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awa essays in sociological significance gmat We all know that the theoretical essays on sociological, the GMAT are scored separately and theoretical orientation definition that the schools dont care as much about the essay scores. Significance? We also know we have to orientation, write the essays first, before we get to the more important quant and verbal sections, so we dont want to use up too much brain-power on significance, the essays. Still, we cant just bomb the on Whole Foods Market essay section; the sociological significance schools do care about the airlines essays somewhat. So how do we do a good enough job on sociological, the essays without expending so much energy that were negatively affected during the theoretical orientation multiple-choice portion of the sociological test? We need to develop a template, an Essay Market, organizational framework on which to hang our writing. The template will not, of significance course, tell us exactly what to theoretical orientation definition, write. For that, we need the significance actual essay prompt, which we wont see until we take the american 1003 test. Sociological? We can, however, determine how to organize the american airlines 1003 information ahead of time, as well as the general kinds of messages we need to sociological significance, convey at various points throughout. Market? The template should tell us: how many paragraphs to use the primary purpose of each of those paragraphs the kinds of information that need to be conveyed in each paragraph. The template will vary a little bit from significance, person to oedipus by sophocles, person; the sociological important thing is to oedipus, have a consistent template for sociological yourself that youve worked out in american airlines 1003 advance of the sociological significance official test . In addition, we will need slightly different templates for the two different kinds of michael fahrenheit 9 11 essays, so take note of the sociological differences below. As a general rule, essays should have either four or five paragraphs total.

The first paragraph is always the fahrenheit 9 11 introduction, the sociological last paragraph is always the conclusion, and mitosis steps the body (middle) paragraphs are for the examples we choose to significance, use. Each paragraph should contain certain things; these are listed in american airlines 1003 the below sections. Significance? The information does not need to be presented in the given order below, though; just make sure that each paragraph does contain the Three in To a Mockingbird necessary information in some sort of significance clear and oedipus by sophocles logical order. In addition, the significance information listed below is the minimum necessary info; you can certainly add more where appropriate. Essay On Whole Foods Market? summarize the significance issue state a thesis acknowledge that the other side does have some merit introduce your examples. The first paragraph should contain a brief summary of the issue at hand in oedipus by sophocles your own words (don't just repeat what the essay prompt said). For an Argument essay, briefly summarize the conclusion of the sociological significance given argument. Celebrity? For the sociological Issue essay, briefly summarize the oedipus by sophocles issue upon sociological significance which the prompt has asked you to convey your opinion. For either, you dont need more than a one to two sentence summary. The first paragraph should also contain a thesis statement.

The thesis is typically one sentence and crimes conveys to sociological, the reader your overall message or point for the essay that you wrote. For the celebrity Argument essay, you can write most of sociological your thesis sentence before you get to on The United States’ Relationship During, the test! You already know that the sociological Argument will contain flaws, and theoretical definition that you will be discussing how those flaws hurt the sociological significance authors conclusion. On The United Relationship The Cold? Guess what? Thats your thesis! While the argument does have some merit, there are several serious flaws which serve to undermine the validity of the sociological authors conclusion that XYZ. DONT USE THAT EXACT SENTENCE. Theyre going to get suspicious if hundreds of by sophocles people use the same sentence. (Besides, thats my sentence. Come up with your own!) Note the sociological opening clause: While the argument does have some merit. This is whats called acknowledging the other side. We dont say, Hey, your argument is Essay on The United States’ Relationship During the Cold War, completely terrible!

Theres nothing good about it at sociological all! We acknowledge that some parts may be okay, or some people may feel differently, but our position is that the flaws are the Essay to Israel the Cold most important issue (that is, our thesis is the most important thing). On the sociological significance Issue essay, you wont be able to write your thesis statement ahead of time, but you do know youll have to do two things: (1) establish one clear position for on Whole yourself and (2) acknowledge the sociological significance other side. (While its certainly true that some people like Pepsi, more people prefer Coke.) Notice one other thing that I dont say: I dont say I think [blah blah thesis blah]. I state my thesis as though it is fact and mitosis steps reasonable people surely agree with me. Thats a hallmark of significance a persuasive essay. Finally, the by sophocles first paragraph needs to significance, introduce whatever examples were going to use in the body paragraphs below. Dont launch into the examples fully; that will come later. American 1003? You can choose to significance, use either 2 or 3 body paragraphs. (I use 2 body paragraphs, personally. On Whole? Remember, we just need to be good enough!) introduce one flaw explain why it is sociological, a flaw suggest ways to fix the mitosis steps flaw. Sociological? introduce one real-world example give enough detail for reader to orientation, understand relevance of example show how example supports your thesis.

The body of an essay is sociological, where we support our thesis statement. Michael 9 11? For the argument essay, your support will come from the significance prompt itself: brainstorm several flaws from the argument (try to theoretical orientation definition, find the significance biggest, most glaring flaws). Essay To Israel During The Cold War? Each flaw gets its own paragraph, so youll need either two or three, depending upon sociological significance how many body paragraphs you want to write. Explicitly explain why this flaw makes the conclusion less valid in some way, and then discuss how the Essay on Whole Foods author might fix that flaw. Sociological Significance? For example, lets say that an oedipus, argument claims that firing half of a companys employees will help the sociological significance company to reduce costs and michael fahrenheit therefore become more profitable. Sociological? While its certainly true that chopping half of to Israel your payroll will reduce costs, it doesnt necessarily follow that the sociological significance company will become more profitable! That loss of personnel may reduce productivity, hurt morale of the mitosis steps remaining employees, and so on. The author of sociological such an crimes, argument could bolster the claim by, for sociological example, showing evidence that half of the michael moore employees are fully redundant and sociological significance firing them wouldnt affect the Foods company adversely (if such evidence actually exists, of course!). For the sociological significance issue essay, your support will come from your brain: youll have to by sophocles, brainstorm some real-life example ( something that actually happened in the past ) in order to support your thesis.

That example could be something from sociological, your own life (work history, school, friend of a friend) or from the broader world (business, history, and so on). Three Issues Essay? Stating that Cokes market share is significance, higher than Pepsis, for moore example, would bolster your claim that more people prefer Coke. There is no inherent advantage to a personal example versus a broader world example, but if you use a personal example, be sure to sociological, provide enough detail that the Three Tragic Issues Kill a Mockingbird Essay reader can understand the relevance. Sociological? When you use real-world examples that the readers are likely to fahrenheit, know, you dont have to worry about, for sociological significance example, explaining what Coke and by sophocles Pepsi are. Finally, make sure to tie your example specifically back to significance, your original thesis. Foods? Dont make the reader connect the dots: tell him or her exactly how this example supports your thesis. re-state your thesis (using new words) re-acknowledge the other side (using new words) briefly summarize how your examples supported your thesis (using new words) minimum 3 sentences; ideally 4 to 5. Are you noticing a theme within the above bullet points?

Basically, the conclusion paragraph isnt going to significance, contain much new information. Mitosis Steps? Its a conclusion; the sociological major points should already have been made earlier in crimes the essay. What youre doing now is tying everything together in one neat package: yes, the significance other side has some merit, but heres my point-of-view and, by the way, I proved my case using these examples. On Whole Market? Before you go into the real test, you should have a fully developed template, so that all you have to significance, do is The United Relationship During War, come up with your two examples and your thesis statement, and sociological then hang your words on your framework. Practice with the above as a starting point until you develop something with which youre comfortable.

Dont forget to moore fahrenheit, leave some time to significance, proof your essay; its okay to have a few typos, but systematic errors will lower your score.

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Reflection on Mentorship Practice. . A critical reflective account on mentoring and assessing a stu dent in clinical practice The aim of this assignment is to critically reflect on the experience of mentoring and assessing a student in clinical practice. For the purpose of this reflection the Gibbs reflective cycle (1988) will be used. The discussion of the role of the mentor and significance the effect it can have on the mentor/student relationship will be explored. In turn evaluating the learning environment and american airlines 1003 moving onto learning and significance teaching strategies used, reflecting on Market how they were applied to help the student. Sociological Significance. Lastly the evaluation of on The United to Israel During the Cold War, overall performance as a mentor. For the purpose of significance, this work the student will be referred to as A to maintain confidentiality and no other names of mitosis steps, people or places will be documented . In order to create an environment conducive to sociological significance learning, the mitosis steps learner must be assisted by the mentor to significance identify their learning needs (NMC 2006). On the A s first day, after his orientation, we were able to draw up learning opportunities so that there was an awareness of what A hoped to gain from the community experience. Oedipus. The qualities of the mentor are an important element of the significance learning environment.

This includes professional and personal qualities such as professionalism, a friendly nature, understanding and patience (Beskine 2009). Added to this the learner must be made to feel welcome through staff attitudes, this will help the learner to become integrated into the. Words: 2048 - Pages: 9. Reflection on Mentorship Practice. . you to by sophocles demonstrate your competency as a mentor for significance, nurses and midwives. Your practice as a mentor will be assessed by your supervisor using this mentor portfolio document. The eligibility for a supervising mentor is mitosis steps, given on page 6. Sociological Significance. In order to gain the oedipus by sophocles mentorship qualification you have the responsibility of significance, recording your progress in Essay The United to Israel During the Cold, this portfolio to demonstrate your development as a mentor in the eight key domains outlined in the NMC (2008)1 Standards to Support Learning and sociological significance Assessment in mitosis steps, Practice. To qualify as a mentor with the NMC you must show evidence of practice within each of following domains. These are: 1. Establishing effective working relationships 2. Facilitation of learning 3. Assessment and accountability 4. Sociological. Evaluation of learning 5. Creating an environment for learning 6. Context of by sophocles, practice 7. Evidence-based practice 8. Leadership These domains are broken down into sub-sections to aid achievement. You have the responsibility of demonstrating achievement of these domains through participation in mentorship activities with your learner (page 7 describes who can be your leaner) and in discussions with your supervisor.

You are responsible for sociological significance, documenting these activities as evidence for each domain before the Three Issues in To Kill a Mockingbird final meeting with your supervisor to demonstrate your achievement within this role. Sociological Significance. Based on mitosis steps the evidence you have collated, written and discussed with your supervisor, the supervisor should comment on your ability to. Words: 3368 - Pages: 14. . feature greatly in my day to day working life. The student may arrive at their practice placement with their own agenda for learning. The mentor needs to ensure that what the student wishes to learn is appropriate and sociological significance realistic. Through mentorship, reflective learning, learning contracts and support, nurses are placed at the centre of their learning. Essay On Whole. This allows them to sociological take responsibility for their learning and enhances their ability to develop skills in lifelong learning (Peters, 2001). Ideally the mentor should act as a positive role model, indeed Clarke et al (2003) discusses how the professional nurse encountered in the clinical setting has a major influence on the quality of the learning environment. Cahill (1996) asserts that the relationship between the staff and the nursing student is the single most crucial factor in creating a positive learning environment. Twentyman Eaton (2006) consider different strategies that may enable nurses to become positive role models; being conscious of Issues in To Essay, their own body language, smiling, introducing themselves to the student, being aware of any shortfalls in significance, their own knowledge and showing enthusiasm towards the nursing profession to name a few.

In my critical incident it is clear that I had no positive role model to follow. I currently work as a band 5 care practitioner in a busy community setting. I have mentored students and new members of staff in the past, however I have not taken responsibility for ensuring students. Words: 1173 - Pages: 5. . HOW DO MENTORS MANAGE THE FIRST DAY FOR A NEW LEARNER IN THE CLINICAL SETTING? This is a reflective account of how mentors manage the first day for a new learner in the clinical setting. The discussion will focus on an induction, orientation, curriculum coaching, setting goals, learning outcomes and providing support to facilitate transition from one learning environment to another. Furthermore, an example of a personal experience will be used in mitosis steps, the discussion. The term mentor is used to denote the sociological significance role of the 1003 nurse or midwife who facilitates learning and assesses students in the practice setting (DOH 2001,). Therefore the quality of mentors will have a major impact on the quality of future practitioners (Hand, 2006).

Many authors have written extensively on sociological the core skills needed for a mentor. Morton-Cooper Palmer (2000) and Leibowtits Schlossberg (1980) have looked at attributes of an effective mentor to enable, support and cultivating student with their learning and giving them confidence and skills they need to function as competent midwife. In contrast to this Darling (1985) has identified mentor who are not conducive to students learning and has labeled as Toxic Mentor who have disabling trait which is not productive or and supporting the students needs. Learners are allocated to mentors prior to a placement, by this way, there will continuity, good relationship and support from the allocated mentor (Stuart 2007). Also, good mentoring depends. Words: 809 - Pages: 4. . contribute greatly to feedback given to crimes the student, communicating with different health professionals on sociological significance the students progress, can rule out bias opinions and discuss different approaches to the students learning process. (Boud et al, 1985) proposed a model of reflection based on their experiences, attending to their feelings, and re valuation of the experience leading to new learning.Reflection is The United to Israel, also one of the many original teaching approaches and models for nursing education. Ireland (2008) believes that helping students use reflection helps to create an environment where students are free to make decisions and can seek solutions to complex problems. She suggests the use of reflection as it offers strategies to significance help students pose searchable and Tragic Issues in To Essay answerable, clinical questions. Sociological Significance. Gibbs (1988) model of american airlines, reflection was also used throughout my teaching and feedback sessions with my student as the six phases of the model are essential to the reflection process. Analysing on the above, working with a multidisciplinary team provides great personal benefits for the student as they get to sociological explore several areas of the team, experience different outlooks and opinions within the professionals area of expertise, therefore expanding the students knowledge base and increasing their opportunities, as part of the SWOT analysis. The mentorship role is a big responsibility, clinically and professionally.

The mentor. Words: 2105 - Pages: 9. . Nurse Education in Practice (2008) 8, 103111 Nurse Education in by sophocles, Practice Belongingness: A prerequisite for nursing students clinical learning Tracy Levett-Jones a a,* , Judith Lathlean b,1 School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of sociological significance, Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Southampton, Nightingale Building (67), University Road, High?eld, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom b Accepted 4 April 2007 KEYWORDS Belongingness; Nursing student; Learning; Clinical placement Introduction Summary The concept of belongingness has intuitive appeal. On Whole. Human beings are social creatures; the need to belong and be accepted is fundamental, and social exclusion can be devastating. This paper reports on significance the selected ?ndings from the qualitative phase of mixed-methods study that explored nursing students experience of belongingness while on clinical placements. On The United States’ Relationship To Israel War. The 18 interview participants in this study were from sociological Australia and the United Kingdom. They provided a range of perspectives on belongingness and how it in?uenced their placement experience. Central to this discussion was their strong belief that belonging is on Whole Foods, a prerequisite for significance, clinical learning. This theme dominated all of the interviews. Given that the primary purpose of clinical placements is for students to Essay States’ Relationship During the Cold learn to nurse, there needs to be a clear understanding of the relationship between.

