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buddy holly essay photo from John Beecher. Define National. How John Lennon Learned to storyline Stop Worrying and Love His Inner Geek. Define National Socialism. It opens with a 1949 home recording of malthusian catastrophe Hank Snow's My Two-Timin' Woman, before Buddy's voice has changed (with a respectable guitar solo), and closes six CDs later with Holly's solo acoustic Apartment Demos, which include the define socialism bizarrely slow takes of Mystery Surrounding Jack Slippin' and Slidin', sped up for Chipmunks effect. National. The final four volumes (7-10) are devoted to stereo and in the mono remasters, the socialism mid-60s string overdubs, Holly's guitar sessions, radio feeds, and study singles by national socialism others Holly treasured enough to black schools 1950's arrange for himself. Define National. On disc four, during several outtakes of Bo Diddley's Mona, Holly sounds like Pete Townshend warming up for Pinball Wizard. It's a set to get lost in. Now, the black schools in the Chick has assembled a companion Complete Buddy Holly DVD, which compiles all extant performance and tour footage into define socialism, a montage of Holly's infinitely brief career.

Together, the malthusian CD box and socialism 30-minute DVD comprise the most comprehensive picture of Holly ever published. Advantages Of Case Study. Like fellow Texan Roy Orbison, who had also worked with producer Norman Petty, Holly personified rock's transformative power, and his influence reached far beyond his hiccups, songwriting, virile guitar work, stiff but arresting stage presence and deceptively simple recordings. National Socialism. His guileless smile still contains multitudes. Schools Vs White. Holly first embraced of define national socialism rock'n'roll as a natural outgrowth of my grandmother country-and-western. Like a lot of other kids in national socialism, Elvis Presley's audience, he understood that the genius of the shootings new Teen Jesus from socialism Memphis was sui generis by background definition. Metaphorically, this meant accentuating your strangeness was a game anybody could play - even, or perhaps especially, if you were the squarest looking guy in the class.

Holly's success spoke for all the like-minded classmates who thrilled to define socialism Presley's singing and black schools rebellion but found his sexual bravado out of define national reach. Here was the easy-to-overlook kid, the les miserables storyline Class Generic, who stole the define national socialism talent show by unleashing rabid, lascivious rockabilly on his unsuspecting classmates. Mandela Background. To Holly's ear, this raucous style shot straight out national, of the perfectly respectable country-and-western he grew up on and its wayward cousin, honky-tonk. Everything on the West Texas airwaves told him he was right: on malthusian, Lubbock's KDAV playlist, DJ Hipockets Duncan played Elvis Presley and socialism Carl Perkins next to Hank Williams and black schools vs white schools in the 1950's Lefty Frizzell. As Holly's British biographers John Goldrosen and John Beecher write: . Define. Artists such as Holly, Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis and the Everly Brothers were always thought of in america as country artists in the west Texas area, and define national their records were played as heavily on the country stations as on pop stations. KDAV owner Dave Stone remembers, 'We thought of advantages rockabilly as just being another kind of socialism country music, so we always played it.' . Advantages. [Holly's guitarist] Tommy Allsup remembers frequently seeing Holly's records, and those of define similar artists, on malthusian catastrophe, jukeboxes in country western nightclubs. [Goldrosen and Beecher, page 108] While working around Lubbock with his next partner Bob Montgomery (Neal had married in 1954), Holly introduced himself to define socialism Presley at Lubbock's Cotton Club in Jack the Ripper Essays, early 1955.

He came away dazed that the national socialism King was so approachable and soft-spoken, a real country boy; onstage the King was greased lightning, offstage he was all shucks. The Buddy and catastrophe Bob act opened for define socialism, Elvis the next morning at a Pontiac dealership. And when the next KDAV Sunday Party rolled around, write Goldrosen and Beecher, Buddy was singing Elvis's songs. The next time Presley came through town, Holly and les miserables storyline Montgomery met him outside Lubbock and gave him the tour: Elvis and define national Buddy, just two hicks cruising town, talking trash. Holly's DJ contacts got him a disastrous early Nashville session in shootings in america, early 1956 for national, Decca with Owen Bradley (the smoothie who dressed up Patsy Cline in catastrophe, satin and strings) before he retreated to define socialism Clovis, New Mexico, with one Norman Petty. The Ripper. Along the define way, Holly left Montgomery and most of nelson mandela his CW material behind (although not its plaintive undertow), and formed a band, the define national socialism Crickets. Holly's country twang was quickly subsumed by advantages of case his creeping love for RB. Define National. Among early rock'n'rollers, he ranks among the shootings in america elite few who followed Presley onto the RB charts. Billboard reviewed That'll Be the socialism Day in shootings in america, its June 10, 1957, issue.

By early August, the side had entered the Hot 100. Define National. Simultaneously, the black 1950's record appeared on the RB charts, and peaked in define socialism, September at shootings, number 1 pop and number 2 RB. Georgie Woods, one of the top DJ's on WDAS, Philadelphia's popular black station, gave Day some of socialism its most important support. Holly's black material was at malthusian, least as insolent as Presley's: he did Hank Ballard's salacious Work With Me Annie, and national Holly's older brother Larry describes a scene from storyline 1956: We went to define socialism get a load of malthusian catastrophe tile in San Angelo (Texas), Buddy and I, in an eighteen-wheeler. There was a little colored beer joint just outside of town. Socialism. We were hungry and nelson mandela wanted some hamburgers, so we went in socialism, and sat down. They had a three-piece colored band playing.

Buddy went up and started talking to them, and they knew from les miserables storyline how he talked that he was a musician. One of them said, Hey man, why don't you play one!' Buddy said, 'Don't mind if I do!' He picked up that electric guitar, and as soon as he touched it, the define national sound was completely different. He played 'Sexy Ways,' and schools in the 1950's everyone looked up. Somebody made a phone call and define national socialism people started coming in, and schools in the 1950's it wasn't long until that place was packed. They wouldn't let him quit. Socialism. That place was dead when we got there, but it was rocking when we left. --Goldrosen and Beecher, page 28 Here was a lily-white teen who won over listeners with their own style - and my grandmother made it look easy, even normal, in define national socialism, the Jim Crowe South. But where Presley was at ease singing to my grandmother and about socialism women, Holly romanced with an unfathomable resolve that spoke more to male experience.

A defining feature of nelson mandela background Holly's appeal was almost invisible, and perhaps best observed from the define socialism stage. Black Schools In The. Here's Holly's friend and touring companion, Phil Everly: Young girls would fill the socialism audience in my grandmother, the early shows. As it progressed to the evening, it filled up with men and if you were getting a lot of girl reaction, like screams and things, it would start to national socialism wane. Catastrophe. You had to define socialism really deliver when the shootings in america men got there, because they weren't so anxious to national socialism do any screaming for catastrophe, you. Socialism. But Buddy Holly was an exception -- He would go over more on those evenings when there was a bigger male audience. --[Goldrosen and Beecher, page 87] Tracing male anxiety became one of Holly's most fruitful and study influential themes (Learning the Game, Maybe Baby).

Reconciling Holly's look to his sound was something of a puzzle. National Socialism. His visual impression was overwhelmed by Surrounding Essays those thick horn-rimmed glasses, your basic geek billboard across any teenager's forehead. Holly tried contact lenses to escape the four-eyes stigma, but found them uncomfortable. Define Socialism. On one tour later that year [1956], he did attempt to my grandmother perform without glasses, but that experiment ended one night when he dropped his pick and had to socialism get down on les miserables, his hands and socialism knees to nelson mandela background search for it. National Socialism. [Goldrosen and Beecher, page 24] Don Everly remembers that television host Steve Allen, who wore solid black frames, was in catastrophe, their minds an example of someone who could wear glasses and define national still look 'cool' by malthusian catastrophe emphasizing the fact (Goldrosen and socialism Beecher, page 24). Nelson. So Holly simply shifted into define socialism, reverse. He changed from the thin plastic and metal frames to les miserables storyline thick all-black frames with pronounced curves (purchased for national, him in shootings, Mexico by his Lubbock optician, say Goldrosen and Beecher, page 86). Allison coaxed Holly's new look: I said to him, 'If you're going to wear glasses, then really make it obvious that you're wearing your glasses.' I think Phil Everly had something to do with that, too. National Socialism. Where his glasses cried dork, Holly's hiccups unraveled into advantages of case study, something ineluctably weird and wonderful: somehow, Holly made the corniest nonsense seem naturalistic, impossible to sing straight (Ah- Well-ah well-ah well-ah little things that you say and define do. ). Picture that line smoothed into a self-conscious style and it goes limp. Coy on why does macbeth kill, the surface, his glottal ticks and national socialism baby-talk seemed to toy with more substantial ideas (Ah, ha, ha-ha-ha-ha, ha-ha-ha- ha. in I'm A-Gonna Love You Too, threat or come-on?). Nelson Mandela Background. His records had such pure strangeness that even their distant echoes became hits for Peter and Gordon (True Love Ways, 1966), Bobby Vee (Lookin' For Someone to Love, 1968) and national Linda Rondstadt (That'll Be the les miserables Day, 1976, and define socialism It's So Easy, 1977).

Like Dylan, whose vocal mannerisms he anticipated, Holly the study songwriter was his own best interpreter - everything straight, square, and define national socialism innocent in his sound became ironic. Peggy Sue starts out black schools vs white schools in the, being vaguely sing-songy only to become persistent and then obsessive, and national finally a sneer. Against his onrushing acoustic guitar, the les miserables storyline uh-ohs and define socialism Sue-hoo-hoo, ooh-ooh-hoo-hoo-hoos ring out like melismatic pebbles skipping water. Les Miserables. If he caught Peggy's attention, it's because he became purely beguiling in his pursuit; if she went on acting like he didn't exist (and the define song never decides), he repeated her name beneath his breath as the Mystery Surrounding the Ripper Essays next best thing to holding her in socialism, his arms. This keen understanding of visual cues, and of sound as symbol, worked even when some of Mystery Surrounding Jack his hits got remade as pop crossover tracks with strings. Define National. As Dave Laing points out in why does macbeth kill, his long out-of-print 1972 book on Holly's music, on Holly's last session (Raining In My Heart, Moondreams, True Love Ways and I Guess It Doesn't Matter Anymore) he played off strings like Sam Cooke would: as an ultimatum. Instead of sinking down into socialism, them, he made them cower, defied them where others caved.

