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Nov 17, 2017 Madame matise,
L#8217;essai litteraire, devant le temps. Matise. Le style de verite accessible a l#8217;essai est perceptible dans son mode de circulation, les souvenirs que l#8217;on en garde, la facon dont on of fallacies le resume, bref, l#8217;usage que l#8217;on en fait. Madame. Ce memorable de l#8217;essai tient a une pratique generalisee de la citation ; les essayistes partent de formes « citables », comme d#8217;autant de pensees heritees et de savoirs doxaux ou paradoxaux qu#8217;ils exploitent, developpent ou fragilisent ; et ils en produisent a leur tour, offrant non pas des modeles applicables mais des cas remobilisables, des pensees desormais disponibles. Agricultural In Europe. Cette disponibilite identifie une pratique intellectuelle, les objets qu#8217;elle fait naitre (cette forme sensible que prennent dans un essai les operations de l#8217;esprit), un rythme propre a toute individualite pensante, bref une facon qu#8217;a la prose d#8217;idees de se situer devant le temps . Madame. Elle explique aussi la colere suscitee dans le monde du savoir contemporain par un genre profondement temporel, c#8217;est-a-dire rythme, situe, mais aussi precaire et soupconnable a cet egard d#8217;anachronisme. What Nurse Essay. Lo stile di verita accessibile al saggio e percettibile nel modo in madame matise, cui il testo circola, nei ricordi che ne abbiamo, nella maniera in Essay Defense, cui ne facciamo riassunto, cioe nell#8217;uso che possiamo averne. Madame Matise. Questo aspetto #8220;memorabile#8221; del saggio e legato ad una prattica generalizzata della citazione. Agricultural. I saggisti partono di forme #8220;citabili#8221;, pensieri ereditati, saperi comuni o paradossali che loro mettono a prova, sviluppano, o fragilizzano; e ne producono a sua volta, non per madame matise, offrire modelli da applicare, ma casi da mobilizzare, pensieri ormai disponibili. Questa disponibilita definisce una pratica intellettuale, gli oggetti che essa fa nascere (questa forma sensibile che prendono nel saggio le operazioni mentali), un ritmo legato ad ogni individualita nell#8217;atto di pensare, un modo di porsi davanti al tempo . Suicide. Spiega anche l#8217;irritazione suscitata nel mondo del sapere moderno da questo genere profondamente temporale, con il suo ritmo singolare, la sua situazione culturale, ma anche la sua precarieta e, di conseguenza, il sospetto di anacronismo che lo accompagna. Matise. 1 Adorno rapporte dans un celebre texte consacre a la forme de l’essai1 la colere suscitee dans le monde de la recherche ou du savoir par la legerete de ce genre, son vague, sa desinvolture, ou encore sa mondanite. Analysis As:. Cette colere, ou cette deception savante, est nourrie par la difficulte des essayistes a repondre a ce que Barthes aurait considere comme une question mechante : quel est le savoir propre a l’essai, que nous apprend-il, que dit-il qui ne se dirait pas ailleurs ? Cette question est a prendre au serieux, car on madame matise ne doit pas supposer une sorte d’intelligence intrinseque a l’essai, et c’est la un des principaux ecueils des reflexions qui lui sont consacres.
Quel est donc le savoir, ou plutot, et je m’expliquerai sur cette expression, le style de verite accessible a l’essai ? Il est utile, pour repondre a cette question, de s’interesser aux querelles qu’il engendre2, revelatrices de la colere decrite par Adorno. Horizontal Analysis Is Also. De Benda a Bourdieu ou a Sokal, l’irritation s’est significativement accentuee, dans un siecle ou l’essai, largement reinstitue dans l’espace litteraire francais3 designe une veritable situation dans la culture. Madame. Cette situation doit etre decrite en termes agoniques ; elle tient a une concurrence nouvelle entre sciences et litterature, concurrence aux armes diversement distribuees mais constamment affirmee au long du siecle ; car on Suicide Essay ecrit un essai contre une position savante, et cette concurrence definit une periode homogene qui va, grossierement, de Peguy a Barthes. Madame. Si les disciplines se sont longtemps cherche des territoires, la periode contemporaine est en revanche marquee par une querelle de propriete ; l’affirmation des sciences de l’homme a ete percue comme la confiscation d’un ensemble de domaines jusqu’ici reserves a la litterature : dans un espace litteraire autonomise, le rapport du style et de la connaissance est de plus en plus difficile, un sentiment d’incompatibilite entre ecriture et savoir s’est impose, et un risque d’obsolescence a marque l’evolution de la prose d’idees depuis la fin du xix e siecle. Agricultural. 2 La replique des essayistes modernes a consiste en l’affirmation d’un style de pensee propre a la tradition litteraire francaise, et a l’illustration de l’essai comme chef-d’?uvre de son histoire. Madame Matise. L’essai incarnait une tentative de reconquete du territoire de la reflexion, une reponse specifiquement litteraire a de nouvelles « inquietudes » intellectuelles (le mot est omnipresent dans le premier tiers du siecle), et le maintien de la litterature dans la construction des idees partageables qui font l’assise d’une culture. La reponse systematiquement faite aux sommations de la science, en particulier au xx e siecle celles des sciences humaines, tient en effet a l’affirmation d’une singularite de la pratique de la « pensee », mot pascalien, bergsonien, mot d’allure litteraire ; une pensee qui ne serait justement pas un savoir, une pratique intellectuelle decrochee de ses implications epistemologiques. Agricultural. Comment la definir ? Je crois qu’il faut, pour le faire, se tourner vers la question des usages . Madame Matise. Car la forme que prend cette pensee sans savoir est perceptible dans le mode de circulation, les souvenirs que l’on garde d’un essai, ce que l’on en retient, ce que l’on en cite, la facon dont on of fallacies le resume, bref, la facon dont on matise s’en sert. When Buy Pixar. Le genre de l’essai trouve dans ces usages une identite qui tient a la fois, on madame matise va le voir, a une pratique intellectuelle (un geste, une directionnalite), a une certaine realite mentale (la forme concrete, la forme sensible que prend dans un essai une operation de l’esprit et les objets qu’elle fait naitre), a un rythme ou un phrase propres a toute individualite pensante, bref a une facon de se tenir devant le temps. Horizontal Analysis Is Also Known As:. 3 Partons d’une citation un peu enigmatique de Walter Benjamin, qui dispose face a face quelque chose comme deux personnalites mentales, deux facons d’user de ce qui est offert a notre experience intellectuelle, existentielle et sensible : « Certains rendent les choses transmissibles (tels les collectionneurs, natures conservatrices), d’autres rendent les situations exploitables, et pour ainsi dire citables : ce sont les caracteres destructifs » 4 . Matise. Il me semble en effet que les essayistes travaillent essentiellement avec du « citable », avec de bons exemples, en termes plus temporels avec du « memorable », ou encore avec des « lieux communs », (en bonne part, si l’on songe avec Paulhan aux qualites de l’invention rhetorique ; ou en mauvaise part, puisqu’il peut y avoir aussi une betise, ou du moins une paresse, et pas seulement une elegance de l’essai) autrement dit avec ce que l’on peut appeler, en empruntant cette expression a Roland Barthes, des « idees – phrases », : « J’avais la tete pleine de Nietzsche , que je venais de lire ; mais ce que je desirais, ce que je voulais capter, c’etait un chant – d’idees-phrases : l’influence etait purement prosodique » 5 . Abuse. 4 C’est sans doute cela que l’on retient d’un essai, ce que l’on y cherche, et la facon dont on matise s’en sert une fois le livre referme. Horizontal Known As:. Les essayistes partent de ces formes citables, comme d'autant de pensees heritees et de savoirs partages qu'ils exploitent, qu’ils developpent, qu’ils regenerent, mais aussi, plus souvent (et il faut ici donner tout son echo au « caractere destructif » de Benjamin) qu’ils fragilisent ou qu'ils mettent en derive ; car ces « idees-phrases », liaisons indissolubles d’un sujet et d’un objet, ont ete vecues comme irreductibles aux disciplines constituees.
Et les auteurs en produisent a leur tour, offrant non pas des modeles applicables mais justement des cas remobilisables, des situations rehabitables ; la prose d'essais se definirait en cela, pour reprendre une expression de Pascal au sujet de Montaigne, Pascal qui defendait Montaigne contre Malebranche, comme ce « qui demeure le plus dans la memoire et qui se fait le mieux citer » 6 . Madame Matise. 5 L’essai importe autant que le roman a nos vies, a nos affects et a nos conduites ; pourtant on example of fallacies ne lit pas un essai comme on madame lit un roman ; l’emportement, la projection, l’immersion meme peuvent etre aussi intenses, si l’on a le gout des idees, mais l’attitude du lecteur differe ; on domestic abuse lit volontiers un essai un crayon a la main, on madame souligne, on abuse movies extrait, bien plus que dans un roman – car la fiction peut meduser. Matise. Les bons exemples, ces combles d’images ou ces paradoxes produits par l’essai ont pour point commun d’etre decoupables, extraits du flux du texte pour constituer celui de la culture collective. Revolution. Il s’agit, comme disait Barthes, de « lire en levant la tete », dans une lecture « a la fois irrespectueuse, puisqu’elle coupe le texte, et eprise, puisqu’elle y revient et s’en nourrit »7. Madame. Le texte est rythme par la cristallisation de ces idees-phrases, appele a etre lu par re-prelevement de formules ; il suscite un comportement utilitariste et predateur, produit des idees qui nous seront desormais utiles, comme de nouvelles cases mentales, ou pour le dire plus souplement, comme de nouvelles dispositions ; le maitre-mot ici, sera en effet celui de disponibilite . Example. 6 Si le lecteur souligne le texte, c’est que ce texte est lui-meme ecrit pour etre souligne ; il identifie ses propres moments de densification, de cristallisation au present de ce qui sera memorable. Barthes precisait qu’il avait des pensees « a meme la langue » ; Sartre, plus explicite encore, interroge sur la facon dont naissaient ses idees, repondait : « Mes idees naissent comme des phrases a ecrire »8, expliquant l’importance du style formulaire dans la dynamique de sa reflexion, precisant meme que l’ecriture philosophique relevait chez lui de l’expulsion d’un trop plein de pensees : il s’agit de se debarrasser d’idees concues comme des boursouflures ou, plus vilainement encore, comme des « hernies » avant qu’elles ne gatent ses projets proprement litteraires ; Sartre s’est d’ailleurs souvent tourmente au sujet de son talent formulaire, regrettant par exemple que la doctrine de l’existentialisme ait ete reduite par ses lecteurs a l’une des dernieres phrases, memorables par excellence, de L’Etre et le neant : « l’homme est une passion inutile » ; elle avait justement quelque chose de trop memorable, c’est-a-dire de trop bien incarne. Madame Matise. 7 L’occurrence du citable, c’est en effet le temps de la cristallisation, de la production au present de ce qui sera memorable ; comme si l’essai creait a la fois l’evenement de pensee et son stockage, puisque le lecteur pourra s’approprier dans sa globalite, dans sa cohesion, cette bonne image, comme ce detail commente par Barthes, qui parle de l’importance de faire entrer un concret sensible dans ce qu’il appelait le « murmure de l’intellect » ; le profit qu’il designe est, tout a fait clairement, un profit de prelevement, de citation, une disponibilite intellectuelle gagnee sur la fatigue : « Ne suffit-il pas de faire passer dans le discours critique un “rond bleuatre de fumee” pour vous donner le courage, tout simplement… de le recopier ? »9. Richard Trenton. Cette logique d’appropriation est evidemment nee avec Montaigne, dont l’ecriture etait faite d’arrachements feconds, d’anachronismes necessaires, et dont les Essais presentaient a leur tour une disponibilite hermeneutique telle qu’ils ont ete l’objet de nombreuses operations de chirurgie editoriale. Matise. 8 La citation des phrases d’autrui, dont tout essayiste a le gout, designe cette sollicitation des pensees « bonnes pour ecrire » comme disait Valery. A Registered. Une meme sensibilite aux phrases associe d’ailleurs pour quelqu’un comme Barthes les reussites du roman et celles de l’essai. Matise. « Maquette de phrase » ou « maquette du raisonnement »10, l’enonce essayiste a sa propre brillance et sa propre force de veridiction.
Car aux yeux de Barthes la forme prouve, particulierement lorsqu’elle est breve, qu’elle frappe une idee en maxime et qu’elle fonctionne, par consequent, comme « un inducteur de verite »11. Horizontal Analysis Known. La concretion de la pensee dans la langue est ce qui promet de faire durer ces pensees : « Ce que la memoire doit preserver, ce n’est pas la chose, c’est son retour, car ce retour a deja quelque chose d’une forme – d’une phrase »12. Matise. La litterature, souligne un Barthes qui decide en cela de l’echelle de style accessible a l’essai, est l’ordre des Phrases ; chaque phrase est un « depot de la litterature » et lui promet son avenir, « comme si la Notatio (le fait de noter) permettait de se souvenir sur-le-champ »13. What To Be A Registered Essay. Voila redefinies, comme bonheur d’ecriture et inscription dans le temps de la culture, la fabrique topique qui est au c?ur de l’essai, cette facon qu’ont les essayistes de vivre leur culture comme une memoire. Madame. 9 En effet on revolution ne garde pas le meme souvenir, on matise ne remobilise pas de la meme facon un essai et un roman, qui ne se rendent pas disponibles, justement, sous des formes identiques. Richard Trenton. Lorsque Julien Gracq cite ce qui lui reste de La Chartreuse de Parme , il enumere quelques scenes de hauteur, qui seraient des concentres de romanesque ou des provocations au desir, et medite sur le processus de simplification, de recomposition, de reequilibrage qu’entraine le travail de la memoire : « Il faudrait comparer entre eux les souvenirs que gardent a distance d’une meme ?uvre des lecteurs exerces et de bonne foi, leur faire raconter de memoire a leur idee le livre – ou plutot ce qu’il en reste, toute reference au texte omise – noter la recurrence plus ou moins reguliere du naufrage de pans entiers qui ont sombre dans le souvenir, de point d’ignition au contraire qui continuent a l’irradier, et a la lumiere desquels l’ouvrage se recompose tout autrement »14.
10 Soumis a cette epreuve du souvenir, un essai (d’ailleurs difficilement resumable, a la difference d’un assemblage clairement assertif de theses) offrirait sans doute autant d’evenements ou de passions qu’un roman, mais sous une autre forme, celle de discours migrateurs, de precipites d’idees, d’images frappantes, de formules exemplaires, transformation des donnees de la culture frappees en arguments et desormais citables : du Degre zero de l’ecriture il nous reste au moins « l’ecriture blanche » ; et de La Trahison des clercs , peut-etre juste un titre, mais qui tient a lui seul un discours sur l’Histoire ; de La Chambre claire , quelques mots, sous la forme de la cartographie d’une idee ( studium et punctum ) et surtout un scenario « vaguement proustien », comme disait Michel Charles, qui culmine sur un bon exemple dont tout le monde de souvient, la photographie du Jardin d’hiver. Matise. Tout essai reussi met en circulation dans le temps des enonces qui valent le general et comblent une idee, et que leurs derives successives convertissent en formes doxales ou paradoxales, autrement dit des topiques. Suicide. De l’amitie , De l’amour , L’Etre et le neant , nous offrent tous ces ressources : au chapitre de l’amitie, chacun pourra remobiliser cette formule « Parce que c’etait lui, parce que c’etait moi » ; sur le theme du coup de foudre, un rameau dans les mines de sel de Salzbourg ; au sujet de la mauvaise foi, il suffit de rappeler un garcon de cafe pour s’entendre sur une idee partagee et sur un tableau sensible. Madame. Le « traitre » de Peguy, « l’horloge » de Bergson, la « depense » de Bataille : autant de concretions memorables de savoir et de style emboites l’un dans l’autre que le lecteur souligne, et qui pourront desormais lui servir d’agents de liaison ou de raccourcis de pensee. Richard Trenton. C’est ce que Judith Schlanger15, meditant sur l’invention conceptuelle ou la nouveaute intellectuelle, a decrit comme une « reserve de diction » : une idee neuve, c’est non seulement un acces, une voie pour la reflexion, mais c’est aussi, et pour cela meme, ce qui permet de parler autrement. Madame. A ce titre, l’invention de pensee participe directement de la « memoire des ?uvres ». 11 La mesure de l’essai, au moins dans son destin moderne, serait alors dans ce mouvement ou le discours ne se fixe ni dans la singularite evenementielle propre au recit, ni dans la concatenation d’abstraits propre au traite, mais dans un ordre median, qui est dans le mouvement de la generalisation, du mouvement vers le general d’idees qui doivent porter un peu plus qu’elles-memes, un peu plus que ce qu’elles sont ; un ordre situe entre le general et le particulier qui est celui des bons exemples, echantillons ou paradigmes, que la rhetorique pensait autrefois via les methodes et les valeurs de la Topique, via la question des lieux communs16. Domestic Movies. 12 A partir des annees 1910 tout essai apparait a la limite comme un art rhetorique idiosyncrasique, une « composition de lieu » originale, une methode de discours qui n’aura marche qu’une fois, une science de l’objet unique comme le souhaitera Barthes. Madame. Cela a ete une obsession de l’epoque que de definir les figures de savoir et les modalites mentales d’invention de la pensee pour remplacer un art oublie, ou passe a la betise de la mecanique ou de la repetition – la rhetorique flaubertisee, si l’on veut. Essay On In Defense Of Abortion. Chaque essayiste reinvente, interiorise, intimise, l’antique methode des lieux communs sur laquelle s’appuyait aussi la fonction rhetorique de la memoria : les dissociations de Remy de Gourmont, les recroisements ou les connexites de Peguy, le germe de Valery, ce qui fait se rejoindre Breton et Gracq autour de la question hegelienne de la cristallisation… On peut regarder toutes ces figures comme autant de deplacements et de reinventions radicales de la topique, retournee comme un gant, le nom d’une methode ou, pour le dire avec les mots de Blanchot, « la rhetorique devenue matiere ». Madame. 13 Forger un lieu commun, ce peut etre en effet simplement donner un bon representant, une image si bien frappee qu’elle donne le sentiment de la necessite, cette experience apodictique du vrai que Barthe definit par cette formule qui revient sans cesse dans les dernieres annees : « C’est ca, c’est exactement ca ! ». Analysis Is Also As:. Lorsque Paulhan cite un ecriteau du Jardin public de Tarbes, qu’il l’extrait de son lieu d’origine (ou l’invente) pour voir en lui « toute la litterature »17, c’est la formulation d’une idee autonome, qui est entree comme telle en circulation dans la critique et dans la culture francaise.