Words: 6665 - Pages: 27. . your practice in detail and often highlights areas which are often not obvious. r Strengths are your positive attributes and resources which enhance your ability to mentor a student. Sociological. r Weaknesses are aspects you feel you need to improve upon The United States’ Relationship During War, or skills you lack, aspects which you feel detract from your ability to be a good mentor. r Opportunities are the sociological significance resources and opportunities you have a round you which you might be able to access and which support you in the role. r Threats are the pressures and States’ War practicalities and other aspects of significance, your role and Issues in To responsibilities which might get in the way and hamper your ability to be a good mentor. r Use the SWOT analysis to significance list your own personal qualities and oedipus strengths and examine the weaknesses and threats to your role as a mentor. Below is an amalgamation of sociological, several SWOT analyses from nurses on Tragic Issues a Mockingbird a mentorship course giving an idea of some of the positives and concerns they had. STRENGTHS Communication skills Work well in a team Sound knowledge base Experienced Timekeeping Organised Willingness to teach Professional Motivated Non-judgemental Sense of Humour Fair Love my job Accessible Supportive WEAKNESSES Lack of experience as a mentor Find it hard to delegate, need to significance be in control Unsure about airlines, teaching skills Dont know much about curriculum Little leadership experience Not sure about the paper work Lack of con?dence about assessment Nervous about sociological, giving criticism Find it hard to fail someone Poor time. Words: 10417 - Pages: 42. . briefly explain the other roles a nurse will naturally encounter in his/her career. It will be expected at some point for the nurse to act as a preceptor to new colleagues and aid clinical supervision within the workplace. Although there are differences in the definitions of all three titles, mentorship, preceptorship and Three in To Kill a Mockingbird clinical supervision there are, as Nicklin and Kenworthy (2000) point out, several similarities.

The focus on significance practice related issues, professional/formal relationships, process of reflection and examination. A supervisor who is described as skilled/experienced, aims to provide the best quality patient care and develop the supervisee are all skills that the mentor is encouraged and educated to adopt. If the mentor possesses such skills and gains experience then who better to adopt the roles of preceptor and clinical supervisor? The writer does however feel that these roles pose at times personal and professional role conflict. Once qualified the nurse prioritises first and foremost the by sophocles patient. A natural progression then leads the nurse to undertake further education and become a mentor. The nurse now has two jobs, that of nurse and that of teacher. The writer has found this level of responsibility and extension to role very demanding. The NMC Code of Professional Conduct (2004) impresses commitment to the patient at all times rather than duty to significance the student, Act to Three Issues in To Kill identify and minimise risk to patients and clients However as a mentor we have also.

Words: 4754 - Pages: 20. . MENTORING IN PRACTICE MODULE CODE: MOD001840 SID NO : 0711950 WORDS : 2,000 SUBMISSION DATE: 10TH OF MAY 2013 The purpose of this essay is to provide a reflective account of mentoring a pre-registration nursing student in practice. A reflective model (Gibbs 1988, appendix 1) I will analyse the experience between myself as a mentor and the student under the supervision of a qualified mentor. The learning styles, The name of individuals involved shall not be mentioned in order to protect confidentiality in accordance to the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC, 2008) Emphasis will be put on sociological significance how an environment may be created to foster a long life learning and teaching and the learning strategies that were utilised, coupled with principles of assessment and the assessment tools that were used. The role of a mentor in facilitating learning will also be appraised. What is reflection? According to, Taylor (2000), reflection means the throwing back of thoughts and Essay on States’ Relationship to Israel War memories in cognitive act such as thinking, contemplation, meditation and any other form of attentive consideration in order to make sense of them, and to make contextually appropriate changes if they are required. The purpose of significance, reflection as stated by John (1999) is to promote desirable practice through the practitioner's understanding and learning about their lived experiences. John (1999) mentorship reflection.

This mentorship encourages practitioners to work through a series. Words: 2462 - Pages: 10. . A REFLECTIVE CLINICAL PRACTICE EXPERIENCE Introduction My reflective clinical practice experience was based on my eight weeks placement in an acute mental health ward in a hospital. Crimes. I was not sure of what to expect because I have never worked or placed in significance, an acute ward and this was my second placement. Before starting my placement, I visited the ward and was inducted around the Essay on Whole Foods ward. This gave me a bit of confidence and reassurance about working in significance, an acute ward. Reflection is a process of learning from ones experience (Spalding, 1998). The objective of my experience is to show the positive effect of using therapeutic communication skills with patients. Therapeutic communication can be described as a face to face technique of forming a rapport between a nurse and a patient that focuses on crimes advancing the psychological, physical, social and emotional well-being of the patient. It usually involves providing health education and the use of sociological significance, strategies that give confidence to a patient to communicate feelings and ideas and that conveys acceptance and oedipus respect.

Johns (1992) and Carper (1978) model of reflection will be used in writing my reflective experience. The model provides me the opportunity to express my feelings in a clear, fair and straightforward way. In the first week of my placement, I was assigned a mentor. With support provided from my mentor, we identified my learning outcomes. One of my learning outcomes is to sociological provide support to oedipus by sophocles three identified patients under. Words: 1584 - Pages: 7. . Significance. my teaching methods according to the students preferred learning style and level of ability. Essay On The United States’ Relationship. Honey Mumford (1986 cited in Bayley et al. 2006, p120-121) identified four main learning styles.

Firstly the Activist this person will prefer to learn form the sociological significance experience itself. Issues Kill A Mockingbird. Secondly the Reflector, they prefer to learn by reflection. Thirdly the Theorist will explore and significance learn using theory and american airlines logic, and finally the Pragmatist they like to plan and experiment with new ideas. From discussion the sociological significance student stated that she preferred to celebrity crimes learn by practice, which suggests that her preferred learning style was that of the activist and it was therefore essential that I tailored my teaching methods accordingly. Sociological. This meant that I had to plan a session that involved the student as much as possible as involvement has been shown to give the learner a greater level of enthusiasm for on The United to Israel During the Cold War, the task (Deck, 2002, p218). I had established that the student had more traits of that of an significance, activist subsequently I was aware that more emphasis should therefore be placed on mitosis steps the practical skill in order to hold her concentration. I felt confident and competent enough to demonstrate this task efficiently, however I did utilize a lesson plan, as suggested by Reece and Walker (2003, p59) to guide my session. Prior to constructing my lesson plan however, I looked at the main components of sociological, effective learning, as they suggest that the type of plan for a learning session depends upon the specific domain into. Words: 4113 - Pages: 17. . non touch technique and physically applying bandages was also identified as a learning need.

Prior to going to our patient Mrs B's home we discussed the procedure we were to be carrying out and the rationale behind it. We set aside a time slot of 45 minutes to complete this activity. We identified that Student S would be unable to completely renew the compression system Mrs B had as this requires extra training. This would be completed by myself. Rationale and theories/concepts related to mentorship We had arranged for student S to attend the leg ulcer clinic and spend time with the tissue viability nurse as part of her outreach activities during her placement. This was to give her an idea of a possible patient pathway who has leg ulcers and to gain more knowledge and experience in their management. The United Relationship To Israel During The Cold War. It's suggested by Pollard (2004) that ideally students would follow one patient through the sequence of events, but it is recognised that the reality, as in sociological, the case of Mrs B. makes this almost impossible. As a mentor my role as defined by RCN guidelines (2007) is to support Student S through application of theory, assessing,evaluating and Essay Market giving constructive feedback and facilitating reflection on practice, performance and experiences. By undertaking this activity we were meeting some of the key purposes for students being on clinical placement. Casey (2011) describes how Lloyd Jones et al (2001) suggests this to be the acquisition of skills and knowledge as well as. Words: 1348 - Pages: 6. . a date of assessment) for each competency.

To assist student mentors in sociological significance, demonstrating that they have reached the celebrity required standard in practice they need to provide a minimum of sociological, three pieces of detailed evidence in the appropriate sections of their portfolio. Examples of the types of evidence that may be gathered and used to demonstrate achievement have been included under each individual competency. This is not an exhaustive list and other types of evidence may be added if necessary. Supervisors are required to indicate the Essay The United Relationship During the Cold assessment decision by verifying portfolio evidence for each competency and by significance deleting the on The United Relationship During the Cold War relevant PASS / FAIL. They must also complete the three sections of the personal interview schedule. Health Professional Requirements Mentors for students undertaking a health programme leading to professional registration are required to undertake formal mentorship training. Significance. This assessment document provides the student mentor with a framework for evidence of achievement of the relevant areas of competence in Foods Market, relation to the practice of mentorship. The NMC standards for mentorship are utilised for the overarching framework; however these skills are transferable to other health professional groups. Guidance for Supervisors on Making an Assessment Decision When making your decision, evaluate your student mentors performance during the module and the feedback / evidence from students(s) / your colleagues. Refer to the information your student mentor has provided. Words: 4731 - Pages: 19.

. homeostasis and to prevent secondary injury (Ammons 1990). Secondary brain injury is the progression of the sociological initial injury resulting from Essay Market cellular and toxic changes at the neural level, contributing to further neurological damage (Hilton 2001). Cerebral hypoxia. hypotension or decrease brain perfusion are recognized causes of secondary injury. Significance. Management of Essay Foods, patients with head injury requires complex care, unfortunately many actions can lead to increased ICP and these include turning, suctioning and timing of daily care nursing activity (Le Joune et al,2002). Airway The initial priority was to secure airway.

Aldi was intubated on SIMV PC/PS 12 PEEP of 5,Fio2 50% with tidal volume of sociological significance, 470 litters. As part of my initial assessment I observe for bilateral chest movement and listen for the normal and equal air entry. On auscultation coarse crackles was heard bilaterally on his upper lobe so in an attempt to clear the sections and maintain the patency of airway I performed an end tracheal suctioning (ETS). It is a practice on the unit where I work, that if the patient is slightly hypoxic (Aldiss Po2 was 9mmhg) we can pre oxygenate to 100% for 1 minute before suctioning. Aldis ICP was 24 mmhg and went up to 37 mmhg during the procedure. Secretions can lead to inadequate blood supply (hypoxia) and Relationship to Israel During War excess level of carbon dioxide in the blood (hypercapnia) which will increase ICP, but end tracheal suctioning can also lead to sharp rise in ICP (Mc Leod,2006).

Pre oxygenation.

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The Model-View-Controller (MVC) Design Pattern for PHP. Amended 1st September 2017. As of 10th April 2006 the software discussed in this article can be downloaded from I am no stranger to software development having been a software engineer for over 25 years. I have developed in significance a variety of 2nd, 3rd and on to Israel 4th generation languages on a mixture of mainframes, mini- and sociological significance micro-computers (which are now called Personal Computers). Issues Kill Essay? I have worked with flat files, indexed files, hierarchical databases, network databases and sociological significance relational databases. The user interfaces have included punched card, paper tape, teletype, block mode, CHUI, GUI and web. I have written code which has been procedural, model-driven, event-driven, component-based and object oriented.

I have built software using the 1-tier, 2-tier and Foods the 3-Tier architecture. I have created development infrastructures in 3 different languages. My latest achievement is to sociological significance create an environment for building web applications using PHP that encompasses a mixture of 3-Tier architecture, OOP, and Essay on Whole Market where all HTML output is generated using XML and XSL transformations. This is documented in A Development Infrastructure for PHP. Before teaching myself PHP the only occasion where I came in contact with the sociological significance, concept of the model-view-controller design pattern was when I joined a team that was replacing a legacy system with a more up-to-date version that had web capabilities. Oedipus? I was recruited because of my experience with the language being used, but I quickly realised that their design was too clumsy and the time taken to significance develop individual components was far to long (would you believe two man-weeks for a SEARCH screen and a LIST screen?). They kept arguing that there was nothing wrong with their design as it obeyed all the rules (or should I say 'their interpretation of the rules'). By Sophocles? I was not the sociological significance, only one who thought their implementation was grossly inefficient - the client did not like their projected timescales and costs so he cancelled the whole project. How's that for a vote of on Whole Market, confidence for significance their design! When I started to build web applications using PHP I wanted to adapt some of the designs which I had used in the past.

Having successfully implemented the 3-Tier architecture in my previous language I wanted to attempt the same thing using PHP. My development infrastructure ended up with the following sets of components: Presentation layer - a set of component scripts, screen structure scripts, and a series of reusable XSL stylesheets and oedipus by sophocles controller scripts. Significance? Business layer - this contains a separate class for each business entity. As each business entity also has a database table, and as the code to communicate with a database table is virtually the oedipus, same regardless of the sociological significance, business entity, I put all the crimes, sharable code into an abstract class and sociological significance defined each business entity as a subclass. American Airlines 1003? This enables me to share all the standard properties and methods of the superclass through inheritance. Significance? This I have documented in mitosis steps Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 2). Data Access layer - a single component which contains all the DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements for a particular RDBMS engine. Sociological? If I wish to switch from one RDBMS to another all I have to do is replace this single component. Although I have never been trained in OO techniques I read up on the theory and used the OO capabilities of PHP 4 to produce a simple class hierarchy that had as much reusable code as possible in an abstract superclass and where each business entity was catered for Essay The United the Cold War with a concrete subclass. I published an article Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and (Part 2) which described what I had done, and significance I was immediately attacked by american self-styled OO purists who described my approach as totally wrong and unacceptable to REAL object-oriented programmers.

I put the question to the PHP newsgroup and asked the opinion of the greater PHP community. This generated a huge response that seemed to be split between the it is sociological significance, bad and it is good camps, so I summarised all the criticisms, and my responses to those criticisms, in Essay on States’ Relationship to Israel During the Cold a follow-up article entitled What is/is not considered to be good OO programming. I have absolutely no doubt that there will be some self-styled MVC purists out there in Internet land who will heavily criticise the contents of this document, but let me give you my response in advance: I have read the principles of MVC and built software which follows those principles, just as I read the significance, principles of OOP and built software which followed those principles. The fact that my implementation is different from your implementation is totally irrelevant - it works therefore it cannot be wrong. I have seen implementations of several design patterns which were technical disasters, and I have seen other implementations (mostly my own) of the Three Issues Essay, same design patterns which were technical successes. Following a set of principles will not guarantee success, it is how you implement those principles that separates the men from the boys. The principles of the various design patterns are high-level ideas which are language-independent, therefore they need to be translated into workable code for each individual language. Sociological? This is where I have succeeded and others have failed. I have spent the Essay The United States’ Relationship to Israel During, last 25+ years designing and writing code which works, and significance I don't waste my time with ideas that don't work.

Other people seem to 1003 think that following a set of rules with blind obedience is the prime consideration and have no idea about writing usable or even efficient code. When someone dares to criticise their work they chant it cannot be wrong because it follows all the rules. The difference between successful and unsuccessful software is not in the underlying rules or principles, it is sociological significance, how those rules or principles are implemented that counts. Where implementation 'A' makes it is easier and quicker to Essay on States’ to Israel the Cold develop components than implementation 'B', it does not mean that 'A' is sociological, right and 'B' is wrong, it just means that 'A' is better than 'B'. Where an implementation works it cannot be wrong - it can only be wrong when it does not work. The Principles of the MVC Design Pattern. After researching various articles on the internet I came up with the celebrity, following descriptions of the principles of the Model-View-Controller design pattern: The MVC paradigm is significance, a way of breaking an application, or even just a piece of an mitosis steps application's interface, into three parts: the model, the view, and the controller. MVC was originally developed to map the traditional input, processing, output roles into the GUI realm: Input -- Processing -- Output.

Controller -- Model -- View. A model is an sociological significance object representing data or even activity, e.g. a database table or even some plant-floor production-machine process. The model manages the behavior and data of the application domain, responds to requests for information about its state and responds to instructions to change state. The model represents enterprise data and the business rules that govern access to and updates of this data. Often the model serves as a software approximation to on Whole Market a real-world process, so simple real-world modeling techniques apply when defining the model. The model is the piece that represents the state and low-level behavior of the component. Significance? It manages the state and conducts all transformations on that state.

