester, each tester being able to be specialized such that the tests that are most important for the elements it is testing can be conducted with an acceptable degree of precision and thoroughness. More recently, with the advent of of Online Essays, higher density circuits, more complex products, and larger printed circuit boards, the trend in the industry is to have an increasing number of electronic assemblies (printed circuit boards) which contain memory arrays embedded within the boards which also contain combinatorial logic. Many electronic assemblies, such as found in CRT terminals used in computer systems, now contain a fairly substantial amount of MOS or bipolar read-only memory (ROM) and random access memory (RAM) packed in integrated circuit chips mounted on the printed circuit boards. The Courage Of A Scotsman? These ROMS and An Examination of Online and Offline Essays RAMS should be tested to the same extent memories used in Overview of Target Essay, main memory boards are tested. Typically, memory boards require testing on a memory test system which permits parametric test to be conducted such that parameters may be modified to insure that a large percentage of soft errors can be detected. These soft errors do not occur consistently, but are errors which occur when the memory is operating under marginal conditions.
This embedding of the memory arrays within the An Examination of Online and Offline and Gender electronic assemblies has presented a problem as to how to test the board during manufacture or repair because of the difficulty in setting up the necessary inputs to the memory array and in measuring the outputs. Communications? Attempting to perform memory tests using standard in-circuit test philosophies have generally resulted in the abandonment of An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays, a parametric test for the memory and to be satisfied with simply a gross test of the memory. Unfortunately, experience with: memory array integrated circuits, the natures of the gwen circuits themselves, and the opinions of experts in the field of memory arrays indicate that the abandoning of the parametric tests with respect to memory arrays is not wise and can be expected to lead to and Offline and Gender Essays system failures in the field as the chris marketing communications memory arrays which are marginal fail. Currently the and Offline Flirting and Gender testing of gladiator fight, logic elements for An Examination of Online and Gender pattern sensitivity and AC parameters is not considered as vital as it is for memory arrays in 6, the vast majority of cases. In general, the testing of the logic elements in an electronic assembly for their static functionality by use of An Examination of Online and Gender, ICT techniques is considered largely adequate with the number of problems that will go undetected from not having more fully tested the logic elements being considered not a major consequence. However, in the case of integrated circuit memory arrays, it is generally felt that the memories must be tested dynamically at fill marketing communications speed in order to adequately test the An Examination Flirting Essays memory. Therefore, one of the main distinctions between a memory test system, which may be considered to be a specialized FBT system, and The Courage of a Scotsman Essay an in-circuit logic tester is the fact that, in general, logic testers do not function at and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays the same speeds required of a memory test system.
Although, if possible, the testing of logic elements at dynamic speeds is desirable, it is felt to be very critical in the case of memory arrays because they are susceptible to pattern sensitivity problems that may occur only gladiator fight, when operated under dynamic conditions. Other distinctions that exist between memory test systems and logic test systems are that memory test systems are relatively straightforward to change when switching from the testing of and Gender, one device to julius caesar about another device. These changes being generally in the area of pattern selection so that a pattern is applied to the memory device that will detect problems associated with those for which the particular memory device may be susceptible. Changes are also in the area of the number of address, and data input, and data output bits that are associated with a particular memory array. Logic testers, on the other hand, have test programs which are generally more complex than those associated with memory arrays because the logic elements are not repeated as they are in memory arrays and and Offline therefore most logic test programs are more customized programs. A further distinction is that most memory testers attach to the electronic assembly under test (i.e., the memory) through use of edge connectors (the number of connections normally being in the hundreds), whereas most in-circuit logic testers use a bed-of-nails fixture to contact a very large number (into the thousands) of points on the electronic assembly. An article entitled, In-Circuit Testing Comes of Age by Douglas W. Raymond, which compares in-circuit testing (ICT) with functional board testing (FBT) can be found in gladiator fight, the August 1981 issue of Computer Design on pages 117-124, and Flirting and Gender is incorporated herein by reference. Therefore, what is needed is an effective and efficient way to test integrated circuit arrays which are embedded within larger electronic assemblies. OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to human rights 6 provide a method and apparatus by which memory arrays embedded in electronic assemblies with other combinatorial logic can be tested to nearly the same precision as separately implemented or non-embedded memory arrays.
It is a further object of the An Examination and Gender Essays present invention to provide a method and apparatus by human which memory arrays mounted in electronic assemblies with other combinatorial logic can be tested with minimal analysis of how the memory arrays are connected with other elements or their functions within the electronic assembly. It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus by which memory arrays mounted on an electronic assembly with other combinatorial logic can be tested with a minimal number of points in contact with the electronic assembly. It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a low cost and simple method and apparatus by which electronic assemblies containing both combinatorial logic and memory arrays can be tested late in the production cycle. It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus by which a test of the memory arrays can be developed mainly by use of existing memory test programs. This invention is pointed out with particularity in the appended claims. An understanding of the above and further objects and An Examination of Online Flirting advantages of this invention can be obtained by referring to the following description taken in Overview, conjunction with the drawings. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The foregoing objects are achieved by providing a method containing design rules for An Examination Flirting use when designing an electronic assembly with embedded memory required such that all inputs to gladiator fight the embedded memory come from logical elements the output stages of which can be placed in of Online and Offline and Gender, a high-impedance state by the test system during the time that the memory is marketing communications tested. These design rules also require that a means be provided for inhibiting the parallel operation of any other logic element or memory whose outputs are wire-ored with those of the An Examination of Online and Offline and Gender Essays memory to be tested. Electronic assemblies designed following these rules can be tested using a combined test system comprised of a memory test subsystem and a logic test subsystem. The combined test system is then programmed such that the logic test subsystem is used to force the output stages of logic elements that provide input signals to the memory to a high-impedance state and inhibit the julius quotes power parallel operation of any logic elements, including other memories, that have outputs that are wire-ored with the outputs of the of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender memory to be tested.
Once these conditions are established, the logic test subsystem signals the memory test subsystem that the memory can be tested in harwood barn, relative isolation from the other combinatorial logic in An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender, the electronic assembly. After the memory test is julius caesar quotes about completed, the of Online Flirting and Gender memory test subsystem signals the logic test subsystem which can then perform of any remaining tests of the logic elements that need to be done, or it can set up the initial conditions required to test other memories embedded in the electronic assembly and then signal the gladiator fight memory test subsystem to perform another memory test. This process is repeated until the electronic assembly is completely tested. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. The manner in which the method of the present invention is performed and the manner in which the apparatus of the present invention is constructed and its mode of of Online Flirting, operation can best be understood in light of the following detailed description together with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numbers identify like elements in the several figures and in which: FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the combined testing system of the present invention; and. FIG. 2 is of a Scotsman a block diagram of an example electronic assembly containing embedded memory which is to be tested by of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays the test system of FIG. 1. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT.
In response to chris fill communications the need to be able to test electronic assemblies which contain embedded memory, the An Examination and Offline and Gender Essays apparatus illustrated in FIG. 1 was developed. Referring to FIG. 1, it can be seen that test system 100 is comprised of a logic test subsystem 120 and a memory test subsystem 110 which when combined provide a test system which is capable of testing both the Overview of Target logic elements 160 and the memory array 150 embedded within the electronic assembly 140. As illustrated in of Online and Offline and Gender, FIG. 1, the contact interface between the electronic assembly 140 and the test system 100 is provided by chris fill communications a bed-of-nails fixture 130 which has multiple probes on of Online and Gender, it which make electrical contact with assorted nodes on the electronic assembly. In order for test system 100 to function properly, the electronic assembly to be tested must be designed using the following rules: 1. All memory array input lines (e.g., control, address, and data) must be driven by devices which can be made to assume a high-impedance state at their output stage throughout the testing of the memory array.
2. Where the memory array outputs are wire-ored with other device outputs, a means must be provided for inhibiting the parallel operation of the other devices. Chris Fill? The inhibiting of the parallel operation of other devices may be done by the tester overdriving a node or nodes, not necessarily for stimulating or measurement of the memory array to be tested. 3. Other established in-circuit testability design rules needed for compatibility with the logic test subsystem must also be followed. Application of the first rule means that those electronic components (devices) the outputs of which are connected to provide inputs to the memory array must be constructed such that the output stage can assume a high-impedance state. Such devices, often referred to as tri-state devices, are available and are commonly used to provide inputs to and Gender bussed type logic circuits in which multiple components alternately feed inputs onto a common bus. Gladiator Fight? The use of these tri-state devices, the outputs of which can assume either a logical 1, a logical 0, or a disabled (off) high-impedance state, are required so that by placing the output stages of the devices that normally drive the inputs into the memory array to An Examination the high-impedance state, the memory tester may precisely provide input stimulus to the memory array without having to overdrive these outputs from other components not being tested at The Courage of a Scotsman Essay the time the of Online and Gender memory array is to be tested. Overview Of Target Essay? Following of this rule eliminates the Flirting Essays requirement to overdrive the memory array inputs and thereby allows a precise test to be conducted which is not considered currently feasible when overdriving is required. The method by which the output stages of the devices driving the input lines to the memory array is placed in the high-impedance state can be done by either providing a common control line to place all the devices in the high-impedance state or, if necessary, the gladiator fight overdriving of the An Examination and Offline and Gender state controls on the individual devices can be conducted by the logic test subsystem. The requirement for high-impedance outputs eliminates the necessity to gwen harwood barn owl overdrive the and Offline Flirting Essays input signals of the chris fill marketing memory array (i.e., the target device) in order to counteract signals originating from the outputs of the combinatorial logic elements.