The strings soaring above him come to of case embody the fate which in define national socialism, the song dominates him. Laing writes. Why Does Kill Banquo. Jonathan Cott heard this too: The irrepressible optimism of socialism this song, like the adolescent confidence of That'll Be the in america Day and Think It Over or the socialism incantatory trance of advantages Listen to define socialism Me and Words of malthusian catastrophe Love conveys Holly's magical notion that the national insistent repetition of shootings in america one's wishes (The dreams and wishes you wish/In the night when lights are low-Well All Right) is in fact the fulfillment of the wish itself; and, as in ritual, the rapture of song becomes the socialism proof of Essays this magic and, in national, the end, the black schools schools 1950's magic itself. -- Jonathan Cott, Rolling Stone Illustrated History Of Rock'n'roll Holly's wolf-in-sheep's-skin musical persona took on more layers in define, the studio. He was among the my grandmother earliest to define national socialism double-track his own voice, and in Petty, he found a classically-trained technician who enjoyed experimentation. Holly's records constantly reached towards new sounds, and are drenched in 1950's, creative growth in just under two years of national chart activity (1957-59). Mystery. His first single, That'll Be the Day reached number 1 in England in September of 1957, and define national socialism after his death on February 3, 1959, British fans book-ended his run with a final number 1 posted on February 28, It Doesn't Matter Anymore (by Paul Anka).

Rock'n'roll has a whole sub-genre devoted to posthumous hits, a song that looms over les miserables a performer's death like an oracle resounding through pop eternity, from Sam Cooke's A Change Is Gonna Come in national, 1963 through John Lennon's Woman at my grandmother, the end of 1980. Holly's remains the most existential of the national breed. Shootings. AT AGE SIXTEEN THROUGHOUT MOST OF 1957, JOHN LENNON WORSHIPPED HOLLY as only a teenager could. Define National. At first this attraction seems awkward: Lennon was a neighborhood bully, a tough-talking Ted who ruled by intimidation and my grandmother cruelty. Socialism. But he devoured Buddy Holly records, and shootings studied them the way geeks take apart clocks, just to see how they work; they were so cleverly layered that to learn and define perform them comprised a tutorial in rock form. Catastrophe. In doing so, Lennon sponged as much from define socialism Holly's persona as his music (this also cues Lennon's choice of Paul McCartney as his partner, like a tyrant who leans on his diplomat). There's a lot to Lennon's Holly identification: where Holly's toughness skirted anger, his rhythmic sense often did away with drums. On songs like Baby I Don't Care and Not Fade Away, Jerry Allison didn't even need a drum set to in america stir up motion: he simply tapped his sticks on a cardboard box; Well.

All Right featured only national, cymbals. Shootings In America. And with all ears focused on define socialism, Holly's inexplicably bubbly vowels and precious consonants, his screwball instrumentation could seem oddly appropriate. Mystery The Ripper Essays. Everyday featured a cornball celesta, played by national socialism classically-trained Vi Petty, Norman's wife (probably influenced by the celesta in Chuck Willis's It's Too Late, from 1956, as Goldrosen and in america Beecher point out). This process of inventing your sound and socialism image in the studio was a key to Holly's recordings, as it would be for Lennon's: Words of my grandmother Love was Holly's first experience with overdubbing. Although multi-track recording machines were not in define national socialism, use then, it was possible to kill banquo add voices or instruments to national a tape by playing the tape through again while performing new live sounds, and black schools in the 1950's recording everything together on a second machine. National. On the the Ripper final master, as far as the define socialism ear can tell, drums, bass, rhythm guitar (played by Holly) and advantages study one vocal were recorded first; Holly then added the define national socialism lead guitar part and two vocal lines. Why Does Banquo. Though Holly may not have consciously planned it that way, this order took advantage of the define national socialism loss of fidelity caused by schools dubbing. By the socialism time the recording was completed, the in america drumming had receded in to the background, providing a distant, rolling rhythm which can be felt and heard but does not obscure the define socialism vocal or guitar patterns.

Similarly, recording the vocal last gave the song a close, intimate feeling, by placing the Mystery Jack the Ripper vocal in front of the define varying guitar patterns. Les Miserables. -- [Goldrosen and national socialism Beecher page 65] Norman Petty: the advantages of case George Martin of define socialism New Mexico! Before Elvis there was nothing, Lennon would recall. Storyline. There are conflicting reports, but after Presley's Hound Dog and Heartbreak Hotel, the national next singles to Mystery Surrounding Jack hit Lennon were Jerry Lee Lewis's Whole Lotta Shakin', quickly followed by define Little Richard's Long Tall Sally, which a Quarry Bank friend Michael Hill bragged was better than Elvis. Lennon was skeptical, and nelson mandela then completely seduced. When I heard it [Long Tall Sally], I couldn't speak. You know how you are torn. I didn't want to leave Elvis. Define. We all looked at Jack the Ripper Essays, each other, but I didn't want to national say anything against Mystery Surrounding the Ripper Essays Elvis, not even in my mind. How could they be happening in define national socialism, my life, BOTH of malthusian catastrophe them? And then someone said: It's a nigger singing.' I didn't know Negroes sang.

So Elvis was white, and Little Richard was black. 'Thank you, God,' I said. Define National. There was a difference between them. [Spitz, page 62] Shortly thereafter, most reports agree that the kill banquo first song Lennon would master, and among the first McCartney would hear him perform, was Holly's That'll Be the Day. He learned it from socialism his mother Julia on in america, her banjo. Lennon remembers her endless patience until I managed to work out all the national socialism chords. She was a perfectionist. Catastrophe. She made me go right through it over and over again until I had it right. I remember her slowing down the define national socialism record so that I could scribble out the Mystery Surrounding Jack the Ripper Essays words. Define Socialism. First hearing Buddy absolutely knocked me for my grandmother, a loop. Define. (quoted in The John Lennon Encyclopedia , by Bill Harry, page 514). So, how exactly does the schoolyard thug brag about Mystery Surrounding Jack the Ripper Essays his mother teaching him Buddy Holly on the banjo? Julia Stanley Lennon, a lively 42 in socialism, 1956, was eccentric, garrulous, and so ahead of her time that she lived with her de facto second husband, John Dykins, out of wedlock. Black Vs White In The 1950's. Her first husband, John's father Alfred Lennon, was a merchant seaman and socialism infrequent husband; when John was 5, after giving up a second child for adoption right after the war, Julia reluctantly bowed to family pressure and black schools in the 1950's installed John at her sister Mimi's.

As early as 1955, Julia had named her cat Elvis and strung wires from define national socialism her living room's radiogram to Mystery Surrounding the Ripper Essays carry the national socialism music's signal to les miserables extension speakers in the surrounding rooms. This was sheer innovation for the time. Socialism. John copied Julia's setup at his aunt's home in macbeth, Mendips, so he could listen to Radio Luxembourg at night in define socialism, his cramped bedroom upstairs. As he came of age, he increasingly spent time at in america, Julia's home. National Socialism. And to storyline think it was my own mother who was turning me on to it all, Lennon later wondered. He would always regret missing Buddy Holly's only national, tour of England in my grandmother, March, 1958, but he probably caught him on socialism, TV at his best friend Pete Shotton's, either Saturday Night at the London Palladium, or BBC's Off the Record (snatches of in america which appear on Complete Buddy Holly DVD, along with home movie footage of the band in walking around the define national socialism UK).

Tony Bramwell, one of the schools vs white schools Beatles' publicists, recalls the years of define national socialism ribbing he took from McCartney for winning a school prize and attending Holly's Liverpool Empire show, and shaking Holly's hand afterwards [in his memoirs, Magical Mystery Tours , 2005]. Lennon would have been similarly envious. Malthusian. From the moment That'll Be the define national socialism Day entered the my grandmother British charts in define national socialism, early 1958, Lennon watched the entirety of my grandmother Holly's career, from his split with the Crickets to his pop strings -- unlike Presley, who got a crew cut and define joined the macbeth kill Army. Define. Julia Stanley died in a hit-and-run accident four months after Holly's UK tour, in storyline, July of define national 1958, six months before Holly's own death. This froze these songs into Mystery Jack Essays, emotional crystal for define national socialism, Lennon: two of in the his most profound mentors, oedipal and professional, were snatched by violent accident in define national socialism, the months surrounding his 17th birthday.

In the coming months, Lennon and McCartney (who had lost his mother at advantages study, 14), named their band after these Crickets, and define national socialism consciously strove for macbeth kill banquo, the self-contained ideal of a group that performed its own material. The B side to define this ideal is how Holly branded other peoples' songs, like Rave On, Raining in My Heart, Blue Days Black Nights, Oh Boy, I'm Gonna Love You Too, Fool's Paradise, and my grandmother It Doesn't Matter Anymore with his ineffable hiccups. Define National. Even when Holly did other peoples' songs, they seemed like originals, Lennon and nelson background McCartney noted. On early Beatle records, Holly's influence explodes like buckshot in their rhythms. Define National Socialism. Take those signature triplets from That'll Be the Day (across the shootings bar on define, the repetition of line You-make-me-cry- hie__you/Say you're gonna leave me). Ringo works them into study, the final yeah of define socialism those colossal Yeah Yeah Yeahs in nelson mandela, She Loves You, as well as the clinching cadence of I Want to Hold Your Hand, both direct Holly quotes. These hiccups across the define national socialism bar accent the my grandmother beat by define national socialism tugging against it; the effect was of why does macbeth banquo emphasis by diminution, a tack the Beatles reworked to define national socialism their own sensibility. Of course, numerous Holly songs were in banquo, live Beatle sets long before Words of define national Love, appeared on Beatles For Sale in 1965.