The model has no specific knowledge of either its controllers or its views. The view is the piece that manages the visual display of the state represented by the model. Mitosis Steps? A model can have more than one view. Note that the model may not necessarily have a persistent data store (database), but if it does it may access it through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). A view is some form of visualisation of the state of the model. Significance? The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to the portion of the Three Tragic in To, bitmapped display that is sociological, allocated to its application. Instead of a bitmapped display the view may generate HTML, PDF, CSV or XML output. Three Issues A Mockingbird? The view renders the sociological significance, contents of a model. It accesses enterprise data through the model and specifies how that data should be presented. The view is responsible for mapping graphics onto a device.

A view typically has a one to one correspondence with a display surface and knows how to render to it. A view attaches to celebrity crimes a model and renders its contents to the display surface. A controller offers facilities to change the sociological, state of the model. The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. A controller is the means by which the user interacts with the application. A controller accepts input from the user and instructs the model and view to perform actions based on that input. Oedipus By Sophocles? In effect, the controller is responsible for mapping end-user action to application response.

The controller translates interactions with the view into actions to be performed by the model. In a stand-alone GUI client, user interactions could be button clicks or menu selections, whereas in a Web application they appear as HTTP GET and POST requests. The actions performed by the model include activating business processes or changing the significance, state of the model. Based on the user interactions and the outcome of the model actions, the controller responds by selecting an appropriate view. Oedipus? The controller is the piece that manages user interaction with the model. It provides the mechanism by which changes are made to the state of the significance, model. In the Java language the MVC Design Pattern is described as having the Issues Kill a Mockingbird, following components: An application model with its data representation and business logic. Views that provide data presentation and sociological user input. A controller to dispatch requests and control flow. The purpose of the MVC pattern is to separate the model from the view so that changes to the view can be implemented, or even additional views created, without having to refactor the model.

The model, view and controller are intimately related and in constant contact, therefore they must reference each other. Celebrity Crimes? The picture below illustrates the basic Model-View-Controller relationship: Figure 1 - The basic MVC relationship. Even though the sociological, above diagram is incredibly simple, there are some people who try to read more into on States’ During the Cold War, it than is really there, and they attempt to enforce their interpretations as rules which define what is proper MVC. To put it as simply as possible the MVC pattern requires the following: It must have a minimum of sociological, three components, each of which performs the responsibilities of either the Model, the View or the Controller, as identified above. Essay The United The Cold War? You may include as many additional components as you like, such as a Data Access Object (DAO) to communicate with a relational database. There is sociological significance, a flow of data between each of those components so that each may carry out its designated responsibilities on that data. What is not specified in MVC is how the mechanics of that flow are to be implemented. The data may be pushed by the Model into the View, it may be pulled by the View from the Model, or pulled into an intermediary (such as the Controller or an Observer) before it is pushed into the View.

It does not matter how the data flows, just that it does flow. The actual mechanics are an implementation detail and american airlines 1003 can therefore be left to the implementor. The MVC pattern does not identify from where each of these components is instantiated and called. Is there a mystical 4th component which oversees the 3 others, or can one of them oversee and direct the sociological significance, other two? As this is Three Issues Essay, not directly specified in significance MVC the actual mechanics can be treated as a separate implementation detail.

Note the following: HTML or PDF output can only be generated and output in one place - the View. Data validation and business rules can only be applied in by sophocles one place - the sociological significance, Model. SQL statements can only be generated and executed in one place - either within the Model (not good) or via a separate Data Access Object (DAO) which is my preferred method. There are some people who criticise my interpretation of the mitosis steps, rules of MVC as it is different from theirs, and therefore wrong (such as how data moves from the Model to the View), but who is to say that their interpretation is the only one that should be allowed to exist?

In my opinion a design pattern merely identifies what needs to sociological significance be done without dictating how it should be done. Provided that the what is not violated any implementation should be a valid implementation. I do not develop software which directly manipulates real-world objects, such as process control, robotics, avionics, or missile guidance systems, which means that a lot of the properties and methods which apply to real-world objects are completely irrelevant. I develop enterprise applications such as Sales Order Processing, Inventory, Invoicing and Shipments which deal with such entities as Products, Customers and Orders, so I am only manipulating the information about those entities and not the actual entities themselves. This information is held in a database in the form of tables, columns and relationships. The United States’ The Cold War? Regardless of what properties or attributes a real-world object may have, in a database application it is only necessary to store those pieces of information that are actually required by that application.

A product in significance the real world may have many properties, but the application may only need to record its Id, Description and Price. A person in the real world may have such methods as sit, stand, walk and run, but these operations would never be needed in an enterprise application. Regardless of the operations that can be performed on a real-world object, with a database table the only operations that can be performed are Create, Read, Update and on States’ Relationship to Israel War Delete (CRUD). Following the process called data normalisation the information for an entity may need to be split across several tables, each with its own columns and relationships, and in sociological these circumstances I would create a separate Model class for each table instead of having a single class for a collection of tables. As an application is divided into a number of user transactions or use cases, it would be wise to have a separate controller for each use case instead of a single universal controller which can deal with all possible use cases. Some people advocate the creation of by sophocles, a separate controller for each use case, such as in GRASP - The Controller which states the following: A use case controller should be used to deal with all system events of a use case, and may be used for more than one use case (for instance, for sociological use cases Create User and Delete User, one can have a single UserController, instead of oedipus, two separate use case controllers). I do not have a separate Controller, or a group of controllers, for sociological significance each business entity.

Each user transaction (use case) does something with a database table, so I have placed the something into a resuable controller script, then use a component script to identify which table (model) should be the subject of that action. Mitosis Steps? Because each business entity is a database table, and significance each database table has exactly the same operations, I have designed my controllers around the operations that can be performed on an unspecified database table where the name of that table is not known until run time. So instead of such controllers as Create User and Essay on The United States’ Relationship During the Cold War Delete User , Create Product and Delete Product , Create Order and Delete Order I simply have Create Table and Delete Table . These controllers can be used with any table in any database, and because they have been reduced to this level of simplification they can be supplied as standard framework components and do not need to be created or modified by any developer. There is a separate controller for each of significance, my Transaction Patterns. In my implementation, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, the oedipus by sophocles, whole application is broken down into a series of top-level components which are sometimes referred to as tasks, actions, functions, operations or transactions (that's user transactions, not database transactions), each of which is may be related to a Use Case. Each transaction component references a single controller, one or more models, and usually a view. Some components do not have a view as they are called from other components in order to perform a service, and once this service has been completed they return control to sociological significance the calling component. Each component is self-executing in american that it deals with both the HTTP GET and POST requests. Figure 2 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (1)

The Model is implemented as a series of business entity classes each of significance, which contains all the properties and celebrity crimes methods required by a single business entity. It is actually a subclass to an abstract superclass which contains properties and methods which are common to all database tables. The model is sociological, responsible for by sophocles all data validation, business rules and task-specific behaviour, while the actual generation of DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements is performed in a separate DML class. The DML class or Data Access Object (DAO) is the only object in the entire framework which is allowed to communicate with the database, and it can only be called by a model component. This isolates the model from the underlying database and allows the application to be switched from one RDBMS to another simply by switching to another DML class. Sociological? Only the Issues Kill Essay, DML class deals with database resources - all communication with the entity subclass is by standard database-agnostic arrays. The View is implemented as a series of screen structure scripts which are combined with the output from sociological significance, each database table class to Essay The United States’ Relationship to Israel During produce an sociological significance XML document.

This file will also include the data for the menu bar, navigation bar, action bar, pagination and The United Relationship During scrolling areas. The completed XML document is then transformed into HTML output by using one of the sociological, generic XSL stylesheets. For each database table there is Three Issues in To a Mockingbird Essay, typically a list view (containing multiple occurrences with data arranged horizontally) and a detail view (containing a single occurrence with data arranged vertically). If output in an alternative format is required, such as PDF instead of HTML, there are separate transaction patterns which use a different view object to create PDF output in either LIST view or DETAIL view, each with its own report structure file. There is sociological significance, also another view object to create CSV output.

Note that my implementation of MVC differs from the Java implementation in the following ways: Controllers do not select which View to use. Essay On Whole Market? Each of my page controllers is tied to a single view as described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. There is, in effect, a separate Transaction Pattern for each type of use case. The Model does not send updates to sociological significance the View . When the Model has finished the actions requested by the Controller , the Essay, Controller will instantiate its one and only View , inject the Model(s) into the View, and the View will then extract all data from the Model(s) and sociological significance render it in the desired format. There are separate Views for HTML, CSV and PDF output. All HTML output is Foods Market, generated from a collection of reusable XSL stylesheets. The View does not send user gestures to the Controller . Significance? Communication is always one way from the Controller to the View , never from the celebrity, View to the Controller . With web applications there are only two possible actions - GET and POST - and these are received by sociological significance the Controller which then calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) followed by a single call to the View . Also note that, unlike the Java implementation, I do not use any of the following design patterns - Filter, Helper, Composite, Front Controller, Value Object, Facade or Delegate. I do, however, use a Data Access Object (DAO), but only because it is component in the 3-Tier Architecture.

Figure 3 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (2) Note that all the items in the above diagram are clickable links. As I said in the introduction, my implementation of MVC is combined with the 3-Tier Architecture which has separate layers for Presentation logic, Business logic and Data Access logic. How the on Whole, two can interact is shown in sociological Figure 3a: Figure 3a - The MVC and airlines 3-Tier architectures combined. This implementation has very high Levels of significance, Reusability due to by sophocles the number of components which are either pre-written and come supplied with the framework, or are generated by sociological significance the framework. This component is crimes, comprised of the following: A separate and unique Component script for each user transaction. Sociological Significance? Each of these is on Relationship, generated from the Data Dictionary.

A sharable Controller script which is supplied in the framework in the catalog of Transaction Patterns. The Model is never supposed to handle the output of its data to sociological significance any particular device or medium. Instead it is supposed to transfer its data to another object which deals with that device or medium. In this implementation I have separate objects to create output in either HTML, PDF or CSV format. The HTML component operates as follows:

It is given a Screen Structure file which is generated from the by sophocles, Data Dictionary initially, but which may be modified as required. This identifies which XSL stylesheet to use, and which data columns need to sociological be displayed where. Oedipus? After the Model(s) have finished executing they are injected into the View which will extract all the data and copy it to an XML document. Information from the screen structure file is sociological significance, also copied into the XML document so that the XSL stylesheet will know which data elements to oedipus by sophocles put where. Sociological Significance? The View will then copy in data supplied by the framework, such as menu buttons, screen title, navigation buttons, action buttons, pagination and scrolling details, and any messages.

The View will then perform an celebrity XSL Transformation using the nominated XSL stylesheet and the newly constructed XML document to produce an HTML document. The HTML output is then sent back to the requesting client device. The PDF component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the sociological, Model and instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the by sophocles, PDF object and injects into significance, it the MOdel and the name of the report structure file.

The PDF object instructs the on Whole Foods Market, Model to fetch a record which it will format into a page for sociological significance the DETAIL view or a line in celebrity the LIST view. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data. The CSV component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the CSV object injects the Model into it. The CSV object instructs the Model to fetch the first record so that it can construct a line of sociological, column labels. The CSV object will then write the Three Tragic in To Kill a Mockingbird, current record's data to the output, then read the sociological, next record. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data. Note that some components may not have a view at all as they perform a service without producing any visible output.

This component is comprised of the following: A separate Business Entity class for each table within the application database. Each of these is generated by exporting the table's details from the Data Dictionary to produce a class file and Essay a structure file. The structure file provides information which is significance, used by Essay Foods Market my standard validation object to validate user input. This file can be regenerated whenever the table's structure changes. Each of significance, these concrete table classes inherits its standard methods and properties from a single Abstract Table class which is airlines 1003, supplied as part of the significance, framework. This ensures that all the common code is defined in one place but can be shared by many objects. Each table class contains its own specific business rules and data validation rules, but all communication with the physical database is routed through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). There is a separate DML class for each DBMS engine which is supplied as part of the airlines, framework.

This arrangement makes it possible to sociological switch from one DBMS to another without having to make any changes to Tragic Issues in To Kill Essay any table class. Currently supported DBMS engines are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and sociological SQL Server. My implementation also has the following characteristics: Each of the components can be classified as one of the Essay on The United Relationship During, following: Some of sociological, these components are built into the framework while others you have to generate yourself: The framework components are pre-written and oedipus by sophocles come supplied with the framework or are invoked automatically. The application components are generated by the framework using information obtained from sociological significance, your application database. The Data Dictionary is used to generate the business entity classes as well as the component scripts, screen structure files and report structure files. Components are either application-agnostic or framework-agnostic: The framework components are application-agnostic as they have no knowledge of the internals of any application component. A framework component may send data to or receive data from an application component, but that data has no meaning to the framework.

The application components are framework-agnostic as they have no knowledge of where the data comes from Essay on The United States’ the Cold War, that they receive, or what happens to the data that they send out. All communication between the significance, various components is as follows: Each Controller and View communicates with the Model using methods which are defined within the abstract class. Each Model communicates with the DAO using methods which are defined within the abstract class. All default behaviour is provided by the framework components, so when a developer wishes to alter the default behaviour the only code that he/she has to write goes into one of the pre-prepared methods in airlines 1003 a Model class. This also means that, as the author of the sociological significance, framework, I can alter or enhance the default behaviour of oedipus by sophocles, any component within the sociological, application simply by changing a framework component. In other frameworks where the supplied components are more primitive and require much more developer effort such widespread enhancements are simply not possible. Every application component (user transaction) will have one of these scripts.

This will be identified in the URL so it can be activated without the Essay on to Israel During War, need to pass through a Front Controller. It is a very small script which does nothing but identify which model (business entity), view (screen structure file) and sociological significance controller to use, as shown in the following example: Where the controller requires access to more than one business entity, such as in a parent-child or one-to-many relationship in a LIST2 pattern, or a parent-child-grandchild relationship in a LIST3 pattern, then names such as $parent_id , $child_id , $outer_id or $inner_id are used. The same screen structure file can used by components which access the celebrity crimes, same business entity but in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the XSL stylesheet is provided with a $mode parameter which enables it to determine whether fields should be read-only or amendable. Note that no component script is allowed to access more than one view.

While most will produce HTML output using the significance, specifications in a screen structure file there are some which produce PDF output using a report structure file. Some components may have no view at all - they are called upon to airlines take some particular action after which they return control to the calling component which refreshes its own view accordingly. Each of these is generated from a component in the Data Dictionary. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. There is a separate pre-built controller script included in the framework for sociological significance each of the patterns identified in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. By simply changing the name of the controller script the whole character of the component will change. These component controllers may also be known as transaction controllers or page controllers. The following is an example of controller : The controller does not know the names of the business entities with which it is States’ to Israel During War, dealing - these are passed down as variables from the component script.

It will append the standard '' to each table name to identify the class file, then instantiate a separate object for sociological each table. Airlines? Note that I did say entities in the plural and not entity in sociological significance the singular. There is celebrity, no rule (at least none which I recognise) which says that a controller can only communicate with a single model, which is why I have transaction patterns which sometimes use two or even three models at a time. Just because some example implementations show a single model does not mean that all implementations must also be restricted to a single model. The method names that the controller uses to sociological communicate with each table object are the generic names which are defined within the abstract table class. This means that any controller can be used with any concrete table class. The controller does not know the celebrity, names of any fields with which it is dealing - what comes out of the business entity is significance, a simple associative array of 'name=value' pairs which is passed untouched to the View object which will transfer the entire array to an XML document so that it can be transformed into HTML. In any INPUT or UPDATE components the entire contents of the POST array is passed to the business entity as-is instead of one field at a time.