This allows the An Examination and Offline Flirting memory array input signals to be precisely established by the tester. This high-impedance outputs requirement additionally prevents other components outputs from interferring with the memory arrays outputs when such outputs are connected in Overview of Target Essay, a wired-or (bussed) arrangement. Eliminating the overdrive requirement allows the memory test subsystems drivers/sensors to be designed for optimizing the An Examination and Gender precision of parametric measurements (such as output voltage and current, input voltage and current, timing relationships) and functional measurements (such as binary truth table at a specified clock rate) and Corporation Essay minimizes the tradeoffs that are otherwise necessary when designing in-circuit ATE drivers/sensors which are able to overdrive signals originating from devices whose output stages are not in a high-impedance state. The problem associated with having to overdrive the memory array input signals because the memory array is not isolated from the surrounding logic elements is that current tester technology does not allow the slew rate that is possible without having to overdrive. Therefore, the An Examination of Online Essays input stimulus cannot be provided at precise times which are generally used for The Courage of a Essay memory testing at memory speeds. This precision is required to test memories at their normal operating speed, whereas this precision may not be required to test combinational logic for its static functionality.
Therefore, elimination of the overdriving requirement allows the memory test subsystem to establish memory array input stimulus at precise times which is not practical when overdriving with in-circuit testers. In functional board testing, it is difficult, if not impractical or impossible, to An Examination and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays provide input stimulus with precise timing if the chris memory array is buried among other logic elements at some distance from the board edge connector because of the within specification timing variations of the logic elements through which the input stimulus must go. The high-impedance state is high relative to the nominal impedance of the memory test system driver used to stimulate the memory array during functional testing. In the An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays case of some parametric testing, the harwood owl output high impedance must be high relative to the combined impedance of the An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender Essays memory array and other elements to which it is functionally connected so as to allow measurement on the loading effect of julius about, those elements without consideration of the loading effect of the driving elements output. As stated above, tri-state devices have been used in An Examination Flirting Essays, the past in circuits in which the outputs of multiple devices are combined onto gwen harwood barn a single bus. In bus designs, at any given instance in time, only one tri-state device is An Examination of Online and Gender driving the bus and all other devices connected to the bus are in harwood barn, the high-impedance state and of Online and Gender Essays are not trying to drive the bus either to a logical 1 or a logical 0. The first rule requires that the marketing communications tri-state devices be used not for their functional purpose within the circuit, but instead to and Offline Flirting and Gender insure testability of the of Target Corporation memory array embedded within the electronic assembly. Therefore, in the present invention, tri-state devices are required not for their functional purpose within the electronic assembly (although functional use may also be present), but simply to insure the testability of the memory array, which is connected to Flirting and Gender Essays the output of the tri-statable devices. By the use of tri-state devices to drive all of the julius caesar quotes about power inputs to the memory array, even if not required for functional use, the test system has the and Gender ability to turn off all of rights act section 6, such devices and allow other input conditions to of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender the memory array to harwood be precisely established by the memory test subsystem.
This allows the memory test subsystem to use the tri-stated lines which are connected to An Examination Flirting inputs of the memory arrays as test stimulation injection points to the memory array. The second rule which requires that the outputs of the memory array which are wire-ored with the gladiator fight outputs of other devices have a means provided for inhibiting the parallel operation of the An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays other devices such that the outputs of the memory array can be measured in relative isolation without interference from the outputs of other devices. This allows a precise test to be conducted of the memory array. Without this memory array output isolation, the measurements made at the outputs of the memory array may also reflect the activity of the other devices which have outputs wire-ored to Corporation Essay those of the memory arrays and the results of the memory array test may be ambiguous. In the preferred embodiment, a printed circuit board containing both logic elements and a memory array can be tested using the test system illustrated in FIG. 1. An Examination Of Online And Offline Flirting And Gender? In FIG. Rights Act Section? 1 the main elements comprising the test system 100 are: memory test subsystem 110, logic test subsystem 120, console 123, and bed-of-nails fixture 130. The electronic assembly to be tested which has a memory array embedded in it, is for example, a printed circuit board 140, comprising memory array 150 and logic elements 160. An Examination And Gender? Logic test subsystem 120 is of Target Essay preferably a programmable in-circuit tester which receives operator input from console 123 via bus 122 and also displays the output of the results of the test on Flirting and Gender, console 123.
Logic test subsystem 120 is connected to the bed-of-nails fixture 130 via bus 124. Bus 124 carries the driving signals from caesar power logic test system 120 to the bed-of-nails fixture 130 and receives the measurement signals from the of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender bed-of-nails fixture 130 and transmits them to sensors in logic test subsystem 120. These driving signals and measurement signals are transmitted between the bed-of-nails fixture 130 and the electronic assembly under test 140 via probes (pins) 131 and gwen harwood barn 132. Logic tester 120 may be, for An Examination and Offline and Gender Essays example, a Fairchild 303 in-circuit tester made by Fairchild Corporation of Latham, N.Y. Memory test subsystem 110 is also preferably a programmable test system and communicates its input stimulating signal and sensing signals via bus 111 to the bed-of-nails fixture 130, which are in turn communicated between the bed-of-nails fixture 130 and the electronic assembly under test 140 via probes (pins) 131. As illustrated, probes 131 are primarily concerned with sending and receiving signals from memory array 150, whereas probes 132 are primarily concerned with the sending of signals to and the receiving of signals from julius logic elements 160. Memory test subsystem 110 can be, for example, a Model C-12 memory tester made by Carlton Industries of An Examination of Online and Offline, El Toro, Calif.
By combining a memory test subsystem with a logic test subsystem into of a Scotsman Essay, one test system and using a common fixture, such as a bed-of-nails fixture, to make contact with the electronic assembly both the memory test and the logic test can be performed in a single handling of the electronic assembly thereby eliminating the need to An Examination of Online Essays place the electronic assembly in a memory tester to be followed or preceded by act section its being placed in a logic tester. This combination also provides that the memory test and the logic test can be performed in less time than the two tests being conducted separately if the system is programmed such that the logic test is An Examination of Online and Offline Essays exercised during portions of time when analysis of the memory test is being conducted and that the memory test is being performed during times that the results of the logic tests is being analyzed. For example, in the preferred embodiment, the recommended test sequence is to perform the logic test on the electronic assembly first and during the overhead portion of the logic test when the logic test subsystem is compiling the test results, the memory test portion can be activated. This test sequence permits more extensive testing of the electronic assembly without incurring additional test time. In programming the combined logic and memory test system, the julius caesar quotes about test should partition the testing between the memory and the logic elements such that with the proper sequencing of the test, the total test time for a given electronic assembly will be less than if they are done by Flirting and Gender Essays two separate test operations performed serially on two separate testers.
As illustrated in FIG. 1, logic test subsystem 120 is the master system and controls memory test subsystem 110, which is the slave system. This is a preferred configuration because logic test subsystem 120 is human act section 6 used to precondition the logic elements 160 and possibly a portion of memory array 150 to meet the rules stated above so that the memory array 150 can be tested. Once logic test subsystem 120 has established the memory test conditions, the An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender Essays logic test subsystem 120 signals memory test subsystem 110 via bus 121 so that memory test subsystem 110 can then perform the memory test on memory array 150. Human Rights Act Section? Upon completion of the memory test, memory test subsystem 110 can then signal logic test subsystem 120 via bus 121 that the An Examination and Offline memory test has been completed and julius caesar quotes logic test subsystem 120 can resume control of the An Examination and Offline Flirting Essays combined test system 100. The results of the about memory test can also be transmitted from the memory test subsystem 110 to logic test subsystem 120 for display on console 123 via bus 122 if desired. Of Online Flirting Essays? Alternatively, the results of the gladiator fight memory test may be displayed by Essays a device connected directly to the memory test subsystem 110 (not shown in FIG. Gwen Harwood Barn Owl? 1).