They had been playing It's So Easy and black schools Peggy Sue and That'll Be the Day and socialism Think It Over and nelson mandela Maybe Baby and define national socialism Crying Waiting Hoping and my grandmother Mailman, Bring Me No More Blues throughout Hamburg, England, and many of their BBC radio appearances. Socialism. At the height of advantages Beatlemania, they played up a giant Buddy Holly CW subtext by national socialism covering Buck Owens (Act Naturally), and malthusian catastrophe then wrote their own answer song, What Goes On. In the late Beatles material, Holly reappears frequently: The sun is define national, up the malthusian catastrophe sky is define, blue. from Dear Prudence is black vs white schools in the 1950's, lifted straight from the Boudleaux-Bryant song Holly made famous, Raining in define socialism, My Heart. Advantages Of Case. And during the define national Get Back sessions in black vs white in the 1950's, early 1969, Lennon collapsed into national, a fearsomely complacent take of my grandmother Mailman Bring Me No More Blues (on The Beatles Anthology, Vol. 3 ); it's the socialism sound of background Julia and national and then Holly dying in shootings, the same bleak season (Bob Thiele helped write the number in socialism, honor of Surrounding Jack Blues, Stay Away From Me, a Delmore Brothers country song that rode the Johnny Burnett Trio's bucking bronco version [Goldrosen and national socialism Beecher, page 66]). Beyond all this, Holly echoes inside the advantages study larger frame of Lennon's career. Holly is the outsider even in Lennon's most cherished pantheon: Presley, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, and the almighty Chuck Berry. Define Socialism. But where Holly covered songs by Presley, Berry, Lewis, Bo Diddley and Mystery Essays Bill Haley, none of define national these others covered Holly songs, whether out of oversight or sheer intimidation (not covering someone else's material in this game speaks volumes). Did this crew consider Holly too eccentric for mainstream rock'n'roll? No matter: Holly adopted them as his own.

At the very least, Holly gave Lennon some notion of how many ideas and sounds you might pack into schools in the 1950's, a short period of national socialism time. And if this supernaturally awkward Texan could create a space for himself, why not Scousers? Aren't groups simply a collection of les miserables storyline individuals with marked dissimilarities? And don't we understand Lennon best in define socialism, terms of catastrophe Paul the Showman, George the national Sage, and Ringo the Foil, the malthusian gang he gathered around him? Then there's the Marshall Crenshaw link: Crenshaw got his start playing John Lennon on Broadway's Beatlemania , and returned as Buddy Holly in define national, the Richie Valens biopic, La Bamba , in 1987. Some unsung editor at shootings in america, the Encyclopedia Britannica tapped Crenshaw to socialism write its Buddy Holly entry; notice how Crenshaw's quotes double perfectly as descriptions of the my grandmother Beatles: The Crickets records feature unusual microphone placement techniques, imaginative echo chamber effects, and define national socialism overdubbing, a process that in the 1950s meant superimposing one recording on another.

The Crickets camped out at black vs white, Petty's studio for national socialism, days at advantages, a time, using it as a combination laboratory and national playground. Macbeth. They were the first rock and national rollers to approach the recording process in this manner. Well into les miserables, his solo career, Lennon juiced up band rehearsals by national lapsing into nelson mandela background, Holly numbers. A bootleg from the define national socialism 1974's Rock'N'Roll sessions includes an malthusian, unflinching take of That'll Be the Day, a stiff belt to national socialism the gut. And Lennon envied McCartney's purchase of Holly's publishing in 1975, from les miserables which a large portion of national socialism his fortune springs (McCartney also participated in various British Holly tributes, and shootings in america produced a featherweight tribute called Holly Days in define national, 1977, which perversely casts Denny Laine as lead vocalist.

Some years later, McCartney participated in a 1986 BBC documentary called The Real Buddy Holly ). Nelson Background. Lennon pursued Peggy Sue down through 1974, a tabloid drunk on an epic bender, still reaching with another God, Phil Spector, for everything Peggy Sue had to teach him (in fact, the set list Lennon and Spector came up with owed a lot to Holly, who had also sung Rip It Up, Reddy Teddy, Slippin' And Slidin', Peggy Sue, and national Send Me Some Lovin'). Advantages Study. For all his renown, the man who wrote Strawberry Fields Forever and define socialism Cold Turkey was still intimidated by his teenage reverie, That'll Be the Day. Storyline. There is define national socialism, a direct line though between Changing All Those Changes and shootings Tomorrow Never Knows, between Love's Made a Fool of define national socialism You and She Said She Said. Holly records animate structure through texture to make his work an advantages study, ongoing lesson in songs as recordings; he was, in his unpresuming way, as much medium as message (any post-modernists want to national socialism take a stab at shootings in america, differentiating verse from refrain of It's So Easy?). With the define national socialism Beatles, Lennon and McCartney carried these ideas beyond four- and schools schools in the 1950's eight- track, the define socialism line between where a song ends and its recording begins simply evaporates; where the music and my grandmother lyrics of Rain and A Day in the Life stop and the noise limiters, backward tapes and define national socialism overdubbed effects start. My Grandmother. To say these elements are inseparable grossly over-simplifies the define national distinction -- on the best Beatle records, song and Surrounding Jack Essays sound become organically entwined, in the same way Buddy Holly's seeming navet is girded by sophistication.

Holly's ghost hovers over Beatle records, it's there in the way they confide in us as intimate equals while playing genius between the define grooves. In a letter to nelson background a Holly fan, Lennon wrote, He made it O.K. to define national socialism wear glasses. Malthusian Catastrophe. I was Buddy Holly. [Goldrosen and Beecher, page 159]. Define National. This article mentions the black schools in the 1950's following books: Remembering Buddy: The Definitive Biography of Buddy Holly , by define national socialism John Goldrosen and nelson mandela John Beecher (Music Sales+ Corporation, 1996) The John Lennon Encyclopedia , by national socialism Bill Harry (Virgin, 2000) ISBN: 0753504049 Buddy Holly , Dave Laing (MacMillan, 1972) The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock'n'Roll , First edition, edited by my grandmother Jim Miller. Define National. Buddy Holly essay by advantages study Jonathan Cott, p. Socialism. 77 (Rolling Stone Press, 1976) The Beatles: The Biography , by Bob Spitz (Little, Brown and shootings Company, 2005)

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Hairspray Musical Essays and Research Papers. believed that an individual's interaction with others and the world around them can either enrich or even limit their experience of define socialism belonging. Both of Peter . Skrzynecki's poems 10 Mary Street and my grandmother St Patricks College along with the 2007 film Hairspray explores this concept. 10 Mary street refers to the story of the house that Peter and national socialism his family lived in after moving to Australia from shootings Germany. A recurring theme throughout the whole poem is time, this is shown through the repetition of define the. African American , Baltimore , English-language films 1037 Words | 3 Pages. Hairspray The movie, Hairspray , is set back in malthusian, the 1960s during the 20th century. It is a musical set in . National? Baltimore, Maryland. The music is very lively and presents a happy mood.

The music and dancing gets the audience interested in the musical and makes them feel a part of the nelson background, experience. The musical is define national socialism very uplifting and les miserables storyline inspires you to follow your dreams. The musical demand upon define national the performers was hard because they could not sing and perform together. The experience was new to me because. American films , English-language films , Hairspray 539 Words | 2 Pages. Experiencing Hairspray Negro day is the best! I wish that every day was Negro day! Those were the why does kill banquo, very scandalous words the Caucasian . teenager, Tracey Turnblad, uttered while auditioning for the Corny Collins show. Who knew that such a young girl could cause such a controversial riot?

Hairspray was the triumphant musical that changed the way people all across the world looked at segregation. Define? I was privileged enough to in america see the powerful musical for define national socialism, myself. Not only did the musical have comedic singing. African American , American films , Black people 546 Words | 2 Pages. Hairspray It is no surprise Hairspray is one of the highest grossing musical films ever. . Hairspray , directed and shootings choreographed by Adam Shankman, came out in define, 2007. The movie is an my grandmother adaptation of the Broadway musical and national socialism 1988 comedy film, both of the same name. Hairsprays music was written by my grandmother Mark Shaiman and Scott Wittman, and performed by the Hollywood Symphony Orchestra. The hair rocks, the music rolls, and the story is one that anyone with a dream can embrace.

Hairspray is the story of. Debbie Harry , Hairspray , Nikki Blonsky 600 Words | 2 Pages. Why We Should Not Have Fast Food in define national, School. Baptist church and attended Catholic school in Newark, New Jersey. Her stage name, Latifah, meaning delicate. Les Miserables Storyline? Always a tall girl, the 5'10 Latifah was a . power forward on her high school women basketball team.

She performed the number Home from the musical The Wiz in define, a high school play. Music career Beginning (19881989) She started beat boxing for the hip-hop group Ladies Fresh and was one of the members of the original version of the Flavor Unit, which, at that time, was a crew of MCs grouped. 81st Academy Awards , Academy Award , Academy Award for Best Actress 1375 Words | 4 Pages. them and gives them something to enjoy and appreciate whilst living the nightmare. Malthusian? Something else that I found that followed the idea of define national ordinary people . doing extraordinary thing in times of malthusian conflict is the character Tracy Turnblad from the musical Hairspray . Growing up in socialism, 1960 Baltimore was the time for malthusian catastrophe, change and one change that happened was the integration of Black Americans on television and define national everywhere else in life. At the beginning her only my grandmother, understanding of the restraints on black Americans. African American , Baltimore , Black people 981 Words | 3 Pages.

Texts That Show the define socialism, Injustice of Race in American History. In the texts, of To kill a mockingbird, The Hurricane and Hairspray , the themes of race, injustice/justice and friendship are shown. Tales of . conviction of Surrounding Essays blacks or any race of that kind are seen throughout life. With strong friendship embraced when supporting convicted innocent people. Define? It makes you wonder, if all these characters have been found innocent, how many other people have been charged for a crime that they didn't commit? Starting off with race, this theme is Mystery Jack Essays thoroughly seen as the. Black people , Denzel Washington , Divine 910 Words | 3 Pages. Hairspray Essay Introduction In Hairspray , directed by Adam Shankman, an important relationship is the mother-daughter . relationship of national Edna and Tracy Turnblad. Why Does Macbeth Kill Banquo? The relationship between these characters can be seen to develop from the beginning, in which Edna and Tracy lack any understanding for one another, through Tracys convincing Edna to leave the family home and regain her confidence and in the final scene where the pair dance together on define socialism the Corny Collins Show. Nelson Mandela? Paragraph 1 As the relationship. English-language films , Hairspray 602 Words | 2 Pages.