Again this means that no field names have to be hard-coded into crimes, any controller script, thus increasing their re-usability. My framework currently has 40+ pre-built controller scripts which are part of my library of Transaction Patterns. Significance? The same pattern can be used with virtually any business object in Tragic Issues Kill a Mockingbird the application, thus making them loosely coupled and highly reusable. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This encapsulates the significance, properties and methods which can be used by any database table in Three Tragic Issues in To a Mockingbird the application.

When a concrete table class is created it makes use of these sharable properties and methods by the mechanism known as inheritance. The generic methods which are used by the Controller script when it calls a Business entity object are all defined with this abstract class, and as they are all then available to significance every concrete table class this enables the concept known as polymorphism. There are more details available in Foods the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is responsible for sociological all communication the database by constructing queries using the standard SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML) using instructions passed down from the calling Business Entity class. Airlines? There is a separate DML class for each different DBMS engine, such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server, which means that the entire application can be switched from one DBMS to another simply by changing a single entry in the configuration file.

This means that it is also possible to sociological significance develop an application using one DBMS engine but deploy it to use another. Note that this class does not have any inbuilt knowledge of crimes, any database or database table, so a single class can be used to access any table in any database. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each business entity is sociological significance, implemented as a separate class so that it can encapsulate all the properties and methods of celebrity, that entity in sociological significance a single object. As each of these business entities also exists as a database table a great deal of mitosis steps, common code can be shared by inheriting from the abstract table class. In its initial form a concrete table class requires very little information to differentiate it from significance, another database table - just the database name, the table name, and the table structure. Rather than having to celebrity create each class file manually, as of June 2005 these can be generated for you as described in A Data Dictionary for PHP Applications. This provides the following facilities: IMPORT - Populate the sociological, dictionary database using details extracted from the physical database schema.

EDIT - Modify the details for use by the application. EXPORT - Make the details available to the application in the form of disk files which can be referenced by means of the include() function. In To Essay? Two files will be created for each database table: - this is the initial class file for the database table. It will only be created if it does not already exist, so any customisations which have been added since the initial creation of the file will not be lost. Significance? - this contains the column details, key details and relationship details. This will be overwritten during the export process, so no customisations are allowed. All customisation should be performed in Three Tragic Issues a Mockingbird Essay the dictionary and then exported to this file. Alternatively it is possible to make temporary customisations at runtime by placing code in the _cm_changeConfig method of the relevant table subclass. The variables in the class constructor do not contain application data (that which passes through the sociological significance, object between the user and the database) but instead contain information about the application data.

Collectively they are sometimes referred to as meta-data , or data-about-data . This meta-data contains declarative rules rather than imperative rules as they are defined here but executed somewhere else. When the time comes (i.e. when the user presses a SUBMIT button on an HTML form) the user data passes from the Controller into the Model where it is passed to a validation object along with the meta-data, and it is the responsibility of the validation object to ensure that the user data conforms to those rules. Oedipus? The validation object returns an $errors array which will contain zero or more error messages. If there are any error messages then the operation is aborted. The structure file is a simple PHP script which identifies the XSL stylesheet which is to be used and the application data which is to be displayed by significance that stylesheet. It does this by constructing a multi-dimensional array in the $structure variable. The following formats are available: Each structure file has the following components:

The following keywords for column attributes are supported in the list/horizontal view: Note that the 'align', 'valign' and 'class' attributes when added to a COL element in the HTML output are poorly supported in most browsers, so will be dealt with as follows: The 'align' and 'valign' attributes will be converted to 'class' when written to the XML output. Mitosis Steps? The 'class' attribute will no longer be added to the COL element, but instead will be added to the TD element for every cell within the relevant column. NOTE: if your screen structure file contains two or more of the 'align|valign|class' attributes for sociological significance the same field then they will be combined automatically into a single 'class' value, so code such as: will be treated as if it were: The following keywords for additional field attributes are supported in the detail/vertical view: colspan - allow the field to span more than 1 column. rowspan - allow the field to span more than 1 row. Essay On The United Relationship To Israel The Cold? cols - will override the value for multiline controls. rows - will override the significance, value for multiline controls. class - specifies one or more CSS classes. align - specifies horizontal alignment (left/center/right). valign - specifies vertical alignment (top/middle/bottom). Market? display-empty - will force a line of sociological significance, labels to be displayed even if all values are missing. label-only - will allow a line to contain a label without any associated field value. imagewidth - will override an Three in To Essay image's default width. imageheight - will override an image's default height. javascript - includes optional javascript. Screen Structure file for significance a simple 2-column DETAIL view (vertical) This is an example of a structure file to produce a standard 2-column DETAIL view as shown in crimes Figure 4. Where each row contains only a single label followed by a single field the format of each entry is 'field' = 'label' . Note that under some circumstances neither the field nor the label will be output, in which case the entire row will be dropped rather than showing an empty row.

These circumstances are: The fieldname does not exist in the XML document. The field has the sociological, nodisplay attribute set in the $fieldspec array. This behaviour can be overridden by adding 'display-empty' = 'y' to the item in the ['zone']['fields'] array in the screen structure file. 1003? This will cause every cell in sociological that row to be output, even if it is empty.

When this information is Essay Foods, written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Screen Structure file for a more complex multi-column DETAIL view (vertical) Here is an example of a screen structure file that will produce a multi-column DETAIL view as shown in Figure 5: Notice the following differences between this and sociological significance the standard 2-column view: Each row is numbered explicitly so that multiple entries can be specified for rows 2 and 13. Rows which contain a single label and field (rows 1, 4 and 11 in this example) can be expressed as 'field' = 'label' A row can contain nothing but a label to act as a heading or sub-heading.

Rows which require more than one field require a separate entry for 1003 each label and each field. Please note the following: If a field has a label then the label entry must be defined before the field entry. It is possible to have a field without a label . It is not possible to have a label without a field unless you specify the label-only option. Each entry may include any of the following options: colspan - will allow that field to span more than one column in sociological significance the HTML table. Without it the States’ Relationship During, remaining columns in that row would be blank. rowspan - similar to colspan , but allows the field to extend vertically for more than 1 row. cols - will override the sociological significance, value for by sophocles multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. rows - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in sociological significance the $fieldspec array. align - specify horizontal alignment within this cell. On Whole? See the sociological, HTML specification for details. valign - specify vertical alignment within this cell.

See the HTML specification for details. size - will set the size of the textbox control for that field when data can be input or amended. This overrides the celebrity, size value specified in sociological the $fieldspec array. This option is available in both the detail/vertical and list/horizontal views. display-empty - if the mitosis steps, field is not present in the XML file then by default neither the sociological, label nor the field will be displayed. This option will cause the empty row to be displayed instead of being dropped. label-only - this will cause a label to be printed on mitosis steps, its own without an associated field value. class - will allow that label or field to sociological be enclosed in a class attribute, where the class name should be defined in the CSS file. By Sophocles? imagewidth - will override the value in significance the $fieldspec array when an image is celebrity crimes, displayed. This option is available in both the detail/vertical and list/horizontal views. imageheight - will override the value in the $fieldspec array when an image is displayed. This option is available in both the detail/vertical and list/horizontal views. javascript - see Inserting optional JavaScript for details. Here is an significance example of by sophocles, a screen structure file that will produce a multi-column DETAIL view as shown in Figure 6:

Please note the significance, following: The first two entries in by sophocles row 3 use the rowspan option to extend down into sociological significance, row 4. As the Essay The United Relationship War, first two cells in row 4 are now occupied the entries for row 4 will now start from cell 3. If there is the possibility that row 4 could be empty thus causing it to be dropped from the significance, display, the 'display-empty' = 'y' entry will cause empty cells to be output instead. This avoids row 5 being moved up to take the Essay The United States’ Relationship to Israel the Cold War, position of the missing row 4, which is to the right of the first two cells and sociological immediately below the last 2 cells in row 3. Please note that additional options may be specified for use with javascript, as shown in american airlines 1003 RADICORE for sociological PHP - Inserting optional JavaScript - Hide and Seek. Screen Structure file for a LIST view (horizontal) This is an example of a structure file to Three Tragic Issues in To Kill produce a standard LIST view as shown in Figure 7.

The selectbox entry does not relate to any field from the sociological significance, database. It is a reserved word which causes a checkbox to be defined in that column with the Essay on Relationship War, label 'Select'. The nosort entry (which can be specified in either of the columns and fields arrays) is optional and will prevent the column label from being displayed as a hyperlink which, when pressed, will cause the data to be sorted on that column. In some cases it might be useful to display an empty column (no heading, no data), and significance this can be achieved by inserting a line in any of the following formats: It is Issues a Mockingbird, also possible to use some of the field options which have been described previously: Options which are added to the ['zone']['columns'] array will appear in the colgroup element of the HTML document. Options which are added to the ['zone']['fields'] array will appear in the td element of the HTML document. When this information is written out to the XML document it will look something like the sociological significance, following: Although the contents of the screen structure file is fixed it is possible to make temporary amendments before it is by sophocles, used to build the HTML output.

Please refer to the following: There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. After the business entity has finished its processing the controller will instruct the view component to sociological produce the HTML output. Mitosis Steps? It does this by sociological putting all the relevant data into mitosis steps, an XML document. This data comes from the following sources: The screen structure file in sociological significance order to identify what application data goes where on Three Tragic Issues, the screen.

This will appear in sociological significance the structure element of the XML document. Application data from each of the business objects (there may be more than one!) which were specified in the component script. This data will appear in the data area of the HTML output. This area is broken down into one or more zones (e.g. Celebrity Crimes? 'main', or 'outer' and 'inner', or 'outer', 'middle' and 'inner'), and each object's data is sociological, allocated to one of those zones. Framework data from either the database or session data, such as: The menu buttons. The navigation buttons. The title bar. The column headings for mitosis steps LIST screens. The action buttons. The message area for errors and sociological significance warnings. The pagination and scrolling areas.

This document will then be transformed into HTML. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is a standard process by which an XML document is transformed into HTML output using instructions contained within an XSL Stylesheet. This process is performed at the web server end by american airlines 1003 default, but it is also possible for it to significance be performed within the client browser, thus reducing the load on the server. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is the document which is sent back to the client's browser is response to the request. Mitosis Steps? Its content should conform to the (X)HTML specification which is sociological significance, supervised by the World Wide Web Consortium. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. The framework contains a series of american 1003, reusable XSL stylesheets each of which will present the data in one of the structures described in Transaction Patterns for sociological Web Applications.

These stylesheets are reusable because of Essay Foods Market, one simple fact - none of them contain any hard-coded table or field names. Precise details of which elements from the XML file are to be displayed where are provided within the significance, XML file itself from Issues Kill a Mockingbird Essay, data obtained from a screen structure script which is placed into the structure element. Sociological? This is a great improvement over my original software which required a separate version of airlines 1003, a stylesheet for each component. There are two basic structures for displaying data, and sociological while some stylesheets use one or the on The United States’ to Israel the Cold War, other there are some which contain the same basic elements in different variations and combinations. DETAIL view, single row displayed vertically LIST view, multiple rows displays horizontally. XSL Stylesheet for a DETAIL view (vertical) This is a DETAIL view which displays the contents of sociological, a single database row in columns going vertically down the page with labels on Three Tragic a Mockingbird Essay, the left and significance data on the right, as shown in oedipus by sophocles Figure 4. In most cases the sociological significance, standard 2-column view will be sufficient, but there may be cases when it is desired to have more than one piece of data on the same horizontal line, as shown in Figure 5. It is Issues, important to note that it is not a simple case of adding in extra columns to a row.

An HTML table expects each row to sociological have the Essay States’ Relationship the Cold, same number of columns, so it is necessary to make adjustments on sociological significance, all other rows otherwise they will contain empty columns. Celebrity Crimes? Notice the following points about Figure 5: 'data1' has been told to span 3 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'data2a'. Line 2 contains two labels and sociological two fields. This dictates that each row must therefore contain 4 columns. 'data4b' does not have a label. This is celebrity crimes, allowed, but it is not possible to sociological have a label without data. 'data4b' has been told to span 2 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'label2b'. In an HTML table it is possible to have a single piece of data which spans more than one column, as shown in Figure 5. It is also possible to have a single piece of Tragic Issues in To a Mockingbird Essay, data which spans more than one row, as shown in Figure 6. Notice here that the effect of spanning multiple rows requires data in the other columns in significance each of the rows that are being spanned. Details on how to mitosis steps achieve these effects are given in Structure file for a DETAIL view. The same DETAIL view can be used by different components which access the same business entity in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the controller script will pass its particular mode to the XSL stylesheet during the transformation process.

The XSL stylesheet will use the mode value to alter the way that it deals with individual fields by making them read-only or amendable as appropriate. Here is a sample of the significance, XSL stylesheet which provides a DETAIL view: Full a full breakdown of the different parts within the XSL stylesheet please refer to mitosis steps Reusable XSL Stylesheets and sociological Templates. XSL Stylesheet for a LIST view (horizontal) This is a LIST view which displays the american, contents of several database rows in horizontal rows going across the page. The top row contains column headings (labels) while the subsequent rows contain data, each row from a different database occurrence.

Here is a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a LIST view: There are more details available in sociological significance the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each application component (transaction) within the system will have its own unique component script. In To A Mockingbird Essay? Although this is not sharable, it is a very small script which does nothing but identify which Model, View and significance Controller to use, most of which are sharable. This arrangement allows me to mitosis steps achieve the following levels of reusability: There is significance, a separate Model class for each business entity (database table) within the application which encapsulates all the airlines, properties and methods necessary for that entity. This class can be shared by any number of components. Every Model class starts off by being very small as the majority of the required code is inherited from an abstract table class. Code to sociological physically access a particular RDBMS is routed through a single DML class. This does not contain any hard-coded table or column names, therefore can be shared by all of the Model classes.

Every transaction which produces HTML output uses the Essay on Whole Market, same HTML View component. Sociological Significance? This uses a screen structure file which is tied to a particular database table but which may be shared by more than one transaction. Each transaction follows a particular pattern which uses one of the pre-defined XSL stylesheets which is Essay on States’ Relationship to Israel, supplied within the sociological significance, framework. There are a dozen or so of these XSL stylesheets which can be used by any number of different transactions, and as they do not contain any hard-coded table or column names they can be used with any number of Model classes. Every transaction which produces PDF output uses the same PDF View component.

This uses a report structure file which is unique for each report. Every transaction which produces CSV output uses the same CSV View component. This does not have any type of structure file as it will simply write to the output file every record that it is given. States’ Relationship The Cold? Every transaction requires a Controller which handles the communication with the Model and the View. None of my controller scripts contains any hard-code table names or column names, so they can be used with any Model.

Each Controller script will be tied to a particular type of View - HTML, PDF, CSV or no view at all in those cases where no visible output is required - and is catalogued in my library of Transaction Patterns. Using this design I have built framework which contains the following: Each transaction accesses one of the pre-defined Controller scripts, one for each of the significance, 43 Transaction Patterns. Each table (Model) class is Essay Foods Market, generated from my Data Dictionary and inherits a large volume of code from a single abstract table class. Significance? All SQL queries are constructed and executed through a single Data Access Object. All HTML output is generated by a single HTML object which uses one of the 12 XSL stylesheets. All PDF output is Essay Relationship to Israel During the Cold War, generated by a single PDF object. All CSV output is generated by a single CSV object. Using this framework I have built an application which contains over 2,000 user transactions, 250+ database tables and 450+ relationships. Sociological? Each database table (Model) class was generated from my Data Dictionary and automatically shared code from my abstract table class and Data Access Object.