Avec cet incipit des Fleurs de Tarbes , Paulhan n’a pas exactement produit un savoir , qui eut ete autrement formulable (son essai d’ailleurs tres difficile ne produit pas de these, ne fixe pas de formule conclusive, compliquant constamment ses conclusions, et arretant brusquement le mouvement de la pensee, on madame matise s’en souvient, par cette sorte de desertion finale : « Mettons enfin que je n’aie rien dit »), mais il cree une figure, transportable, ouverte a l’appropriation. Of Fallacies. 14 La creation d’une telle « situation » (c’etait le mot de Benjamin et evidemment aussi celui de Sartre), la production d’une situation de pensee dans l’essai rend precisement la regle, la loi ou la verite dont on madame a l’intuition inseparable de son incarnation, elle fait du concret la metonymie du vrai (allegorisation sensible et generalisee de la pensee, dirait peut-etre Michel Deguy) : il ne s’agit pas d’une loi applicable, mais d’un cas memorable. On In Defense Of Abortion. Le Jardin de Paulhan ne peut pas etre universalise ; s’il represente toute la litterature, et dans la litterature la dialectique moderne de terreur et de rhetorique qui en fait aux yeux de Paulhan le moteur (puisque c’est cette idee qui a trouve son nom avec Les Fleurs de Tarbes ), c’est pour cette fois seulement. Madame Matise. Mais si le savoir de l’essai ne vaut qu’une fois du point de vue de la theorie, en revanche il fait date dans l’ordre de la culture, il acquiert un statut d’evenement, a la fois plus incarne et plus disponible – reexploitable, habitable a la maniere d’une petite scene mentale – qu’un concept. When. L’exemple de Paulhan est en effet si bien choisi qu’il a fini par constituer le nom propre d’un probleme, associant durablement deux idees, terreur et rhetorique, et donnant a cette association un visage concret, sensible (rappelons qu’Aristote definissait l’exemple comme le « corps de la preuve »), le visage d’un jardin. Matise. Le bon exemple, c’est cette image qui survit en nous comme une verite, a la maniere d’une verite, avec le meme type de disponibilite, et avec la meme personnalite stylistique. Richard Trenton. Cette personnalite stylistique et cette ouverture a la circulation me semblent definir avec justesse les objets et surtout les pratiques propres a la prose pensante, car elles les definissent dans le temps. Madame Matise. 15 Ce genre d’objets intellectuels scande en effet le tempo de l’essai. What Nurse Essay. Ils scandent d’abord son rythme – les vitesses de sa prose, c’est la question qui a tant preoccupe Bergson et Sartre. Madame Matise. « Toutes les phrases de la prose, explique Sartre dans L’Idiot de la famille , ont des vitesses : on domestic abuse movies passe a l’imaginaire des qu’on se prete au mouvement »18.
Une certaine cadence est en effet necessaire a l’essai : comme un cycliste, l’essayiste tombe s’il n’atteint pas une certaine vitesse – je parlerais en effet de vitesse, plutot que de brievete ou de fragmentation. D’ou ces alternances, comme on madame en trouve chez Peguy, entre le temps long de la speculation, des variations, des tatonnements, et le moment de la cristallisation stylistique et conceptuelle que j’ai essaye d’identifier, ces bouffees discontinues, ces bifurcations, ces changements de potentiel entre affirmations (souvent excessives, comme la prose constamment conclusive de Sartre) et errances (a la facon du « romanesque » barthesien de l’idee, en recul a l’egard de la necessite d’asserter), entre coups de force et patience, qui sont aussi des facons de prendre ses distances par rapport a la conduite du discours serieux. Example. Exemplaire de l’ethos agile de l’essayiste, Valery Larbaud se representait le Dr Johnson comme un ecrivain sans rythme, sans marche, « la pensee tout alourdie d’eloquence »19. Matise. De meme dans un dialogue qu’il imaginait en 1935 entre le sociologue et l’essayiste, Ramon Fernandez definissait l’essayiste – sa prose et sa pensee – par ce besoin de rythme et par la colere que la vitesse fait naitre ; il fait donc parler le sociologue contre l’essayiste : « Passe encore pour le poete, qui produit de la beaute, passe encore pour le romancier, qui nous divertit, mais l’essayiste nous irrite. It Takes To Be A Registered Nurse Essay. Qu’est-ce que cet homme qui d’un coup de reins bondit aux conclusions20 ? ». Matise. 16 L’essai apparait a ce titre comme un genre presse, ou plutot infidele, toujours pret a repondre aux sollicitations du monde, aux occasions de l’experience, un individu dont la pensee » se tiendrait, a la maniere stendhalienne qui seduisait tant Sartre et Barthes, dans le champ du bonheur ; c’est ce qu’a suggere Francoise Gaillard en mettant l’accent sur cette etonnante declaration d’Adorno : l’essayiste « se plaint en silence de ce que la verite a trahi le bonheur »21. L’ecrivain d’idees escamote vitalement le long passage qui devrait aller de l’intuition, c’est-a-dire de la naissance de l’idee, a sa demonstration ; on richard trenton trouve sans cesse dans l’essai des remises a plus tard d’un developpements, des procrastinations (songeons a tous les « projets » de Barthes), la multiplication d’amorces, une eternelle inchoativite, une hardiesse du propos, une pratique de l’allusion ; cette vitesse peut avoir, du point de vue d’une responsabilite du discours, son envers : un degagement a l’egard de l’assertion, le refus de considerer que ce que l’on dit vous soit tout a fait imputable. Matise. Autant de traits qui accelerent le tempo du texte, mais aussi qui le situent, car ils presentent sa relation a la science en termes d’impertinence et d’accelerations, dans un savoir fait de reseaux d’associations, de montages mobiles, d’insuffisances declarees. Example. 17 Cette vitesse vient aussi evidemment du raccourci fourni par les citations , qui sont ce qui circule le mieux de l’ecriture a la lecture d’un essai – citations de premiere, de deuxieme, de troisieme main… ; les citations sont des foyers de sens, des condenses de signification qui abregent le parcours entre la pensee et les choses ou entre la pensee et les references.
La citation est, pour l’avenir d’une pensee, ce qui permettra desormais d’aller plus vite, temps de l’opportunite et de la saisie22. Madame. Elle renferme dans l’essai une veritable puissance energetique, qui en accelere le debit. Richard Trenton. C’est pourquoi l’essayiste, comme Proust ou comme Gide, cite de memoire, donne rarement des notes, cite parfois mal ; car il a sa bibliotheque dans ses poches, ses ecrivains preferes et ses pensees de derriere la tete ; la paresse de l’essayiste a citer toujours la meme chose, qui met en colere ou rejouit, fait aussi de lui le representant ideal, dans la culture, des situations a memoire qui rendent celle-ci transmissible ; c’est le meilleur exemple d’une bibliotheque interiorisee. 18 En effet, cette dynamique du citable decide aussi de l’inscription de l’essai dans une temporalite culturelle qui l’englobe et le depasse. Madame. La memoire sedimentee et mobile d’idees que l’essayiste releve, preleve, destabilise, il s’agit pour lui d’en brasser la valeur, de changer ses centrages, et cette sorte de « gestion » (si l’on veut bien accepter ce mot) de la memoire culturelle est l’une des affaires essentielle des essayistes, en cela hyper-lecteurs plus encore qu’ecrivains. Essay On In Defense Of Abortion. Cette circulation des topiques est une forme singuliere de temporalisation du vrai, sur le temps long d’une culture commune, de ce que Patrick Mauries appelle « l’assise de [nos] idees »23, precisement construite par l’enchainement des essais : dans les figures de l’essai se depose une duree ; c’est toute la question de l’integration des objets de pensee a la chaine temporelle. Madame Matise. Chaque nouvel essai fera-t-il la difference dans l’ordre de la culture, sera-t-il un evenement ou une reiteration ? Les transformations sont rares, et l’essai reste a la mesure de l’essayiste. To Be A Registered Nurse Essay. Pour un genre non narratif, cette production topique est en tout cas une veritable mise en intrigue de la pensee, son romanesque propre.
19 Ces figures que j’ai rapidement esquissees (le souvenir, la reconnaissance du vrai dans sa forme d’evidence, la vitesse, le tempo culturel…), toutes ces qualites qui me semblent propres a la prose de l’essai, constituent une reponse a l’injonction formulee entre autres par Bergson pour la philosophie du XXe siecle, mais qui avait une portee sans aucun doute plus large, celle de trouver une ecriture de la pensee qui n’escamote pas les effets de la duree. Matise. L’essai est en effet profondement temporel, c’est-a-dire a la fois situe (dans un repertoire de topiques propres a une communaute culturelle), precaire (dans l’ordre de la methode ou de l’autorite), et rythme. It Takes To Be A Registered. 20 Plus pres de nous, j’en trouve un tres bel exemple dans un essai recent de Pierre Pachet dont on matise comprendra vite la solidarite avec ce qui vient d’etre developpe ; cet essai s’intitule « Avoir des idees »24, il decrit ou plutot raconte l’evenement que constituent pour un individu, dans son propre temps et dans son propre corps, la naissance, la croissance, et le fait de porter au public une idee. Nous suivons sous sa plume le cheminement de la pensee a l’interieur du sujet, la vie de cette pensee qui se poursuit en lui et hors de lui. Assisted Suicide. L’evenement de l’idee, enleve de ce point de vue sur un fond necessaire d’ennui ou d’attente, c’est-a-dire dans le temps, est une emotion ; la sensation des idees surgissantes, des idees possibles, change a elle seule « la tonalite du sentiment d’etre ». Matise. Decrite, a sa naissance, comme une « bouffee d’excitation », l’idee doit etre protegee, explique Pierre Pachet qui souligne la fragilite de « ce petit evenement mental sans lequel rien n’est possible, parce qu’il donne acces aux choses, aux choses de l’esprit comme aux choses du monde, un acces nouveau, interessant, qui fait battre le c?ur et donne de l’appetit »25. Essay. Maintenue dans son instabilite, associee a la chance et a l’ouverture de celui en qui elle se produit, l’idee penetre le mouvement de la vie interieure ; le vecu de l’essayiste est aussi sa pensee, non pas l’intelligence ivre d’elle-meme, mais ce va-et-vient fluide, souple, exemplaire, cette absence de partage entre l’experience enigmatiquement vecue et sa ressaisie litteraire. Madame Matise. 21 Pierre Pachet ouvre d’ailleurs son essai sur cette declaration simple et forte : « La litterature est pour moi liee aux idees, a la capacite d’avoir des idees, et non au langage, a la langue. Horizontal Known. Je le dis sans chercher a contredire l’opinion recue, sans la craindre non plus »26. Matise. La possibilite de l’essai suppose en effet une certaine representation de la litterature, la conviction que la pratique de la litterature a a voir avec une vie de la pensee, avec le fait d’avoir des idees. Horizontal Analysis. C’est cette confusion desirable, precisement, entre la litterature et l’exercice de la pensee qui a sous-tendu l’institution de l’essai comme genre au XXe siecle.
L’essai n’est pas ne au XXe siecle, mais une urgence nouvelle l’a attire au centre de l’espace litteraire, les ecritures de savoir affermissant une limite devant laquelle la litterature a du de plus en plus se definir ; de ce point de vue, il convient moins de se demander ce qu’a du devenir l’essai pour etre integre au c?ur de la litterature, comme s’il en avait jamais ete exclu, que de se demander ce qu’est devenue la litterature pour qu’il soit signifiant qu’elle compte l’essai parmi ses formes. Un soupcon d’anachronisme persiste depuis le debut du XXe siecle, comme si les ?uvres d’idees etaient desormais condamnees a courir derriere des disciplines savantes avec lesquelles elles ne partagent meme plus de frontiere. Madame Matise. 22 A un moment de son histoire, l’essai a constitue un foyer autour duquel a pu graviter la representation de la situation culturelle de la litterature, de sa modernite et de ses pouvoirs, en particulier de sa mise en concurrence avec les discours savants. Richard Trenton. L’importance que prend dans l’essai la question du temps constituerait deja une reponse au probleme historique de sa reinvention, faite de declarations filiales et d’oublis arrangeants (l’essai est une forme heritee, heritee de Montaigne evidemment, un genre ne a son sommet, une forme dont la paternite importe, et se pense en termes de fidelite ou d’arrachements) et a ce soupcon de contretemps ou de retard constitutif de la pensee litteraire. Madame Matise. Le souci de se placer dans le temps, le brassage continuel de la memoire litteraire, la redefinition de l’ancien par le nouveau, la vie des idees dans le milieu de la langue, la foi en une singularite du style d’idees identifient un moment a la fois triomphant et precaire de la prose francaise. Movies. De Peguy a Bataille, de Gourmont a Barthes, les ecrivains ont maintenu un equilibre fragile, que Gracq appelait « l’engagement de la pensee dans la forme » - « aussi assurement Nietzsche appartient a la litterature, aussi assurement Kant ne lui appartient pas »27, ajoutait-il pour clarifier l’evidence de cette superposition.
23 J’ai essaye de requalifier la legerete, la desinvolture, ou le vague, par lesquels j’ai ouvert ce bref parcours, en accentuant le besoin que recouvre l’essai de la reconnaissance, a cote des disciplines sans doute, d’une dimension sensible et presque sentimentale de la pensee. Madame. Au c?ur de l’essai, la culture devient une reserve existentielle, un reseau intime et partageable de citations que l’on s’est incorporees, et qui peut tenir lieu de vie. Abuse Movies. La force d’un je rendu disponible, ou le lecteur peut se glisser, explique la dynamique du citable dans l’essai, car les idees y sont a la fois singularisees et profondement reenoncables28. Madame. Un « style de verite », disais-je plus haut : il y a en effet, dans la prose d’idee comme dans la demarche, les conduites, les attitudes, une certaine facon d’aller, d’accueillir ce qui vient, de se tenir devant les choses et dans le temps, un phrase singulier qui definit l’individualite d’une personne, ce qu’elle a en propre, une dimension existentielle absolument inalienable qui renvoie a un travail perpetuel de « stylisation de soi »29, ou l’on trouve en meme temps que l’on invente, ou l’on se trouve en meme temps que l’on s’invente. Marielle Mace , « L#8217;essai litteraire, devant le temps », Cahiers de Narratologie [En ligne], 14 | 2008, mis en ligne le 27 fevrier 2008, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Abuse. URL : http://narratologie.revues.org/499. Madame Matise. Normalienne, agregee de lettres, Marielle Mace est chercheur au CNRS (CRAL, CNRS-EHESS), specialiste de litterature francaise moderne, membre de l#8217;equipe Fabula, et enseigne a l#8217;ENS et a l#8217;EHESS. Of Fallacies. Elle a publie notamment Le Temps de l#8217;essai.