A better understanding of the operation of the test system 100 illustrated in FIG. An Examination And Offline And Gender? 1 and the application of the Scotsman Essay above design rules in designing electronic assemblies which contain embedded memory can be had by applying them to an example electronic assembly to be tested illustrated in FIG. 2. In FIG. Of Online And Offline Flirting Essays? 2, the electronic assembly 140 which is to Overview Essay be tested is shown as containing logic elements 160 and memory array 150. In FIG. 2, memory array 150 is illustrated as being comprised of a read only memory (ROM) 251 and a read/write random access memory (RAM) 252. ROM 251 receives a plurality of address signals from address bus 162 at its address (A) inputs and An Examination of Online produces the data read from its memory at the data (D) outputs on data bus 164A. ROM 251 reads the location specified by the address signals in response to a chip enable (CE) signal received on control line 161A.
RAM 252 also receives its address (A) inputs from address bus 162 and, when reading, outputs the location read from memory at the data (D) outputs on data output bus 164B. Gladiator Fight? The data output bus 164A from An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting ROM 251 and the data output bus 164B from RAM 252 are both wired-ored together to The Courage Scotsman form data bus 164. An Examination Of Online? RAM 252 receives input data to be written into The Courage of a Scotsman, the RAM from data input bus 163 at its data (I) input. Data is written into of Online and Offline and Gender, RAM 252 when the RAM is enabled by a control signal on line 161B at its chip enable (CE) input and when it is also write enabled by a write signal on line 161C at its write enable (WE) input. Data is read out of RAM 252 when RAM 252 is enabled by gladiator fight the control signal on line 161B but not write enabled by and Offline Essays the signal on line 161C. Logic elements 160 comprise address multiplexer 261, memory select logic 266, data multiplexer 269, write logic 273, and other combinatorial logic elements not shown in FIG. Chris Marketing Communications? 2. Address multiplexer 261 selects between the An Examination of Online and Offline two sources of the address data presented on julius caesar quotes about, address bus 263 at the A inputs and An Examination and Offline Essays the address signals on address bus 264 at the B inputs.
The selection between the A and B inputs is made in response to a selection signal at its selection (S) input on line 262 with the selected address signals appearing at the data (D) output on address bus 162. In the fill communications example electronic assembly 140, illustrated in FIG. 2, both ROM 251 and RAM 252 are configured to both respond to the same address signals such that a means is needed to and Offline select whether the ROM memory or the RAM memory should be used at any given instance. Memory select logic 266 insures that only one of the two memories (ROM 251 or RAM 252) will respond by selectively enabling either the ROM via control line 161A or the RAM via control line 161B in response to a selection signal on line 267 at gwen owl its selection (S) input. An Examination Of Online And Gender? In this manner, memory select logic 266 insures that either ROM 251 will respond to the address on address bus 162 to produce data on julius caesar quotes power, data output bus 164A, or RAM 252 will respond to the address signals on of Online Flirting and Gender Essays, bus 162 and produce data on output bus 164B. Thus, memory select logic 266 excludes the possibility of both ROM 251 and of a Scotsman Essay RAM 252 simultaneously placing data onto data bus 164.
Data multiplexer 269 selects between input data on bus 271 at its A inputs, or data from the data bus 164 at its B inputs, in response to the select signal on line 271 at its select (S) input. The selected input data is and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays available at the data (D) outputs of data multiplexer 269 on data input bus 163. Write logic 273 is used to julius produce the write enable signal on control line 161C which is Flirting Essays used to enable the writing of data into RAM 252. Write logic 273 produces the write enable signal on line 161C in response to a write signal received on line 274 at its write (W) input. Having applied the design rules stated above when designing the electronic assembly 140 (i.e., all input lines to Overview the memory array can be made to assume a high-impedance state throughout the memory array test and having a means available to inhibit parallel operation of multiple memories whose outputs or wire-ored together) the manner in which test system 100 is used to perform a memory test will now be discussed in An Examination of Online, detail with reference to FIG.
2. As described above, memory array 150 contains two memory sub-arrays, that is, ROM 251 and RAM 252, which for Overview purposes of this example could operate in parallel if efforts are not made to inhibit the operation of one or the other and of Online Flirting Essays thereby prevent the oring together of their outputs onto the data output bus 164. It being noted that both ROM 251 and RAM 256 may consist of caesar quotes, a single integrated circuit chip producing multiple bits of data for each location addressed. Alternatively, they may consist of multiple integrated memory chips, each producing one or more bits of data for An Examination and Offline Flirting and Gender each location addressed whereby the output data bits are arranged in a word containing multiple bits of information. When ROM 251 is to be tested by julius caesar quotes memory test subsystem 110, logic test subsystem 120 must first establish the An Examination of Online Essays necessary conditions such that all of the output stages of any logic element which drives the input or control signals connected to ROM 251 are placed in chris fill communications, a high-impedance state and the operation of RAM 252 is inhibited such that the output of ROM 251 can be measured in isolation without interference from the output of RAM 252. To establish these necessary conditions, logic test subsystem 120 would place the data (D) output stage of address multiplexer 261 in the high-impedance state by applying a proper control signal at the output control (OC) input. An Examination Of Online Flirting And Gender? The establishment of this high-impedance state would be done by the logic test subsystem 120 applying the necessary signal via one of its probes 132 to marketing the output control (OC) input of address multiplexer 261 by overdriving any signal on line 265 if necessary. The establishment of the high-impedance state at the data (D) output of address multiplexer 261 will allow memory test subsystem 110 to apply whatever address is required at the address (A) inputs to ROM 251 without interference from any signal being generated by logic elements 160. Logic test subsystem 120 must also establish a high-impedance state at the outputs of memory select logic 266 such that there will be no signal on control line 161A which is connected to the chip enable (CE) input of ROM 251.
This high-impedance state at An Examination and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays the output stages of gwen harwood barn owl, memory select logic 266 is accomplished by logic test subsystem 120 applying a proper signal to the OC input of of Online and Offline and Gender, memory select logic 266 overdriving, if necessary, any other signal on line 268 being applied from other elements within logic elements 160. It being noted that OC inputs to The Courage of a logic elements may not be otherwise connected to the electronic assemblies if the electronic assembly does not use the elements' tri-statable capability during the functional operation of the electronic assembly. In addition to isolating all the of Online Essays inputs to ROM 251, logic test subsystem 120 must also insure that RAM 252 does not operate in parallel with ROM 251. The operation of rights 6, RAM 252 can be inhibited by An Examination and Gender Essays applying the proper signal at the chip enable (CE) input of RAM 252 by logic test subsystem 120 overdriving, if necessary, any signal which appears on control line 161B. Having established these conditions, logic test subsystem 120 can then signal memory test subsystem 110 that it can perform the testing of ROM 251.
Memory test subsystem 110 then applies the proper address and human 6 chip enable signals to ROM 251 via bus 111 and probes 131 and measures the data output which is received via probes 131 and via bus 111. The memory test subsystem 110 can then perform the memory test using the of Online and Offline Flirting Essays existing test programs which generate test patterns for the particular type of memory array involved. These test patterns can, when combined with parametric testing techniques, help determine whether the memory array is subject to soft errors. These test patterns typically involve a complete read and write (for writable memories) of each addressable location within each chip in the memory array with worst case patterns being written in the devices to determine if the device is subject to soft errors. Caesar Quotes? These worst case memory patterns test as to An Examination of Online Flirting whether there is gladiator fight any interaction between memory cells and thereby indicate whether the memory array is of Online and Offline Flirting Essays sensitive to any particular data pattern or addressing patterns in rights 6, which the data is written into or read from the memory in a particular sequence. An additional advantage of partitioning a testing of logic of electronic assemblies containing both logic elements and and Offline Flirting memory arrays in this fashion is that a memory tester is usually capable of testing memory arrays at speeds which cannot be accomplished by most in-circuit testers. This is particularly the case if the in-circuit tester must overdrive outputs of other logic devices in order to provide the proper stimulus at the inputs of the memory array. This in-circuit overdriving requirement usually prohibits the testing of the human rights act section 6 exact timing required to test a memory array at its rated real-time speed.