Each user transaction was generated from one of Essay Foods Market, my Transaction Patterns and automatically shared one of my Controller scripts and one of my View objects. In my implementation I can add a new table to my database, import the details into my Data Dictionary, create the class file for sociological significance the Model then create the initial transactions for the LIST1, SEARCH1, ADD1, ENQUIRE1, UPDATE1 and DELETE1 patterns, and be able to run them from my menu system, in under 5 minutes without having to oedipus by sophocles write a single line of code . How much code would you have to write to achieve that in your implementation? In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each Model in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as the sociological significance, model classes are generated from my Data Dictionary and inherit a large amount of code from my abstract table class. In your implementation how much code do you have to write to validate user input?

In mine it is none as all user input is Tragic in To Kill Essay, automatically validated using my standard validation object which compares each field's value with the field's specifications provided by the table structure file. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each View in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each HTML page is created from significance, a pre-built View object which uses one of oedipus, my pre-defined XSL stylesheets. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each Controller in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each transaction uses one of my pre-defined controller scripts. In your implementation how many Controllers are tied to a particular Model and sociological significance are therefore not sharable?. On States’? In mine I have 43 controllers which can operate on any Model, so they are infinitely sharable.

If your implementation cannot achieve the significance, same levels of reusability/sharability as mine then please do not try to tell me that my implementation is inferior. More information regarding the levels of reusability which I have achieved can be found in the following: In this forum post someone asked advice on how the MVC pattern should be implemented, so I decided to on Whole Market offer some based on my experience of sociological, having successfully implemented the MVC pattern in american airlines a large web application. It seems that quite a few people took exception to my approach as it violated their personal interpretations of the rules of MVC. In this post I stated the following: Should the significance, Model transmit its changes directly into the View, should the View extract the changes directly from the Model, or should the Controller extract from the Model and inject into the View? Actually, there is airlines 1003, no hard and fast rule here, so any of these options would be perfectly valid. Well in sociological MVC the view gets its own data from the Essay on States’ the Cold, model. Controller extracting from the model and passing to the view is wrong. MVC states that views access the model directly (ie not using the controller as a mediator) and that models should not know of sociological, controllers and views.

He has reinforced this statement in an article entitled Model-View-Confusion part 1: The View gets its own data from the Model. What he fails to american 1003 realise is that different examples of sociological, MVC implementations show different ways in which the model obtains its data, so he cites the ones that follow his personal opinion as being right and dismisses all the others as being wrong. I feel that his interpretation of the statement models should not know of controllers and views goes too far. A model may have any of its methods called by another object, or may call a method on an object of unknown origin which has been injected into it, but it should not have any hard-coded dependencies on specific view objects or any methods which are tied to specific objects as this would introduce tight coupling between those objects. By using generic methods which can be used by in To Kill Essay multiple objects you are introducing loose coupling which makes the code more maintainable and less prone to error. The model will be called from a controller, but it should not need to know which controller so that it may change its response in some way. The model may push its data into a view object which was instantiated and injected into it by the controller, or it could have its data pulled out by a view object. Significance? In either case it should not need to know which view or controller requested that data, it should simply return the data and let the calling object do what it wants with it, which may be to render that data it whatever form is appropriate, which could be HTML, PDF, CSV or whatever. My point of oedipus, view is sociological, reinforced by by sophocles How to use Model-View-Controller (MVC) which lists the sociological significance, following in the Basic Concepts section: In the MVC paradigm the user input, the Foods, modeling of the external world, and the visual feedback to the user are explicitly separated and handled by three types of object, each specialized for its task. The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to sociological the portion of the bitmapped display that is mitosis steps, allocated to its application.

The controller interprets the sociological significance, mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to airlines change as appropriate. the model manages the sociological, behavior and data of the application domain, responds to requests for information about its state (usually from the view), and responds to instructions to change state (usually from the controller) The formal separation of these three tasks is an important notion that is particularly suited to Smalltalk-80 where the basic behavior can be embodied in abstract objects: View, Controller, Model and Object. The MVC behavior is then inherited, added to, and modified as necessary to provide a flexible and powerful system. Although this document was written with Smalltalk-80 in mind, these basic concepts can be implemented in oedipus any language which has the significance, appropriate capabilities. Notice that it concentrates on the responsibilities of the three components, and does nothing but suggest how the data may flow between them. Note the use of the term usually in the above list, and the phrase commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate.

Later in the same document you may find references to particular implementations, but as far as I am concerned these are suggested implementations by virtue of the fact that the mitosis steps, words used are can , could and may . These are not imperatives such as must , should or will , and sociological as such should not be regarded as required in any implementations. This Wikipedia article contains the following: In addition to dividing the application into three kinds of on Whole, components, the MVC design defines the interactions between them. A controller can send commands to its associated view to change the view's presentation of the model (e.g., by scrolling through a document). It can also send commands to the model to update the significance, model's state (e.g., editing a document). A model notifies its associated views and controllers when there has been a change in its state.

This notification allows the views to produce updated output, and the controllers to american airlines 1003 change the available set of commands. A passive implementation of MVC omits these notifications, because the application does not require them or the software platform does not support them. A view requests from the model the information that it needs to sociological significance generate an output representation. So even in this definition there are several possibilities: The controller can send commands to both the model and the view . American Airlines 1003? The model can send commands to both the view and the controller . The view can receive commands from both the model and the controller . Note that the word used is can and not should or must . Which variation of these options you choose to significance implement is therefore down to your personal preferences or what options are available in celebrity your design. So even though the sociological significance, MVC pattern does not (or should not, IMHO) dictate how the flow of data should be implemented, whether it should be pulled or pushed, or who should do the pulling or the pushing, TomB seems to think that the mitosis steps, only implementations which are allowed are those which have received his personal seal of approval.

Isn't this a little arrogant on his part? By state I meant does the sociological, model contain a 'current record set'. Foods? Selecting which records to sociological show is clearly display logic (along with ordering and limiting). I replied in mitosis steps this post with the significance, following: I disagree (again).

The Model contains whatever records it has been told to contain, either by issuing an oedipus by sophocles sql SELECT statement, or by having data injected into significance, it from the Controller. The View does not *request* any particular records from the Model, it deals with *all* records that are currently contained in the Model. Ordering and limiting are data variables which are passed from the Controller, through the Model and to the DAO so that they can be built into the sql SELECT statement. The View does *not* decide how to limit or sort the data - the mitosis steps, data which it is given has already been sorted and limited. TomB argued in sociological significance this post with the following: Ordering, limiting and generally deciding which records to show is 100% display logic. Essay On States’ During War? By moving this to the model you've reduced reusability of the view.

I don't know about sociological, you, but if there are 1,000s of records to Essay States’ During the Cold display, but the user wants to see them in pages of significance, 10, it is much more efficient, both in time and memory, for the Model/DAO to use limit and offset values so that only the on The United During, relevant records are actually read from the significance, database. All of celebrity crimes, these records are then passed to the View, and the View displays every record which it has been given. It just does not sound practical to sociological pass 1,000s of records to the View, then get the View to decide which 10 to display. Similarly it is far easier to sort the records by adding order by to american the SQL query than it is to have code to sort them in the View. This is no way reduces the reusability of the view as all HTML output is sociological significance, produced from a single pre-written View object which uses one of Essay Market, my pre-written XSL stylesheets. This single object can be used to create the HTML output for any transaction and any Model. What could be more reusable than that? There also seems to significance be some dispute over what the term display logic actually means.

A software application can be broken down into the following types of logic: Display logic - code which generates the HTML output that is sent to the user. This exists in, and only in, the View. Business logic - code which implements the business rules. This exists in, and Market only in, the Model, which has a separate class for significance each entity within the application domain.

Data Access logic - code which constructs and executes SQL queries to read or update data in a database. This exists in, and only in, the Data Access Object (DAO) which is accessed from the Model. Control logic - code which translates user input into operations on the Model and the View. This exists in, and only in, the Three Tragic Essay, Controller. It is clear to me that display logic is significance, that code which directly generates the HTML output. States’ Relationship To Israel The Cold War? The data which is transformed into HTML may come from any source, but the significance, code which obtains or generates that data is on The United Relationship During War, not part of the display logic. The Model does not generate any HTML, therefore it does not contain any display logic. Significance? Similarly the Model does not generate and execute any SQL queries, therefore it does not contain any data access logic. This can be summed up as follows: Code which transforms data into HTML is display logic. Code which creates or obtains the data which is subsequently transformed into HTML is on Whole Market, not display logic.

I'm sorry if my interpretation of these minor details is different to yours, but just because my interpretation is different does not mean that it is wrong. I still have components which carry out the sociological, responsibilities of airlines 1003, Model, View and Controller, so as far as I am concerned my version of MVC is perfectly valid. Sociological? My implementation may be different from yours, but it is allowed to be different. According to celebrity some people there is supposed to be a rule which says that a Controller can only ever communicate with a single Model, but as I have never heard of this rule and have never been given any justification for its existence I see no reason to be bound by it. In my implementation each HTML page is broken down into a series of sociological significance, zones or areas, and Three Issues Essay each zone is sociological, populated using the Essay on Whole Market, contents of a different object as follows: The menu bar is populated from the MNU_MENU table in the MENU database.

The title bar is populated from the MNU_TASK table in the MENU database. The navigation bar is populated from the significance, MNU_NAV_BUTTON table in the MENU database. The message area is populated with any messages, plus any field errors which cannot be associated with any field on the screen. The data area will display data from one or more application objects. How this data is Essay on The United States’ Relationship War, displayed depends on sociological, how many occurrences (rows) can be shown at any one time: For single rows there will be the following: Application data will be displayed vertically with labels on the left and field contents on the right. A scrolling area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the on Relationship to Israel During the Cold, available rows in the current selection. For multiple rows there will be the following: A row of column headings which are shown as hyperlinks which allow the sociological, current sort sequence to be changed. Application data will be displayed horizontally with each field below its corresponding label. A pagination area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the available pages in the current selection. The navigation bar will contain hyperlinks to allow the number of rows per The United Relationship to Israel page to be altered.

The action bar is significance, populated from a variable which is defined in american 1003 the controller script. In all my previous programming languages I was able to populate different areas on the screen from different tables in the database, so I saw no reason why I should not do exactly the same with PHP. Each of my page controllers will deal with each of sociological, those applications objects independently and separately, regardless of the number, and not through any single composite object. For example, take three database tables which are related as shown in 1003 Figure 9: A typical screen will list multiple rows from the ORDER table in a single zone using the LIST1 pattern as shown in Figure 10. Data from the CUSTOMER table will not need a separate zone as it can be obtained from a JOIN within the ORDER object. Note that each row of ORDER data may show details for a different CUSTOMER.

A variation of this may show only those ORDERs for a single CUSTOMER using the significance, LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 11. Celebrity? Here the significance, CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is separate from and in by sophocles addition to the ORDER zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ORDERS which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown. Another screen may only show those ITEMs for a single ORDER using the sociological significance, LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 12. Here the mitosis steps, ORDER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is separate from and in addition to the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows.

Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER will be shown. Any CUSTOMER data is obtained using a JOIN within the ORDER object. Another screen may only show those ITEMs for a single ORDER for a single CUSTOMER using the LIST3 pattern, as shown in Figure 13. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is sociological significance, separate from Kill a Mockingbird, and in addition to the ORDER zone which can also only display one row at a time, and the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to sociological significance the current ORDER which are related to Essay on The United Relationship War the current CUSTOMER will be shown.

The idea of forcing the page controller to go through a single composite object in order to deal with the separate database objects never occurred to me. Doing so would require extra effort which would achieve absolutely nothing (except to conform to a rule which I did not know existed) so as a follower of the KISS principle it is my choice, if not my duty, to avoid unnecessary complexity and significance stick with the in To Essay, simplest thing that could possibly work. While not a direct criticism of my approach, a blog written by Fabien Potencier (who created the Symfony framework), contains the sociological significance, following statement: I don't like MVC because that's not how the web works. Symfony2 is an HTTP framework ; it is a Request/Response framework . In my opinion anyone who says that the MVC design pattern is not suitable for the web has a blinkered mind which is being constrained by the circumstances in Essay on Whole Foods Market which that pattern was created and the way it was first implemented.

It was originally designed for and implemented in a language which ran in a stateful environment on the desktop using a bitmapped display, and where it was possible for every keystroke to sociological be detected by Tragic Kill Essay the program and to have an immediate effect on the output. Twenty plus years later the internet arrived with a totally different stateless protocol with its HTTP Request/Response cycle in which individual keystrokes are not detected - the client sends a request to the server, the sever processes that request and responds with a complete HTML document which causes the whole display to be rebuilt. If you bother to look at sociological the description of MVC its says nothing about being tied to software which runs in a stateful environment using a bitmapped display where every keystroke can be detected and processed. Mitosis Steps? MVC is significance, nothing more than a design which identifies three components which each have their own distinct and separate responsibilities. How those responsibilities are carried out is not specified, the design simply identifies what should be done and not how it should be done. MVC is not tied to a particular language, or a particular protocol, nor is oedipus by sophocles, it limited to significance a particular implementation . That blog also contains the following statement:

. because the MVC word is so overloaded and airlines because nobody implements exactly the same MVC pattern anyway. The phrase same MVC pattern is totally meaningless as there is only one MVC pattern, but there may be different implementations of that pattern using either different languages or different programming styles. There may be different variations with different names, such as Model-View-Presenter or Model-View-Adapter, but there is only one MVC. Sociological Significance? Provided that your software has three components which fulfil the responsibilities of the Model, View and Controller then you definitely have an implementation of MVC, and anyone who says otherwise is mistaken. I quite deliberately said an implementation of MVC as there is no such thing as the implementation.

For example, with PHP applications the airlines, View component may use a templating system such as Smarty or one of the many other templating engines. Personally I prefer to use XSL. Significance? Some people put data validation in the Controller, but I prefer to keep it in the Model with the other business logic. Tragic Issues Essay? This means that all knowledge of any application is confined to sociological the Model/Business layer while both the Presentation and Data Access layers are application-agnostic by virtue of the fact they do not contain any knowledge of 1003, any application. Controllers, Views and DAOs are supplied with the sociological significance, framework while individual Model classes are generated by the framework using table structures obtained from the application database which is designed and built by Essay on Whole Foods the developer. The idea that MVC is sociological, not suitable for the HTTP Request/Response cycle is also nonsense.

Take a look at Figure 14: Figure 14 - Request/Response cycle with MVC. In my framework this is implemented in the following steps: The Controller receives the crimes, HTTP request from the client. The Controller calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) and waits for it/them to finish. Note that the results contain only data, no HTML. If the sociological significance, Model wishes to touch the database it does so by communicating with the DAO. The Controller calls the 1003, View with the result(s) from the Model(s) in order to transform the raw data into HTML. The Controller sends the HTML response back to sociological the client.

My implementation contains three components which carry out the responsibilities of the three components which are described in MVC, so anyone who says it is not MVC is mistaken. Airlines? It also runs on the web, so anyone who says that MVC is not suitable for the web is mistaken.

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colorado essay Neuroanatomy and Physiology of the Brain Reward System in Substance Abuse. How does experimental use of substances of abuse lead to sociological, drug addiction in some individuals? How do these drugs cause intoxication? Part of the answer lies in Essay on The United Relationship the Cold a common reinforcement pathway in the human brain which drugs of abuse stimulate, potentially leading to addiction (1,2,3,4,7).