Histoire d'un genre en France au XXe siecle (Belin, « L#8217;extreme contemporain », 2006), Le Savoir des genres (La Licorne, 2007), Le Genre litteraire (Garnier-Flammarion, 2004) et Barthes, au lieu du roman (Desjonqueres-Nota Bene, 2002). Madame. Elle prepare actuellement un ouvrage consacre a l#8217;usage des recits et aux experiences esthetiques sartriennes : L'Emotion narrative, Sartre et les aventures . Of Fallacies. Espace du recit, recit de l’espace en contexte germanique 31 | 2016. Madame. Serialite narrative. Analysis. Enjeux esthetiques et economiques 30 | 2016. Street Art 2 29 | 2015. Matise. Street Art 1 28 | 2015. Essay Of Abortion. Le recit comme acte cognitif 27 | 2014. Madame Matise. Les bifurcations du recit interactif: continuite ou rupture? 26 | 2014. Analysis Known. Nouvelles frontieres du recit.
Au-dela de l’opposition entre factuel et fictionnel 25 | 2013. Madame Matise. Humour et modernite dans les litteratures de langues romanes du XIXe au XXIe siecle 24 | 2013. Domestic. Avant-gardes et litterature narrative 23 | 2012. Matise. Le sujet et l’art dans la prose francaise contemporaine (1990-2012) 22 | 2012. Voix off et narration cinematographique. In Europe. Second volet 21 | 2011. Madame Matise. Rencontres de narrativites : perspectives sur l'intrigue musicale 20 | 2011. When. Voix off et narration cinematographique 19 | 2010. Matise. Images composites, arts pluriels 18 | 2010.
Litterature et sciences 17 | 2009. Horizontal Analysis Is Also Known As:. Stereotype et narration litteraire 16 | 2009. Madame. Images et recits 15 | 2008. Domestic Abuse Movies. Recits et genres historiques 14 | 2008. Prose d'idees : formes et savoirs 13 | 2006.
Nouvelles approches de l'intertextualite 12 | 2005. Matise. Recit et ethique 11 | 2004. Richard Trenton. Figures de la lecture et du lecteur 10.1 | 2001. Madame Matise. ISSN electronique 1765-307X. Informations Titre : Cahiers de Narratologie Analyse et theorie narratives En bref : Revue dediee a l'etude des genres narratifs et a la production de recits et d'objets culturels.
Write My Research Paper for Me - La Raie verte (Matisse) — Wikipdia
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Nov 17, 2017 Madame matise,
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Great template for entry level positions or new graduates. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4692 Filename: offset.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:08:00 / 6056. Bold section titles with arrow points and light maroon titles give this sample a vivid touch. Full page layout for multiple sections to let you list plenty of Cases Essay information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4648 Filename: striking.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:38:00 / 6080. This block and madame matise, bulleted resume offers a professional-looking style. The enlarged font size for the objective section clearly defines your goals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4500 Filename: professional-block.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:31:00 / 5711.
The use of bold text, simple colours, underlines and Of Abortion, spacing makes this a very easy read. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4371 Filename: simple-underline.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:46:00 / 5649. Plus signs and madame, lines outline each area with arrows providing the bulleted direction to your skills and experience. Cases Essay. Scientific, data, and IT feel with this one. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4299 Filename: plus.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:46:00 / 5724. Easy to scan, one column template with section and title headings in madame matise, colour as well as all caps make your information quick to read. Large Skills Abilities section great for the career changer. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4119 Filename: academia.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 20:17:00 / 5748.
Open and airy one-column format centered on Court Cases Assisted the page. Blue headings and matise, bold titles with plus signs and outlined circle bullets provide subtle design appeal. Analysis Is Also. Service and matise, labour workers take a look here. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4079 Filename: breezy.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:35:00 / 6026. Colour contrast and different font types dictate the style and impact of this resume. The use of the red always pulls you back to the name of the applicant. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3987 Filename: simple-red.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:02:00 / 5655. Oversized captions for key words or job titles. Small profile photo with blue shaded section headers.
Excellent use of when space for intern experience, new graduates, and creative professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3941 Filename: caption.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:00:00 / 6144. Want a different way to matise, distinguish your sub-headings from your headings? This layout shows how different shades of the same colour can do this. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3822 Filename: mono-shading.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:48:00 / 4986. Light blue titles, bold headings, and example of fallacies, carat bullets with good use of matise white space in this basic resume template. Perfect example for Court Assisted Essay service industry and labour staff as well as new graduates. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3332 Filename: burgeoning.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:52:00 / 6089. Simple layout with bold headings and madame, thick lines to Court Cases Assisted Essay, separate different sections.
Not the best format if you have a lot of information to include. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3181 Filename: simple-central.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:10:00 / 5662. Offset sections balance out matise this sample. Good use of white space helps focus the reader#039;s eye. Orang titles provide design touch. Great format to take your few years of Assisted Suicide experience to matise, the next level. Size: 183 B Downloads: 1180 Filename: moving.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:05:00 / 6147. Thin margins with stacked sections provide lots of area for all of your achievements. Of Fallacies. Unique Projects area lets you describe your accomplishments. Matise. IT, project management, and senior-level sample.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 167113 Filename: substantial.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:36:00 / 6077. Thin page border and as:, section divider lines with red and bold, black titles and matise, key words provide an executive feel. Project managers, directors, and senior VPs can do well with this example. Size: 183 B Downloads: 11557 Filename: top-level.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:42:00 / 6083. A compact resume format that draws the reader’s eye to the important information across different sections. Size: 183 B Downloads: 10803 Filename: in-a-nutshell.docx Uploaded: 2015-10-10 08:21:00 / 8305. Two well-defined columns give this sample structure. Did Disney Buy Pixar. Thick, orange-coloured bar graphs make your capabilities pop on matise the page and the italicized, muted gray job titles add the professionalism.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 10048 Filename: raise-bar.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 20:28:00 / 5758. What stands out in this sample is the richard trenton, Skills section. Madame Matise. This format provides an instant snapshot of your skill levels that looks very professional and easy to read. Size: 183 B Downloads: 9651 Filename: self-assessment.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:47:00 / 4980. Entry-level workers ready for the next step here. Conventional sections with blue headers and light gray arrows and open circular bullets point all of your strengths and skills. Plenty of room for goals, key word lists, and more.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 7393 Filename: space.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:38:00 / 6029. A very smart style that gets straight down to business. Can you summarize your abilities into a couple of Essay on In Of Abortion sentences? Most prospective employers don#039;t have a lot of time to read through lengthy resumes. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6464 Filename: classic-elegance.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:36:00 / 4961. Great use of madame matise contrasting text colour and line thickness to differentiate between sets of information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5484 Filename: section-lines.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:49:00 / 5652.
Small margins and thin gray shadowed headings with white fonts offer lots of to Be a Registered Essay room in this example. Madame Matise. Multiple sections for Essay on In your training, certifications, skills, and other information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4857 Filename: traditional-plus.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 21:02:00 / 5836. Just a bit of colour goes a long way in breaking up information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4614 Filename: nonsense.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:10:00 / 5698. Bold headings and shading flush out madame matise this sample with plus signs and open circles for bullet points. Good skills resume for those with lots of on In Defense Of Abortion experience and training outside the traditional job environment. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3893 Filename: skilled.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:05:00 / 5783. Bold, black headings and section dividers with light-gray lines used for bullets and blue font type for madame your name make this a non-traditional traditional template. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3876 Filename: non-traditional-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 12:13:00 / 5923.
Complimentary colours for richard trenton your personal information and the section headings catch the matise, eye. Simple bullet list in each section offer a straightforward, no nonsense approach. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3274 Filename: career-starter.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:34:00 / 5714. Gray shading and colorful section headers give this contemporary resume a bold and confident air. Horizontal Analysis As:. Here, your skills, strengths, awards, achievements, and career highlights take center stage. This resume lends a decisive and madame, authoritative tone, while not being overbearing or fussy; it still allows your personality and background to shine. This is a perfect template for example of fallacies individuals seeking to matise, change careers or industries, ex-military looking to enter the horizontal known, civilian workforce, and matise, others who want to when, emphasise their talents and strengths, and matise, not their previous job titles or employers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 40736 Filename: bulletin.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:20:00 / 6162.
Standard Europass CV / Resume Template used in Court Cases Essay, Europe. Size: 183 B Downloads: 30410 Filename: europass-cv-template.doc Uploaded: 2014-09-19 17:26:00 / 7451. Free Modern Resume templates that will get you noticed. Simple, elegant, discreetly modern, with a touch of color and creativity. Size: 183 B Downloads: 30374 Filename: discreetly-modern.docx Uploaded: 2014-09-19 17:09:00 / 7448. Very classy and professional full-page two-column sample. Madame Matise. Lots of sections included for key skills, awards, and attributes. Richard Trenton. Red and matise, blue titles add touch of colour. Great example for those with substantial work experience.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 12921 Filename: firm.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:48:00 / 6086. Two column layout for full page with sections styled into various columns. Light gray divider lines and red and blue titles. Stylish with a corporate feel for marketing director, senior VPs, and principal managers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 9107 Filename: aristocratic.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:05:00 / 6104. Two-column layout with profile photo. Large Awards section to buy pixar, list your sales, academic, or artistic achievements. Great sample for madame matise advertising, creative, sales, or communication professionals.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 8417 Filename: award-winner.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:15:00 / 6062. Traditional classic layout with a high-end executive feel. Great use of bordered headings, indented bullets and when, tabbed text to create an elegant professional look. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7018 Filename: executive-elegant.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:47:00 / 4983. A round portrait option makes this sample a bit different. Then a strong opening statement in bold lettering is matise, great for impact, and makes the reader want to find out more about you. At the end of the resume a simple scale allows you to give a snapshot of your levels of competence. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6910 Filename: bold-simplicity.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:32:00 / 4946. Two-column format used for the whole page offers lots of section areas. Light grays for headers and dashed section dividers as well as shaded background to richard trenton, highlight key work experience.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 6670 Filename: split-page.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:47:00 / 6038. Bold headings shaded with olive and dark greens for a sophisticated template. Madame. Managers, administrators, directors, and to Be a Registered Essay, accountants take advantage of the madame, three-columned skills area and oversized sections for example experience, certificates, and licenses. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6547 Filename: polished.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:43:00 / 5812. Functional two-page sample with three-column core skills lists and madame matise, areas for professional experience, work history and more.
Great resume style for those looking to Essay on In Defense, switch industries. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6157 Filename: new-agenda.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:00:00 / 6098. Checkmarks for madame bullets with blue, green, and gray fonts catch the analysis known, eye. Underlines connect job titles to matise, dates. Essay On In Defense. Analysts, developers, academia, or health care template. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4745 Filename: check.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:51:00 / 6044. Deep and madame matise, light blue headers with bold font titles add pop for this traditional template. Three-column key word section and Cases, two-column bulleted experience lists offer space for everything. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4368 Filename: airy-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 11:43:00 / 5899. Want the madame, focus to be on your opening statement? This resume does that.
Make your pitch for this job a real eye opener. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3181 Filename: inverse.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:33:00 / 4949. Two-column layout with block paragraph descriptions. To Be Nurse Essay. Light blues and grays for madame matise headers, dates, and titles. Excellent sample for business, IT, administrative, or counselling.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 2807 Filename: solid-segments.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:43:00 / 6035. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved. POWERED BY BOLD.
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The visual effects will make your resume stand out above the competition. On the other hand, we also have paid very close attention to detail when it comes to: Resume Profile or Summary Areas of Expertise or Core Competencies Education and Credentials Teaching Experience or Relevant Work Experience Professional Development Professional Affiliations Ђ¦and the other key areas needed to land you that teacher or administrator job interview! The sample cover letters for teachers and administrators that we have created show you just what is needed to get the reader to pick up and read your resume. In addition to ensuring the cover letter matches the resume, we have incorporated and highlighted all the key aspects an interviewer is looking for in a teacher candidate or administrator candidate: Education and horizontal is also known Credentials Teaching and Administrative Experience Instructional and Educational Leadership Expertise Hard and Soft Skill Sets Greatest Strengths Passion, Enthusiasm, and Determination Ђ¦all finished off with an invitation for madame matise the reader to contact the job applicant. Now you will see why we make the guarantee of 100% satisfaction. Peruse through our list of sample higher education instructor and administrator documents below. Even if you are applying for the position of art teacher, look at the resume samples for elementary teacher, ESL teacher, preschool teacher, and educational consultant. If you find a sample academic resume, CV curriculum vitae or cover letter that just calls out to you, let us know! Your teacher resume and cover letter are what will sell you as a potential academic job candidate in your absence. You need those two documents to get the reader to pick up the Essay phone and call you for madame an interview. When! Make sure they make an incredible first impression to sell your value!
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essay on seafaring [Published in Seafaring in the Contemporary Pacific Islands , edited by Richard Feinberg. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1995.] Rotuma is one of the more isolated islands in madame matise western Polynesia. It is What a Registered Nurse, located at 12? 30'S, 177?E, some 465 km northwest of Cikobia, the northernmost island in the Fiji group (Woodhall 1987). It is a similar distance south of Tuvalu and west of Futuna, its closest neighbor to the east.
The nearest islands to the west are in Vanuatu, eight hundred kilometers distant. Legends suggest that Rotuma had intermittent contacts with Samoa, Tonga, Futuna and Fiji (Churchward 1939) prior to European intrusion. Other evidence indicates that Rotumans sailed to matise Tikopia (Bennett 1831, Firth 1961), Anuta (R. Feinberg, personal communication), Kosrae (J. Tobin, personal communication) and possibly even to Raiatea in the Society Islands (Anonymous 1938). Nevertheless, the degree to which Rotumans were accomplished seafarers when first contacted by Europeans at the end of the eighteenth century is problematic.
Based on data collected by Cases Assisted Essay, early European visitors, it does not seem that seafaring in matise precontact Rotuma was as significant as in example many other Polynesian societies (e.g., Nukumanu, see Feinberg this volume; for Sikiana see Donner this volume). Following European intrusion, however, Rotumans developed a seafaring tradition as crew members aboard European ships. Rotuman men eagerly signed aboard visiting vessels, soon acquiring a reputation for reliability and competence that made them favorites of European ship captains. As a result, a significant portion of Rotuman men gained extensive experience at sea. This had, and continues to have, a distinct effect on the culture and economy of the island. Matise. Sailors have been a major source of Essay on In information about the madame matise outside world, thereby introducing and legitimating cultural changes, and have contributed considerably to a standard of living that is extraordinarily high for an isolated Pacific island. Since we are dealing with a heritage transformed from an earlier, precontact formation to one that has been shaped by European seafaring traditions, it is horizontal known as:, necessary to matise approach our subject historically. I begin by presenting background information on Rotuma and What it Takes its environs, then I describe seafaring technology and traditions shortly after contact.
Finally, I provide an account of Rotuman engagement on European vessels and its effects on Rotuman culture. The island of Rotuma is of volcanic origin, comprising a total land mass of forty-three square kilometers and rising to a height of approximately two hundred meters.  It is surrounded by a fringing coral reef that attains a maximum width of 1.5 kilometers on the extreme east end of the island and narrows to only a few meters off the west end. Madame Matise. A number of offshore islands and islets, formed by volcanic cones, are distributed around the main island. The largest of these, the island of Uea, off the northwest end of the mainland, consists of seventy-three hectares; it was inhabited until the 1930s. Two other islands off the west end of the mainland, Hatana and Hafliua, are much smaller but are important sources of edible birds and did disney buy pixar birds' eggs. Madame. These islands lay several kilometers away and require journeys across open sea. Several islets, ranging in size from Essay twenty-three hectares to only a few square meters, are situated within the fringing reef. The larger ones are used as coconut plantations and grazing preserves for domestic animals.
They can be reached by walking across the reef at low tide, or by canoe, punt, and launch when the tide is high. Rotuma's dominant inshore submarine feature is an extensive sand and coral bank extending eight kilometers to the west and northwest of the island, with the detached Whale Bank Reef off its western end ( see Figure 6.1 ). Whale Bank Reef is approximately 5 by 1.6 kilometers, with an average depth of seventeen to eighteen fathoms. Madame. A current, setting west-southwest at speeds of less than one knot, occurs most of the year (Fisheries Division n.d.:3). Rainfall on the island averages 3,550 millimeters per year with no rainless months, although dry periods of up to three months occasionally occur (Woodhall 1987:1). The soil is Court Cases Suicide, very fertile, giving Rotuma a reputation for growing coconuts and other produce of exceptional size and quality. From April to December the prevailing winds blow consistently from the matise southeast. From December through April, winds are variable, sometimes blowing hard from the What it Takes Essay northwest. Hurricanes, which strike the island occasionally, usually occur during the madame matise latter period.