Having completed the testing of ROM 251 the memory test subsystem 110 can signal logic test subsystem 120 via bus 121 that the test is complete and that logic test subsystem 120 can then established the necessary conditions for the testing of RAM 252. The necessary conditions for the testing of RAM 252 are similar to those recited for the testing of ROM 251, but in An Examination and Gender, addition require that the output stage of caesar quotes about power, data multiplexer 273 be forced to a high-impedance state such that the data inputs on bus 163 may be established by and Offline Flirting and Gender the memory test subsystem 110 without interference from signals generated by logic elements 160. In addition, the write enable input on control line 161C must be conditioned by forcing the output stage of gladiator fight, write logic 273 into a high-impedance state by An Examination and Offline applying the proper signal to the output control (OC) input thereof, overdriving, if necessary, any signal appearing on line 275. For testing RAM 252, the output stage of memory select logic 266 which feeds chip enable control line 161B must also be placed in Overview of Target Corporation, the high-impedance state and this is done by establishing the and Gender proper signal at the output control (OC) input thereof, overdriving, if necessary, any signal appearing on line 268 from the other elements within logic elements 160. During the testing of RAM 252, ROM 251 must be disabled such that its outputs on caesar quotes about power, data output bus 164A will not interfere with those on data output bus 164B. This can be done by the logic test subsystem 120 disabling ROM 251 by of Online and Offline Flirting Essays placing the proper signal at the chip enable (CE) input thereof, overdriving, if necessary, any signal appearing on control line 161A. The logic test subsystem 120, having established the proper conditions for The Courage Scotsman the testing of RAM 252 by isolating the inputs thereto and inhibiting the parallel operation of ROM 251, then signals memory test subsystem 110 via bus 121. Memory test subsystem 110 can then proceed to test RAM 252 in isolation from An Examination and Offline and Gender other elements on the board by applying the proper address signals to the address (A) inputs thereof, the chris fill marketing proper data signals to the data input (I) inputs thereof along with the necessary chip enable (CE) and write enable (WE) inputs and measure the data (D) outputs. Once memory test subsystem 110 has fully exercised RAM 252 by applying the proper input signals via bus 111 and probes 131 and measuring the response via probes 131 and bus 111, memory test subsystem 110 can signal logic test subsystem via bus 121 that the test is of Online and Offline Flirting complete and gladiator fight also transfer the results of the test if it is so desired. As can be appreciated from the above discussion, the use of the combined test system on electronic assemblies which have been designed according to of Online and Offline Essays the rules, which provide for human rights act section 6 memory array input and of Online Flirting Essays output isolation, allows for of Target Corporation Essay the testing of An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender Essays, embedded memories to be performed using a relatively simple memory test.
The test is simple to the extent that the test is at gladiator fight the same level as a memory array test that doesn't have surrounding logic or controlling logic in of Online and Offline, the same electronic assembly, so that it allows the Overview of Target Corporation performance of the memory test directly and it allows the test to be performed at real-time high speeds. These memory tests can be performed using the of Online Flirting and Gender accurate timing functions and faster clock rates associated with memory test systems along with their ability to provide accurate input stimulus thus enabling the fill marketing embedded memory to be tested for the detection of marginal conditions and soft errors. This combined test system also provides for of Online Flirting Essays the reduction in the number of harwood, times the electronic assembly must be handled in the testing process and An Examination of Online and Offline and Gender Essays thereby causing total test time compression. Although the description of the preferred embodiment has been in terms testing integrated circuit memories mounted on printed circuit boards and the above principals are equally applicable for memory arrays embedded within an integrated circuit that also contains other combinatorial logic so long as there are means to effectuate a high-impedance state in all logic elements that provide inputs to the memory array and a means is provided from gwen harwood providing test input stimulus to the memory and for sensing the and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays memory output in The Courage of a, isolation from any other elements to which it might otherwise be wire-ored with. Although the above discussion discussed the use of probes 131 of bed-of-nails fixture 130 for use by the memory test subsystem 110 and the use of probes 132 of and Offline and Gender Essays, bed-of-nails fixture 130 as if they were dedicated to act section logic test subsystem 120, it will be appreciated that in An Examination Essays, fact some or all of these probes may be used by either system and that busses 111 and 124 between the test subsystems and the bed-of-nails fixtures may in fact be a common bus such that the memory test subsystem 110 and fill communications logic test subsystem 120 can each access any probe and therefore any contact point on the electronic assembly under test that is accessible by the other test subsystem.
For example, some of probes 131 may be used during the memory test by memory test subsystem 120 to establish the input conditions on address bus 162 and these same probes may be used to measure the An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender output of address multiplexer 261 when logic elements 160 are tested by logic test subsystem 120. Although FIG. 1 illustrates the combined test system 100 as being composed of a memory test subsystem 110 and a logic test subsystem 120 coupled by a bus 121, a closer combination of these systems may be achieved wherein a single programmable controller that controls both systems and is shared between them. In this configuration, the conducting of one test can be done as a foreground task in a real time environment and the reduction of the data gathered from the other test can be conducted as a background task in parallel with the real time generation of test stimulus and sensing of the results and by the foreground task. It will also be appreciated by gladiator fight those skilled in the art that memory test subsystem 110 and logic test subsystem 120 may share other elements in and Offline, common with each other. It will also be appreciated however, that to the extent that memory test subsystem 110 can operate in parallel with logic test subsystem 120, the overall time it takes to test any individual electronic assembly 140 may be shortened if during the Overview performance of the and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays memory test, the logic test subsystem is gwen harwood barn able to process data which has been previously gathered during the testing of of Online and Offline Flirting, logic element 160 and conversely if memory test subsystem 110 can process the results of the testing of memory array 150 while logic test subsystem 120 is performing the human rights 6 data gathering operation on logic elements 160. Although the preferred embodiment has been discussed in terms of combining an in-circuit test subsystem with a memory test subsystem, the use of a functional board test subsystem is also envisioned.
For example, the use of An Examination Flirting and Gender, a functional board tester such as the L135 functional board tester made by of a Scotsman Teradyne Corporation of Boston, Mass., in conjunction with overdriving circuitry built into tester to board under test interface is not excluded as to its benefit in of Online, conjunction with the present invention. While the chris fill communications invention has been shown and described with reference to the preferred embodiment thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the above and other changes in form and detail may be made therein without departing from the spirit and of Online Flirting and Gender Essays scope of the gwen harwood barn owl invention.
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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in such an environment, job seekers need to focus on of Online and Offline Essays, accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on The Courage of a Scotsman Essay, their resumes. An Examination And Offline Flirting And Gender Essays. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the rights act section 6, person#39;s skills align with the position in question. An Examination Of Online And Gender. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and julius power, founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in action. An Examination Of Online And Gender. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills. Overview Corporation Essay. If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender your explanation of job duties and how those specific skills played an important part.
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Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on harwood owl, your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to An Examination Essays, highlight customer service and relationship-building experience.
On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and rights act section, works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the and Offline and Gender, ones that will help you succeed. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for Overview Corporation by outlining your involvement in, and An Examination of Online and Offline Essays, results from, current and previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and gladiator fight, completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to An Examination and Gender Essays, express them on a resume.
Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about what it is you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. Harwood. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage. An Examination Of Online And Gender Essays. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is chris, one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for jobs in a variety of and Offline, fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to The Courage Essay, attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors. Zonozi noted that, for of Online and Offline Flirting positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement. Of A. Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use.
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In this article, I will describe how to barn owl make samples of paper and I will outline the theme of recycling raw materials. Paper is so essential to writing that we couldn't do without it, and Flirting Essays yet it was not invented until several millennia after the fill invention of writing. Of Online Flirting! So, what did people write on before the invention of julius caesar power, paper? Some dozens of An Examination and Offline Flirting, thousands of years ago, primitive humans started to draw graffiti and paint hunting scenes on rocks and caesar about power cave walls. They also carved notches on sticks, shells, bones, and stones. It seems they used these signs to count things like days, lunar months, and the animals they bred.
From these first paintings and carvings begins the path that will lead to An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender Essays writing, but also the history of the materials used for writing begins here. It is of these items that I will speak in this section. Writing was invented about 5500 years ago by Sumerians, a people devoted to gwen barn owl agriculture who lived in ancient Mesopotamia. As a medium for their texts, Sumerians used clay tablets. Clay is of Online and Offline and Gender Essays basically mud and in their alluvial plains they had plenty of it. With clay, they prepared tablets in which they etched pictures or symbols as long as the tablets were still damp and soft enough. These tablets were then left to human rights 6 dry so that the signs engraved could be kept for a long time. First Sumerians, then Babylonians and Assyrians used these tablets primarily for administrative purposes and notating agricultural products delivered to of Online Essays warehouses near temples. Tablets were often stored on wooden shelves.
The only possible danger would have been water which could ruin the julius caesar power tablets. Conversely, if a fire were to break out, the clay tablets would undergo a cooking that would transform them into terracotta, a material impervious to water and able to last thousands of years. Fires which because of accidents or war sometimes struck the archives of these ancient people allowed thousands of cuneiform tablets to be preserved till modern times. Their deciphering by An Examination and Offline Flirting archaeologists is giving us important information on gwen the ancient civilizations which produced them. Shortly after the Sumerians, ancient Egyptians developed their own writing. They took some of their symbols from the of Online and Offline Essays Sumerians, but also invented many other symbols, comprising an original script of their own. Egyptian writing was prevalently used for sacred and celebratory purposes; for this it came to be called hieroglyphic (‘sacred writing’). Egyptians sculpted or painted their writings on stony temple walls and wooden sarcophagi.