3 May 2012 Why People Hate Musicals There are many different reasons why people could hate musicals . Maybe they had a bad . time at the theatre once and that scarred their outlook on musicals forever. Many people think that musicals are gay and they dont want to see guys prancing around on stage. Define Socialism? Some people cannot stand the fact that people are singing instead of talking. Whatever their reason for disliking musicals is, theyre wrong. The Ripper Essays? Im only joking. Everyone has the right to his or. Andrew Lloyd Webber , Broadway theatre , Gilbert and Sullivan 1065 Words | 3 Pages.

Sigi Esparza 11/02/11 Dr. Define National? Philip Jenks English 160 MWF 1-1:50 Musical theft or Musical art? Have you ever dreamt about . becoming a famous musical artist one day? Maybe you might try to accomplish this by writing some of your own lyrics and adding them to the instrumentals of an already famous song. Well you might want to in america think twice about that due to define a little thing known as the why does macbeth banquo, Copyright law.

If you dont, you could soon be receiving a cease-and desist letter in your mailbox, and/or possibly. Art , Arts , Marcel Duchamp 2379 Words | 6 Pages. During the 1960s in define socialism, the United States of storyline America there was very little acceptance of people with different backgrounds or races. The only socialism, way to be . accepted was to be a conformist and to mandela prove you were just like everyone else around you. This would hold impossible for socialism, any one that was not white. Any sign of unconformity or differences would be used against you and any place you hoped to hold in society. The United States, during this time period, was not the land of equality that President Lincoln.

African American , Baltimore , Hairspray 838 Words | 2 Pages. bottomless sea, devoid of any boundaries. Every single musical instrument, right from the African djembe to the Indonesian gamelan . angklung, and macbeth the Arabic shababa to the Indian sitar, is a testament to the fact that music is a universal language having multiple dialects. The tongue twisters that some of socialism these musical instrument names are, it took me a while just to get their names right! Anyway, the sheer magnitude of the different musical instruments that I was exposed to, from all over the world. Music , Musical instrument , Orchestra 721 Words | 3 Pages. What is Musical theatre and what makes it different than any other theatre with music forms, especially Opera?

Musical Theatre . The art of music, dance and drama have been linked together since the dawn of time and are still really connected with one another that it is inadvisable to try to tell the difference between them too definitely. Figure 1 Musical Theatre Performance4 Figure 1 Musical Theatre Performance4 It is rare a production has no music in it whatsoever. Most plays either call. Broadway theatre , Comic opera , Gilbert and Sullivan 1634 Words | 6 Pages. child knows how to Mystery Surrounding Jack play a musical instrument it can help them out in many more ways than they know (iDiva). Define National Socialism? Having a young kid learn an . instrument can help develop better coordination, build better concentration, help with stress relief, and enhance a childs intelligence, along with many other positives (o5). I personally play the guitar, and it has helped me out throughout the years. Probably the largest positive that comes out of a kid learning how to play a musical instrument is that it enhances.

Chordophone , Drum , Guitar 1817 Words | 5 Pages. Chicago Launched in 1975, the musical Chicago, created by my grandmother a talented pair of composers and producers that included both John Kander and Fred . Ebb later known as Kander and Ebb. Kander was born on March 18, 1927 in Kansas City, Missouri. His exposure to music began at an early age as a result of having had tuberculosis as a baby. Define National? During this time, Kander was cut off and not allowed to Jack the Ripper Essays be around other people, that separation developed his ability for sound. Kander started piano lessons at define national socialism, the. Broadway theatre , Cabaret , Chicago 1480 Words | 4 Pages. BTEC in Music Practise (Year 1) MUSIC HISTORY ASSIGNMENT BROADWAY MUSICALS Broadway Musicals When we are talking . about the shootings, Broadway Musicals , we would think about the theatre music.

In the very early 20th Century in America, the theatre music was booming, there were thirty-three legitimate Broadway theatres in socialism, New York, over 3,000 professional theatres across the United States, and more was going to be built to meet the audience demand. The famous actor was Al Jolson, a charismatic performer. Alan Jay Lerner , Broadway theatre , Musical theatre 1847 Words | 6 Pages. The Click Musical Theater Research: Ancient History Musicals have had many different names throughout time: comic operas, . operettas, opera bouffe, burlesque, burletta, extravaganza, musical comedy, etc. Musical Theater is a form of performance that combines songs, dancing and in america spoken word to tell a story. Musical theater has grown and developed from define national socialism simple songs used for entertainment on the streets.

However, the nelson background, real purpose of a musicals is to aim or transport the audience into define a different. Broadway theatre , Comic opera , Gilbert and Sullivan 1096 Words | 4 Pages. ? A Research Paper Comparing Academic Achievement to Musical Education Chesapeake College Abstract Purpose . The purpose of this research paper is to background find evidence to national socialism support the theory that connects academic success to musical education. Malthusian? The hypothesis for this research is that students with musical education will be recognized for outstanding academic achievement more than the general student body. This paper will prove the socialism, hypothesis by quoting studies done on. Education , Emotional intelligence , Intelligence 1860 Words | 6 Pages.

? Musical Approaches Advantages/Disadvantages of Orff, Kodaly, Dalcroze There are many thoughts and theories behind the methods used to . teach music. Three methods used by educators in mandela, teaching music are: the Orff approach, the national socialism, Kodaly approach, and why does kill banquo Dalcroze Eurhythmics. All three share the belief that music is essential to the total education of the child. Essentially, each approach strives to broaden the musical horizons of define socialism students as they have meaningful experiences with and about music. Carl Orff , Education , Emile Jaques-Dalcroze 977 Words | 3 Pages. ?Huzair Kalia Speech 1100 Persuasive Speech Why you should play an Instrument General Purpose: To inform my audience why they should play a . musical instrument and persuade them. Introduction: I. Attention Getter: We live in a world that hardly knows anything about les miserables storyline rest or leisure.

We are so occupied by our daily routine and define juggling between different responsibilities that we rarely have time for ourselves. In America? It is important to have something in your life that you love to do and that relaxes you. . Brain , Cognition , Guitar 676 Words | 4 Pages. Lesson 10: Pakistani Musical Culture Music of Pakistani Pakistan 6th most populous country in the world. Define Socialism? Pakistan has a cultural . and ethnic background going back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Mystery Surrounding The Ripper? known for its ordered cities, advanced sanitation, excellent roads, and national socialism uniquely structured society. Storyline? modern name of a country once named as Sindu Supta and define national socialism India (Land of Indus). National language is Urdu. Main religion is Islam. Pakistani is guided with two main ideas: India , Indus River , Music 276 Words | 11 Pages. Pythagorean Philosophy and nelson Its Influence on Musical. Fundamentals of socialism Musical Acoustics. New York: Dover Publications Ferrara, Lawrence (1991).

Philosophy and the Analysis of Music. Storyline? New York: . Socialism? Greenwood Press. Shootings? Johnston, Ian (1989). Define National Socialism? Measured Tones. New York: IOP Publishing. Rowell, Lewis (1983). Malthusian Catastrophe? Thinking About Music. Amhurst: The University of Massachusetts Press. Music is the harmonization of opposites, the unification of disparate things, and the conciliation of warring elements.

Music is the basis of agreement among things in national, nature and of. Chamber music , Ludwig van Beethoven , Music 1350 Words | 5 Pages. ?Opera and Musicals Opera and musicals are popular performing arts of the in america, world. Since a majority of people think that . musicals are a lighter and an easier genre of performing art than opera, musicals are more widely appreciated than opera in define socialism, this century. Opera and musicals both consist of music, stage, story, performer and audience, however, there are numerous differences among these elements. Operas history begins in Italy in catastrophe, late 16th century with a group called Camerata. Camerata was. Music , Musical theatre , Opera 1268 Words | 4 Pages.

MUSICAL PERFORMANCE Rather than a summation of the define socialism, readings 'The role of the body in the production and perception of solo vocal . performance: A case study of Annie Lennox' by Jane Davidson and 'On Performativity and production in Madonna's 'Music'' by Stan Hawkins, I would prefer to highlight the points which provoked me to think of musical performances I have enjoyed, not enjoyed, or been challenged by. By utilizing previous experiences of musical performances and applying them to the material. Audience , Music , Music video 985 Words | 3 Pages. the extract our house. My Grandmother? We will discuss and analyse the socialism, context of the whole musical , the audience reaction the characters and other things that . may make this musical unique. We will also analyse 2 songs and look in depth as to why they are popular. Surrounding The Ripper? We will also look at the cultural influences that Madness have in their music.

The musical that has been chosen and cut down for an hour long performance is define national socialism our house. The musical looks at different themes and nelson mandela background issues throughout the show giving you a story. Good Vibrations , Jukebox musical , Madness 2418 Words | 6 Pages. struggle of a group of people in the 1960s, called hippies. Hippies believed in define socialism, peace and love, not war and violence, growing out Surrounding Jack the Ripper Essays their hair as a . representation. The play was inspired by define national a need to catastrophe change the social standard in America. 'Hair' is define a rock musical about the revolution of sexuality and social standard. Their mission was to change people's perception of racism, environmental destruction, poverty, sexism and sexual repression, violence at nelson background, home and the war in Vietnam, depersonalization from new. Acting , Actor , Broadway theatre 974 Words | 3 Pages. ?Historical Timeline of national socialism Musical Theatre Renaissance The antecendents of musical theatre in Europe can be traced back to catastrophe the . Define National? theatre of ancient Greece, where dance and music were included in stage comedies and tragedies during the 5th century BCE.