The island's resident population is it Takes to Be a Registered Nurse, approximately twenty-seven hundred individuals, but over six thousand Rotumans now live in Fiji, which has political jurisdiction over Rotuma, and perhaps an additional one thousand to madame two thousand Rotumans live in Of Abortion Australia, New Zealand, North America and Europe. Rotuman Seamanship at Contact and in madame matise the Early Nineteenth Century. Rotuma was discovered in What to Be Nurse Essay 1791 by Captain Edward Edwards in HMS Pandora while he was searching for matise, the Bounty mutineers. Edwards remarked on when, the great number of paddling canoes coming out to meet his vessel. Matise. He wrote that although Rotumans knew of Tonga (the Friendly Islands), their canoes were not so delicately formed nor so well finished as at the Friendly Islands, but more resemble those of the Duke of Essay Defense Of Abortion York's, the Duke of Clarence's and the Navigators' Islands (Thompson 1915:65). The next recorded visit, in 1797, was by Commander Wilson in the missionary ship Duff . Wilson reported that several canoes, containing from madame three to seven persons each, greeted his vessel. He commented, Their single canoes (for we saw no double ones) were nearly the same in all respects as at the Friendly Islands, being of the same shape, sewed together on the inside, and decorated in the same manner seemed not so neat and well finished (Wilson 1799:292). In the richard trenton next two decades, a great many whaling ships stopped at Rotuma for matise, provisions. Sailors found the island and its gentle people attractive, and more than a few deserted there.
Nevertheless, René Lesson, writing about his visit during 1824, commented that lack of contact with other islands and visiting European ships had left the island intact. Essay. He remarked that Rotumans welcomed Europeans who settled on the island with extraordinary eagerness (Lesson 1838-9:415). Lesson opined that the madame matise islanders must be skilled fishermen because of the huge nets they used, which he estimated at more than forty feet long. When. He made the following remarks about Rotuman canoes: The canoes (vaka) used by these islanders have a roughly carved outrigger. They are enclosed and pointed fore and aft, and driven by oval paddles which are also carved without much taste. We saw only one small double canoe (aoe) which came in the evening. The mast was notched and set up on a piece of wood which linked the two canoes. It held up a sail of very coarse matting.
The canoes were covered by a platform which prevented sea water from getting into the hull and which supported a shelter consisting of an awning of flexible branches. On the matise whole, it was a poorly designed vessel, and long-distance navigation was probably undertaken in larger canoes (Lesson 1838-9:431, translated from the French by Ella Wiswell). The first European to write about when did disney buy pixar Rotuman navigational knowledge was Peter Dillon, in 1827. Matise. He reported that Rotumans knew of several islands in their neighborhood, including the islands of Vythuboo [Vaitupu] and richard trenton Newy [Nui], in what is matise, now Tuvalu. He stated that Vaitupu abounded with white shells much in horizontal analysis is also demand on Rotuma and that Rotumans made frequent voyages there for the purpose of obtaining them. Dillon speculated that it was on such voyages that Rotuman sailors got lost at sea and drifted to such places as the Feejees, Tucopia, and the Navigators' Islands (Dillon 1829:103). Madame. He mentioned that natives from richard trenton both Vaitupu and Nui were present on Rotuma, expecting to sail for home in a few weeks.
He was unable to madame matise obtain information concerning wind, weather, and tides from his informantsNtwo renegade sailorsNbut assumed that westerly winds prevailed at certain times of the year, enabling Rotumans to richard trenton sail to Tonga and the Navigators' Isles. He based his assumption on the fact that he met a Rotuman in madame Tonga whom he returned home (Dillon 1829:103-104). Robert Jarman arrived on Rotuma in 1832 aboard the analysis known as: whaler Japan . His account suggests that although Rotumans built large double canoes they were not especially capable seamen: In many huts we observed canoes of immense size and length, or more properly double canoes, about eight feet apart, and secured together by upright and cross pieces strongly bound with lashings made of the madame matise cocoa-nut husk. I should suppose these canoes capable of carrying from one hundred and fifty to two hundred men; and are from sixty to ninety feet in length. I was led to enquire for known as:, what purpose the natives had constructed them, apparently so unwieldy and useless, as they must have cost them with the madame tools they possess, such infinite time and labor. They are formed of a single tree of immense size, hollowed out, and partly decked over from the stem aft. Curiosity or a spirit of enterprise seems to have prompted them. Soon after the island was discovered, the natives were puzzled to ascertain how a ship could come there. Consultations were held by the chiefs, and it occurred to them, that there must be something in on In the horizon, through which the ship entered; therefore it was resolved to fit out many canoes, and send them in search, as the only method of discovering it.
Many were accordingly sent to sea upon this strange expedition, and so soon as they lost sight of their native land, were driven by the wind to the neighbouring islands; many undoubtedly perished, some reached the madame matise Fejee Islands, and others were driven as far to the westward as Santa Cruz, where their descendants are still living with the inhabitants. Since Mr. Emery [an English deserter who took up residence ca. On In Of Abortion. 1827] has resided among them, many have put to matise sea, and no trace of them have [sic] ever been discovered (Jarman 1838:183-184) George Cheever, who kept a log of the whaling ship Emerald, which visited Rotuma in 1835, also reported that Rotuman canoes were rough concerns, displaying little in the way of ornamentation.
He mentioned one large double canoe, about 100 feet long, which was presumably the largest on the island (Cheever 1834-1835). A more elaborate early description of Rotuman canoes is provided by Edward Lucatt, who was there in 1841. He wrote: The native canoes are of peculiar construction. They have no trees high enough of the proper wood to horizontal analysis is also as: form the main body of the matise canoe, like the Court Cases Suicide New Zealanders; they are therefore built out of several pieces, which are sewed together with a sort of twine, of their own manufacture, made from the husks of the cocoa-nut. They are deep and narrow, somewhat angularly formed; the thwarts for the pullers to sit upon are made fast to the gunwales, and, to madame matise prevent the canoe from capsizing, they have an outrigger attached. They are unsightly-looking things, wanting altogether the is also known lightness and grace of a New Zealand canoe; their paddles, too, are clumsy and heavy, and lack the madame matise symmetry and of fallacies grace of the madame matise New Zealanders. There are several large double canoes on the Island, connected together by a strong platform; and in former times, when the population of the country exceeded the means of example support, or it was feared that it would do so, oracles were consulted, and at their instigation a party would start off in one of these canoes in madame search of fresh land: sometimes failing in their object, they would find their way back again in a most miserable plight; but the on In Of Abortion result of the generality of such expeditions was never known.
Of late years, there have been no adventures of the kind, and these ship-canoes from their long disuse are fast falling to decay; there are seventeen or eighteen of them upon the Island, carefully built over to protect them from the madame matise weather. Assisted Suicide Essay. These ship-canoes are no two of the same length; the longer one will be from eighty to madame matise ninety feet, while the of fallacies smaller, answering the purpose of an outrigger, would not exceed fifty or sixty feet: each canoe has from four to madame five feet beam, but they have no floor; and, looked at separately, without their stem and stern pieces, they would be taken for troughs. They are kept about a Registered Nurse six feet asunder by matise, cross beams lashed and otherwise made fast to the gunwales of both canoes; the beams are planked over, which furnishes a deck of from fourteen to sixteen feet in breadth. Both canoes are entirely covered in, and richard trenton there are small hatchways with sliding covers. When a party has determined upon an exploring expedition, they build a house upon the main deck and stow their provisions, c. in the holds of the canoes. Their sails are made of a species of madame matise rush marled together: in form they resemble the New Zealanders, being when set like an What to Be inverted triangle (Lucatt 1851:177-178). C.F.
Wood, visiting Rotuma on madame matise, a yachting cruise some 30 years later, confirmed the disuse into Essay on In Defense, which double canoes had fallen. He reported seeing large double canoes, similar to matise those he had seen in on In Defense Of Abortion Fiji and Tonga, lying in sheds on the beach. He was told that no one then alive, nor their fathers before them, had ever seen those canoes in the water. No one knew how to manage them at sea, nor did anyone have knowledge of madame sail making (Wood 1875:15). An old chief told Wood that in the past such canoes would sail off, loaded with men, never to What it Takes to Be Essay be heard of again. Madame Matise. Wood commented that he knew of canoes from Rotuma landing on the northern coast of Vanua Levu, where half-breed descendants could be found. He claimed that Rotumans regularly sailed to Tonga to obtain Cypraea ovula, a white shell used to Court Assisted Suicide Essay decorate chiefs' canoes and houses. They did not buy these from the madame matise natives of Tonga, Wood wrote, but they themselves fished for them on outlying reefs (Wood 1875:25-26). 
Writing some years later, William Allen reported that canoe building once took up a great deal of the men's time.  He suggested that double canoes took many years to build, as many as eight or ten (Allen 1895). During his visit in What it Takes Nurse Essay 1896, however, J. Stanley Gardiner found inquiries into oceangoing voyaging to be futile. Gardiner wrote that the double canoe was already forgotten and that canoe sailing was a lost art, though the Rotuman language possessed all the matise terms necessary for it. He also mentioned finding a steer oar belonging to a canoe he estimated to horizontal have been sixty feet in length (Gardiner 1898:459). Madame. Gardiner further reported that the names of stars are as a rule fanciful now, but Marafu [the paramount chief] pointed me out some named according to the different islands (Gardiner 1898:407). Known.  Rotuman Canoes in Detail. The most extensive information recorded about matise Rotuman canoes is contained in Gardiner's account and the field notes of Bishop Museum ethnologist Gordon MacGregor, who visited Rotuma in 1932. Gardiner reported that at What it Takes a Registered Nurse, the time of his visit two kinds of canoes were being made: a big one used for fish-driving, called tafaga [ taf'aga ], and a small one used inside the reef, called tavane [ täväne ].  Taf'aga varied from twenty-five to thirty-five feet in matise length, took from eight to twelve paddlers, and could carry up to twenty people. Regarding canoe construction, Gardiner wrote: A suitable tree is selected, cut down, and roughly shaped.
It is then properly allowed to example of fallacies lie for a few months, after which it is dragged down to madame matise the hanua noho (village) which is on In Defense, going to build it. It is then hollowed out to the desired shape, the ends being left solid and the walls up to 2 inches thick. In the centre the sides would not be strong enough to bear the strain, and so are removed, fresh planks being fitted into their place. These are fixed by sinnet, holes for the lashings being bored through the madame planks; wedges are then driven in between from the inside to make the whole watertight. Court Suicide Essay. The sinnet makes the holes watertight, but pieces of sponge from the reef are driven in to ensure it. There is madame, a distinct bow and stern, the former sharp and pointed up, the latter blunter and curved downwards. The first three feet of the deck at each end is covered. The breadth along the whole centre is about the same: 1 1/2-2 feet.
The side towards the to Be Nurse Essay outrigger, or sama, is slightly straighter [figure 6.2 C] than the other. The outrigger is about 5 feet or rather less away; it is not quite half as long as the whole canoe. It lies usually on the right, or starboard side, and consists of madame matise a post of horizontal analysis known light wood slightly pointed at one end. Matise. This is supported by two hard wood beams, driven into it, lashed across the canoe itself; the bend at right angles, which is necessary, is cut out, but can be, and richard trenton was, frequently induced in the growth of the madame timber. Another beam runs just above the bend between these; to as: it rods of madame matise hard wood are lashed, previously driven into the post underneath [figure 6.2B].
A platform is generally made to take the What a Registered Nurse paddles and carry the nets between the canoe and the outrigger; the matise paddle blade is of an oval form, 2 feet long by about 6 inches broad. The bailer is of the regular type, of one piece of wood with handle in the centre, and shaped to fit the canoe. The launch of one of horizontal analysis is also these used to be the occasion of madame a feast. Is Also As:. Kava was placed for the gods, after one of matise whom it was named and then supposed to richard trenton be under his special protection. The tavane is only about 12 feet long and madame matise 8-10 inches deep; at Court Suicide, the top it is usually about 6 inches broad, but bellied out considerably underneath. The outrigger is about 8 feet long and supported merely by matise, two crooked sticks, lashed across the top of the canoe. The oie, or drum, is always stationary, and usually of very large size; it has generally a special roof. Its general shape [figures 6.2E and 6.2F] is the ordinary, but it is much more bellied and of fallacies cut out deeper at the ends than is customary in Fiji (Gardiner 1898:457-459). FIGURE 6.2. Rotuman canoe features: A--side view of the tafaga , showing planks let in at the side, also bow and stern; B--section of the tafaga through one of the madame supporting beams of the sama , or outrigger; C--side view of the sama to show method of fixing; D--top view of the tavane (the thin lines at the sides show the richard trenton bulge of the canoe); E--longitudinal section through the oie , or drum; F--transverse section of the oie . (After Gardiner 1898:458) In a section of his notes labeled canoes, MacGregor recorded the names of canoe types and matise parts. His Rotuman consultants told him that they called large double canoes ahai [ 'ahai ]. Some of them thought the when name came from the English word ahoy, used by madame, English sailors, a derivation favored by What Nurse, C.M.
Churchward, who wrote the madame definitive dictionary of the horizontal is also as: Rotuman language (Churchward 1940:348). MacGregor was skeptical, however, since he could not elicit an alternative term. The traditional term, he wrote, would not have died out so quickly. Gardiner also reported that the term 'ahai was used for madame, large double canoes, although he spelled it ahoie ; like MacGregor, he doubted that it derived from English (Gardiner 1898:459). Note that Lesson, who visited Rotuma in 1824, provided the name aoe for a small double canoe he encountered (see his quotation above). This suggests that it was an indigenous term rather than a borrowing from on In Of Abortion English.
MacGregor wrote in madame matise his notebook that no one on the island remembers seeing a double canoe. Nevertheless, one of his Rotuman consultants told him that 'ahai were made from five or six planks to a side, according to the size of the tree, and that they were about What it Takes Nurse Essay five to five and one-half feet tall. He also told MacGregor that 'ahai were fitted with a deck and deck house, and with a mast guyed by a rope of the vine fanga fea [ fagfea ].  Churchward lists the madame Rotuman word samtutuki for the smaller double canoe (Churchward 1940:305), which MacGregor described as constructed of two hulls ( vaka ) joined by three crosspieces ( kiata ). The hulls were about eight feet high according to MacGregor's consultants, and were completely covered over to keep out a Registered Nurse, water. The covering had a trapdoor to permit access to provisions.
Hulls were built of five pieces, including a keelpiece, side planks, and narrower top planks. The planks had flanges and were sewn together. Stitches tying the madame matise planks together were held fast by driving small wooden wedges under the knots. Example. Hulls were longer than one plank length, and the ends, which were cut diagonally rather than square, were also sewn together. Poles were set up in the hulls and the deck ( pupui ) was held up on them about a fathom above the canoes' top planks. A lean-to hut was built on the deck, with the ends of the roof resting on the deck. The mast ( pou ) was set on the deck, forward of the house and guyed to the canoes. In some instances the mast was constructed so that it could be shifted, and in some instances it was permanently fixed.
Sails ( läe ) were made of madame matise about twenty ordinary floor mats sewn together. What It Takes To Be A Registered. They had two wings, or points, in the fashion of matise Fijian canoes. The steering oar ( hose ) was worked on the starboard hull. MacGregor's consultants told him that samtutuki carried about one hundred men, but it must be cautioned that they were reporting about the it Takes Essay construction of madame matise a canoe type that had long since disappeared. Like Gardiner, MacGregor also recorded that large, single-hulled outrigger canoes were called tafaaga [ taf'aga ] and is also as: smaller ones tavane [ täväne ]. Churchward lists both of madame these as types of outriggers, but includes an additional term, karia , for large outrigger canoes (Churchward 1940:238,319,327). MacGregor reported that täväne were made with the fore outrigger boom shorter than the when aft one as an aid to steering. This gave the canoes an appearance of toeing in when viewed from above. The stern is the madame matise wider part of the canoe because of the narrowness of the whole canoe for a man of any size to sit in and because it handles more easily, Macgregor wrote. He also noted, contrary to Gardiner's observations thirty-six years before him, that most canoes had their outrigger on the port side. Horizontal Is Also Known. This is confirmed by John Bennett, an American married to a Rotuman woman and madame an accomplished sailor. He lived on Rotuma for Essay on In, seven years while employed as a teacher at the high school.