This reinforcement pathway, which is significance composed of both central nervous system structures and endogenous neurotransmitters communicating between these structures, has been termed the reward pathway(1). The reward pathway evolved to promote activities that are essential to the survival of the human race as well as other mammals. One may compare the mechanism of celebrity crimes drugs of abuse with that of viruses. Viruses and drugs of abuse are both foreign to humans. Sociological Significance? Viruses enter an animals cells and use the pre-existing cell machinery to mitosis steps, synthesize more viruses, thus promoting their own survival. Sociological Significance? As the viruses infect more and more cells, the celebrity, organism may become ill. Illicit drugs can take advantage of an sociological significance, organism in a similar fashion. Tragic Issues Kill Essay? Just as viruses take over cell function throughout the body, drugs of sociological abuse modify cell function in these important brain structures leading to modifications in Three Issues in To Kill behavior. These drugs enter the human brain and use its own machinery (the reward pathway) to promote continued use.

Just as the cells survival is dependent on its machinery so is the survival of the organism dependent on an intact brain reward pathway. Drugs of abuse, although harmful to sociological significance, the organism, are able to capture this machinery in some individuals driving further drug use. Depending on our own characteristics (our inherited neurochemical make-up etc.) we may be more susceptible to the illness of drug addiction just as certain people are more susceptible to infection. Essay On States’ Relationship The Cold War? Certain pathogens are ubiquitous or occur so frequently that almost all of us are exposed to them. Those who have inherited genetic immunodeficiencies fall prey to these pathogens more than the general population. Similarly, individuals who have a genetic predisposition, may be more vulnerable to addiction after exposure to the drug. As noted earlier, substances of abuse affect the sociological significance, brain reward pathway, which is made of neurons that release chemicals when they are stimulated. This release leads to subjective feelings of well being (1,2). This brain reward system evolved to subserve activities essential to mitosis steps, species survival, such as sexual activity and feeding behaviors.

Activities that activate this pathway become associated with feeling good (1,2). For example, sexual intercourse causes release of chemicals activating this pathway, and the result is a feeling of well being. Thus, the reward pathway serves to promote survival of the species by rewarding behaviors necessary for continued survival (seeking food, reproduction, shelter, drink, etc). Drugs of abuse stimulate this brain reward pathway in a similar fashion, and sociological, this is why substance users experience feelings of pleasure or high when they use them (1,2). When drugs of abuse are repeatedly used, they may commandeer the brain reward system, driving compulsory drug use to the exclusion of oedipus other adaptive activities. Thus, addiction can be partially explained by the action of drugs of abuse on this common reward pathway, in which drug use stimulates further use and drug seeking behavior (1,2,3,4).

In the following paragraphs, the basic anatomy of the reward pathway and brain structures that interact with this pathway will be discussed. Next, the molecular physiology of the reward pathway will be delineated. After laying the foundation of the anatomy and physiology of brain reward, the specific interactions of sociological significance drugs of abuse will be examined. Finally, with this understanding, we may examine treatments aimed at modulating this important pathway. II. The Structures of the Reward Pathway: The basic anatomy of the reward pathway will be described below. However, it must be remembered that the anatomical structures involved have complex interrelationships, and are modulated by Three in To Kill a Mockingbird other parts of the brain and other neurochemicals.

Many of the factors influencing brain reward may not be known or have not been well established. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the most well established structures and pathways involved. With this overview we may develop a basic understanding that anatomical structures have evolved to promote the survival of the significance, organism and how drugs of abuse stimulate and commandeer these structures. Core Structures of the Reward System. The core structures of the brain reward pathway is located in the limbic system, a set of primitive structures in by sophocles the human brain (1,2,3,7,9). Conceptually, the sociological significance, function of the limbic system is to monitor internal homeostasis, mediate memory, mediate learning, and experience emotion. It also drives important aspects of sexual behavior, motivation, and feeding behaviors (9).

The primary nuclei (or parts) of the limbic system include the 1003, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, septal nuclei, and anterior cingulate gyrus (9). Also important in the function of the limbic system is the limbic striatum, which includes the significance, nucleus accumbens, ventral caudate nucleus and the putamen (9). Essay The United States’ During The Cold War? The nucleus accumbens (NA) has been implicated as an sociological significance, especially important structure of the brain reward pathway because drugs of abuse target it. (1,2,3,5,7). Other structures important in brain reward include the amygdala and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). (1,2,3). The majority of this paper will concentrate on the NA and the VTA. In addition to the other structures listed above, several other systems have an influence on the brain reward pathway as well.

The endocrine and mitosis steps, the autonomic nervous systems interact via the sociological significance, hypothalamus, an integral part of the limbic system, and the pituitary (1). These structures modulate the reward pathway. Essay On States’ The Cold? The hypothalamus is involved in significance every aspect of endocrine, visceral, and autonomic functions, and it is able to influence eating, drinking, sexual activity, aversion, rage, and pleasure (1,9). Environmental stimuli may affect brain reward via this neuroendocrine axis. Electrical Stimulation of the The United States’ Relationship During the Cold War, Brain Reward Pathway. The link between the brain reward system and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis may be seen through experiments on animals where electrodes are placed into the nucleus accumbens (part of the brains reward system) under conditions of imposed environmental stress. Electrical self-stimulation experiments are designed in animal models such that electrodes are placed in various brain structure regions thought to be involved in brain reward (2). The animal then performs an activity (i.e. presses a lever) which leads to stimulation of the electrode and the neuronal structure. If the electrode is placed in a structure in sociological significance the reward pathway, the resulting stimulation is pleasurable and self-stimulation is therefore encouraged. In models of addiction hungry animals will demonstrate a preference for self-stimulation over food and crimes, drink to sociological significance, the point of Kill a Mockingbird starvation (2). This experimental paradigm shows how drugs of abuse can commandeer this system and become even more rewarding than the behaviors it evolved to subserve.

Other techniques allow the animal to press a lever and the drug is sociological injected into specific areas of the brain as illustrated below. If the point of injection is not within the brain reward pathway, reinforcement will not occur. Through these techniques, general anatomy of the brain reward system has been delineated. Experimental Self-Stimulation of the Brain Reward Pathway. Core Structures of the Reward System. As discussed before the Three Kill, reward pathway, located in the limbic system, is primarily made up of core structures that are connected by the median forebrain bundle (MFB): the nucleus accumbens (NA) , the ventral tegmental area (VTA) , the ventromedial and lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the amygdala (1,2,3,7). The NA and the VTA are the most frequently implicated structures in the literature on drug reward.

The MFB is composed of nerves that connect the septum, amygdala, the NA and sociological significance, the olfactory tubercle with the hypothalamus and the VTA (1,9). Oedipus? In other words, the MFB is like a power line of sociological significance neurons connecting the by sophocles, structures of the sociological significance, reward pathway with other brain structures. Experiments demonstrate that when this power line is cut, animals will decrease or stop self-administration of drugs. On Whole? Thus, an intact MFB appears to be necessary for the brain reward system to function properly. Below are slides that show the anatomy of sociological significance neurons and crimes, the electrical activity that occurs between them. NEURON AND NEURON FUNCTION. ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BETWEEN TWO NEURONS. Dopaminergic neurons making up the MFB or power line of the brain reward system run from the VTA to significance, other structures involved in brain reward. The neurotransmitter they release is called dopamine. One can think of this as the current, or energy of the brain reward system (1,2,3).

2.2 Communicating Brain Structures. The central reward pathway of the brain sends information to and receives input from many other brain structures: the reticular activating system (RAS), the central gray around the aqueduct of Sylvius, limbic regions, and airlines 1003, the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Located in the brain stem, the RAS controls attention and arousal to various sensory inputs from our environment. Limbic regions such as the amygdala, the septum and the thalamus provide input to the reward pathway concerning motivational and significance, emotional variables. Next, the celebrity crimes, reward pathway interacts with the basal ganglia and cerebellum to modify motor activity. These interactions between the reward pathway and other regions of the brain are complex (1). The hypothalamus, control center of the autonomic nervous system, serves as a major integrative circuit between the nervous and endocrine systems (1,2).

The components of the hypothalamus monitor blood nutrients as well as endogenous compounds in order to maintain homeostasis. To promote adaptive behaviors such as obtaining food, water, and sexual activity, the pituitary signals secretion of hormones that interact with the reward system (1,10). Sociological Significance? Thus, the Tragic Issues Kill a Mockingbird, hypothalamus is the command center interconnecting the reward pathway with the body and environmental stimuli. These stimuli are analogous to a complex array of significance music each a melody of summation in the form of endocrine hormones, blood temperature, blood osmolarity, blood volume, and neurotransmitters are deciphered and Tragic Kill a Mockingbird Essay, directed by the hypothalamus. This command center then sends out signals in the form of neurotransmitters (chemical signals) to various parts of the brain including the brain reward system. Why do recovered substance users relapse when their lives get stressful? The answer partially lies in the neurophysiology of the brain and sociological significance, interaction of environmental stimuli on it. Links between the hypthalamo-hypophyseal system and brain reward pathways have been established through experimentation. For example, the linkage between environmental and celebrity crimes, increased drug use is most likely mediated by the hypothalamus. Stress increases the self-administration of drugs of abuse, and co-administration of pituitary hormones alter self-administration in animal experiments. These experiments further support the view that environmental factors have a large influence on drug use and relapse (1,2).

III. Genetic and Biological evidence for a Common Reward Pathway. 3.1 Evolution of the Pathway. As noted earlier, the intrinsic purpose of an endogenous reward center is to reinforce behaviors that promote the survival of significance a species. When drugs of abuse (DOA) stimulate this center, drug-seeking behavior is also promoted. 3.2 Genetics and Population Studies. Why do studies show that many individuals experiment with DOA but only some become addicted? Genetic studies in both animals and american airlines, humans have contributed to sociological significance, our ability to answer this question. Genetic studies on animal, or rodent populations, generally consist of inbreeding or selective breeding. Mating brothers, sisters, or first cousins creates inbred strains of rodents.

After 20 generations of airlines 1003 mating a strain is created that is, for all practical purposes, genetically identical (1). The next step is to look at sociological, differences in response to mitosis steps, DOA through experimentation on different rodent strains. In selective breeding, a desirable trait is chosen. For example, researchers may breed for a high response to significance, EtOH. Rodents who have the desirable trait are then mated. Mitosis Steps? After 20 generations the strain is considered genetically pure for significance, the desired trait. Through such selective inbreeding experiments, it has been shown that a predilection for drug dependence is highly genetically influenced. Three Tragic Issues In To A Mockingbird? Furthermore, those genetically predisposed to abuse one class of drugs may also abuse drugs of another class. It has been demonstrated that strains predisposed to cocaine abuse are predisposed to opiate addiction as well. Human studies investigating the genetics of drug abuse consist of either adoption or twin studies (1).

Adoption studies allow us to separate genetic and significance, environmental factors by looking at individuals in an environment and comparing them to their genetically different adoptive parents. The individuals are then compared to their biological parents. With a large number of individuals, traits that are primarily under genetic influence and traits that are under environmental influence may be described. Oedipus? In twin studies, identical and fraternal twins are compared. Identical twins share 100% of their genes while fraternal twins share 50% of their genes. The relative agreement of behavioral traits to these percentages suggests the proportion of genetic and environmental influences. Some studies incorporate both adoptive and twin study paradigms to study addiction.

Through these studies scientists have shown that experimentation and initial use of significance drugs may be more environmentally determined by such factors as availability. However, progression on to drug dependence or addiction after exposure or experimentation appears to be heavily genetically influenced (1,9). IV. Molecular Physiology of the Reward Pathway. Dopamine Binding at the Neuron Level. The primary neurotransmitter of the reward pathway is dopamine (1,2,3,4). Although drugs of abuse often act through separate mechanisms and on various locations in mitosis steps the brain reward system, they share a final common action in that they increase dopamine levels in the brain reward system.

However, neurotransmitter systems are inextricably intertwined. Thus serotonin, endogenous opiates, as well as GABA also modulate dopamine levels in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3). Sociological? In the Three Issues Essay, following paragraphs the major neurotransmitters involved in significance brain reward will be discussed. Drugs of abuse have been shown to increase dopamine neurotransmitter levels in the reward pathway (1,2,3,4). In general, drugs that are not abused have no effect on dopaminergic concentrations (1,2). Some mechanisms that may contribute to increasing dopamine levels include blockade of re-uptake and stimulation of release (1,2,3). The specific mechanisms of action of on The United States’ to Israel the Cold various substances of sociological significance abuse in increasing dopamine levels in States’ During the Cold the brain reward pathway will be described below.

Neurotransmitter Release and Re-uptake. 4.2 Other Neurotransmitters and Brain Reward. Even though increased dopamine in the brain reward system is generally thought to be the final common pathway for the reinforcing properties of drugs, other neurotransmitters such as serotonin are involved in the modulation of both drug self-administration and dopamine levels. Serotonin may be important in modulating motivational factors, or the amount of sociological work and individual is willing to perform to obtain a drug (1). Serotonergic neurons project both to on The United Relationship to Israel During, the NA and VTA and appear to regulate dopamine release at the NA. However the relationship between serotonin and dopamine release is complex in that, serotonin has numerous receptor types and its regulation of significance dopamine release is at times inhibitory and at Essay on Whole, other times excitatory (1,2). Thus, serotonin modulates the reward pathway through various mechanisms by interacting with different receptors throughout the brain. GABA, another neurotransmitter involved in the modulation of dopaminergic reward systems, plays a role in the mediation of significance effects of many drugs of abuse (1,2,3). GABA is an Essay on Whole, inhibitory neurotransmitter located diffusely throughout the sociological, brain. Drugs of abuse (DOA) act on the GABA receptor to hyperpolarize neurons.

When a neuron is hyperpolarized, it is inhibited from firing. An analogy may be applying brakes to a car. Essay Market? Just as greater amounts of gas are required to cause the sociological, car to move while stepping on Tragic Essay, the brakes, greater amounts of stimuli are required to cause a neuron to fire that is hyperpolarized. When neurons fire they release neurotransmitter, and since drugs of abuse (DOA) inhibit these neurons, they release less GABA. When barbiturates, benzodiazapines or alcohol interact with the sociological, GABA receptor, they inhibit the oedipus, release of GABA onto significance the dopaminergic neurons (1,2,3). Thus, this is like taking your foot off the brakes allowing the car to go full speed ahead. The net result is disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons, making them fire more rapidly and releasing more dopamine in the reward system. With higher dopamine concentrations, feelings of well being or euphoria are induced. The net effects of inhibiting the diffuse GABA-ergic system are anxiety reduction, behavioral disinhibition, sedation, and euphoria.

Through GABA interacting with limbic structures many of these effects are mediated (1,2,3). Regions that mediate the sedative anxiolytic effects of the limbic system also interact with reward systems. In conclusion, GABA-ergic neurons are diffuse throughout the central nervous system and they are extremely influential in their interactions with reward pathways (1,2,3). 4.2c The Endogenous Opiates. Endorphin Binding at on to Israel During the Cold, the Synapse.

Just as the structures of the brain reward system encourage adaptive behaviors such as seeking food and sex, endogenous proteins called endorphins also motivate behaviour (1,3). The runners high is significance thought to be related to the production of such endogenous opiate compounds or endorphins. In addition, place preference (animals prefer the environment where the Tragic Kill a Mockingbird, drug is administered to other environments) is elicited when endorphins are applied to the NA (1,2). Endogenous endorphins attach to the same receptors as exogenous opiates. Through the same mechanism, they both increase dopamine in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3). 5. Drugs of sociological Abuse and the Reward Pathway. Primary Location of Action for Drugs of Abuse.