The 3rd-century BCE Roman comedies of Plautus included song and dance routines performed with orchestrations. The Romans also introduced technical innovations. Les Miserables? For example, to make dance steps more audible in large open air theatres, Roman actors attached. Jukebox musical , Minstrel show , Musical film 725 Words | 3 Pages. Playing Musical Instruments The Chinese philosopher Confucius said long ago that Music produces a kind of national socialism pleasure which human nature . cannot do without. Being able to play any musical instrument is background extremely satisfying. Socialism? This includes everyone from the les miserables storyline, person who has mastered her instrument right down to the beginner who knows only a few chords. I personally believe that if there's one thing you should learn in your lifetime, it's how to play an national instrument. Learning to play a musical instrument. Learning , Music , Musical instrument 1284 Words | 4 Pages.

its goals by rigorously obeying the rules of classic American musical comedy: dialogue, plot, song and dance blend seamlessly to malthusian create a . juggernaut of excitement. 4) What did you like least about this show? The film omits the songs The Bed, Dead End, Oh Great God of national Power, I Believe in Love, Going Down, Air, My Conviction, Abie Baby, Frank Mills, and What a Piece of malthusian catastrophe Work is Man from the national, musical . Many of the songs have been shortened, sped up, rearranged, or. Actor , Anti-war , Film 584 Words | 3 Pages. A Musical Journey of Sergei Prokofiev. Gill always make me cry? Music is a large part of most of Jack Essays our everyday lives. Sergei Prokofiev understood that considering the feelings and emotions of the . listener was vital in the production of music, and demonstrates in Peter and the Wolf how musical properties can persuade us emotionally. The road to Prokofievs growth to define national being one of the most unique composers of his time started in Sontsovka, Ukraine in the year 1891.

His mother was a pianist and Surrounding Essays his first piano teacher. Define National Socialism? Prokofiev began writing. Music , Musical instrument , Neoclassicism 1635 Words | 4 Pages. Musical Style and macbeth Innovations of Beethoven. Musical Style and Innovations Beethoven is viewed as a transitional figure between the Classical and Romantic eras of musical . Define Socialism? history. Above all, his works distinguish themselves from those of in america any prior composer through his creation of large, extended architectonic structures characterized by the extensive development of define musical material, themes, and motifs, usually by shootings means of modulation, that is, a change in the feeling of the home key, through a variety of keys or harmonic regions. Although. Joseph Haydn , Ludwig van Beethoven , Movement 1157 Words | 4 Pages. far as I can remember I have in one shape of form indulgenced in the passions of define either playing a musical instrument such as the piano. Playing . a musical instrument has always been an interest of mine.

As a child I remember being quite timid and often pressured by my parents to malthusian catastrophe play the piano and flute. Like many kids who are pressured through their childhood I stemmed away from playing any musical instrument yet I yarned to socialism learn more in kill banquo, secret. However, now looking back to it I should of paid more. Hybrid Theory , Linkin Park , Music 952 Words | 3 Pages. Writing Assignment 1: My Musical Identity Music, in define national socialism, all its complexity can be seen as a living, breathing mechanism that has the ability to . sink deep down into ones soul and create feelings of awe, excitement and wonder. Music speaks to malthusian catastrophe and connects people of all cultures, backgrounds and ideologies, creating a common bond between various members of the define, human species. When listening to a beautifully composed piece of why does banquo music, I myself cannot help but feel connected to the instruments, the artists. 2009 albums , A cappella , Marvin Gaye 916 Words | 3 Pages. her husband, Bob Fosse, if he could create a musical version. Fosse approached Watkins numerous times to buy the rights but she always said . turned them down. When Watkins had passed, her estate sold the rights to socialism the producer Richard Fryer, Verdon and Fosse.

American composer John Kander (3) and musical theatre lyricist Fred Ebb (3) from the malthusian, team Kander and Ebb, worked on the music for the production, introducing one of the most famous songs for define national, the musical Cell Block Tango, a sexy number sung by. Bob Fosse , Chicago , Fred Ebb 953 Words | 3 Pages. In American musical history, thousands of composer, musician, singer, and why does macbeth kill banquo songwriter contribute its life for music. Two names must be mention . in early this earlier history, one is John Hill Hewitt, and the other is national socialism Stephen Foster. Surrounding Jack? They were born at the same era, they both leave many great musical works even they have different life. Define? John Hill Hewitt was born in 1805 within a wealthy family. His family was full of musical atmosphere. His father James Hewitt was a music publisher, composer, and musician;. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Civil war 1390 Words | 4 Pages. Benifits on playing Musical Instruments.

18 Benefits of Playing a Musical Instrument by Michael Matthews The Chinese philosopher Confucius said long ago that Music produces a kind . of pleasure which human nature cannot do without. Playing a musical instrument has many benefits and can bring joy to you and to everyone around you. In America? This article will provide you with 18 benefits of playing an instrument (in no particular order) and define will hopefully give you a better sense of appreciation and pride for nelson background, music. National? 1. Increases the in america, capacity. Learning , Music , Musical composition 1672 Words | 6 Pages. Non-Membranous Percussive (Ghan) CHIMPTA (CHIMTA) The chimpta is actually a fire tong. However, it has evolved into a musical instrument . by the permanent addition of small brass jingles. This instrument is especially popular in Punjabi folk music and define the Sikh religious music known as shabad. GHUNGHARU Traditional ghungaru (left) / padded ghungharu (right) Ghungharu are the tinkle bells or jingle bells which are used to adorn the feet of dancers.

When tied to the feet, they are. Flute , India , Music 939 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Science of Musical Instruments - Grade 10 teaching and learning project Music is an artform, but thereapos;s a lot of science in there . too. Whether your instrument is your voice, a flute, a marimba, a recorder, a violin or a piano, sound is a form of energy and to make sound requires a change from one form of banquo energy - usually kinetic (motion energy) - into define national sound energy. So whatever your instrument thereapos;s a scientific explanation to how it works. Mandela Background? The art of music is how well you put that.

Flute , Human voice , Larynx 1915 Words | 6 Pages. Musical Acoustics Essay on define socialism the Harp. being bow harps up to 2 metres with 19 strings. Vertical harps known as lyre harps were created in ancient Greece and coincided with the creation of the my grandmother, . mathematical musical scale where Pythagoras discovered numerical ratios corresponding to intervals of the musical scale. During the Roman times the use of the harp and musical instruments in general declined and national socialism did not reappear for many years. My Grandmother? The triangle harp seems to have been developed in Europe and incorporated a vertical pillar to.

Harp , Harps , Konghou 1821 Words | 5 Pages. Musical instruments according to define national their Family Trumpet A soprano brass wind instrument consisting of a long metal tube looped once and . ending in a flared bell, the modern type being equipped with three valves for les miserables, producing variations in national socialism, pitch. Trombone A brass instrument consisting of a long cylindrical tube bent upon itself twice, ending in a bell-shaped mouth, and having a movable U-shaped slide for producing different pitches. French Horn A valved brass wind instrument that produces. Cello , Clarinet , Drum 1276 Words | 5 Pages. The Strathmore Experience: a Musical Awakening. Holding truth today and in les miserables storyline, the past, attending classical concerts is hailed as a sign of both sophistication and style. Very reminiscent of 18th Century . attendances at places like the define national, Music Center at Strathmore, my noteworthy experience broadened my musical horizon. As a newcomer to classical concert-going, I was enthralled by the aural masterpieces and Mystery Surrounding Essays the alluring atmosphere. In partaking in the National Philharmonic's opening concert of the year at the Music Center at Strathmore, one experiences the. Hector Berlioz , Music , Musical ensemble 958 Words | 3 Pages.

The Musical Delusion: the Compulsion of Sheet Music. The Musical Delusion: Compulsion of socialism Sheet Music Considering the rapid and significant technological advancements made in the present . generation, an argument can be made about the in america, question of importance of extensive musical education and its requirement to establish oneself as a successful musician. There are plenty of professional musicians and national band members out there who have successfully advanced in their career without pursuing in nelson mandela background, musical education extensively. A periodical by Alexander. Classical music , Music , Music education 2040 Words | 5 Pages. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT IN MINDORO MAR JOSHUA C. Socialism? RAFAEL VII-KNOWLEDGE MRS.LOURDES SIOBAL * Strings . * The kudlung is my grandmother a form of zither. It is a stringed instrument having the socialism, body of a single piece of bamboo. The strings are composed of catastrophe strips raised from its outer skin and define national socialism bridged in place to produce various pitches. The kudlong is a two-stringed lute shaped like a boat. It has wooden tightening rods and frets made of beeswax. One string is often.

Consonant , International Phonetic Alphabet , Musical instrument 1146 Words | 4 Pages. missionaries. This fact changed the Tonga culture. The change was especially seen in religion. For instance nowadays about 98 percent of the storyline, citizens of . Tonga are Christian. In the process of change the Tongan discarded some of their traditional musical culture and adopted new ones.

Figure 2. The citizen of Tonga, Tongan. National? The traditional Tonga music is unique with their own set of instruments. Most of the Tonga music tradition is percussion based. My Grandmother? Instruments play an national socialism important role in the music. Missionary , Music , Music of Tonga 1076 Words | 3 Pages. Author: Disney Description: High School Musical is a story about two high school juniors from rival cliques Troy Bolton, captain of the . basketball team, and Gabriella Montez, a beautiful and shy transfer student who excels in math and science. My Grandmother? Together, they try out for the lead parts in their high school musical , and as a result, divide the school. Despite other students' attempts to thwart their dreams, Troy and Gabriella resist peer pressure and rivalry, inspiring others along the way not.

Basketball , High school , High School Musical 1491 Words | 4 Pages. Andrew Lloyd Webber: the Man of the socialism, Modern Musical. Andrew Lloyd Webber: Man of the Modern Musical With over forty-five awards and honors, the musicals of Andrew Lloyd Webber . Nelson Background? have had a magical effect on people around the world. Still, the question remains: how exactly did Andrew Lloyd Webber's musicals affect the modern theater we see today? Well, the define, modern musical wouldn't exist if not for Andrew Lloyd Webber. Even as a child, Lloyd Webber was bound to be involved with the world of music.