According to Bennett, outriggers today are commonly mounted on the port side, as most people are right-handed and find paddling on starboard more comfortable and unobstructed if the outrigger is mounted on madame matise, the left. It Takes A Registered. Turning with the paddle is also easier (J. Bennett, personal communication). An account of the steps involved in building taf'aga was provided MacGregor by a craftsman from the village of Salvaka: The Rotumans build two sorts of large outrigger canoes, the tafaka oro [possibly taf'aga 'i'oro 'shark fishing canoe'] and the tafaka fonfonu [ taf'aga fonfono 'canoe with built up sides'].  The first is a three piece canoe with a deep hull, the second a five piece canoe with a shallow keel piece and built up sides, two planks to a side. When the matise whole body of the canoe is considered these canoes are actually five and seven piece canoes, but the last two pieces are deck pieces and not in the walls of the canoes. The difference in Cases Assisted Suicide Essay structure is madame, determined by the material the carpenters have to work with. If a tree selected is not thick enough to give the proper depth to the hull, a five piece canoe is built. The machau [ majau ], or head carpenter, selects the tree from which the proposed canoe is to be built.
Then a koua or feast is held, called foiang fua [ faiag fua 'felling of Court Cases Assisted Suicide a tree for matise, the keelpiece'], at when did disney buy pixar, which is announced the intention of building a canoe, and whether it will be fuaora or not, that is the way of constructing a tafakora . When the work is started the machau may make the stern first or hollow out the entire log. Madame. When the tree is hollowed out to form the fua or bottom piece of the hull, a second koua is held, called Saragfua [ sarag fua 'completing the keelpiece']. The fua is then finished off and the beveled edge is made for example, joining the piece to be laid on top. Madame. In the five piece canoe this keel? [sic] is the vaka fonfonu [ vak fonfono 'canoe with built up sides'], and the beveled edge is made to on In Of Abortion join the fonu. ?? [sic] In this case, the fua or keel piece is made much broader and shallower. There are some canoes built with two rows of fono , which makes a seven piece canoe. It has been stated that three piece canoes are in reality of five pieces. It can be seen here where the extra pieces come in. When the fua is made the madame stern and bow are cut to richard trenton shape, including the upright piece of the prow, called the matise moa . What It Takes. Often this is impossible due to the size of the tree. Then deck pieces of purou are made to madame matise fit on top of the stern and Cases Essay bow of the madame level fua . These are necessary to carry out the height of the horizontal is also canoe established by building on the fono or wall pieces. In the standard three piece canoe, these should join at each end with the high bow and stern of the madame fua . The fono , probably originally one strip, is now made of three to each side.  The center fono which is richard trenton, laid on the completed fua first, is called the raurara . When these two center pieces are laid a koua is held which is known as the fuakiag [ fuakiag ] fono.
Then the end fono , two to each side which connect the matise raurara with the stern and bow, are laid on. What A Registered. These are the madame fonchichaki [ fon jijaki 'sideboards slipped into place']. When these are joined the sokoag fono koua , or joining the other fono on, is What it Takes Essay, made. Next come the roa , if the matise canoe is to be a five piece one. These are the Cases Essay top planks or strips that are set over the fono to complete the walls. Then the bow and stern pieces are put on (these are called porou [ purou ] in one place and puka in another, puka being name given by Ismeli [another informant] as well.) The canoe is now fitted together and all the flanges are sewn down. Madame Matise. The machau inspects all edges to see if there is a perfect fit. To insure that all the planks fit smoothly, the did disney buy pixar sides that are laid against each other are smeared with paint made of ura [ 'ura Indian mulberry] or pandanus mixed with lime.
The pandanus root is first pressed with water. This paint is smeared on the edge of the madame fua and then the horizontal is also known fono is laid on. Any unevenness will show up by its lacking marking with paint. Then the entire canoe is unleashed and the pieces taken off. Each piece is trimmed and smoothed to make it thinner and lighter. Madame Matise. The inside portion is cut out more carefully. All holes for lashing are inspected, but they must not be touched again after corrections are made from the did disney preliminary lashing of the canoe. When the matise fua was made, they carefully left at each third of a fathom in the hull of the canoe, a pair of raised knobs or rests which are called susu . They are not in the exact center of the bottom of the Assisted canoe but about six inches apart.
These form the rests for the rib supports or tokai of the canoe. They are set obliquely upright on these and are lashed under the matise uppermost edge of the puka or roa . The seats, manu , are set above pair [sic] of Court tokai . There should be three seats to each fathom of the canoe. The seats are cross boards lashed over madame matise, the gunwale or roa . Usually a curved seat is carved out and also a small back three or four inches in height. The back of the seat is called the Essay Of Abortion kiat rot . The stern piece of puka has the matise seat of the helmsman, the seat - marae or maraeheta . This puka is the last piece that is set in buy pixar the hull of the canoe when she is put together. It has two arms or fork [sic], as has the bow piece, which come out and madame join the end of the roa. These are known as the U Rua ne Puka ['u rua ne puka ], the hands of the puka . The bow and the stern piece are variously fashioned after the ideas of the machau , but in general the first piece usually has the butt of a bowsprit? [sic] or upright piece foremost. It Takes Nurse Essay. This is called the moa . Both pieces have a series of small truncated knobs from the point to the raised portion or seat.
These are the moa ne puakta , and correspond to the decoration on Samoan bonito canoes and paopao. Very rarely I have seen cowrie shell attached to them. A wooden bailer, tatahet [ tata ], is made for each canoe, in the shape of a grocer's sugar scoop, with the handle inverted or within the bowl. The outrigger, sama , is attached with booms, as in matise the tavane , and when all is finished the final koua , avahiag tafaga [ a'vahiag taf'aga ] (finishing the canoe) is given for the occasion. The tafaka is taken out for fishing, but on this trip, no one must eat any raw fish. The catch is brought together, cooked and eaten in one place. This feast of the fish also removes the tabu against women associating with the canoe.
This is primarily laid upon pregnant women who are forbidden to sit on the canoe or stepping over it or even approaching it. Other women are less seriously regarded. If in the process of making the canoe a worker is cut and Defense blood flows, a koua is held, hapagsue [ hapagsu ]. So also if a part is broken or cut so thin that the axe comes through, a koua is held to stop the bad luck. The place where the canoe is built is tabu during the madame first trip out. No one is when buy pixar, allowed to play there, and it would bring the madame worst sort of bad luck, armu [ armou ], if blood were shed on it. Armu is bad luck, no fish, shedding of blood, or some bad happening (Macgregor 1932). The canoe associated with this description, inspected by MacGregor, was 33 feet long, 1.5 feet at the widest part, and twenty inches deep.
MacGregor made a list of outrigger parts. Table 6.1 gives both MacGregor's terms and Churchward's corresponding dictionary entries: TABLE 6.1. Rotuman canoe lexicon. rorara, raurara, fono. upper end pieces. inside post supports. projections on ends. puket e taumuri.
* MacGregor notes that the puka is the part that runs from the end of the roa on richard trenton, one side around the madame stern or bow to the end of the roa on the other side. It should be of when did disney one piece. He adds that this implies it is not necessarily the whole stern piece. Madame Matise. (MacGregor 1932) ** lit. 'body of the canoe' MacGregor also provided a list of wood types used in the construction of a canoe. The ratau [ ratu'a ] tree was used for the hull of a canoe; the outrigger and paddle [ hose ] were made from penau wood ( Thespesia populnea L., Pacific rosewood tree); the outrigger boom from hau (hibiscus) wood; and the outrigger brace from either hau wood or bamboo. Paddles were 4.5 to 5 feet long, with a blade from two to two feet four inches; MacGregor described them as flat on one side and rounded on Court Cases Assisted Suicide Essay, the other (Macgregor 1932). This may suggest more uniformity of construction than was the case. Today, according to John Bennett (personal communication), hulls may be built from hefau (Callophyllum), 'ulu ( Atrocarpus altilis, breadfruit), togoi ( Terminalia catappa L.), 'ura ( Morinda citrifolia L.), ratu'a ( Erythrina variegata L.) or sa'a trees,  from which most paddles are now made. Bennett suggests that sa'a is used for paddles today because it is light, and much easier to shape than paddles made of penau . He speculates that this may reflect a lack of strength and endurance among present-day paddlers as compared with the past. For caulking ( pulu ) MacGregor recorded breadfruit sap had been used, but a substance produced from the ripe seed of the pipi fruit ( Atuna racemose Raf.) was a recent innovation that proved superior. The seed is pressed into a red watery fluid in the hand with a rock.
It is worked into the seams where it becomes very hard and holds fast. Macgregor also noted that pandanus root was pressed with water and mixed with lime to make a marking paint for carpenters. His notes contain detailed drawings of lashings (Macgregor 1932). Based on hull shape, outrigger attachment, and madame matise proximity, Hornell concluded that Rotuman canoes were an adaptation of a small canoe used on the northern Tuvalu island of Nanumea (Hornell 1936:281), but this conclusion is disputed by McQuarrie, who makes a strong case for it Takes to Be Nurse Essay, their having a closer relationship to the canoes of Tonga and Samoa (McQuarrie 1980). Fishing with Canoes. Gardiner and MacGregor also provide the most thorough accounts of madame matise Rotuman fishing techniques, including hook and line, fish traps of Court Cases Essay various types, and matise nets. Since Rotuma is blessed with extensive fringing reefs, fish are abundantly available without resort to deep-sea fishing for all but a few isolated villages. Whether deep-sea fishing was ever a major factor in Rotumans' exploitation of marine resources is uncertain.
The position of master fisherman ( tautei ) was institutionalized on Rotuma. Each district had a tautei who was in charge of fishing expeditions. The position belonged to specific kin groups ( kainaga ) who were thought to have special abilities ( mana ). Some villages had their own tautei who led expeditions limited to the village. Tautei titles derive from fishing activities. For example, according to Elisapeti Inia, retired Rotuman schoolteacher and is also known authority on Rotuman language and madame customs, the title Reuas derives from räe ia'uas 'to see a shoal of fish'; Tokoar from richard trenton tok 'o'oar ta 'the canoe used as a receptacle during fish drives'; Tokroa from tok roa 'long pole' (used to direct communal fishing activities); and Urakmat from ur'ak mat 'to respect + wet', suggesting the importance of following taboos associated with fishing (Elisapeti Inia, personal communication). Gardiner reported that Rotuman fish-hooks were generally crude. Madame. He described them as follows: The fe, or shark-hook, was made from a shrub, the tiere, which, when it reached the height of about 3 feet, was twisted into an open knot, with a diameter of about 5 inches; it was then allowed to grow for about two years before being cut. The hook was then shaped, and a piece of hard wood spliced on as a barb projecting inwards.
The bait was tied on over the barb; the richard trenton fish working at this, as the wood was springy, gradually got its jaw between the matise barb and when did disney buy pixar the stem of the hook. On being struck the barb caught in the gills, and matise the fish was hauled up sideways. A similar hook, but smaller, the oiniafa, was used for catching a large species of rock cod, the roog. Buy Pixar. Small round hooks were cut out of pearl shell or turtle bone, 1-2 inches in diameter, and termed ovi [ 'avi ]; a barb was always cut on the outside. Those of pearl shell for madame, certain fish were not baited, nor towed behind the example of fallacies canoe. Proper spinning baits are termed pa [ poa ], and were of two kinds, the one large, of pearl shell fixed on bone 4 inches, or more, long, and the other small, 1-2 inches, of pearl shell alone. Both had underneath a hook of madame matise turtle shell or bone, and at the end a few short white feathers of the tavek [ täväke ], or boatswain bird, sticking out. Tjija [ Jija ], long fish with very narrow jaws [garfish], almost too small for any hook, are caught by Defense Of Abortion, a lump of spider's web at matise, the end of a line on Nurse Essay, a long bamboo, when the tide is madame, coming in. The teeth are numerous and long, and cannot disentangle themselves (Gardiner 1898:425).
MacGregor provided additional information about spider web fishing: The spider web. is caught up from the corner of the house by twisting on the end of a stick. The web is to Be a Registered Essay, made into a ball and colored with charcoal so that it will show up black. Charcoal of the leifau [ hefau ?] is madame matise, used, called mahala. This ball is then tied on the end of the a Registered fish line. The fishing was done with a long bamboo pole 16'-18' and with a line longer than this. Madame. The fish were only caught in a few places in What it Takes to Be a Registered Nurse Essay Rotuma, one of them being off the reef, another off the islet Afngaha [Afgaha] off Noatau. The pole was held so that the ball of black web was suspended just over the water, and allowed to madame matise blow back and forth in the wind. A Registered Nurse. The chiachia or chi'chia [ jija 'garfish'] is a small long fish with a very long and thin mouth with very fine teeth.
It would jump out of the water to matise bite at the web and be caught by its teeth in the mesh (MacGregor 1932). Gardiner described several techniques for catching fish on horizontal analysis is also, the reef, mostly involving traps and nets. In three instances he mentioned the use of canoes: while turtle fishing, during fish drives, and matise when catching flying fish. For turtle fishing, Rotumans used sennit nets, according to Gardiner. A net was put down in a reef passage just before the example tide began to ebb. Canoes were stationed at each end of the net, and when a turtle was seen to go into it, a man from each canoe dived after it, seized it by the front flippers and turned it over so that it was compelled to come to the surface (Gardiner 1898:426).  MacGregor confims this description, adding that the fishermen would frighten the turtles into the nets by drumming on the sides of their canoes. Madame. He also describes an alternative method of turtle fishing, involving taking canoes out at night on the high tide and searching for when buy pixar, turtles with torches, then spearing them when they came to the light (Macgregor 1932). Madame Matise. Today people dive for turtles using goggles or a diving mask and small spear made from a quarter-inch steel rod propelled by when, a flexible rubber tube (similar to surgical rubber), with a copper wire loop attached on one end and madame matise a tire-tube rubber loop, placed over the thumb, at the other.
The spear is drawn like a bow and arrow (Bennett, personal communication). Fish drives involve numerous households and, at times, entire districts or more. A large net is Essay on In Defense Of Abortion, placed at a strategic location in madame matise a reef passage just before low tide, and fish are driven into it by lines of people beating the water. Canoes are used on richard trenton, such occasions as receptacles for the fish that are caught rather than as vehicles (see Feinberg, this volume, for similar uses of canoes on Nukumanu). Matise. Those picking the fish out example of fallacies, of the net crush the skull between their teeth to dispatch them quickly and prevent them from matise flipping out of the canoes in which they are stored. Sometimes individuals, most often women, eat fish raw during such an event. Gardiner reported on one drive involving over two hundred people in which they caught 648 large fish of different kinds weighing over 1.5 tons (Gardiner 1898:427).
Communal drives are still a common fishing method, particularly off the richard trenton village of Losa. Fish are driven out of the matise reef passage and, blinded by the setting sun, are caught in a net. This method is called furamasa 'to fish late in the afternoon' (Churchward 1940a:208), or more generically, hagoat vao 'net fishing'. The term jau 'to beat' (which in this instance refers to beating the water when driving fish to buy pixar where they can be caught)  is commonly used for fish drives in which nets are not used. No lexical distinction is made between a communal drive involving an madame matise entire village or simply a few family members (Bennett, personal communication). In the past, canoes were also used to catch flying fish using a special net [ seu ] about twelve feet long by example, six feet wide, fixed at matise, the end of two bamboo poles.
A number of canoes would paddle along the reef at high tide in two lines, with a man on did disney buy pixar, watch at the head of each. When the fish were sighted,, usually near the shore, everyone jumped into the water. While some of the men surrounded the fish with a net, others got ready to catch them when they jumped over it (Gardiner 1898:428). Madame. From his account it seems that Gardiner was referring to mullet ( 'anasi ) rather than true flying fish ( säsäve ), since the former feed on the reef while the latter inhabit the What it Takes to Be a Registered Nurse Essay deep sea outside the reef. Madame. Mullet often jump out of the example water, but do not have the anatomy to glide through the air.  The tautei from Noa'tau district provided MacGregor with detailed information concerning seu expeditions: The Seu is a fishing party of eleven canoes which are accompanied usually by a chief, for madame matise, whom the fishing is done.  The fleet of when did disney canoes go out in two lines of five in file, and madame matise the eleventh canoe travels between the two lines opposite the last two in the files.
There is a tautae [ tautei ] standing in the bow of the first canoe in each file. He wears an example of fallacies eyeshade (isau) [ isao ] made of coconut leaves, and a titi or vehnau which is a grass skirt made of hau. When the fish have been sighted, the files separate to a greater distance to surround the school. On the command rua vao (let the nets go), each man jumps from his canoe with his net, and walks through the water to join his net with the man next to him. A complete net is thus formed on each side of the school, and these are joined together, at one end with the net of the center or eleventh canoe and at the other between the madame matise two canoes of the tautae.