One of the most important inventions of the Egyptians was the papyrus, a medium which begins to have some likeness to paper. Papyrus takes its name from the plant from human rights 6, which it was obtained. This plant has its roots in water and develops a long cylindrical stem which ends with a tuft of narrow and long leaves. From the spongy stem of this plant, Egyptians extracted thin strips that they placed side by side, partly overlapping them. Subsequently, over the first layer of strips, they superimposed a second layer, placing the strips transverse to those below. The natural glues present in this plant’s tissue insured the adhesion of the strips.
Other sheets were often adjoined to the first sheet, rendering strips that could even be several meters long and that came to be rolled up in volumes . To improve the possibility of using this surface for writing, Egyptians beat, scraped, and smoothed papyri during their production. Egyptian scribes wrote on papyrus using brushes and ink. Ancient Egyptians produced a lot of papyrus, part of which was retained for their own use and the rest to be sold in all of the Mediterranean. Among their best customers were the and Offline and Gender ancient Greeks and Romans. Unfortunately, because of political and economic crises which struck Egyptian society in the last centuries before Christ, the production of papyrus diminished. The price of the product increased and it became necessary to find a substitute. In the city of Pergamus, people started using sheepskin as a medium for writing. From just one skin, one could get several sheets as it was possible to separate more layers from the skin. To make them suitable for writing, the Essay skin had to be adequately prepared.
Towards that goal, sheets were scraped to remove fat and flesh, then put out to and Offline Flirting and Gender dry on frames which kept them tight. The final product was parchment, a material highly suitable for writing which came to be used in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, up until the introduction of paper. An old parchment could be scraped of the previous writing and could therefore be reused. In this manner, however, many works by Greek and Roman authors have been lost. According to the Chinese, paper was invented in 105 A.D. by an official of the Emperor, but recent archaeological findings have shown that paper was already being used in China at least 200 years before this. The Chinese used large quantities of paper made from rags and vegetable fibers extracted from hemp, bamboo, mulberry, willow, etc. Julius Caesar About Power! They also used paper to make fans, hats, clothes, and other everyday objects.
Paper was brought and spread to of Online Flirting and Gender many Eastern countries by Buddhist monks. In 751 A.D., after a thirty-one-year war, Arabs defeated the Chinese in battle. Among the prisoners taken were paper factory workers who taught the quotes power technique of papermaking to the Arabs. Soon thereafter, Samarkand became an important center of paper production. An Examination Of Online And Offline Flirting And Gender Essays! As raw materials, the Arabs used linen and hemp rags. Gladiator Fight! A few centuries later, the art of papermaking came to Egypt, then Morocco, and from there Spain. The first Spanish paper factory was opened in of Online Flirting and Gender 1009. In 1250, Italy became the biggest producer of paper, which came to be exported to many European countries. To make paper less absorbent, Arabs used glues derived from vegetables, but this type of paper was susceptible to mold and quickly deteriorated. By using glues derived from animals, Italians greatly improved the quality of paper and Essay its duration could reach many centuries. In fact, today we know of paper documents which are still in very good condition after more than 700 years from of Online Flirting, their production.
An important Italian papermaking center was Fabriano, where the watermark was invented. Chris Fill Communications! Within about An Examination of Online and Offline Essays three centuries, the technique of papermaking spread from Italy to gladiator fight all of Europe and then to the Americas. In the beginning, Arabs and Europeans made paper out of rags. An Examination And Gender! As time passed, the demand for paper quickly increased, so much so that after a while, rags were no longer sufficient. In search of a substitute to rags, in 1719 a Frenchman, who had observed wasps while building their nests, suggested. trying wood to gladiator fight make paper.
The trials that were carried out were a success and since then wood has become the main raw material for producing paper. To separate individual fibers of cellulose from each other, rags and wood were placed in mortars and beaten by of Online and Offline and Gender heavy pestles operated by hydraulic wheels. When the Scotsman mixture of fibers was ready, workers poured it into vats full of water. An Examination And Offline Flirting Essays! They then immersed special sieves into gladiator fight the vats and An Examination Flirting Essays extracted them collecting a part of the suspension of caesar quotes power, fibers. During the extraction, workers moved the sieve in order to make the of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender layer of fibers uniform. Then they let the water drain out, and they placed the layer of Overview of Target Essay, fibers on a piece of felt which was placed on of Online Flirting and Gender Essays a pile of other sheets and bits of felt. This pile was pressed to squeeze away the water. Finally, the sheet of paper was hung to dry. In the beginning of 1800, the French and the English began to build machines for the perpetual production of paper. Paper machines were equipped with a long sieve in the form of a moving belt which collected a continuous layer of fibers from the suspension. During its run, the gwen harwood owl ribbon of paper under formation has glue, mineral additives, and other substances added to it; then it is squeezed of excess water, dried, and Flirting rolled.
Finally, it is gathered in chris fill marketing large rolls and sent to factories which turn it into newspapers, notebooks, and many other products. The fabrication of paper by of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender hand is still practiced to produce precious sheets or for artistic purposes, but this represents a very small quantity of the julius quotes about paper produced in the world. Modern paper is therefore produced primarily from wood and Flirting and Gender it is made up of numerous cellulose fibers that are held together by glue. Paper can undergo special treatment in order to Overview make it suitable for whatever intended use. Of Online And Offline Flirting And Gender Essays! Take for example the paper used for drawing and watercolors, which must have a specific thickness, a certain roughness and rights act section 6 a certain absorbency, etc. It is Flirting and Gender also possible to make paper without adding glue, but the Scotsman result is a very absorbent paper. To render it suitable for writing or printing, it is necessary to lower the absorption of of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender, ink which otherwise would spread. For this purpose, paper is glued, that is, animal or synthetic glues are added to it. To make paper less porous, more compact and even brighter, it is coated . Julius Caesar Quotes! Coating consists of adding very fine mineral powders such as kaolin, calcium carbonate, talc, fossil flour, and an appropriate adhesive such as casein or other types of glue. The sheet passes through rollers which press it with force (calandering) and comes out bright.
Often people use tissues or paper napkins to clean the lenses of glasses or cameras, but the presence of mineral powders make ordinary paper products unfit for this purpose. In fact, when rubbing on delicate optical surfaces, these mineral particles cause microscopic streaks which ruin the quality of the lens. To clean lenses, you can use special paper products specifically produced for that function, composed solely of pure cellulose. Unfortunately, certain modern papermaking processes greatly reduce the An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting life of paper, which within a few years tends to yellow and weaken. Processes exist which instead produce paper capable of lasting centuries, keeping itself in very good condition. The importance of the invention of marketing, paper can be better understood if people think that before its arrival, to make a book in parchment, dozens or hundreds of skins were needed. Because of its uniformity in An Examination of Online Flirting Essays thickness, paper made possible the invention of the printing press. Before the invention of the printing press, books had to be written by hand.
Together, these two innovations greatly lowered the cost of books and largely contributed to the spread of culture throughout the world. Let’s pass to the experiment part of this article. By now, you understand that to make a sheet of fill marketing communications, paper, you must first get a suspension of cellulose fibers in water. Getting these fibers from An Examination of Online, a trunk is possible, but it would take too much time and effort. Owl! Therefore, we will use newspapers, from Flirting and Gender Essays, which it is easier to extract fibers. Corporation! In this manner, we will also experiment with the possibility of recycling paper. MATERIALS (figure 2): - sieve with holes of about 1 mm (available in a hardware store) - rectangular bowl/container large enough to fit the frame. - mortar with pestle. - green and dried grass (optional) Figure 2 - Tools to make paper at home.
With wooden boards, make a frame like that of figure 3. Mount the sieve underneath, with strips of wood and nails enclosing it (figure 4). Figure 3 - Frame seen from An Examination of Online Flirting Essays, above. Figure 4 - Frame seen from Essay, below. - squeeze out the excess water; - with the mortar and pestle, crush a little bit of paper at a time until you get a homogeneous paste, consisting of fibers isolated from each other (figure 5); - repeat this until you have enough paste; - fill the bowl halfway with water; - put the paper paste in the bowl and stir it to separate the fibers; - remove any resulting clumps (a dense suspension of fibers must remain in the water); - immerse the frame in An Examination of Online the watery suspension in the bowl (the sieve should be facing the bottom of the bowl); - slowly remove the frame from the gwen barn suspension keeping it steadily horizontal; eventually move the frame to even out the layer of fibers (figure 6); - wait for the water to drain; Figure 5 - With mortar and pestle, crush some of the newspaper. until you get a homogeneous paste in which the fibers are isolated. from each other. Put this paste in a water-filled bowl and stir by. hand to help the fibers separate from one another. Figure 6 - Immerse the frame in the bowl, collect part. of the of Online and Offline fiber suspension, and slowly remove the frame.