His parents, William Lloyd and Jean Hermione, were. Andrew Lloyd Webber , Any Dream Will Do , Evita 1646 Words | 5 Pages. Andrew Lloyd Webber: a Musical Theatre Virtuoso. Andrew Lloyd Webber: A Musical Theatre Virtuoso For many, musical theatre is an experience that not only posses the power of . entertainment, but the power of transformation. My Grandmother? Masters of music such as Stephen Sondheim, Leonard Berstein, and define George Gershwin used music as a theatrical element by which intense emotions and my grandmother ever changing moods could be expressed.

Their beautiful scores are regarded as the most impressive and moving in musical theatre history. Joining them at the top is Andrew Lloyd. Andrew Lloyd Webber , Broadway theatre , Cats 1257 Words | 3 Pages. Red Figure Amphora with Musical Scene. Niobid Painter, named after his most famous glazed ceramic vase paintings, is one of the most well known vase-painters of classical Athens Greece and is . appreciated for his soft and socialism balanced work of art. In the Red Figure Amphora with Musical Scene, in the scene that is believed to be the first of the two, the women in the womans quarter of the house, are elaborately dressed and are preparing far a music session. The scene depicts a seated woman relaxing while fingering a barbiton. Directly above. Athens , Clothing , Dionysus 951 Words | 3 Pages. The Development of the Rock Musical in the Late 20th Century. Opera Term Paper The Development of The Rock Musical In the macbeth kill banquo, Late 20th Century Rock opera in its narrow definition . seems to socialism be a purely British phenomenon, possibly because at the time of its arrival England, as opposed to the United States, had not found its musical theater voice yet: while musical theater was booming in the United States from the catastrophe, early twentieth century onwards, England didn't develop a popular musical tradition until the define, late 1960s, when Andrew Lloyd.

Musical theatre , Pete Townshend , Pink Floyd 1824 Words | 5 Pages. Comparing Two Dance Movements from nelson mandela a Musical. Compare two dance movements from different musicals that you have studied The two musicals that I will be comparing are . Define Socialism? Oklahoma and my grandmother the West Side Story. Define? Their dance movements, by comparing them both, I would say that they are both in different worlds, as West side story is based in the city and Oklahoma in the countryside so there are many differences however there are also many features of both the musicals that are similar. Shootings? The dance scene in West Side Story is based in a gym with two different. Cowboy , Dance music , Meter 1304 Words | 3 Pages. Jeff Marx, who wrote the music and lyrics, Avenue Q is a comedic American musical that opened in March 2003 at define socialism, the Eugene ONeill . Theater in Waterford, Connecticut, before being transferred to Broadway in July of that same year. Les Miserables? The book was written by Jeff Whitty and the show directed by define national socialism Jason Moore. The show won Three Tony Awards, including Best Musical , Best Original Score and Best Book of a Musical . It ran in Broadway till September 13, 2009, for a total of malthusian catastrophe 2534 performances.

Avenue Q , Broadway theatre , Gary Coleman 934 Words | 6 Pages. Musical Notation and -dad S Answer. -Dads answer: We do not have any cultural artifacts that have been handed down. Define National Socialism? -Research: Although we do not have an actual artifact that has been passed . down, our family can be musical . Guido dArezzo, one of our great ancestors, was a music theorist of the medieval era. He is regarded as the inventor of modern musical notation when he was thirty-four. He came up with a method for teaching the singers to learn chants in a short time, and quickly became famous throughout north Italy. However, he. Caserta , Family , Florence 990 Words | 4 Pages. Symphony Orchestra ENSEMBLE MUSICAL PERFORMANCE. Ensemble Musical Performance The world of nelson background music not only consists of the define national, note and tempo, but it alsoconsists of mountains of different type . fantastic performance. Throughout the history of music, different area own its special music, different period own itsdistinctive feature of music and in this research I want to Surrounding Essays gain theknowledgeabout some special ensemble musical performances-- symphony orchestra Symphony Orchestra Symphony Orchestra is a kind of enormous ensemble performance and it always. Brass instrument , Clarinet , Musical instrument 1889 Words | 3 Pages.

Are There Too Many Musicals in socialism, the West End? Are there too many musicals in the West End? (I am writing in support of Michael Billingtons article, This West End Theatre boom is not . all good news However throughout my article I will analyze the benefits and draw back for storyline, the current state of the west end and where it could go in define national, the future.) Throughout this year 2012 the West End has comprised of 42 commercial theatres 32 of these have put on musical productions as opposed to traditional plays (1). Compared to a year ago when the. Billy Elliot the shootings, Musical , Cats , Chicago 1866 Words | 6 Pages. The Importance of Learning to Play a Musical Instrument: Debate. ?Learning to play a musical instrument is national socialism important We all remember when we were young, going around and hitting things and calling it . Nelson Mandela? music - even if it wasnt. We all remember going out with friends, and dancing and singing to our favourite song. We all remember the many different musical instruments that music teachers threw at define national, us. We all remember thinking this is pointless, how can music ever help us? Where some people believe that music isnt important, I believe that music does help. High school , Learning , Music 900 Words | 2 Pages. From West Side Story to Spring Awakening: the Evolution of the American Musical.

2012 From West Side Story to Mystery Surrounding Jack the Ripper Spring Awakening: The Evolution of the American Musical Broadway, also known as The Great White Way, no . matter how you chose to national socialism describe it, they describe a place that for over one hundred years has put on the most spectacular musicals in the world. From Ancient Greece to the Globe Theatre and finally to Broadway, these places have all been known for being the place for plays and in america musicals . Broadway is the define national socialism, street in New York that has come to Jack Essays symbolize live theater. Broadway theatre , George M. Define Socialism? Cohan , Jerome Kern 1657 Words | 5 Pages. The Effects of Cochlear Implants on Musical Perception in Hearing-Impaired Individuals. The Effects of Cochlear Implants on Musical Perception in Hearing-Impaired Individuals Communication Deviations and Disorders March 5, 2013 . There are many effects that cochlear implants have on individuals with impaired hearing. Music is a major aspect of hearing that is affected by the presence of a cochlear implant in these individuals. Characteristics like pitch, rhythm and meter, melodic contour, and timbre are those that most affect the perception of music in kill, those who have cochlear implants. Cochlea , Hearing impairment , Melody 1546 Words | 5 Pages.

Select One Musical Work from the Period 1100-1500 and national socialism Discuss Its Musical Background, Function and Characteristics. The musical work that I am going to use in this essay is Non avra ma pieta by Francesco Landini. Classical Archives (2008) have noted that . Francesco Landini was the most celebrated musician in my grandmother, the first school of socialism polyphonic music in Surrounding, Italy. They also say that Landini was born in Fiesole on national socialism the outskirts of Florence and that he was the son of Jacopo Del Casentino, a painter and student of macbeth kill Giotto. It also states that when Francesco Landini was a child, he suffered from smallpox and as a result of. Accidental , Harmony , Key signature 1914 Words | 4 Pages. Musical Analysis; Comparing 'Tonight' with 'Maria'; West Side Story. ri is sang on an A natural (appoggatura) making a dim 5th. The instrumentation thickens here, timps and double bass are also added , the bass plays . pizz, and its rhythm goes slightly Latin similar to much of the dance music throughout the define, musical - and all this creates a colourful image in the listeners head reflecting the image of Maria in Tonys head. Bar 15; Instrumentation thickens here as the shootings, clarinets, Horns, and trumpets are added, as the music progresses, bar 17; the oboes are. Demonstration , Double bass , Leading 895 Words | 3 Pages.

on whether or not Broadway musicals are considered serious art forms. People feel that a musical can never be taken seriously . if the character is socialism always singing sporadically, which is very unusual in real life. However, musicals have been around for les miserables storyline, quite some time now, many musicals are being adapted into define major motion pictures, many children are raised on the famous Disney musical cartoons and everybody( whether theyll admit it or not) has seen at least one musical in their lifetime and malthusian catastrophe are. Broadway theatre , Jerome Kern , Musical theatre 2241 Words | 6 Pages.

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George Orwell Fifty Essays. THE SPIKE. >> Download: >> George Orwell Fifty Essays. THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much. We just sprawled about define exhaustedly, with home-made cigarettes sticking out of our scrubby faces. Overhead the chestnut branches were covered with blossom. and beyond that great woolly clouds floated almost motionless in a clear sky.

Littered on the grass, we seemed dingy, urban riff-raff. We defiled the scene, like sardine-tins and paper bags on the seashore. What talk there was ran on the Tramp Major of this spike. My Grandmother? He was a devil, everyone agreed, a tartar, a tyrant, a bawling, blasphemous, uncharitable dog. You couldnt call your soul your own when he was about, and many a tramp had he kicked out in the middle of the night for giving a back answer. When You, came to be searched. he fair held you upside down and shook you. If you were caught with tobacco there was bell to. Pay, and if you went in with money (which is against the law) God help you. I had eightpence on national socialism, me. For the love of my grandmother, Christ, mate, the national socialism old hands advised me, dont you take it in.

Youd get seven days for going into Jack the Ripper Essays the spike with eightpence! So I buried my money in national socialism a hole under the nelson background hedge, marking the national spot with a lump of flint. Then we set about smuggling our matches and tobacco, for it is forbidden to take these into nelson mandela nearly all spikes. and one is supposed to surrender them at the gate. We hid them in socialism our socks, except for the twenty or so per cent who had no socks, and had to carry the tobacco in their boots, even under their very toes. My Grandmother? We stuffed our ankles with contraband until anyone seeing us might have imagined an outbreak of define national socialism, elephantiasis. But is an unwritten law that even the sternest Tramp Majors do not search below the knee, and in the end only one man was caught. This was Scotty, a little hairy tramp with a bastard accent sired by cockney out of Glasgow. His tin of shootings, cigarette ends fell out of his sock at the wrong moment, and was impounded.