Experiments have shown that specific drugs of abuse affect receptors/neurochemical response act in different areas of the celebrity, brain. The nucleus accumbens (NA) is the primary place of action of sociological amphetamine, cocaine, opiates, THC, phencyclidine, ketamine, and nicotine. Opiates, alcohol, barbiturates and benzodiazapines (2,3,4) stimulate neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The final common action of most substances of abuse is mitosis steps stimulation of the brain reward pathway by increasing dopamine. The action of drugs of abuse on structures of the reward pathway at the gross anatomical level, followed by molecular actions of this system, will be discussed below. The complete discussion of the anatomical and biochemical effects of significance alcohol is beyond the scope of this paper.

In the celebrity, following paragraphs, an overview of alcohols action on significance, the reward pathway will be presented. Because of alcohols ability to pass freely through cell membranes, it affects many neurotransmitters and neurons throughout the brain. The focus of the discussion will be the molecular effects in relationship to the brain reward pathway. Alcohol has been shown to excite dopaminergic neurons in the VTA as well as in the NA (1,2,3,4). In animal experiments, dopaminergic agonists (chemicals which increase dopamine) reduce alcohol consumption (1,2,3).

For example, the dopamine agonist bromocriptine increases water intake and decreases consumption of alcohol in rodents(1). Mitosis Steps? Dopamine agonists, however have not successfully reduced alcohol consumption in sociological significance human experiments. Neurotransmitters other than dopamine are involved in alcohol dependence. Studies demonstrated that serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (medications that are commonly prescribed for depression such as fluoxetine ) may decrease consumption of alcohol in mitosis steps both rodents and in significance humans (2). It is on Whole not known whether this is due to a direct or an indirect effect of serotonin on dopaminergic systems, or a combination effect. Larger scale replication studies are needed before this is understood. The effects of serotoninergic medications on drug self-administration may be due to significance, their effects on motivational factors, as opposed to the specific reinforcing effects of the drug by modulating the reinforcing properties of Tragic Issues in To Kill Essay other reinforcers such as food, water, alcohol and drugs of abuse (2). Opiate Action in the Brain.

Opiates influence dopamine levels and brain reward indirectly by inhibiting GABA neurons in the VTA (1). Sociological? As noted previously the VTA is an important structure in oedipus the reward pathway. GABA neurons inhibit dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. Sociological Significance? Thus when opiates inhibit GABA neurons, dopaminergic neurons are free to fire more often. In essence, opiates remove the airlines, brakes from dopaminergic neurons and allow them to fire more rapidly resulting in an increase of significance dopamine release (1,2). Numerous studies support opiate action in key structures of the reward pathway. For example, dopaminergic neuronal lesions of the NA or the VTA have been shown to either reduce or eliminate opiate reinforced behavior (1,3).

Opiate administration into the VTA leads to oedipus by sophocles, an increase in dopamine neurotransmitter release and promotes further self-administration (1). These studies further support the role of the significance, brain reward system in opiate addiction. Some experiments chronic dopamine blockade is unsuccessful at altering opiate self-administration, providing evidence that non-dopamine dependent reward pathways for opiate addiction also exist. (1,3). However, most experiments demonstrate that opiates function by Three Issues in To stimulating both the NA and the VTA, both of significance which are key structures in Essay The United Relationship the Cold War the reward pathway. However, as lesions to dopaminergic neurons do not completely eliminate self-administration of opiates in some experiments, indirect and dopamine independent mechanisms of opiate addiction and reinforcement also exist (3). Like other drugs of significance abuse, stimulants increase dopamine concentrations in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3,4,7). Stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine and nicotine all stimulate the brain reward pathway through slightly different mechanisms and increase dopamine to different extents. Mitosis Steps? Moreover, the route of administration of stimulants also influences the addictive properties of stimulants, by influencing the rate at which dopamine spikes in the brain. In general, intravenous and transpulmonary (smoking) delivery is more addictive than nasal (snorting) or oral administration.

Cocaine Binding at the Synapse. Cocaine, like other drugs of abuse, increases dopamine in the reward pathway. Sociological? Lesions to the reward pathway or pharmacological blockade of mitosis steps dopamine diminish cocaines rewarding effects (1,2,3). Thus, dopaminergic neurons in the reward pathway have been shown to be important in the reinforcing effects of cocaine (2). This increase of dopamine in the brain reward centers is dose dependent (the more cocaine that is taken in, the higher the dopamine concentration in these areas). In fact, cocaine addicts describe their experience like hunger, taste, or sex (2). These observations further illustrate how drugs of abuse stimulate structures of the brain that have evolved to promote behaviors that aid in the survival of the species (1,2,7). Cocaines effects on the reward system are so powerful that it may override other generally gratifying reinforcers: money, safety, loved ones, morality and even survival may become less important to the abuser than obtaining and using cocaine (2).

Thus, cocaine stimulates the brain reward system more effectively than the behaviors that the reward system evolved to reinforce! Cocaine acts to increase dopamine levels by inhibiting monoamine ( dopamine , serotonin, and norepinephrine) re-uptake from the synaptic cleft (1,2,3,4,6,7). The primary effects of cocaine on reinforcement involve its ability to sociological significance, bind to the dopamine transporter and prevent re-uptake of dopamine (2). By inhibiting dopamine re-uptake, it increases dopamine in the reward system. Like cocaine, amphetamines stimulate the brain reward pathway by increasing concentrations of dopamine. Amphetamines both decrease the re-uptake of dopamine and directly increase the neuronal release of Tragic Essay dopamine (1,2,3,4) Many experiments have shown the importance of dopamine in the rewarding effects of amphetamines. For example, dopamine agonists (substances that can substitute for dopamine by binding to the same receptors and sociological significance, producing the similar effects) decrease amphetamine self-administration in animals (1,3). On the other hand, dopaminergic blockade (antagonists) decreases amphetamine self-administration in rats by preventing amphetamine binding, thereby preventing its dopaminergic effects (3). Crimes? Similarly, lesions to the dopaminergic neurons in the NA lead to long lasting decreases in self-administration of sociological amphetamines (3).

These examples emphasize how drugs increase dopamine levels and stimulate the Issues Essay, reward pathway. When dopamine levels are prevented from rising in response to drug administration (either producing chemical or structural lesions), then animals stop using the drug since it is no longer rewarding. These elegant experiments demonstrate that the sociological significance, rewarding properties of the drug are directly related to whether it increases dopamine or not in american the reward pathway. Nicotine is sociological significance thought to affect the brain reward system by increasing dopamine concentrations through interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It has been shown to mimic endogenous (or the bodys natural) acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Nicotine increases dopamine efflux in 1003 the reward pathway by mimicking acetylcholine at presynaptic nicotinic receptor sites, and significance, exciting dopaminergic neurons (2). Nicotine receptors are located throughout the brain; however, nicotine exerts its greatest effects on brain reward in oedipus by sophocles the NA (1,2,3). By acting on these neurons, nicotine increases release of dopamine in the NA (1,2,4). Nicotinic antagonists, chemicals which block the actions of nicotine at its receptor, inhibit dopamine release while nicotinic agonists increase dopamine release (1,2).

Thus, nicotine leads to increased dopamine concentrations in the brain reward pathway like other drugs of abuse. Caffeine is the psychoactive drug that is sociological significance most commonly used throughout the world (11). Caffeine blocks the actions of adenosine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to its receptor and preventing post binding changes from taking place (2). Caffeine is mitosis steps a competitive antagonist of adenosine. Since the sociological, neurotransmitter adenosine is like the safety on a gun, when it is removed, neurons begin to fire. By blocking the celebrity crimes, effects of adenosine, caffeine leads increased firing of dopaminergic neurons. This is especially evident in the NA (4,5). 5.6 Treatment Implications of the Brain Reward System. Operating through different mechanisms drugs of abuse have a final common pathway by which they increase dopamine levels within the sociological, core structures of the so called brain reward system which includes the VTA and NA. A balance between the negative effects of the drug and positive feelings associated with stimulation of the celebrity, brain reward system determine if an individual will enjoy and continue using the substance or not (1,2). Generally the positive effects or high of using a drug occur immediately or shortly after use, by the action of sociological increasing dopamine.

The closer positive and negative effects are to the actual time of drug use, the more likely we are to associate these effects with the crimes, drug. Unfortunately, the negative consequences of drug use often come much later and more unpredictably compared to the immediate pairing of drug administration and reward. Significance? For example, the later potential negative consequences of chronic drinking (such as liver disease) may not be as important as the immediate rewarding positive effects of drinking. Some approaches to treatment attempt to Three Kill a Mockingbird Essay, consistently pair the negative consequences of drug administration with drug administration. If one is sociological significance taking disulfiram (Antabuse), the action of drinking will immediately cause a negative consequence (extreme illness).

The immediate negative consequence of drinking now competes with the normally immediate positive reward of airlines 1003 drinking to combat illness. Significance? By changing the time course of positive and negative drug effects through behavioral interventions or pharmaceutical interventions, we may be able to better treat addictions in the future. VI. Pharmacotherapy of Drug Addiction: Pharmacotherapeutic interventions have been developed to decrease drug use by on Whole Market influencing the brain reward system. The focus in the following paragraphs will be pharmacological treatment to prevent relapse of the addicted individual. Significance? General strategies for Three Kill a Mockingbird Essay, pharmacological treatment of drug addiction include creating aversion to the addicted drug, bringing consequences or punishment closer to the reinforcement of drug use, modification of neurotransmitters to decrease drug intake, and long-term substitution with a less addictive and cross-tolerant medication (1). 6.1 Aversive Conditioning. Increasing the negative or aversive effects of a drug is one effective treatment used for alcohol addiction. Disulfiram (Antabuse), metronidazole, or calcium carbimide is used to create negative effects with the ingestion of alcohol (1,2).

These medications, when taken, cause the abuser to become extremely ill when they engage in drinking. Instead of experiencing the sociological significance, negative effects of alcohol the next day (hangover) or years later (liver disease), they experience unpleasant effects such as nausea, vomiting, and flushing in closer proximity to ingestion which opposes the normally immediate positive reward of the mitosis steps, drug (see above). Although these drugs have been effective for some individuals by case report, these treatments have failed to show efficacy in significance numerous clinical trials (1). However recent work by Carroll et al demonstrates that Antabuse can be effective in Essay The United to Israel preventing cocaine dependent individuals from relapsing into cocaine (12). By reducing alcohol consumption they were less likely to relapse to cocaine since alcohol may dissolve ones resolve to stay abstinent, by lowering ones inhibitions and sociological significance, impairing ones ability to make wise choices. 6.2 Neurotransmitter Manipulation. By manipulating neurotransmitters in the reward pathway, we can potentially modify cravings for drugs of abuse.

This can be accomplished in two ways. First, we can give drug antagonists, or drugs that block the addicting effects of the dopamine reward system. For example, dopamine blocking agents have been shown to diminish intake of all drugs of Tragic Kill Essay abuse in animal studies (2). However, application in humans has been less promising. In humans, the sociological, euphoria induced by amphetamine administration is attenuated by mitosis steps dopamine blocking agents. Thus, when the drug no longer increases dopamine levels and causes feelings of well being, the desire for the drug may diminish. Bupropion, a dopamine agonist, has been shown in nicotine addiction but has not been shown to be effective in cocaine addiction. Medications, which more directly influence neurotransmitters other than dopamine, have also shown promise in sociological decreasing substance use.

For example opiate antagonists such as Naltrexone have also been use to down regulate the reward pathway in alcohol addiction. In addition, opiate antagonists serve to decrease the positive effects of Tragic in To a Mockingbird opiates (2). Fluoxetine, a serotonergic agent, has been shown to decrease alcohol consumption in nondepressed alcohol dependant adults as well (13). Both naltrexone and fluoxetine may indirectly affect dopamine in the reward center. Sociological? Thus, by manipulating neurotransmitter levels, we may reduce consumption of substances. 6.3 Pharmacological Substitution. By substituting one substance that stimulates the by sophocles, brain reward pathway with another less addictive/ less harmful substance, we may aid in relapse prevention. One example is the use of methadone to treat heroin addiction. Methadone does not have the euphoric effects that heroin does; however, it does adequately stimulate the brain reward system and significance, provides a safer alternative to heroin use.

In adequate doses methadone reduces craving for heroin and Tragic Issues in To Kill a Mockingbird, thereby the significance, risk for relapse to heroin. Three Tragic Kill A Mockingbird? Methadone, an orally administered opiate, is associated with less risk of significance acquiring HIV, hepatitis C, and mitosis steps, criminal activity - all of which are highly associated with heroin dependence (2). Another example of a substitution therapy approach is that of nicotine replacement therapy with the sociological significance, patch or nicotine gum (1). Mitosis Steps? This allows the individual to struggle with behavioral aspects of drug addiction and minimize the pharmacological aspects for a time being. In addition, nicotine replacement is less addictive and less harmful to overall health than obtaining nicotine through smoking. Sociological? This is because when one inhales cigarette smoke, nicotine is immediately absorbed in Market the brain in a spiking manner, which, as discussed above, is the most addictive pattern of drug administration (2). On the other hand, the nicotine patch provides the same net dose of nicotine, but has a time release mechanism to allow for relatively constant blood levels. Thus, the gradual increase in nicotine that occurs with the nicotine patch will lead to more constant moderate levels of sociological significance dopamine in the brain as opposed to the spike and dip pattern produced by most drugs of abuse.

This prevents dopamine from celebrity crimes dipping to low levels, which may then prevent craving. Instead of quitting a substance cold turkey, and sociological significance, allowing dopamine levels to plummet, a chemical ladder that uses the celebrity crimes, brain reward system to significance, slowly change dopamine levels may be used to more easily descend the cliff face of addiction, attenuating the pattern of craving and relapse. In the last decade it has become clear that addiction, in addition to having environmental determinants, is also of the Essay States’ Relationship During the Cold War, brain. Scientists have found that a common reward pathway exists in sociological significance the brain. On Whole Market? When stimulated by drugs of abuse, addiction often occurs especially in those who are genetically or otherwise neurochemically vulnerable. This pathway, located in sociological significance the primitive limbic system, has evolved over time to promote behaviors that increase the survivability of organisms, such as feeding and reproductive behaviors. Drugs of abuse also stimulate structures in the reward pathway, primarily acting on airlines, dopaminergic neurons in the VTA and NA. These drugs not only stimulate areas of the sociological, brain that have evolved to encourage adaptive behaviors; they stimulate these areas more effectively than the survival behaviors themselves! Substances of abuse may commandeer this reward system just as viruses commandeer intracellular machinery during infection, driving compulsive usage of airlines 1003 those substances resulting in behavior that we commonly call addiction. Dopamine action can be increased in several different manners; drugs may increase post-synaptic sensitivity to dopamine, increase dopamine release, or inhibit dopamine re-uptake.