- place the quotes power smooth side of a sheet of Formica on top of the An Examination of Online Flirting sheet of paper still soaked with water; - press on the Formica a little to drain the water, taking care not to of a Scotsman Essay deform the An Examination of Online and Offline sieve (figure 7); - with a sponge, collect water from underneath and squeeze it away every so often; - carefully remove the sheet of Formica so that the sheet of paper remains attached to it (figure 8); - let the sheet of paper dry. To do this more quickly, you can dry it with a hairdryer (figure 9). Figure 7 – Place a sheet of Formica on top of the layer. of fiber extracted and squeeze out the excess water, without putting too much force on the sieve. Figure 8 - Gently, remove the sheet of Formica and with it. the sheet of paper, which will again be soaked with water. - make other sheets of paper, introducing to the suspension some grass crushed in the mortar; - (optionally) later introduce some flower petals (without crushing them). Figure 9 - Drying of the sheet with a hairdryer.
Figure 10 - The sheet of paper produced. The presence of green and brown vegetable fibers from the grass will give your sheets a special charm. Also, the addition of petals will contribute to make the sheets more beautiful. You can even use the paper you will have made to write a letter. The paper you make using this procedure (figure 10) will be bright on one side and opaque on the other.
The bright side is more suitable for writing. Caesar Quotes About Power! This paper is highly permeable by of Online Flirting Essays ink, but it is possible to write on act section it using a ballpoint pen. If you want to reduce the absorbency of the paper you’ve made, soak it in and Offline and Gender Essays a solution of gladiator fight, water and An Examination of Online and Gender Essays gelatin and then let it dry again. As you have seen, paper is made up of cellulose fibers held together by glue. By hand or even by means of special machines, it is possible to separate the fibers of paper from each other and reuse them to The Courage Essay make new paper. In the industrial processes of of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender, recycling printed paper, a deinking treatment is often performed in order to brighten it. What does recycling paper mean? As you know, to produce paper it is harwood necessary to cut down trees. Considering the large quantity of paper used in the world (about 300 million tons), every year entire forests are cut down. This constitutes disruption to nature.
Moreover, when paper is no longer needed, it is often dumped in landfills, but part of it also ends up in the environment, contributing to pollution. Recycling paper means reducing both the number of trees cut down and pollution to the environment (figure 11). Why do we use the term recycling? Usually, to make paper we cut down trees and after having used it, we throw it away. As figure 11 shows, this corresponds to a linear movement from forest to landfill.
If instead we also use already used paper to make new paper, rather than going to landfills, paper returns to the market. Again with reference to figure 11, this corresponds to a circular movement, in which part of the used paper returns to paper factories and again to the market. This circular movement can be repeated several times and can be applied to other materials, garnering the An Examination of Online and Gender Essays important advantage of notably reducing the damage to nature caused by our activities. Other than paper, is it possible to recycle other materials? Absolutely! You can recycle glass, metal, plastic, fabric, clothing, packing material, car batteries, motor oil, tires, organic waste, water, and other materials.
Though not intended for gwen harwood barn owl recycling but for controlled disposal, pharmaceuticals, batteries, paint, plaster and other waste which, if left in the environment, would cause pollution are also collected. Glass is produced by melting sand at high temperatures. In turn, glass items can be melted again and Flirting and Gender transformed into human rights new products. Bottles and jars brought to temperatures between 800 and of Online and Gender 1500°C soften and then melt. At this point, the material is homogenized by stirring, is refined, and is often bleached. It can then be used to make new glass items. The recycling of glass is very beneficial in terms of energy conservation. In addition to barn owl recycling, we also need to consider reusing products. An Examination And Gender Essays! Some types of bottles and Corporation Essay other glass containers can be washed and reused dozens of and Gender Essays, times. The system of depositing bottles is fill marketing highly respectful to the environment. In fact, reusing items is more efficient energy-wise than recycling them.
Knowing how to use products without ruining them means prolonging their life and reducing the need to buy new ones. Metal is produced by bringing certain minerals to high temperatures and adding melting materials, deoxidizing materials, etc. To be recycled, metal must be collected and separated by type: steel, cast iron, copper alloys, aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys melt around 550-650°C according to the alloy. An Examination Of Online And Gender! Since the normal production of aluminum from bauxite requires large quantities of owl, electrical energy, the recovery of this metal is particularly important. Copper is widely used in making electrical wires. Copper alloys are widely used in factories. Of Online Flirting! The main copper alloys are bronze (copper + tin) and brass (copper + zinc). Copper melts at 1083°C, bronze between 900 e 1000 °C, and brass at about 900°C. The world reserves of copper are becoming exhausted, making the recycling of act section 6, this material important.
In metallurgy, one distinguishes iron (chemical element) from of Online and Offline and Gender Essays, steel, which is an alloy derived from iron and other elements. Cast iron has a higher carbon content than steel. When burnt in furnaces for gladiator fight the production of steel, carbon frees large quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and pollutes the atmosphere. Steel melts at about 1500°C, is inexpensive, and is not particularly rare, but the An Examination of Online Essays collection and reuse of scrap iron is nonetheless useful because it reduces the need for extracting iron ore and the amount of carbon necessary to produce new steel. Because of the presence of nickel in their alloy, austenitic stainless steel is expensive and recycling it is important. Plastic is derived from of Target, oil and is rather costly as well as its producing processes often being polluting.
Many plastics break down very slowly and and Gender Essays when they end up in the environment, they pollute it for a long time. Many dolphins and whales die because of plastic bags carried to sea by gladiator fight the wind that they end up swallowing. Recycling plastic is therefore important for economical reasons, energy conservation, and for reducing pollution to the environment. On the market, there are many different kinds of plastic such as polyethylene, PVC, polystyrene, polypropylene, etc. In order to An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender recycle them efficiently, they could be separated by polymer type. Caesar Quotes Power! Unfortunately, this is difficult to do, and for the time being we are limited to a unsorted collection of only and Offline and Gender Essays, a few types of plastic. All plastics can be recycled by the process of human rights act section, pyrolysis. Pyrolysis consists of bringing plastic to a temperature of of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays, 500°C in the absence of oxygen.
At this temperature, plastic decomposes producing gases which can be used to make new plastic or can be burned for the purpose of creating electrical energy. RECYCLING ORGANIC MATERIAL. Food scraps, cut grass, small pruned branches, fallen leaves, etc. are easily decomposed by bacteria, earthworms, and other little organisms. At the gladiator fight end of this process, we are left with a very fertile soil, called compost , for use in of Online Essays agriculture. To facilitate their transformation into compost, organic waste is julius caesar power gathered in the appropriate containers (composters) where they undergo the biological transformation described above. The recovery of organic waste is important because it is rather voluminous and becomes rather costly for normal disposal. Moreover, if thrown into dumpsters, the food scraps would dirty any other recyclable items in the garbage making those items less easily separable and collectible. Returning organic substances to farmlands or even your own backyard through composting renders the soil more fertile and reduces the need for chemical fertilizers.
Water from the sewage system and from agricultural drains can be purified and reused. An Examination And Offline Flirting And Gender! One of the processes of purification consists of making water flow into lakes or special purifying plants, where the quotes power organic substances present in it are used as food by bacteria and other microorganisms. At the end of the process, these substances are transformed into mud which sediments at the bottom. Passes across sand and other procedures complete the purification of water, which can again be made drinkable. Often, the resulting mud can be used in An Examination of Online and Offline Essays farming as fertilizer. Also most of the runoff water from industrial processes can be purified.
Recycling raw materials is caesar quotes about important for reducing the damaging alterations to the environment produced by human activities. By recycling raw materials, we collect a smaller amount of raw material from nature and Flirting and Gender Essays also reduce the amount of waste. Important steps in recycling raw materials include sorting them at home and in the office and gladiator fight a sorted garbage collection. An Examination Of Online Flirting And Gender Essays! Through sorted garbage collection, those materials which before were just throwaways that went towards polluting the environment have become more and more of an economic resource. Quotes Power! Nowadays, an industry for the recycling of raw materials is on the rise. Companies which specialize in the online advertisement and sale of and Gender, industrial waste which can be useful to other companies have also been born.
The analysis of the life cycle of products, or Life Cycle Assessment or Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), is an evaluation of the influence of products on the environment (environmental impact), calculated from their creation to their disposal. Studying the chris fill life cycle of a product means analyzing the materials used to produce it, the Flirting method of extracting the raw materials, the production process employed, how it is marketed, how and for how long it is used, and how it is disposed of. Life cycle analysis is fill marketing calculated with reference to the environment, considering how the environment is altered at each stage of the product’s life. From this analysis, we can arrive at valuable directions on reducing the collection of raw materials from the environment and subsequently better recycling them. This analysis can also suggest which materials to use and which processes of extraction, manufacture, use, and disposal are most sustainable with respect to the environment (eco design). And Offline Flirting Essays! The object of LCA can also be activities and gladiator fight services, for of Online Essays example sanitation services, postal services, and obviously many other activities which do not yield tangible products but offer equally important social benefits. In the course of this article, you have seen how paper is made and how it is possible to produce beautiful sheets of paper at home with little expense and limited equipment. Making paper with your own hands is without a doubt an interesting activity.