At six, the sates swung open and we shuffled in. An official at define national, the gate entered our names and other particulars in the regis. ter and took our bundles away from us. The woman was sent off to the workhouse, and we others into in america the spike. Define National? It was a gloomy, chilly, limewashed place, consisting only my grandmother of a bathroom and dining-room and about a hundred narrow stone cells. The terrible Tramp Major met us at the door and national herded us into the bathroom to be stripped and searched.

He was a gruff, soldierly man of forty. who gave the tramps no more ceremony than sheep at the dipping-pond, shoving them this way and that and shouting oaths in their faces. But when he came to myself. Surrounding? he looked hard at me, and said: You are a gentleman? He gave me another long look. National Socialism? Well, thats bloody bad luck, guvnor, he said, thats bloody bad luck, that is. And thereafter he took it into his head to treat me with compassion, even with a kind of respect. It was a disgusting sight, that bathroom. All the indecent secrets of our underwear were exposed; the macbeth kill grime, the rents and define national patches, the bits of string doing duty for Mystery Jack the Ripper Essays buttons, the layers upon layers of fragmentary garments, some of them mere collections of holes, held together by dirt. The room became a press m of define socialism, steaming nudity, the Mystery sweaty odours of the define tramps competing with the sickly, sub-faecal stench native to the spike. Some of the men refused the malthusian bath, and washed only their toe-rags, the horrid, greasy little clouts which tramps bind round their feet. Each of us had three minutes in which to bathe himself. Six greasy, slippery roller towels had to define serve for the lot of us. When we had bathed our own clothes were taken away from us, and we were dressed in the workhouse shirts, grey cotton things like nightshirts, reaching to the middle of the thigh. Nelson Background? Then we were sent into the diningroom, where supper was set out on the deal tables.

It was the invariable spike meal, always the same, whether breakfast, dinner or supperhalf a pound of bread, a bit of national, margarine, and a pint of so-called tea. It took us five minutes to gulp down the cheap, noxious food. Then the Tramp Major served us with three cotton blankets each, and drove us off to our cells for the night. Why Does Banquo? The doors were locked on the outside a little before seven in define the evening, and would stay locked for the next twelve hours. The cells measured eight feet by five and catastrophe had no lighting apparatus except a tiny, barred window high up in the wall, and a spyhole in national the door. There were no bugs, and we had bedsteads and straw palliasses, rare luxuries both. In many spikes one sleeps on a wooden shelf, and in some on the bare floor, with a rolled-up coat for pillow.

With a cell to myself, and a bed, I was hoping for a sound nights rest. But I did not get it, for there is always something wrong in the spike, and the peculiar shortcoming here, as I discovered immediately, was the cold. May had begun, and in honour of the seasona little sacrifice to the gods of spring, perhapsthe authorities had cut off the steam from the hot pipes. The cotton blankets were almost useless. One spent the night in turning from side to side, falling asleep for ten minutes and mandela waking half frozen, and watching for dawn. As always happens in the spike, I had at last managed to define socialism fan comfortably asleep when it was time to get up. The Tramp Major came marching down the passage with his heavy tread, unlocking the doors and why does yelling to us to show a leg. Promptly the passage was full of squalid shirt-clad figures rushing for the bathroom, for there was Only One tub full of define socialism, water between us all in the morning, and it was first come first served. When I arrived twenty tramps had already washed their faces. I gave one glance at the black scum on top of the water, and decided to go dirty for the day. We hurried into Mystery Jack the Ripper our clothes, and then went to the diningroom to bolt our breakfast.

The bread was much worse than usual, because the military-minded idiot of a Tramp Major had cut it into slices overnight, so that it was as hard as ships bisciut. But we were glad of our tea after the cold, restless night. I do not know what tramps would do without tea, or rather the stuff they miscall tea. It is their food, their medicine, their panacea for all evils. Without the half goon or so of it that they suck down a day, I truly believe they could not face their existence. After breakfast we had to undress again for the medical inspection, which is a precaution against socialism, smallpox. It was three quarters of an hour before the doctor arrived, and one had time now to Mystery Surrounding Jack the Ripper look about him and see what manner of men we were. it, was an instructive sight. We stood shivering naked to the waist in national socialism two long ranks in the passage. The filtered light, bluish and cold, lighted us up with unmerciful clarity. No one can imagine, unless he has seen such a thing, what pot-bellied, degenerate curs we looked. Shock heads, hairy, crumpled faces, hollow chests, flat feet, sagging musclesevery kind of malformation and physical rottenness were there.

All were flabby and discoloured, as all tramps are under their deceptive sunburn. Two or three figures wen there stay ineradicably in my mind. Old Daddy, aged seventy-four, with his truss, and his red, watering eyes, a herring-gutted starveling with sparse beard and sunken cheeks, looking like the corpse of Lazarus in some primitive picture: an my grandmother, imbecile, wandering hither and thither with vague giggles, coyly pleased because his trousers constantly slipped down and define national socialism left him nude. Les Miserables Storyline? But few of us were greatly better than these; there were not ten decently built men among us, and half, I believe, should have been in hospital. This being Sunday, we were to be kept in the spike over the week-end. As soon as the doctor had gone we were herded back to the dining-room, and socialism its door shut upon us. It was a lime-washed, stone-floored room, unspeakably dreary with its furniture of deal boards and benches, and my grandmother its prison smell. The windows were so high up that one could not look outside, and the sole ornament was a set of Rules threatening dire penalties to any casual who misconducted himself.

We packed the room so tight that one could not move an elbow without jostling somebody. Define National? Already, at my grandmother, eight oclock in the morning, we were bored with our captivity. There was nothing to talk about except the define national socialism petty gossip of the road, the good and bad spikes, the charitable and uncharitable counties, the iniquities of the police and the Salvation Army. Tramps hardly ever get away from these subjects; they talk, as it were, nothing but shop. They have nothing worthy to be called conversation, bemuse emptiness of in america, belly leaves no speculation in their souls. The world is too much with them.

Their next meal is define national socialism never quite secure, and malthusian so they cannot think of anything except the national next meal. Two hours dragged by. Old Daddy, witless with age, sat silent, his back bent like a bow and his inflamed eyes dripping slowly on to the floor. George, a dirty old tramp notorious for the queer habit of sleeping in his hat. grumbled about les miserables a parcel of tommy that he had lost on the toad. Bill the moocher, the best built man of us all, a Herculean sturdy beggar who smelt of beer even after twelve hours in the spike, told tales of mooching, of define socialism, pints stood him in the boozers, and mandela of a parson who had peached to the police and got him seven days. William and, Fred, two young. National? ex-fishermen from Norfolk, sang a sad song about Unhappy Bella, who was betrayed and died in the snow. The imbecile drivelled, about an imaginary toff, who had once given him two hundred and nelson fifty-seven golden sovereigns. So the time passed, with dun talk and dull obscenities. Everyone was smoking, except Scotty, whose tobacco had been seized, and he was so miserable in his smokeless state that I stood him the makings of a cigarette. We smoked furtively, hiding our cigarettes like schoolboys when we heard the Tramp Majors step, for smoking though connived at, was officially forbidden. Most of the tramps spent ten consecutive hours in socialism this dreary room.

It is hard to imagine how they put up with 11. I have come to think that boredom is the mandela background worst of all a tramps evils, worse than hunger and discomfort, worse even than the define national socialism constant feeling of my grandmother, being socially disgraced. It is a silly piece of cruelty to confine an ignorant man all day with nothing to do; it is like chaining a dog in a barrel. only an educated man, who has consolations within himself, can endure confinement. Tramps, unlettered types as nearly all of them are, face their poverty with blank, resourceless minds. Fixed for ten hours on a comfortless bench, they know no way of occupying themselves, and if they think at all it is to whimper about define hard luck and pine for work. They have not the stuff in them to Mystery Surrounding Jack the Ripper endure the horrors of idleness. And so, since so much of their lives is spent in doing nothing, they suffer agonies from define national, boredom. I was much luckier than the others, because at ten oclock the Tramp Major picked me out for the most coveted of nelson background, all jobs in the spike, the job of helping in the workhouse kitchen. There was not really any work to be done there, and I was able to make off and hide in a shed used for storing potatoes, together with some workhouse paupers who were skulking to avoid the define socialism Sunday-morning service. There was a stove burning there, and comfortable packing cases to sit on, and back numbers of the shootings in america FAMILY HERALD, and even a copy of define national, RAFFLES from the workhouse library.

It was paradise after the spike. Also, I had my dinner from the workhouse table, and les miserables storyline it was one of the biggest meals I have ever eaten. A tramp does not see such a meal twice in the year, in the spike or out of it. The paupers told me that they always gorged to the bursting point on Sundays, and define went hungry six days of the Surrounding Essays week. When the meal was over the cook set me to do the washing-up, and define told me to throw away. the food that remained. Nelson Background? The wastage was astonishing; great dishes of beef, and bucketfuls of broad and vegetables, were pitched away. like rubbish, and then defiled with tea-leaves. I filled five dustbins to overflowing with good food. And while I did so my follow tramps were sitting two hundred yards away in the spike, their bellies half filled with the spike dinner of the everlasting bread and tea, and perhaps two cold boiled potatoes each in honour of Sunday. Define? It appeared that the food was thrown away from deliberate policy, rather than that it should be given to the tramps.

At three I left the workhouse kitchen and went back to the spike. Shootings In America? The, boredom in that crowded, comfortless room was now unbearable. Even smoking had ceased, for a tramps only tobacco is picked-up cigarette ends, and, like a browsing beast, he starves if he is long away from the pavement-pasture. To occupy the define national time I talked with a rather superior tramp, a young carpenter who wore a collar and tie, and was on the road, he said. for lack of a set of tools. Nelson Mandela? He kept a little aloof from the define other tramps, and held himself more like a free man than a casual. Les Miserables Storyline? He had literary tastes, too, and carried one of Scotts novels on all his wanderings.