There are more than two men in a canoe. If there are flying fish in the school, hand nets are brought out by some of the crew to catch them. These nets are vauseu [ vao seu ]. The long nets are vau hapa [vao hapa ]. Each movement is What it Takes, carried out only at the tautae's orders. The seu is carried out inside the reef in madame shallow water so that the fish, when completely enclosed with the richard trenton nets, are taken out by hand into the canoe (Macgregor 1932). MacGregor was told by one consultant that a seu might last two to three days. A number of taboos were associated with seu . For example, on madame matise, the night before an What it Takes to Be Nurse Essay expedition, the fishermen were supposed to sleep alone; if any one of them had sex, fish would jump over the net he was holding. No one could mention the names of the men who went fishing. Madame. The houses of the fishermen were shut during a seu and no one was allowed to enter them while it was in progress. Making noise was taboo, and did disney buy pixar it was forbidden to make cooking fires. The tautei had to wear the vehnau titi and the isao during all operations.
If any of madame matise these taboos were violated, it would bring bad luck. When Did Disney Buy Pixar. It was a bad omen if a man fell out of his canoe; if anyone did so, he had to give a feast for the entire party (Macgregor 1932). If the net used in a fishing expedition is new ( hoiag vao ), the first fish caught in it is put into a special basket ( la ) and taken to madame the tautei 's house, accompanied by a chief. The doors of the house, kept closed until then, are opened and an announcement of the catch ( ma hei'akia ) is did disney, chanted (Elisapeti Inia, personal communication). MacGregor mentions two locations in which hook and line fishing were used for catching snapper in deep water by submerged reefs: off the islets of madame matise Haua and off the village of Losa. Richard Trenton. He also reported that sharks were caught with hook and line, then clubbed when brought to the side of the canoe. His consultants told him that hooks were made from fish vertebrae, turtle shell, and hardwood. The favored hardwood, he was told, was found at matise, the bottom of the sea outside the when did disney reef. (According to John Bennett, the substance referred to is black coral, commonly found off the island of Uea, which has no fringing reef.) The men dived for madame, it and brought up branches with long hooked twigs, which made excellent hooks. Fishing line was made from the bark of paper mulberry or breadfruit trees, or from sennit cord. The practice of did disney buy pixar closing up a house when a man goes deep-sea fishing is still common today. People are encouraged not to anticipate a fisherman's catch as this can only bring bad luck.
When one first takes out a new boat to fish, he is expected to madame acknowledge a good catch by providing fish to is also known the chief and minister. Not observing this custom, Rotumans claim, will result in poor catches (Bennett, personal communication). Shipping Out: Rotuman Sailors on European Vessels. It is madame matise, clear from the reports of nearly all early commentators that Rotuman men were eager to Nurse Essay leave Rotuma aboard European vessels and took every opportunity to do so (e.g., see Bennett 1831:480). Writers also praised the qualities that made Rotumans desirable sailors. The remarks of Joseph Osborn, aboard the whaling ship Emerald when it stopped at Rotuma in 1835, are typical: They love to visit foreign countries great numbers of them ship on board the English whaleships.
On board a ship they are as good or better than any of the madame South Sea natives: diligent, civil quiet, 3 very necessary qualities. They soon learn to talk English there is but few of when did disney them but what can talk a few words (Osborn 1834-1835). John Eagleston, Captain of the Emerald , echoed Osborn's sentiments. They make good ship men, he wrote, and for a trading vessel are preferable to madame matise any of the other natives which I am acquainted with, they being more true faithful more to be depended on a Registered Nurse Essay, (Eagleston 1832). He noted that he had had a number of Rotumans aboard as crewmen in matise the past, as well as other islanders, but found Rotumans to be the best. Some forty years later Litton Forbes wrote: The men of Rotumah make good sailors, and after a few years' service in sea-going vessels are worth the same wages as white men. Of Fallacies. Scarcely a man on the island but has been more or less of a traveller.
It is no rare thing to find men who have visited Harve, or New York, or Calcutta, men who can discuss the relative merits of a sailors' home in London or Liverpool, and dilate on madame matise, the advantages of steam over richard trenton, sailing vessels. Thus the average native of Rotumah is matise, more than usually capable and intelligent (Forbes 1875:226). Commenting in What it Takes to Be 1867 on the extent of emigration, Rev. Matise. William Fletcher, the first European Methodist missionary stationed on Rotuma, wrote that upwards of seven hundred young men were known to have left the island in recent memory (Fletcher 1870). Anxiety over the unimpeded emigration of young men was one of the first issues raised by the chiefs of Rotuma in horizontal analysis known as: their negotiations with British authorities prior to cession. Thus Arthur Gordon reported in 1879 that the chiefs desired regulations to madame matise check wholesale emigration. He suggested two regulations, one prohibiting boys under sixteen and married men from leaving, the other requiring unmarried men to have their chief's consent. Analysis As:. The regulations were passed unanimously (Outward Letters, dispatch from A. Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 4 December, 1879 ). The first census taken on Rotuma, in madame 1881 shortly after cession, yielded a population count of 2491. In the fifteen- to forty-year age group, the gender balance was 440 males to example of fallacies 638 females.
The Resident Commissioner at the time, Charles Mitchell, attributed the surplus of females to madame matise the fact that so many young men had left the island (Outward Letters, dispatch from C. Horizontal Analysis As:. Mitchell to Colonial Secretary, 1 October, 1881).  W. L. Allardyce, who was on Rotuma about this time, commented on the shift in traveling destinations resulting from the demise of the madame matise whaling industry as well as the social price homestayers had to pay: Nearly all the men on the island have at richard trenton, one time or another been to sea, and while in the old whaling days Honolulu and Behring Straits formed the madame matise goal of their ideas, the sailors of the present day must needs visit New Zealand, Australia, China, and India, while others still more ambitious are not satisfied till they have rounded the Horn and passed the it Takes a Registered Essay white cliffs of matise Dover. The few who have never been to sea at all have often to endure a considerable amount of banter at the expense of their inexperience (Allardyce 1885-1886:133). Example Of Fallacies.  Allardyce also noted that the majority of Rotuman men abroad were engaged in the Torres Straits pearl-diving industry, which was flourishing at matise, the time. Writing in 1884, William Gordon reported that over one hundred Rotuman men were employed in the industry, mostly in the management of boats. The boatmen earned two to three pounds a month. Divers earned much more, up to forty pounds a month according to Gordon, but tended to squander it during binges in the city ( Outward Letters, dispatch from Wm. Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 24 November, 1884). The early commissioners feared the Rotuman population was rapidly declining and in danger of extinction. They saw emigration as a significant part of the problem.
Fortunately, however, Rotuma avoided the scourges of venereal disease,  a fact remarked upon by Commissioner Gordon with surprise, given the comings and goings of so many young men who had been sailors (Outward Letters, dispatch from Wm. Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 24 November 1884). Attempts to dampen emigration were aided by What a Registered Nurse, the British decision to govern Rotuma as part of the colony of Fiji and to close Rotuma as a port of entry. This significantly reduced the matise number of vessels calling at Rotuma and meant that men had to go to richard trenton Fiji to sign aboard as seamen. The issue of matise controlling emigration remained a matter of concern to subsequent Resident Commissioners. Following an inquiry into the matter, A. R. Mackay reported that fewer than thirty adult males on the island [out of when did disney some four to five hundred] had not been abroad. He reiterated what others had said before, that it is a cutting reproach to cast at a man that he has not been away from the island; hence, partly, the anxiety of the young men to madame accomplish their long cherished dream (Outward Letters, dispatch from A.R. Essay On In Defense Of Abortion. Mackay to Colonial Secretary, 10 January, 1887). The concern for matise, controlling emigration eventually led to the passage of Rotuma Regulation Number 3 in 1939, stating that No native may leave Rotuma without the permission of the District Officer (who replaced the Resident Commissioner as administrative officer in charge of Rotuma following a colonial governmental reorganization). It further specified that No male adult responsible for the maintenance of his wife, children, or relatives may leave Rotuma without making adequate provision for Essay on In Defense, the maintenance of said wife, children, or relatives to the satisfaction of the District Officer (Rotuma Regulations 1939:457). 
Nevertheless, a substantial number of Rotumans emigrated to Fiji, establishing an enclave there. The outbreak of matise World War II accelerated Rotuman emigration to Fiji, and by 1946 approximately 17 percent of all Rotumans were residing there. Once in is also Fiji, Rotuman men were free to sign on ships without consulting anyone. The chiefs protested and demanded the right to choose who could go, but the governor of Fiji ruled that the liberty of the individual must be respected and it is madame, not for the Rotuman Chiefs to of fallacies decide who shall and who shall not sign on ships (Fiji Archives, Document F 24/44). Although precise figures are not available, sailing remains a favored occupation among Rotumans. In a survey of 414 households (85 percent) on Rotuma during 1989,  I identified sixty-nine men engaged in matise sailing at the time. Essay. This accounted for 20.7 percentof all men abroad on whom I have occupational data. Five of them were ship captains, two were pilots.
Rotuman crews were entrenched on certain ships, like the cable ships Retriever and Pacific Guardian . All the information at my disposal suggests that Rotumans are desired as crewmen as much today as they were in earlier times.  The reasons given are similar: that Rotumans are exceptionally conscientious, learn fast, and are capable of taking responsibility.  I have elsewhere related these qualities, widely recognized by employers of madame matise Rotuman personnel, to socialization patterns and the social organization of the Rotuman community (Howard 1966, 1970). Seamanship on Rotuma Today. With a few notable exceptions, Rotumans now residing on the island do not venture beyond the reef and have not developed seafaring skills. Almost all fishing is done on the reef, and canoes are used more as receptacles than as vehicles. The only type of canoe that has survived is the small outrigger, formerly called täväne , but currently known only by the generic term for canoe, vaka . They are occasionally used as transportation to the nearer offshore islets. Both men and women fish on the reef, and richard trenton women are as likely to take canoes for this purpose as men.
It is common to madame matise find husbands and wives exploiting the reef together. The most usual techniques employed do not require canoes, however. They involve one or two individuals with minimal gear: goggles, perhaps a spear, and occasionally small gill nets. Night fishing ( sulu ) is also practiced, although the technique has changed during the past decade. Previously, benzine lanterns were used, and one would walk on the reef at low tide or spearfish from a canoe. Today it is more common for young men to dive at night using an underwater flashlight. In general, there has been a dramatic decline in the use of canoes in the past few years.
Bennett reports that men with whom he previously fished in the deep sea no longer go out, and young men show little interest (Bennett, personal communication). As the cash flow to horizontal as: Rotuma has increased, largely as a result of remittances (Rensel 1994), the islanders have exploited marine resources less and less, so that consumption of tinned fish now exceeds that of fresh fish. Matise. A few years ago a Fisheries report documented an average annual per capita consumption of 30 tins of mackerel, a total wet weight equivalent of more than 40 tons of fish. The authors comment on the unimportance of fishing in daily life, in Essay on In stark contrast to the strong fishing traditions of other Polynesian peoples (Fisheries Division n.d.:5).  The 1989 household survey (see note 18) included an inventory of matise selected items, including canoes and boats. Seventy-six households (18.4 percent) reported owning a canoe, and seven households (1.6 percent) reported owning a punt or launch with an outboard motor. All canoes were owned by individual households, and when buy pixar nearly all had been built by a member of the household.  One man, with the matise title Sautiak, owned a small fishing boat with an Essay on In Defense Of Abortion inboard engine. Matise. Sautiak identified five fishing areas that he exploits. Three were off the west end of the island, including Whale Bank Reef; one was to did disney the east, another to the southeast of Noa'tau. The furthest destination, Captain Read Reef is some forty-eight kilometers to the south-southeast of Rotuma.  It is approximately sixteen kilometers long and rises to within twelve fathoms of the surface.
According to a report from the madame matise Fiji Ministry of Court Assisted Agriculture and madame Fisheries, this location is likely to be very productive for both pelagic and bottom fish, and can be fished with a reasonable margin of Court Assisted Suicide safety during favourable weather in the SE trades, when prevailing winds would favour sail-assisted return of a disabled vessel to Rotuma (Fisheries Division n.d.:18). Sautiak takes twenty liters of fuel with him on each trip, which he says is more than enough. Madame Matise. He locates sites with a compass and uses a depth sounder to determine optimal fishing grounds. When fishing close to Rotuma, he uses alignments of landmarks on richard trenton, the island and madame matise watches for sea birds feeding at the reef breaks. He uses metal hooks of Japanese manufacture on nylon line, and does both deep-water drops and trolling.
He goes out once a week or so when his boat is in good repair. Most of his expeditions are extremely fruitful, and he distributes his catch to friends and family, although he usually sells a portion. Since demand far exceeds the supply, selling fresh fish is as:, very easy. He has considered fishing on a commercial basis, but the main problem is storage. He said that unless he had cold storage facilities on board he could not stay out long enough to make it pay. A group from the district of Malhaha formed a cooperative a few years ago in which fishing was to be a major activity. They bought two boats and a large, walk-in freezer to store their catch. But they had difficulty with the freezer and some of the fish spoiled, leading a health inspector to condemn their entire frozen stock on several occasions.
As a result, they endured financial losses and madame matise their backers, a group of Rotumans in Fiji, withdrew financial support. After a while the freezer broke down completely. One of the boats was repossessed by the bank and sold to a group from Hapmak; the other developed a leak and was still in analysis is also known drydock on our last visit to the island. The Hapmak group uses the boat for madame matise, commercial fishing on a sporadic basis, going out when there is richard trenton, a special need for fish and when sailing conditions are optimal. Matise. Another group, from Itu'muta, bought John Bennett's catamaran with the stated intention of starting a fishing enterprise, but they go out only occasionally, and the venture has foundered. Despite a consistent demand for fish and recognition of richard trenton commercial possibilities, little has been done to capitalize on madame matise, the potential. A lack of storage facilities and sufficient financing to keep operations going through lean periods have clearly been factors. But the is also fact that many Rotumans in Fiji are engaged in commercial deep-sea fishing suggests an aversion to the rigors of the deep is madame matise, not at issue.  While it is probably true that economic payoffs on Court Assisted Suicide Essay, Rotuma are insufficient to offset investment costs in madame matise time and money,  a more important factor may be a failure in leadership. On In Defense Of Abortion. This is the opinion of Bennett, who is matise, familiar with both the Malhaha and Itu'muta ventures. Richard Trenton. The leaders in each case were assertive individuals viewed as serving their own self-interests rather than the group at large.
In the Itu'muta case, the young men expressed dissatisfaction with spending all day fishing only to find the catch inequitably distributed among participants (J. Madame Matise. Bennett, personal communication). Known. Problems of leadership are endemic on Rotuma, especially when it comes to the management of financial resources. It may well be, therefore, that the kind of madame matise leadership required to sustain a fishing enterprise is absent on Rotuma, and that Rotumans engage in seabound ventures so much more readily abroad (and aboard European vessels), because they they find the leadership much more palatable. The importance of sailing as a focus of cultural experience for Rotumans is when did disney, evident in many ways. It is a source of solidarity between men who have sailed together and the subject of madame matise reminiscences when men congregate. Sailing experience also provides metaphoric content for a number of Court Cases sayings and for the content of madame matise songs and recitations. In some instances it constitutes the core of known as: personal identity, as in matise the case of a woman who changed her name to Al 'e sasi 'Died at sea' after her son was lost while serving aboard a ship.
Travel abroad, in general, is on In Of Abortion, metaphorically a sailing experience, and at its core remains a canoe journey. Thus, the notion that the traveler arrives with salt on his body is central to the Rotuman ritual of mamasa , welcoming a returnee or first-time visitor to the island. The term mamasa means 'to be dry' or 'to become dry', and matise is used in reference to a ceremony performed when people return from a sea voyage or, in earlier times, from a dangerous deep-sea fishing expedition (Churchward 1940a:258). Presumably when people arrived by canoe, or by steamer prior to the building of a wharf at Oinafa in the 1970s, they landed wet and had to be dried and provided with clothes; hence the reference to drying out. The mamasa is one of several life crisis events that involve the on In central symbols of matise Rotuman ceremonial performances: sacrificial pigs, kava, sweet-smelling oil, garlands, and fine white pandanus mats ( apei ). The recipient of analysis is also a mamasa ceremony ( forau ) is seated in matise the place of honor upon a pile of mats ( päega ) topped with an apei , which symbolizes his or her elevation to a god-like status for the duration of the event. What A Registered. Apei are the prime form of traditional wealth on Rotuma, and are necessary elements in any formal ceremony. Each apei is consecrated by a koua 'sacrificial slaughter and cooking of a pig in madame an earth oven'; it symbolizes life and blessings from the richard trenton gods. While seated on the päega the forau is presented with a tefui 'garland', tied around his or her neck by a woman designated to play the welcoming role. The woman then performs the madame matise mamia , which in richard trenton ordinary circumstances means 'to wash a person or fishing net in fresh water after having been in the sea' (Churchward 1940a:259), but in matise this instance is symbolized by anointing the richard trenton honoree with sweet-smelling oil, which must be pure Rotuman oil.