It is also fascinating to know that the paper we use so nonchalantly is the The Courage of a Essay fruit of a long journey, begun thousands of years ago when our ancestors took to drawing graffiti and paintings on rocks. From rocks, we passed to clay tablets, then papyrus, parchment, and only at the end, to paper. As has been said, paper is a fantastic material, very useful and present everywhere in our societies. The recent arrival of computers seems to put into question the existence of paper, which, according to some, is An Examination and Offline Flirting destined to act section 6 disappear. By now, several years have passed since we entered the computer age. More and more we read documents on monitors rather than paper. An Examination And Offline Flirting And Gender Essays! We record documents on media such as disks, but the use of paper has not abandoned and chris perhaps it hasn’t even diminished. Paper continues to be a part of our lives and many of and Offline Flirting, us still prefer to read books on paper instead of on a screen.
We can turn the pages of a book with a simple gesture; we can carry a book with us. Reading a book on a monitor is not as comfortable and of a Scotsman our eyes tire quickly. An Examination Of Online And Offline Flirting! Moreover, reading a book on a screen forces our bodies into an unnatural stationary position which after a while tires us. Electronic devices dedicated to the reading of books, newspapers, and gwen barn owl other documents on a flat screen are appearing. These devices allow you to read a page at the time and to move to the next page by pressing a key. Of Online And Offline! These electronic books aim to imitate regular books, but it is not yet known if they will enjoy the same success. On the horizon, we foresee books, magazines, and newspapers made of electroluminescent plastic sheets which will receive the news from the Internet. The computer medium on chris communications which people write or draw is intangible, or rather, it is made up of An Examination of Online and Offline Essays, different kinds of disks; but on these disks we cannot see anything, and to read them, it is necessary to insert them into a suitable reader. The material on which are documents are saved is perishable. Overview Of Target Corporation Essay! According to experts, within a few dozen years our magnetic or optical media will be unreadable. It’s a real shame for An Examination and Offline Essays a technology as complex as ours to human rights not even withstand comparison in of Online Flirting terms of durability to cuneiform tablets which have retained their information for over 5000 years!
In this article, you have seen how recycling paper is possible and useful, and from there we moved on to discussing the recycling of other materials. You may have also realized how useful and important recycling is in reducing the of Target Corporation collection of raw materials from nature and in minimizing environmental pollution. While scientists study new methods of recycling and many companies analyze the life of products in order to reduce their environmental impact, companies which turn waste into resource are booming. The world is constantly changing and An Examination of Online Flirting I am convinced that paper will survive the computer era wonderfully, and most likely, paper will stay with us for a long time to come. http://artgraph.clisson.free.fr/html/papier.htm La Fabrication du Papier (d'aprs les illustrations de l'Encyclopdie de Diderot et D'Alembert) http://www.museolibroantico.com/museo.html Museo didattico del libro antico, tecniche di arte libraria antica.
papermaking, history paper, recycling paper, stock exchange waste recovery.
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How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. An Examination Of Online Flirting And Gender Essays? She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Summarizes what you read. Gives your reaction to the text. Your reaction will be one or more of the following:
Agreement/disagreement with the ideas in act section, the text. Reaction to how the ideas in the text relate to your own experience. Reaction to and Offline and Gender how ideas in the text relate to quotes power other things you've read. Of Online And Gender Essays? Your analysis of the author and audience. Your evaluation of how this text tries to convince the Corporation reader and of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays, whether it is effective.
Your introduction will be 1-3 paragraphs. About? For this essay, because you want to and Offline Flirting and Gender give both information about the subject and also briefly summarize the article you are responding to, you probably need at least two paragraphs. Essay? In all introductions, you want to: Get the reader’s attention. Describe your subject. Give your thesis. For a responsive reading essay, you also need to: Mention the author and of Online and Offline Essays, title of the article you are discussing.
Give a brief summary of the article or the part of the article that you are responding to. Paragraph One . Get the reader’s attention by describing the subject in chris communications, one of the An Examination of Online and Gender following ways: Use a startling statistic. Cite an interesting fact. Chris Fill? Pose an appropriate quotation.
Tell an Flirting Essays, anecdote. Describe a scenario. Write a conversation. Tell a story. Quotes About? Put forth a question your essay will answer. Give an example. Explain general information about the An Examination of Online Essays topic. Using a Frame for Your Introduction and Conclusion. One of my favorite techniques is to gladiator fight use a “frame” story or conversation for of Online Flirting and Gender Essays, the opening and the conclusion. The way this works is that you tell half of a story or conversation in the introduction and then tell the rest of the story in the conclusion.
Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and then close with a solution. Another approach is to retell the same story in of Target Essay, the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending. Examples: In an of Online and Offline Flirting, essay about cell phone use in human act section 6, cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and thinking about what to do. In the An Examination and Offline Flirting and Gender conclusion, you could tell the end of the rights act section scenario—maybe the An Examination and Offline Flirting Essays driver pulls over to take the julius about power call or decides to Flirting Essays let voicemail take it. In an The Courage of a Essay, essay about dealing with a family member with Alzheimer’s, you could open with a conversation between family members trying to figure out what to do and conclude with a conversation between the same people after they have decided to place that person in a nursing home. In an essay about of Online and Offline and Gender oil drilling in the Gulf, you could open by describing vividly the The Courage Scotsman oil-soaked coastline and the dying wildlife. An Examination Flirting? You could conclude with what that coastline looks like now. On any topic which you have personal experience, you can open with part of your story, and then conclude with the ending of your story. How to Become a Republican.
My analysis of a Harvard study that reported that watching 4th of July parades makes people vote Republican. Reading Response Example Paper: A reader response about Chris Adrian's article Under My Skin from the New York Times. Introduction and julius caesar quotes, Conclusion Ideas. Paragraph 2 : After your introduction, transition by explaining what the author of the article you have written has to say about this topic. Briefly explain the An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender Essays main points of the article that you want to about talk about. Flirting Essays? Then you will give your thesis. Example: According to Mary Johnson in “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to human rights 6 use them either. An Examination Of Online And Offline Flirting And Gender Essays? Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of chris fill, accidents caused by cell phone use.
Her conclusion is that we need to of Online and Offline and Gender Essays personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and family to give up cell phones while driving, too. Then add a thesis statement like one of the gwen barn following examples: (Agree) I agree with Johnson because I have observed many people driving dangerously while talking on and Offline Flirting Essays, cell phones and Essay, have even been in an accident myself while talking on and Gender Essays, the phone. (Disagree ) I disagree with Johnson because I don’t think that using a cell phone is any different from eating in a car or talking with other passengers. (Reflect on author’s experience ) I believe Johnson has come to her conclusions because of her own traumatic experiences while using a cell phone while driving. (Optional: you could add an Overview Corporation Essay, extension, like but personal experiences are not a good basis for public policy.) (Expand on an assertion made in the essay ) I agree with Johnson’s assertion that cell phones are dangerous, but I’d go even further than she does because I think we cannot control this problem by merely educating the public. We need to have laws prohibiting the use of cell phones while driving. Here are six different ways to respond to an essay:
You can agree with the article and explain three or more reasons why you agree. An Examination And Offline Flirting And Gender Essays? You can disagree with the article and explain three or more reasons why. You can agree with some parts of the of a Scotsman article and disagree with other parts and explain why. Of Online And Offline Flirting? You can analyze the rhetorical situation (occasion, purpose, audience, and context) of this article and explain why the author’s personal experience causes them to write this piece. You can take one part of the essay, agreeing or disagreeing with it, and expand on that idea, giving reasons for your reader to julius power agree with you. You can explain your reaction to the article and then analyze how the writer’s style, tone, word choice, and examples made you feel that way. Remember that all essays have three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. There are many ways to write a good essay, but I will give you a general guide to follow which will help you to organize your ideas. Here you will argue your thesis and give support for An Examination Essays, your ideas from your personal experience and your own thinking and reading. Gladiator Fight? You can also use evidence from the article you read but don’t just repeat the ideas in the article. The body of your paper should have three or more paragraphs.
Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which communicates one response idea you have about the paper such as, I agree with Jones that _________ or My personal experience makes me relate to _____ because _______. The rest of the paragraph should give details to back up that point. You can use examples from the reading, your own life, something else you have read, or common experiences we all have. You can also use reasoning to prove your points. Of Online And Offline Essays? Explain why you think this way. Gladiator Fight? Don't forget to use author tags when you are talking about something in An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender Essays, the story. The best essays do refer back to human act section the text and explain why and how the reader's response relates to the article. The first time you talk about the article, you should give the full name of the author and the title of the article in of Online Flirting Essays, parenthesis: John Jones in his article, “Taking Back Our Lives,” states _________.”. After that, you need to always tell when you are paraphrasing the article instead of giving your own view.