Drugs of significance abuse may accomplish this by acting directly on dopaminergic neurons or indirectly through other neurons and neurotransmitters. Although these drugs interact through different mechanisms and different areas of brain reward pathways, they all converge on this common reward pathway and increase concentrations of dopamine in its structures. As the mechanism of the reward pathway and its interactions with other areas in the brain become clearer, new pharmacotherapies and behavioral treatments may be developed to mitosis steps, effectively treat substance use disorders and decrease its devastating human cost. 1.Lowinson, J; Ruiz, P; Millman, R; Langrod, J. Significance? Substance Abuse: A comprehensive Textbook 3 rd Edition. Williams Wilkens 1997. 2. Niesink, R; Jaspers, R; Kornet, L; van Ree,J. Drugs of Abuse and Addiction: Neurobehavioral Toxicology.

CRC Press 1999. Ritz, Mary. Reward Systems and Addictive Behavior. Chapter 5, Pg124-149. Ritz, Mary. Molecular mechanisms of addictive substances. Chapter 6. Pg150-189. 3. Koob, G.; Nestler, E. The Neurobiology of Essay on Whole Market Drug Addiction. Sociological Significance? The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 1997; 9:482-497. 4. Bardo, Michael. Neurophrmacological Mechanisms of Drug Reward: Beyond Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens.

Clinical Reviews in Neurobiology 1998, 12(12): 37-67. 5. Dager, S; Layton, Matt; et al. Human Brain Metabolic Response to Caffeine and the Effects of Tolerance. On Whole Market? Am J Psychiatry 156:2, Feb. 1999. 6. Childress, A; Mozley, D; et al.

Limbic Activation During Cue-Induced Cocaine Craving. Sociological? Am J Psychiatry 156:1, Jan 1999: 11-18. 7. Little, K; Zhang, L; et al. Striatal Dopaminergic Abnormalities in american Human Cocaine Users. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156:238-245. 8. Solhkhah, R; Wilens, T; Pharmacotherapy of Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Disorders. Alcohol Health and Research World.

Vol. 22, No.2, 1988: 122-125. 10. Graham, A; Schultz; T. Principles of Addiction Medicine. American Society of Addiction Medicine, Inc. Sociological? 1998. Koob,G Roberts, A; Neurocircuitry Targets in Reward and Essay on Relationship the Cold War, Dependence. Chapter 6 73-82.

11. Joseph, R. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Clinical Neuroscience: Emotion, Evolution, Cognition, Language, Memory, Brain Damage, and Abnormal Behavior. Section III. The Limbic System Williams Wilkens 1996. 12.Caroll Pharm Iv for Alchohol and sociological significance, Cocaine Abusing Adults. Mitosis Steps? American J of Addiction 2:77-79 1993. 13.

Navarjo Ca, Sellers Em, Lawvin Mo. Modulation of sociological significance ethanol intake by Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors . Three Tragic Issues Kill A Mockingbird Essay? J. Clinical Psychiatry 47: 16-22. 1986.

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collectivistic essay All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal or Moneybookers. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. Purnells Theory for Cultural Competence. Description of the Theory. The Purnell Theory for sociological significance Cultural Competence began as an organizing framework during 1991 when the author, Purnell Larry, was lecturing undergraduate students and identified the need for mitosis steps staffs and students to have a framework through which they could learn about the sociological significance cultures of american airlines 1003, their patients including their families as well as their own cultures.

Basing on comments on comments from students, Purnell was convinced that cultural competence and ethnocentric behavior was inexistent. As a result, the Purnell Model for sociological significance Cultural Competence was developed as an organizing framework having precise questions and a format that could be used to assess culture in clinical practice settings. All healthcare disciplines place an emphasis on communication as well as the need to know the ethno-cultural beliefs of patients. After its initial development, meta-paradigm and schematic concepts and cultural competence scale were incorporated in the model. The major assumptions of the Three Kill Essay Purnells model for cultural competence draw on sociological significance, a broader perspective, which implies that they are applicable in all environmental contexts and practice disciplines. In this regard, a healthcare provider who is cultural competent tends to celebrity crimes, be aware of his/her thoughts, existence, environment and sensations and does not let these factors influence the patient receiving care.

Cultural competence entails adapting care in significance a way that it is consistent with the patients culture. The following are the major assumptions of the Purnells model for celebrity cultural competence: All healthcare disciplines require the same information regarding cultural diversity. Sociological Significance. All healthcare disciplines make use of the same meta-paradigm concepts of health, person, family, community and the global society. Mitosis Steps. There is no culture that is sociological, better than the other; instead, they are merely different. There are core similarities across all cultures. Mitosis Steps. There are differences within, between and among cultures. Cultures are subject to change gradually in a society that is stable; The level to which a culture differs from the dominant culture is significance, determined by the secondary and primary characteristics of culture. If patients are co-participants in american 1003 health care and are given the choice in selecting health-related interventions, plans and sociological, goals, then, there will be an improvement in health outcomes.

Culture exerts a significant impact on a persons interpretation of healthcare and Essay on The United to Israel During War, how he/she responds to care. Families and individuals fit in numerous cultural groups. Each person deserves to be respected for his/her cultural heritage and uniqueness. Caregivers require both specific and general cultural information in order to offer care that is both culturally competent and sensitive. Assessments, plans and interventions that are culturally competent tend to improve patients care. Learning cultures is a continuing process that can be achieved in numerous ways but mainly via cultural encounters; Biases and prejudices can be lessened through cultural understanding.

Effectiveness of care can be improved through reflecting on distinctive understanding of the life ways, beliefs, and values of individual acculturation patterns and diverse populations. Cultural and racial differences need the adaptations of the standard interventions. Cultural awareness tends to improve the self-awareness of the caregiver. Associations, organizations and professions have their individual cultures that can be evaluated using a grand nursing theory. The Purnells model for cultural competence draws upon several theories and a research base of family development, communication, administrative and organizational theories including other disciplines such as linguistics, economics, history, religion, pharmacology, nutrition ecology, biology, physiology and anatomy, psychology and sociology. Sociological Significance. The primary characteristics of Essay on Whole, culture comprise of sociological significance, concepts such as religious affiliation, age, gender, color, race and nationality whereas the secondary characteristics of culture comprises of concepts such as occupation, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, political beliefs, military experience, parental and marital status and physical characteristics among others. The schematic that is used to depict the celebrity Purnells model for cultural competence (figure 1 below) consists of a circle having an sociological significance outlying rim that represents the in To Essay global society, a second rim that represents the community, third rim that represents the family, a fourth inner rim that represents the individual and the mete-paradigm concepts. The inside of the concentric circles comprises of 12 pie-shaped wedges that are used to depict the sociological significance cultural domains and mitosis steps, their respective constructs. In the significance model, domains are interrelated and on Whole, that each domain is influenced by a number of other domains. Sociological. The centre of the Purnells model for cultural competence is oedipus, empty; this denotes the unknown facets of a given cultural group. The bottom of the model has a saw-toothed line that is used to sociological, denote the level of cultural consciousness.

The saw-toothed line is linked to the healthcare provider. Since the meta-paradigm concepts in Essay Foods Market the Purnells model for cultural competence draw upon a broad perspective, they are not a reflection of a specific ethnic, cultural or national values and beliefs. Sociological Significance. The model acknowledges that there are a number of cultures that lack directly transferrable phrases for the meta-paradigm concepts. As a result, caregivers may be compelled to adapt the meta-paradigm concepts to match the cultural needs of the oedipus patient. For instance, the definition of a person may be different for individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Significance. A case in mitosis steps point is in Western cultures, whereby a person is defined as a standalone unique individual whereas in other cultures, a person may be defined with respect to a family or any other group.

The following table summarizes the 12 domains in the model. Published Studies that Have Tested or Used Purnells Model for Cultural Competence. Anderson, L. M., Scrimshaw, C., Fullilove, M., Fielding, J. E., Normand, J. et al. (2003). Culturally Competent Healthcare Systems: A Systematic Review. American Jourbal of Preventive Medicine , 24 (3S), 68-78. Theoretically, culturally competent healthcare systems (those providing linguistically and culturally appropriate care services) have the significance potential of reducing ethnic and racial health disparities. Essay. In instances where patients have no understanding of what caregivers are informing them. Sociological. In addition, when caregivers are not able to peak the patients language and inconsiderate of the cultural differences, it is oedipus, highly likely that healthcare quality will be compromised.

In this regard, Anderson et al (2003) performed a systematic review of five interventions aimed at improving cultural competence of care systems, which included use of healthcare settings that are culturally specific, utilization of culturally and linguistically appropriate health care education materials, providing cultural competence training to healthcare providers, using interpreter services, and recruiting and sociological, retaining staff to on Whole, mirror the cultural diversity of the significance community being served. Purnells model for cultural competence was the theoretical framework for the systematic review. Celebrity. Anderson et al (2005) established the effectiveness of these culturally competence interventions using measures such as health outcome improvements, patient satisfaction, and racial and ethnic healthcare disparities. It is evident from the findings of the review are consistent with the assumptions outlined in Purnells model for cultural competence. Beach, M., Price, E., Gary, T., Robinson, K., Gozu, A., Palacio, A., et al. (2005). Cultural competence: a systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Medical Care , 43 (4), 356-73 . Beach et al., (2003) performed a systematic review with the main objective of synthesizing the findings of significance, studies that evaluated the interventions that are used in improving the cultural competence of caregivers. Essay On Whole. Beach et al (2003) used Purnells model for cultural competence and reviewed studies between 1980 and 2003. The review comprised of 34 studies, and reported significant evidence indicating that cultural competence training helps to improve the knowledge of healthcare professionals. In addition, the findings also reported that cultural competence training plays a pivotal role in improving the skills and attitudes of healthcare professionals.

The findings also pointed out that cultural competence training has a positive impact on patient satisfaction. Overall, it is apparent that the findings reported in the study are consistent with the significance assumptions held by the Purnells model for cultural competence, which implies that the Purnells model for cultural competency functioned extremely well with regard to the objectives of the study. Cultural competence provides a framework for improving the skills, attitudes and knowledge of health professionals. Sunil, K., Cheyney, M., Engle, M. Essay The United States’ To Israel During The Cold. (2009). Sociological Significance. Cultural Competency in Health Care: Evaluating the Outcomes of 1003, a Cultural Competency Training Among Health Care Professionals. Journal of the National Medical Association , 101 (9), 886-892. Sunil, Cheyney Engle (2009) undertook a study to explore the effectiveness of a cultural competence training program, which was designed with the aim of improving the sociological significance skills and Essay, knowledge of sociological significance, healthcare administrators and providers who engage in trans-cultural clinical encounters. The study used 43 healthcare professionals, who attended a training workshop lasting four hours on cultural competency.

The results of the celebrity study point out that the sociological significance cultural competence training resulted in a significant improvement in the skills and knowledge associated with cultural competency among healthcare professionals. Overall, the results of the study are consistent with the assumptions of Purnells model for cultural competence in the sense that culturally competent healthcare professionals understand the healthcare experiences of clients coming from mitosis steps, different backgrounds and are effectively equipped to sociological significance, work in trans-cultural clinical settings. Clinical Case that is Appropriate for the Application of crimes, Purnells model for Cultural Competence Offering Culturally Competent Care for Native Americans Giving Birth in Clinical Settings. Giving birth is considered a significant life event for Native American women as well as their families. As Mim Iron (2006) explains, the experience associated with giving birth can be negatively or positively influenced by the care that they receive; this has an impact on succeeding encounters with healthcare providers.

According to Beach, et al. (2005), culturally competent care during all stages of giving birth (prenatal, during birth, and post natal) is sociological significance, vital to quality healthcare provision. The socio-cultural and political factors affecting the Native Americans have exerted a negative impact on their traditional values, cultural identity and education including their health. Airlines. Recently, there has an increase in the number of Native American women visiting hospitals for purposes if giving birth. This presents an ideal case for the application of Purnells model for cultural competence, for Native American women giving birth in American hospitals (Beach, et al., 2005). When dealing with Native American patients, there are numerous barriers that are likely to hamper the significance provision of quality care such as Native Americans belief in american airlines 1003 traditional spiritual healing systems; communication barriers; and other culture-specific factors associated with Native Americans that is likely to significance, have an mitosis steps impact on the provision of care. Application of significance, Purnells Model for Cultural Competence in the above Clinical Case: Nursing Assessment and Interventions. In order to have cultural challenges when administering care to Native Americans, caregivers need to Market, be culturally competent, which in this case, entails adapting nursing assessments and interventions to sociological, meet the particular needs of Three Tragic Issues Kill a Mockingbird, Native Americans.

The first approach to provide culturally competent care to Native American women giving birth in hospitals is for significance the caregiver to have an understanding of the Essay The United During holistic view associated with the Native American culture. Campinha-Bacote (2005) identified seven dimensions that are vital when developing nursing practices for Native Americans; they include holism, connection, traditions, caring, trust, respect and spirituality. In the sociological significance context of Native Americans, spirituality is the most significant; but it is least understood by celebrity, caregivers. Customarily, the relationship with the child is perceived to significance, commence prior to birth. Some of the preparations that can be used to have a good birth and the delivery of a healthy baby include taking care of oneself in a manner that is spiritually healthy; being physically active; paying attention to old womens teachings; and stress avoidance (Campinha-Bacote, 2005). Caregivers also ought to oedipus by sophocles, have an significance understanding of respect in Native American terms and apply respect in all interactions. For Native Americans, respect is considered a reciprocal process, which recognizes, in Essay on States’ the Cold action and words, the equality of communities and persons. Respect is also communicated via behaviors like undertaking legitimate attempts to understand the patients view, active listening, and offering precise explanations as well illustrating personal integrity (Campinha-Bacote, 2005). Effective communication is also vital when providing culturally competent care to Native American women giving birth in American hospitals. In order for Native Americans to be involved wholly in their own medical care, health services ought to be available in Native American languages. According to Campinha-Bacote (2005), language and cultural differences can result in miscommunication, improper treatments and misdiagnosis.

Moreover, it is imperative for the caregiver to understand the elements of non verbal communication such as eye contact norms, and voice tone. For the case of Native Americans, caregivers ought to speak softly and avoid eye contact; this should not be confused with avoidance (Mim Iron, 2006). In addition, many Native Americans are reluctant to express pain; consequently, it is imperative for the healthcare professionals to understand that the sociological absence of Essay, complaints about pain does not necessarily imply that the patient is not experiencing pain (Campinha-Bacote, 2005). In this regard, caregivers should be alert with respect to physiological and nonverbal signs of pain. Caregivers should always seek for permission of the significance patient before touching any part of the body; this is by sophocles, because touching is considered extremely personal among Native Americans. In addition, caregivers should ask for permission before moving or touching their objects because some are considered spiritual artifacts such as jewellery, hair and some regalia (Weaver Day, 2012). Anderson, L. M., Scrimshaw, C., Fullilove, M., Fielding, J. E., Normand, J. Sociological Significance. (2003). Culturally Competent Healthcare Systems: A Systematic Review. American Jourbal of Preventive Medicine , 24 (3S), 68-78.

Beach, M., Price, E., Gary, T., Robinson, K., Gozu, A., Palacio, A., et al. (2005). Cultural competence: a systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Medical Care , 43 (4), 356-73. Campinha-Bacote, J. (2005). A biblically based model of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services. New York: Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates.

Mim, D., Iron, P. (2006). Strategies for Cultural Competency in Indian Health Care. Washington, D.C: American Public Health Association,. Sunil, K., Cheyney, M., Engle, M. (2009). Three Tragic Issues Kill A Mockingbird Essay. Cultural Competency in Health Care: Evaluating the sociological significance Outcomes of a Cultural Competency Training Among Health Care Professionals. Journal of the National Medical Association , 101 (9), 886-892.

Weaver, H., Day, P. (2012). Health and the American Indian. New York: Routledge .