This highly symbolic act signifies cleansing the body of salt from the sea (Nilsen 1977:80). In earlier times, the woman would take off the madame forau 's shirt and put a new one on him or her, then present him or her with a new lavalava (Marseu 1986:5).  This act is followed by a kava ceremony and formal presentation of food. The forau is richard trenton, given the head of the madame matise largest pig (reserved for the person of highest status during feasts), which is placed in front of him or her on when buy pixar, a ceremonial table ( 'umefe ). He or she is also served kava before anyone else present, including chiefs. If the ceremony is an elaborate one, for a person of madame matise high status or someone whose achievements abroad brought honor to the community, dances and songs composed for the occasion may be performed, glorifying the person's adventures or accomplishments. The mamasa ceremony has at least two clear functions. One is to reintegrate sojourners back into Rotuman life by communicating their importance to the community and elevating their status, if only for the duration of the event. Attention is called to their absence and return, to their bravery in leaving the island, and to their accomplishments.
They are made to as: feel special. The ceremony's other function is to celebrate the triumph of life over death. Matise. Like all Rotuman ceremonies, the symbolism of the horizontal analysis mamasa emphasizes the regeneration of life forces: the sacrificial pig is a gift to the gods, who are supposed to respond by giving life to the land and madame matise its people; kava symbolizes bodily fluids that give life; and fragrant oils and flowers (in the form of a garland) suggest the sweet smells of Assisted Essay life as opposed to the stench of death.  Journeying beyond the reef for long periods was regarded as dangerous in the past; the madame mamasa was a way to offer thanks for a safe return. Another possible function, given the ambivalence Rotumans have toward the sea and things foreign, is symbolic purification. By washing away salt water residues with fresh water, they perhaps ritually cleanse sojourners of contamination not only by Defense, the sea, but by foreign influences of all kinds.
Rotuman sayings referring to sailing experiences can be lumped into four categories: (1) those calling attention to the special status of travellers; (2) those used metaphorically to call attention to hardships and fatigue; (3) those referring to chaos; and (4) those calling attention to undesirable behavior. The following examples are illustrative:  1. The special status of travellers. Matise. 'Ou la mat la'mou 'Your legs (or feet) are still wet'. Said to newcomers, suggesting that they have not yet fully integrated into community life. Richard Trenton. It can be used as a put-down to someone who expresses opinions prematurely after coming to the island. 2. Madame. Hardship and fatigue. Example Of Fallacies. Na ta lu 'Give a rope'. Said of people who work slowly, as if fatigued.
It refers to seafarers who, wearied by a long journey, need to be hauled up to the beach with a rope, like a punt. 3. Chaos. 'Itake vak lo 'Like a capsized canoe'. Said when there is a sudden crisis and everyone starts talking at once, but no one knows what to do, and nothing gets done. It also applies where one can not hear because of the madame noise. 4. Undesirable Behavior. Vak ta lelei ka sam ta raksa'a 'the canoe is good but the Defense outrigger is bad'. Metaphorically, the man is good, but his wife is not. This is generally used in reference to a chief and his wife, since the term vaka is a common metaphor for a chief. Songs are composed in several formats referring to travel abroad, including chants that accompany action dances and compositions in a modern pan-Pacific format accompanied by guitar, ukelele and other instruments. An example of such a song is presented by Mosese Kaurasi (1977:145-146): Rotuman Version Tefui hata vasa 'e tier Ma noa la se maoen 'ae 'e fue Api ma roa 'ae 'e matit fak use Tari te Rotuma noh fak rotue English Translation The garlands of pandanus fruit and gardenia Be careful not to get lost out there You've lingered long in the cold of the matise rain Your relatives are awaiting you in Nurse Essay Rotuma Recitations.
Ritual presentations of kava occupy a central place in nearly all Rotuman ceremonies. Madame Matise. A key part of the ritual is the recitation of a fakpeje , a text generally associated with the legendary coming of What it Takes to Be Nurse kava to Rotuma. Recitations are given by male elders ( mafua ), usually in a language so esoteric that most people cannot follow their meaning. Rotumans often describe fakpeje as composed of archaic words whose meanings have been lost. I suspect, however, that a lack of intelligibility has always been central to such recitations, perhaps to accentuate the foreign origin of kava. The prevailing myth concerning kava's origin has it coming from Tonga, which in its generic sense is a place over or under the matise sea inhabited by potent beings or spirits. That Rotumans associate experiences overseas and aboard ship with the foreignness (and potency) attributed to kava can be seen in a fakpeje recorded by Hocart on Rotuma in 1913.
In this instance, intelligibility seems to Cases be obscured by the seemingly random juxtaposition of English phrases, with Rotuman words interspersed: A below, way about riepouj how many nu le for here ten mile and madame a quarter two far off all pull up to which you can't go up there its too heavy good kuretemene hard Adele lee o four yard forty gunsale forty mainsail pull off the guff topsail French ship jib stay sail jib fore poren where your head saw pau es you takes up. Collectively, Rotuman attitudes toward the sea are ambivalent. It has been a source of wondrous adventures for some, of seasickness for many, and of grief over losing kinsmen for others. Richard Trenton. For all Rotumans, boats represent connections to matise the outside world. For those on the island, boats are bridges to relatives abroad, transporters of vital supplies, and the means by which money is earned through the shipping of copra. Days when boats arrive and leave are major occasions. That the sea beyond the reef is dangerous comes home repeatedly. A number of Rotumans have been lost in recent years during seafaring adventures. Some have gone fishing and never returned.
News of buy pixar crewmembers aboard vessels that have sunk arrives periodically. During my 1989 visit, a freighter sank in a storm off Nova Scotia; it had five Rotuman crew members aboard who went down with the ship. Shortly before this tragedy, a Rotuman helicopter pilot was killed in a crash on the U.S. mainland,  lending even more emphasis to the dangers of sailing, since sea and sky are associated in Rotuman cultural idiom (airplanes are called 'ahai fere 'flying ships'). Such tragedies have fed the mystique with which the sea is endowed by most Rotumans. They conceive of the matise sea, and Essay on In Of Abortion what happens in and on it, as dangerous and unpredictable on the one hand, enriching and vitalizing on madame, the other.
Their attitudes have been shaped, in part, by the unpredictability of shipping over the years. Vessels sometimes do not arrive for months at a time, resulting in empty stores and Assisted Suicide varying degrees of hardship. At other times several ships may arrive within days of each other. Despite numerous efforts on the part of matise well-placed officials, shipping to Rotuma has remained erratic since the initial arrival of Europen vessels. It has been the source of much black humor on the island. For example, when I heard on Fiji Radio that a boat was scheduled to sail for Rotuma in a week and mentioned it to my Rotuman friend, he laughed and told me always to multiply the time interval by two or three. On several occasions Rotumans have attempted to gain control of shipping by purchasing and operating their own vessel.
As early as 1901 they had a schooner built to of fallacies ship copra and take passengers between Rotuma and Sydney via Suva. The fifty-ton vessel cost over madame matise, 2,000 pounds and operated for eighteen months before sinking on a reef at Rotuma (Eason 1951:89-90). Example. Most recently, in 1992, a Rotuman group purchased an interisland vessel, the madame Wairua , at a cost of it Takes to Be a Registered Fiji $250,000. It went aground on madame, a reef at Essay on In, Kadavu in August 1993 and was judged unsalvageable. The evidence reviewed in this essay raises questions about Rotuma's maritime tradition at madame, the time of horizontal known European contact.
Although there is no doubt that Rotumans occasionally voyaged to islands in madame their general vicinity, and perhaps beyond, their canoes were described by European observers as of poor quality, and their navigational knowledge was characterized as limited. Taken at face value, these observations suggest Rotuma lacked the highly developed maritime traditions that characterized some of its mid-Pacific neighbors. If so, this may have resulted from risks being greater than potential benefits, given Rotuma's isolation and productivity. Rotuma is an exceptionally fertile island, not often subjected to the devastating droughts and hurricanes that forced periodic migrations in other parts of the Pacific. There may have been little motivation to develop long-distance sailing skills. A second possibility is that Rotumans may have possessed a sophisticated sailing culture that deteriorated prior to European contact. The only hope of verifying such a prior tradition would be through archaeological investigations yet to buy pixar be done. A third possibility is that Rotuman seafaring skills were in fact highly developed, but that opportunities to sail aboard European vessels led to an extraordinarily rapid erosion of matise traditional maritime technology and knowledge. Perhaps, it might be argued, the most skillful sailors took advantage of the opportunities European ships offered, and richard trenton they distinguished themselves because they already had the personal characteristics that made them good sailors, regardless of the craft involved. That sailing, and canoes in particular, have remained central symbols in Rotuman culture lends weight to such an argument. Matise. Regardless of which scenario one favors, it seems clear that the character traits developed on this remote island were consistent with those required for seafaring, especially where responsibility to one's shipmates was central.
The contributions of sailors to Rotuman society have been substantial. Until outmigration resulted in overseas enclaves, following World War II, they were the main source of acculturative influences. Today travelers characteristically send remittances to buy pixar their families and, when returning, bring expensive goods such as radios, refrigerators and motorbikes. For these reasons, among others, sailing continues to be a high status occupation for Rotumans.  For detailed information concerning the geology of Rotuma, see Woodhall 1987. [back to text]  W.E. Russell, who served as resident commissioner on Rotuma in the 1920s, published an account taken from the notes of F. Gibson, a part-Rotuman man, that reported canoe voyages allegedly made by Rotumans to Tikopia, Malekula, Santo, Nanumea (Ellice Islands), Tonga, and Fiji (Russell 1942:253). A man by matise, the name of Pani and example two other unnamed men from Malhaha and Losa, respectively, were said by Gibson's informants to be the last canoe voyagers to go abroad and return.
I regard this report with considerable skepticism, however, since it was given over one hundred years from the time interisland canoe voyages had ceased. [back to text]  Allen served as a Methodist missionary on Rotuma for several years during the 1880s. [back to madame matise text]  Hocart, during his visit to Rotuma in 1913, elicited the names of What it Takes to Be a Registered several constellations, some of which were associated with sailing directions, but it is unclear whether this information represented indigenous knowledge (Hocart 1913:4944-4946) MacGregor's notes also contain a number of entries concerning astronomy, but only madame, one entry refers to the navigational use of stars. He records the name Takirua as two stars between which the course is laid from Wallis to Rotuma (Macgregor 1932). [back to text]  The spelling of Rotuman words was standardized following Churchward's publication of his Rotuman Grammar and Dictionary in 1940. When Did Disney Buy Pixar. I use Churchward's orthography in my own writing and following other authors' usage I include Churchward's spelling in brackets if it is different. For an explanation of the orthography see Churchward 1940a:13. [back to text]  MacGregor also records in his notes from this consultant, a man named Niua: These canoes carried from 60-100 people and traveled to Fiji, Futuna and Sufaia? [sic] in the Ellice. Ngofe was a famous captain of the last Oinafa ahoi [ 'ahai ]. Planks still in madame Oinafa (Macgregor 1932). Essay On In Defense Of Abortion. Again, given the time lapse from the period in which such voyages might have been made, one must be cautious interpreting this report as factual knowledge. Madame Matise. [back to richard trenton text]  Ororo refers to a contrivance made of large number of matise half coconut-shells threaded on a wooden hoop, and drawn up and down in the water, thereby making a noise which attracts sharks to the proximity of the baited hooks that are out for them (Churchward 1940:275). It is on In Of Abortion, also used in reference to fishing for sharks with the help of ororo . [back to text]  MacGregor's consultant mentioned this to him when asked why there were only two strips on one border of his canoe. Madame Matise. The man said that the wood was not long enough to reach from bow piece to stern piece. [back to text]  Identification of penau , togoi , 'ura and ratu'a trees are from Whistler (1989). He did not identify sa'a , which Churchward describes as a tree growing to What to Be a Registered large size, with very large leaves and long straight branches. The bark, at first, is greyish-green and very smooth. Bears bunches of small whitish flowers.
Timber, white, much used in house-building and canoe-making (Churchward 1940a:307). Matise. [back to text]  Hocart, in a brief article published in 1914, reported that as the result of a curse, turtle nets were no longer being made in at least in one district (Hocart 1914). [back to text]  According to Churchward the phrase jao 'atua 'beating ghosts' is sometimes used (1940a:231). [back to text]  I am indebted to John Bennett for to Be a Registered Nurse, pointing this out to me. [back to text]  Another consultant told MacGregor that the last seu involved twenty-one taf'aga canoes. [back to madame text]  Two years earlier, Arthur Gordon inquired into labor recruiting on Rotuma and richard trenton obtained figures for five districts (Itu'ti'u, Itu'muta, Juju, Pepjei and Malhaha). They showed 177 men known to be away, approximately one-third of madame them married (Outward Letters,dispatch from A. Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 4 December 1879, ). [back to text] A significant portion of the men who were away had been recruited as laborers to work in the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa, and horizontal analysis had difficulty returning. In a series of dispatches during 1883, William Gordon, the resident commissioner, requested assistance in having the 50-60 men in matise the Hawaiian Islands, and Defense an unspecified number from Samoa, repatriated. He commented that the men in Samoa had been paid in goods instead of money and matise were thus unable to pay for passage home.  Gardiner also commented on horizontal known as:, the disgrace endured by Rotuman men who had not been to foreign lands (Gardiner 1898:407). Madame. He speculated (p. 497) that, although it was not uncommon for a hundred or more young men to leave the island in a year, not more than one-third ever returned. [back to buy pixar text]  The population may have been protected as a result of the prevalence of virulent yaws, which has a complementary distribution with syphilis (see Howard 1979). [back to text]  The practice of informing chiefs when departing the island is matise, still carried out to some extent, although it has noticeably declined over the past fifteen years. Chiefs enforce the regulation to when did disney varying degrees. Protocol calls for madame, an individual to inform his village chief ( fa 'es ho'aga ), who in turn informs the district chief, who then informs the example of fallacies district officer (J.
Bennett, personal communication). This regulation, however, conflicts with the right to freedom of movement within Fiji guaranteed by the initial and post-coup constitutions. A recent case, in which the district officer attempted to confine a woman to the island on the grounds that her children might not be properly cared for, highlighted this contradiction and resulted in a threatened lawsuit. [back to text]  The survey was conducted by school teachers hired as research assistants, supervised by myself and my wife, Jan Rensel, who was pursuing doctoral research on the island at the time. The survey included all of Oinafa, Malhaha, Itu'muta and Itu'ti'u districts, and most of Juju and Noa'tau. Pepjei was omitted as a result of madame matise interviewer difficulties. [back to horizontal is also text]  In late 1990 a recruitment program was launched in Fiji for up to sixty Rotumans to become the matise core crew for a newly commissioned cable ship having English officers (J. Bennett, personal communication). [back to text]  These are the same reasons given by supervisors at the Vatukoula gold mines for What it Takes Essay, favoring Rotuman workers (see Howard 1966:266). [back to text]  The Fisheries Division report concludes that the madame matise sea around Rotuma offers considerable opportunity for commerically viable fishing enterprises, but they identify three major problems: (1) the lack of suitable vessels to exploit the productive areas; (2) inadequate facilities for fishing vessels, including lack of an all-weather anchorage; absence of maintenance facilities; occasional fuel shortages; and the lack of ice, gear, storage, and marketing facilities for fisherman; and buy pixar (3) the isolation of the island (Fisheries Division n.d.:18-20). [back to text]  Household size averaged 5.8 persons in 1989. Madame. For a discussion of household types on Rotuma, and how they have changed over the past three decades, see Howard 1991. Horizontal Analysis Known As:. [back to text]  The reef is named after its discoverer, Captain Read, aboard the matise hydrographic vessel M.V. Tangaroa, which carried out richard trenton, a survey for phosphate deposits in madame matise the region in 1976. [back to text]  According to information provided by Vilsoni Hereniko, obtained from his sister Vamarasi, his brother Mua, and Isireli Motofaga, a boat owner in Lautoka, at least five Rotumans in Fiji own fishing vessels and are engaged in commercial fishing.
Their boats were purchased with the help of Essay on In Of Abortion bank loans. Two of the boat owners captain their own vessels and sail with a hired crew ranging from two to four, depending on availability. The other owners remain on land while a hired crew goes out to sea. Madame Matise. One of the boats is quite large, and the crew sometimes remains at sea for up to a month. The other boats are smaller and usually stay out for about two weeks at a time, depending on weather. When. The large boat's catch can bring in madame matise between F$3,000-5,000 per trip, while the smaller ones usually bring in catches worth between F$2,000-3,000 per Defense Of Abortion trip.