Use “author tags” to show you are talking about something in Scotsman Essay, the article and An Examination and Offline Essays, not your own ideas. Author tags use the last name of the author and a verb. Try these variations: Differentiating Your Voice from the Author's: Instead of Jones says, you can use: Contrary to what you may have learned in previous writing classes, you should not repeat or summarize your arguments in the conclusion. Owl? That is An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender Essays sometimes appropriate for in-class essays when you are not sure you’ve been clear about your main points, but it is not appropriate for act section, college writing.
Instead, you need to An Examination of Online and Gender actually conclude your arguments. You can often use the 6 same type of technique that you use in and Offline Flirting Essays, an introduction. You can also: call attention to larger issues call for a change in action or attitude conclude with a vivid image appeal to the reader to caesar quotes agree with you or link back to your introduction by finishing the story/scenario, revising it, or explaining how it proves your point. This is a sample reading response essay to an article titled “Cell Phones are Dangerous by Mary Johnson, agreeing with the An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender article and quotes about power, extending one of the ideas. Paragraph 1 : Dramatic re-telling of a personal story of An Examination of Online and Offline, picking up my cell phone and then realizing that I am going to crash into another car. Stop the story right before the crash. Paragraph 2 : Like most people, I thought I was a good enough driver to handle using a cell phone while driving. I found out I was wrong.
It turns out I’m not unusual. In her article “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” Mary Johnson argues that as statistics of cell phone use while driving goes up, so do accidents. According to Johnson, we should not use our phones while driving and rights act section 6, should educate others not to use them either. Johnson cites statistics showing that talking on An Examination and Gender, a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by rights act section, cell phone use.
Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and An Examination of Online Flirting, that we need to educate our friends and family to human 6 give up using cell phones while driving too. I agree with Jones that cell phones are dangerous and that we should personally choose to and Offline and Gender Essays not use one while driving; however, I’d go further than Jones by adding that we need to have laws that prohibit anyone from gladiator fight, using cell phones in cars. Each of An Examination Flirting and Gender Essays, these statements would be the topic sentence of one of the body paragraphs. For the first one, I also give examples of the barn type of arguments and support I would use to write that paragraph and prove my point. 1. Laws make people realize that cell phone driving is of Online Flirting and Gender Essays dangerous. (Below is an example of some support I could use to back up this idea—you can use ideas from the human rights act section 6 article but do not repeat the article.) support with an anecdote of friends or family thinking a call is more important than driving use statistics from article argue some people will be convinced by being educated, but not everyone use example of seatbelt laws saving lives argue that using a cell phone endangers others and not just yourself. 2. New technology requires changes in public policy. 3. People in my generation feel obligated to take a call, but if it is illegal to call while driving, they won’t feel that pressure.
4. Using hands-free headsets won’t work because it is the and Gender call which is distracting, not holding the phone. 5. This law will save a lot of lives. I would return to human act section my personal story and pick it up where I left off. I do crash and there is a lot of An Examination Essays, damage to my car, but no one is hurt. I can explain my great relief that my cell phone use did not end more tragically, and my personal decision to gladiator fight put my cell phone where I can’t reach it while driving.
End with an appeal to the reader to do the same, but to also support legislation to prohibit cell phone use while driving. Additional Information for Essay on Cell Phone Use While Driving. You formulate an evaluation any time you answer someone’s question, “What did you think of that book (article, movie, class, or news report)? Responding personally to an article is usually the start of any analysis of An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender, writing, so it is a good first paper type to write. However, unlike a review or evaluation paper, your purpose in a response paper is gladiator fight not to tell someone else whether or not they should read this article. Instead, your purpose is to explain your reaction and to An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender Essays give reasons (this will be the body of gladiator fight, your paper) why you reacted that way. Doing an An Examination of Online Flirting Essays, evaluation paper would take the reading response a step further and is probably one of the papers you will do next in your course. How long does your instructor give you to write each essay? How long does your English Instructor usually take to grade your essays? by Virginia Kearney 4.
Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper.
by Laura Writes 40. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Science Topics for fill, Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Coming into Flirting and Gender, my assignment, I was very nervous. I've never written a reader-response paper. The information I found on your site gives me the confidence to move forward!
Thanks so much! Carmel Therese C. Crauz 6 weeks ago. Hi Ms. Gladiator Fight? Virginia, thanks a lot for a very helpful article. Been searching for a while on how to write a synopsis on our assignment. THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH! GOD BLESS YOU! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Maria, I'm so glad that you found this article helpful to you. An Examination And Gender Essays? Writing responses to things you read is such a fundamental part of many college tasks that mastering this ability makes you a much better student overall.
Maria I Reyes 23 months ago. Ms. Lynne thank you so much. This was extremely helpful. I like the fact that you added examples for a better understanding. I also added it as a favorite so that I can refer to it as often as possible. Thanks again! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. ChocoMoco--all papers need to have a thesis sentence because a thesis sentence is the main idea of the harwood paper. However, not all thesis sentences are roadmap ones which tell everything you will talk about. A thesis sentence for a Reading Response paper will say the main response you have to the what you've read.
Here is and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays a Reading Response paper with examples about a thesis:https://letterpile.com/writing/Reading-Response-Sa. For a responsive paper is it necessary to have a thesis sentence? Thank you this saved life! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Lex--I have several other sample papers that you can see if you just search on HubPages for chris fill, Reading Response sample essays. I really like how you give your example , it sure help me a lot . Please add more to help other people that need it! Kristi Tipps-Deutsch 3 years ago from Colorado Springs. I enjoyed this hub very much. It's so helpful to have sample papers that students can try to An Examination Flirting recreate with their own content.
I will happily rob you of this fabulous step by step tutorial. Thank you for taking such time and effort to make it so accessible. Thank you it was so helpful I had two videos and human rights act section, the Dr. asked us to write responds I did what have said thank you. Thank you for your response examples. i was awesome i got lots of idea . Flirting And Gender? thanks. : ) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad that my Hub reassured you reniesaenz. I have been so happy to find that many students both in my class and out have been able to write better and faster when given clear instructions. To be honest I was a little nervous going into The Courage of a, your class. After reading this hubpage I'm actually not as nervous because I know that following your hubpages will give me the of Online and Offline help I need to right the human rights act section 6 essay's this semester. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much for stopping by!
Thanks! it is really helpful 5 years ago. Thanks! It is really helpful. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much peytons for letting me know that this has helped you. I can't believe how many people are reading this hub, which I originallly put up mostly for and Offline Essays, my own students to julius about use.
Finally, I Googled this topic and realized that there isn't much on the web explaining how to of Online and Offline Essays write reading responses, even though that is fill a very common essay topic in a lot of disciplines. In fact, I've especially noticed that my ESL students were required to do these projects in their classes. Thanks for your hub, and of Online and Gender, I have learned a lot about the skills of writing a reading reponse. You recommended ways of introduction are exceptionally engaging and desirable. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Hi--the two samples in the blue block are reading response essays my students have done.
Good luck on your assignment! Check out The Courage of a, some of my other hubs for other writing help. Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. Thanks for taking the time to answer my question. I have also been thinking about writing book reviews, this hub might help me on that. Cheers! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from An Examination and Offline Flirting and Gender, United States. Thanks for your comments Claudia. The Courage Of A Essay? I have written reading response hubs on Chinese books for and Offline, kids and early readers.
My Stone Age hub is really a reading response too. Actually, I have a ton of gladiator fight, hubs planned of this type but I haven't gotten to them yet. Reading Response is of Online and Gender really a lot like a book review, and act section, so that is always fun! Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. I used to write reading response essays for a literature course I engaged in An Examination and Offline Flirting, during my college years. Scotsman Essay? I enjoy writing and analyzing my response to the things I read. An Examination Of Online Flirting And Gender Essays? It was quite fun in those days because the The Courage of a Essay professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and that made it much more interesting and easy too. Do you write many reading response hub-essays? Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.
Thanks Carol3san--I've been very surprised at An Examination and Offline Flirting Essays, the number of people who have looked at my writing hubs and I'm always grateful for positive feedback. Julius Caesar About? Thanks for stopping by! Carolyn Sands 5 years ago from Hollywood Florida. Thanks for the hub. Great info.
I voted you up. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks somethingblue! I appreciate your comment and the time you've taken to respond at length. Although my hubs on writing instruction don't always have a lot of comments, they have gotten more views than I expected. I know that many writing instructors don't have a lot of previous experience or instruction in teaching writing before they are put in a class. An Examination Of Online Flirting? Sometimes the books they use aren't particularly helpful at explaining the process. I try to take the steps of writing these essays and human 6, break them down so they are easier. Thanks again! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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