The larger vessel may wait several weeks before expeditions, while the smaller ones go out more frequently, sometimes waiting only a few days before going out to sea again. [back to madame text]  According to to Be Essay Hereniko's brother, Mua, the absence of reefs beyond the fringing reef around Rotuma limits access to such commercially profitable fish as tuna or walu, which eat smaller fish that feed off reefs. Mua believes this at least partly accounts for the absence of commercial fishing on Rotuma. Fiji, in contrast, has extensive offshore reefs, offering better opportunities for commercial fishing. [back to text]  This practice is matise, occasionally followed today but is not now regarded as essential to the ceremony. [back to text]  These symbolic associations are my inferences and were not explicitly provided by informants. They are based primarily on my analyses of symbolism contained in Rotuman myths (Howard 1985, 1986). [back to text]  The sayings included here have been obtained from an unpublished collection by of fallacies, Elisapeti Inia. Additional information was obtained from matise Aubrey Parke's published collection of Rotuman Idioms (Parke 1971). [back to text]  The young man was flying mercy missions for a company located in Spokane, Washington. [back to text] 1885-6 Rotooma and the Rotoomans. Proceedings . 1st sets:130-44. 1895 Rotuma. Report of Australasian Association for Advancement of Science, pp. 556-79. 1938 Isle of Rotuma: curious place in Central Polynesian history.
Pacific Islands Monthly . December 15, 1938. Sydney, Australia. 1831 A recent visit to Essay several of the Polynesian Islands. United Service Journal 33:198-202, 473-482. Cheever, George N. 1834-1835 Log of the ship Emerald . Pacific Manuscript Bureau, frame 31. Churchward, C. Maxwell. 1939 Tales of a Lonely Island.
Sydney: Australian Medical Publishing Co., Ltd. 1940 Rotuman Grammar and Dictionary. Sydney: Australasian Medical Publishing Co. 1829 Narrative . . . of a Voyage in the South Seas. London: Hurst Chance. Eagleston, John Henry. 1832 Log of the madame ship Emerald, Vol. 3. Example Of Fallacies. Peabody Museum, Salem, Mass. Eason, William J. E. 1951 A Short History of Rotuma. Suva, Fiji: Government Printing Department.
1961 History and Traditions of Tikopia. Wellington: The Polynesian Society. 1947 Rotuman crews on overseas vessels. Archive F22/44. Fisheries Division, Ministry of matise Agriculture and Fisheries. n.d. The Fishery Resources of Rotuma. Suva, Fiji.
1870 The Wesleyan Missionary Notices. No. Essay On In Defense Of Abortion. 13 Vol. III. Sidney: Australian Wesleyan Methodist Conference. 1875 Two Years in Fiji. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 1898 Natives of Rotuma. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 27:396-435, 457-524. 1913 Field Notes on Rotuma. Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.
1914 The disappearance of a useful art in Rotuma. Madame Matise. Man 14:162-163. 1936 The Canoes of Court Cases Polynesia, Fiji and Micronesia. Honolulu: Special Publication of the B.P. Bishop Museum, No. 27. 1970 Learning to matise Be Rotuman. Essay On In. New York: Columbia Teachers College Press. 1985 History, myth and Polynesian chieftainship: the case of Rotuman Kings. In Transformations of Polynesian Culture, edited by A. Hooper and J. Huntsman, pp.39-77, Auckland: Polynesian Society.
1991 Reflections on change in Rotuma, 1959-1989. In Rotuma: Hanua Pumue: Precious Land. edited by Anselmo Fatiaki et. al, pp. 227-54. Matise. Suva, Fiji: Institute for Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. 1838 Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas, in it Takes a Registered Nurse Essay the Japan, Employed in the Sperm Whale Fishery, under the Command of Capt. John May. London: Longman and madame matise Co. and example of fallacies Charles Tilt. 1977 Rotuman chants, sports and pastimes.
In Rotuma: Split Island, edited by Chris Plant,pp. 143-52. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the matise South Pacific. 1838-9 Voyage Autour du Monde . Richard Trenton. . Matise. . sur . . .'La Coquille'. Paris: Pourrat Fréres. 1851 Rovings in the Pacific, 1837-49 . . Cases Assisted Essay. . by a Merchant Long Resident in Tahiti.
London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longman. 1932 Rotuma Field Notes. Bishop Museum Archives. Honolulu, Hawaii. SC McGregor. 1980 Canoes of Rotuma. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 15:51-55. 1986 The Rotuman mamasa ceremony.
In Pacific Rituals: Living or Dying, edited by Gweneth Deverell and Bruce Deverell, pp. 3-22. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. 1977 The mamasa ceremony. In Rotuma: Split Island, edited by Chris Plant, pp. Madame. 79-87. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. Osborn, Joseph W.
1834-1835 Log of the ship Emerald. Richard Trenton. Pacific Manuscript Bureau, Reel 223, frame 359. n.d. Rotuma District Office. Suva: Fiji Central Archives. 1971 Rotuman Idioms. Auckland: Te Reo Monographs, Linguistic Society of New Zealand.
1994 For Love or Money: Interhousehold Exchange and the Economy of matise Rotuma. PhD Dissertation, Anthropology Department, University of it Takes a Registered Nurse Hawai'i. 1939 Legislative Council Papers . Suva, Fiji: Government Press. 1942 Rotuma. Journal of the Polynesian Society 51:229-255. 1915 Voyage of H.M.S. 'Pandora'.
London: Francis Edwards. 1989 Ethnobotany of Rotuma. Manuscript. 1799 A Missionary Voyage to the Southern Pacific Ocean. London: Chapman. 1875 A Yachting Cruise in the South Seas. London: Henry King.
1987 Geology of Rotuma. Suva, Fiji: Mineral Resources Department, Ministry of matise Lands, Energy Mineral Resources.
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essaying assaying Assaying Gold and Silver Ores: Fire Assaying and Other Testing Methods. Interested in testing your ore to assay its gold and silver content? Before you get going too far, take a look at the following information. The goal of assaying and testing any potential gold and silver bearing materials is to madame matise, determine their metals content. While it is sometimes possible to look at a sample and Court Suicide Essay guess its possibilities, more often than not, in madame, order to when buy pixar, have an accurate idea of how valuable in ore is it must be analyzed.
The results of these tests are usually reported in the form of madame matise parts per million or also as ounces per ton. When Did Disney. The modern assay office is a true analytical laboratory, with the capacity to analyze many types of materials to determine their metals content. Madame Matise. A century ago, the fire assay and a few other methods were the only ones used. Today advanced equipment analyzes a variety of samples not just by fire assay, but by atomic absorption, mass spectroscopy and other specialized techniques. When you are doing anything with hard rock materials, sampling and assaying are the key concepts. Before any material is taken to be assayed, the sample must first be collected.
Accurate samples, ones which reflect the analysis is also known true average of the material must be obtained. If the sample does not reflect the average nature of the material, no amount of technical accuracy in madame, processing the sample will provide a correct result. The first step in any assay is sample preparation (I have a separate web page on methods for crushing and pulverizing rock samples and specimens). If the sample is wet, it is richard trenton, first dried, then crushed. It is split into matise, a reasonable fraction, and then pulverized to a powder. Splits of the pulverized powder are then set aside for various analysis methods, depending on what analysis is to be done. Only a small part of the actual sample is actually analyzed.
Between each sample, the crushing and pulverizing equipment is cleaned off to prevent cross contamination of the samples. The famous fire assay has been around for more than 500 years, but it still is the best method for determining the quantity of Cases Suicide Essay gold in a rock matrix. The fire assay process works by fusing or dissolving the matise rock sample in a crucible using a lead glass flux. Horizontal Analysis Is Also Known. Fluxes of various types are used on various types of ores. Most flux mixes contain sodium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate, borax, litharge (lead oxide) and flour. A typical flux mix might contain five parts sodium bicarbonate for parts potassium carbonate to parts borax one part flour and eight parts litharge.
The flour servers to reduce some of the litharge to lead metal. This flux works for matise most oxidized ores. For ores rich in sulfides, the flour may be omitted and from one to four nails added according to the amount in nature of the example of fallacies sulfides. In this type of madame flux, the nails serve to reduce the litharge to lead as well as the reduction of the sulfides. The art of selecting the correct flocks for fire assay test is not extremely difficult but it does take some understanding of minerals and their reactions.
Once the fluxes selected it is mixed with a known quantity of the pulverized ore sample, and the two are heated in a crucible to a bright red heat (the amount of pulverized sample used is often 29.166 g, or one assay ton). Example Of Fallacies. With the reactions are complete, the crucible is removed and the molten glass formed of the flux and ore sample is poured off. The remaining lead metal at the bottom of the crucible is poured into a mold where the lead settles to madame, the bottom and the whole mass cools and solidifies. Once cool, the molds are turned over and the lead buttons removed. This mass of lead metal contains all the gold and silver was present in the sample. The mass of Court Assisted lead metal is then placed on a cupel made of bone ash. This material is such that it readily absorbs lead oxide which has properties like glass, but does not absorb metal. The lead button is placed in madame, the cupel and heated.
During this process areas allowed into the furnace in the lead metal is oxidized to lead oxide. The oxide then is richard trenton, either absorbed into the cupel, or volatized off into madame, the atmosphere. What is left is a tiny bead containing all of the gold and What to Be Essay silver that was in the original sample. The bead is then weighed, and madame the total weight of the gold and silver together is known. Did Disney. After this, the gold and silver are parted by flattening to madame, bead and putting it in a solution of dilute nitric acid. Dilute nitric will dissolve the silver but not the gold. The remaining purified gold is then weighed. Richard Trenton. The weight of the silver in the assay is madame matise, calculated by subtracting the weight of the gold from the weight of the Court Assisted Suicide bead that contained both the gold and the silver. Using the known original weight of sample that was used in the assay, the weight of the gold in the weight of the madame silver, the content of the ore sample in ounces per ton (or other units) can be calculated. Although fire assay processes have been around for many centuries, they are still somewhat of a mystery to many miners.
As result, sometimes unscrupulous operators will proclaim that they have developed #147;secret#148; assay processes which can find gold, silver, or platinum group metals that no other assay process can detect. While improper fire assay methods or incorrect fluxes can cause problems, when properly done a fire assay is extremely reliable method of determining the Essay on In gold and silver content of an madame ore sample. The details of how to do a fire assay correctly, and the proper fluxes and how they are made, have been written about and published in many books. They are not secret in richard trenton, any way. Nearly all of these special #147;secret#148; assay processes are eventually proven to be fraud. In addition to the precious metals themselves, the exploration geologist is also interested in a suite of madame matise elements that are known as #147;indicator#148; or pathfinder elements. These include mercury, arsenic, antimony, thallium and others.
Increased levels of example these elements may indicate valuable gold or silver deposits nearby. Matise. To measure these elements, the sample must be digested and put into a water solution. There are several methods to put the elements into solution, but the most common is to dissolve them in a heated solution of aqua regia acid (aqua regia is a combination of Hydrochloric and Nitric acids). Other acid digestions include one doe with a combination of Hydrofluoric, nitric, Perchloric and a final leach with hydrochloric acid #150; this is called a#148;4 acid#148; process and achieves a near complete digestion of the when did disney buy pixar sample. The resulting leach liquid, no matter the digestion process, is analyzed with special equipment. The instruments used in these analyses measure very small quantities of madame matise these indicator elements, and Defense Of Abortion include atomic absorption, x-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma with atomic emission spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Assay results from a modern lab are not cheap to obtain. Just for madame comparison sake, recently dropped off seven samples to be analyzed by fire assay for gold and by atomic absorption for suite of richard trenton pathfinder or indicator elements. The samples cost a bit more than $26 apiece to analyze, and they do want their payment in advance. In addition, because of the high price of gold and silver, and the resulting increase in exploration activity, the processing time for my samples was about matise, four weeks.
Turn around times are a lot longer these days as the horizontal analysis is also known as: assay labs are quite busy. A new type of test which is been done in recent decades, is the bottle roll test. This is a preliminary test to determine the leach ability of an ore by cyanide. In this type of test, a known quantity of pulverized sample is placed in a bottle with dilute cyanide solution. The bottle is placed on an apparatus that rotates the madame matise bottle keeping the sample and cyanide solution mixing together at all times. After certain amount of example time, usually 24 hours, the solution is sampled in the amount of gold which contains is determined. Madame Matise. Usually a portion of the sample is richard trenton, treated by fire assay as well, so calculations can be made to determine the percentage of gold recovered by the bottle leach process. Similarly, there are also processes where a large diameter plastic pipe is filled with crushed ore material, and cyanide solution is percolated down through a vertical pipe and collected.
After certain amount of madame time circulating the cyanide solution down through the material in the pipe, the solution is tested for its gold and silver content. This process is of fallacies, known as a column leach test. Each of these two cyanide leach tests have their own specific benefits. A Simple But Accurate Free Gold Field Test You Can Perform. The old time prospectors when they were out searching in the field for new veins would do a rough assay by crushing or samples and carefully panning the results. With some experience and a careful examination of the amount of gold present, they could make some excellent visual of the estimates of the amount of free gold in the ore. This method has its limitations, because it is possible to have significant gold which is not free, or too small to be panned and seen by the prospector. Still it was a handy and quick way to madame matise, estimate the on In Defense gold content and know quickly if they had struck it rich without having to carry hundreds of samples in to the nearest assay office. For Gold Prospecting:
With modern tools, it is possible to madame matise, make a better estimate of the amount of #147;free gold#148; present in an ore. In many ways this is like extracting the gold from high grade specimens, but the difference is in the calculation of values. You'll need a scale capable of weighing a few hundred grams, and the second scale capable of weighing small amounts, preferably one 100th of a carat (a carat is equal to 1/5 of a gram). This second scale needs to be extra accurate #150; I paid about $40 for it Takes Essay my 1/100 carat scale. The first step in this process is to determine the weight of the sample you are going to madame, process. Realistically, your sample should be in the range of richard trenton no less than 5 pounds up to about 15 pounds. You will need to weigh your sample, and determine it#146;s weight in grams. This may take a number of steps as you weigh parts of the madame sample on your scale and Essay add them up until you get the weight of the total sample.
The greater the weight of madame your original sample, the more accurate the results will be, but you will also be doing a lot more work to crush the of fallacies sample to matise, size. Be sure to write down the exact weight of the sample because you will need this number later. The next step is to crush and pulverize the sample. Buy Pixar. There are a number of madame matise ways to crush a sample down, and I have a separate web page discussing methods for crushing and pulverizing rock samples and specimens. Take a look at this webpage to get an idea of what methods you might want to use on Court Assisted Suicide Essay your sample.
You can find it here: Rock Crushing page. You will need to get your sample crushed down to a fine sand and powder size. This is necessary to be sure that you will recover all the gold in the sample. The next step is to carefully pan through your sample. You need to be very watchful about madame, what how you do this to be certain that you do not loose any fine gold. The whole purpose here is to get down through to a final fraction which has nothing but gold. Pan down until you only have about a couple teaspoons of material left.
Of course, you can use magnets to help remove magnetite. If you can produce a dry pure gold sample, you can weigh that, but in most cases you#146;ll need some additional help. Take a small blob of mercury about the Court Cases Assisted size of a small bean, and carefully weigh it on the 1/100 th carat scale. The blob should weigh about matise, 15 carats or so (around 3 grams). Be sure to write down the example of fallacies exact weight and then add it to your pan. Shake your pan until all the gold is collected by the mercury.
Don't over do it and madame shake the pan so hard the mercury breaks all up into little pieces. Then remove the mercury and allow it to dry. Re-weigh the dry mercury (which now contains the free gold from analysis is also known as:, your sample). Subtract the original weight of the final weight now containing the gold. This gives the madame matise weight of the gold. See my web page on Essay on In Defense Of Abortion amalgamation to matise, see more information on the hazards and use of mercury to recover gold. You can find it here: Using Mercury page. Once you have the weight of the gold, and you have the weight of the it Takes to Be a Registered original sample. You can use the following method to madame matise, determine the weight per ton of gold in the ore. Mass assays: calculating the content. Weight of your sample in grams / 908000 grams per ton = weight of your sample in tons.
Weight of your sample in carats / 155.5 carats per troy ounce = wt. of What to Be Nurse Essay your sample in ounces. To determine the ounces per ton, do the following: (1 / weight of sample in tons) = Factor. Then the weight of the gold in troy ounces x the Factor = ounces gold per ton of madame matise rock. Now this result does not take into account the it Takes to Be a Registered Nurse purity of the free gold in the sample #150; and madame matise most natural gold does contain some silver and traces of base metals including copper. On the other hand, panning does not recover 100% of the it Takes Essay very finest gold, and even with small sand sized material, some gold will be lost in the tailings. The two effects kind of cancel each other out. In any case, it does give you a good feel for how much gold is in the rock.
Want to know a little bit more about this crazy prospector guy? Well, here's a little bit more about me, and how I got into prospecting: Chris' Prospecting Story Interested in seeing more gold? Here are some interesting photos of beautiful Gold Nuggets.