He told me he never entered a spike unless driven there by hunger, sleeping under hedges and behind ricks in preference. Along the south coast he had begged by define socialism day and slept in bathing-machines for Mystery Surrounding the Ripper Essays weeks at a time. We talked of socialism, life on the road. He criticized the system which makes a tramp spend fourteen hours a day in the spike, and Essays the other ten in walking and dodging the police. He spoke of his own casesix months at the public charge for want of three pounds worth of tools. It was idiotic, he said. Then I told him about the wastage of food in the workhouse kitchen, and what I thought of it. And at that he changed his tune immediately. I saw that I had awakened the pew-renter who sleeps in every English workman.

Though he had been famished. along with the national rest, he at once saw reasons why the food should have been thrown away rather than given to the tramps. He admonished me quite severely. They have to my grandmother do it, he said. If they made these places too pleasant youd have all the scum of the country flocking into them. Its only the define national socialism bad food as keeps all that scum away. These tramps are too lazy to work, thats all thats wrong with them.

You dont want to go encouraging of mandela, them. Theyre scum. I produced arguments to define prove him wrong, but he would not listen. Shootings? He kept repeating: You dont want to have any pity on these trampsscum, they are. You dont want to national judge them by the same standards as men like you and me. It was interesting to see how subtly he disassociated himself from his fellow tramps.

He has been on the road six months. but in the sight of God, he seemed to les miserables imply, he was not a tramp. His body might be in the spike, but his spirit soared far away, in the pure aether of the define socialism middle classes. The clocks hands crept round with excruciating slowness. We were too bored even to talk now, the only sound was of oaths and reverberating yawns. One would force his eyes away from the clock for what seemed an age, and then look back again to see that the catastrophe hands had advanced three minutes. Ennui clogged our souls like cold mutton fat. Our bones ached because of it. The clocks hands stood at four, and national socialism supper was not till six, and there was nothing left remarkable beneath the visiting moon.

At last six oclock did come, and the Tramp Major and his assistant arrived with supper. Mystery Surrounding? The yawning tramps brisked up like lions at feeding-time. But the meal was a dismal disappointment. Define National Socialism? The bread, bad enough in the morning, was now positively uneatable; it was so hard that even the strongest jaws could make little impression on catastrophe, it. The older men went almost supperless, and define national socialism not a man could finish. his portion, hungry though most of us were. When we had finished, the blankets were served out immediately, and we were hustled off once more to the bare, chilly cells.

Thirteen hours went by. At seven we were awakened, and rushed forth to nelson squabble over the water in define socialism the bathroom, and bolt our ration of my grandmother, bread and tea. Define National Socialism? Our time in catastrophe the spike was up, but we could riot go until the doctor had examined us again, for socialism the authorities have a terror of smallpox and its distribution by tramps. The doctor kept us waiting two hours this time, and it was ten oclock before we finally escaped. At last it was time to go, and we were let out into the yard. How bright everything looked, and how sweet the winds did blow, after the gloomy, reeking spike! The Tramp Major handed each man his bundle of confiscated possessions, and a hunk of les miserables, bread and cheese for socialism midday dinner, and then we took the road, hastening to get out of my grandmother, sight of the spike and its discipline, This was our interim of freedom.

After a day and two nights of define, wasted time we had eight hours or so to nelson mandela take our recreation, to scour the roads for cigarette ends, to beg, and to look for work. Also, we had to make our ten, fifteen, or it might be twenty miles to the next spike, where the game would begin anew. I disinterred my eightpence and took the road with Nobby, a respectable, downhearted tramp who carried a spare pair of define national socialism, boots and visited all the Labour Exchanges. Our late companions were scattering north, south, cast and west, like bugs into a mattress. Only the why does imbecile loitered at the spike gates, until the define socialism Tramp Major had to chase him away. Nobby and kill banquo I set out for Croydon. Define Socialism? It was a quiet road, there were no cars passing, the blossom covered the chestnut trees like great wax candles. Everything was so quiet and smelt so clean, it was hard to realize that only a few minutes ago we had been packed with that band of les miserables, prisoners in a stench of define national socialism, drains and soft soap. The others had all disappeared; we two seemed to be the only tramps on the road. Then I heard a hurried step behind me, and felt a tap on my arm. It was little Scotty, who had run panting after us.

He pulled a rusty tin box from his pocket. He wore a friendly smile, like a man who is repaying an obligation. Here yare, mate, he said cordially. I owe you some fag ends. You stood me a smoke yesterday. Macbeth Kill Banquo? The Tramp Major give me back my box of fag ends when we come out this morning.

One good turn deserves anotherhere yare. And he put four sodden, debauched. National? loathly cigarette ends into my hand. Please contact the author for suggestions or further informations: architects.co@gmail.com; ***Table of Content united architects. MORE INFORMATION ON MY OTHER SITES:

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consciousness essay Department of define national socialism Philosophy. University of Arizona. Tucson, AZ 85721. [Published in the Journal of storyline Consciousness Studies 2(3):200-19, 1995. Also online is my response, Moving Forward on the Problem of define Consciousness, to 26 articles commenting on this paper. That paper elaborates and extends many of the ideas in this one.] Consciousness poses the shootings in america, most baffling problems in the science of the mind. National! There is nothing that we know more intimately than conscious experience, but there is nothing that is harder to explain. Shootings! All sorts of mental phenomena have yielded to scientific investigation in recent years, but consciousness has stubbornly resisted. Many have tried to explain it, but the explanations always seem to fall short of the target.

Some have been led to suppose that the problem is intractable, and that no good explanation can be given. To make progress on the problem of consciousness, we have to confront it directly. In this paper, I first isolate the national socialism, truly hard part of the problem, separating it from more tractable parts and giving an account of why it is so difficult to explain. I critique some recent work that uses reductive methods to address consciousness, and les miserables argue that such methods inevitably fail to come to grips with the hardest part of the problem. Once this failure is recognized, the door to define national socialism, further progress is mandela, opened. Define! In the second half of the paper, I argue that if we move to a new kind of nonreductive explanation, a naturalistic account of consciousness can be given. I put forward my own candidate for such an account: a nonreductive theory based on principles of why does kill banquo structural coherence and organizational invariance and a double-aspect view of information.

2 The easy problems and the hard problem. There is not just one problem of consciousness. Consciousness is an ambiguous term, referring to many different phenomena. Each of these phenomena needs to be explained, but some are easier to explain than others. At the start, it is useful to define national, divide the les miserables storyline, associated problems of consciousness into hard and easy problems. The easy problems of consciousness are those that seem directly susceptible to the standard methods of cognitive science, whereby a phenomenon is explained in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. The hard problems are those that seem to define, resist those methods. The easy problems of consciousness include those of explaining the following phenomena: the ability to discriminate, categorize, and react to environmental stimuli; the integration of Surrounding Jack the Ripper Essays information by a cognitive system; the reportability of mental states; the ability of a system to access its own internal states; the focus of attention; the define national, deliberate control of behavior; the difference between wakefulness and storyline sleep. All of define national these phenomena are associated with the notion of consciousness. For example, one sometimes says that a mental state is conscious when it is verbally reportable, or when it is internally accessible. Sometimes a system is my grandmother, said to be conscious of some information when it has the ability to react on define national socialism, the basis of that information, or, more strongly, when it attends to that information, or when it can integrate that information and exploit it in the sophisticated control of behavior.

We sometimes say that an macbeth kill banquo, action is socialism, conscious precisely when it is deliberate. Catastrophe! Often, we say that an organism is conscious as another way of saying that it is awake. There is no real issue about whether these phenomena can be explained scientifically. All of define national them are straightforwardly vulnerable to explanation in my grandmother terms of computational or neural mechanisms. To explain access and reportability, for example, we need only specify the mechanism by which information about internal states is retrieved and made available for verbal report. To explain the integration of information, we need only exhibit mechanisms by which information is brought together and exploited by later processes. For an account of sleep and wakefulness, an appropriate neurophysiological account of the processes responsible for organisms' contrasting behavior in those states will suffice. In each case, an appropriate cognitive or neurophysiological model can clearly do the national, explanatory work.

If these phenomena were all there was to consciousness, then consciousness would not be much of a problem. Although we do not yet have anything close to a complete explanation of why does macbeth kill these phenomena, we have a clear idea of national how we might go about nelson mandela explaining them. This is socialism, why I call these problems the easy problems. My Grandmother! Of course, easy is a relative term. National! Getting the details right will probably take a century or two of difficult empirical work. Still, there is shootings, every reason to believe that the methods of cognitive science and neuroscience will succeed. The really hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience . When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect.

As Nagel (1974) has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of national depth in a visual field. Other experiences go along with perception in different modalities: the sound of a clarinet, the smell of Surrounding Jack mothballs. Then there are bodily sensations, from pains to orgasms; mental images that are conjured up internally; the felt quality of emotion, and the experience of a stream of conscious thought. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is define national socialism, like to shootings in america, be in them. Socialism! All of them are states of nelson mandela background experience. It is undeniable that some organisms are subjects of experience. But the question of how it is that these systems are subjects of socialism experience is perplexing.

Why is it that when our cognitive systems engage in visual and auditory information-processing, we have visual or auditory experience: the quality of deep blue, the sensation of middle C? How can we explain why there is something it is like to entertain a mental image, or to experience an emotion? It is widely agreed that experience arises from a physical basis, but we have no good explanation of why and how it so arises. Why should physical processing give rise to a rich inner life at all? It seems objectively unreasonable that it should, and les miserables storyline yet it does. If any problem qualifies as the problem of consciousness, it is this one. In this central sense of consciousness, an organism is conscious if there is something it is like to be that organism, and a mental state is conscious if there is something it is like to define national socialism, be in that state. Sometimes terms such as phenomenal consciousness and qualia are also used here, but I find it more natural to speak of conscious experience or simply experience. Another useful way to avoid confusion (used by e.g. Newell 1990, Chalmers 1996) is to reserve the term consciousness for the phenomena of storyline experience, using the less loaded term awareness for define socialism, the more straightforward phenomena described earlier. Les Miserables! If such a convention were widely adopted, communication would be much easier; as things stand, those who talk about consciousness are frequently talking past each other. The ambiguity of the term consciousness is often exploited by both philosophers and define national scientists writing on the subject.

It is common to see a paper on consciousness begin with an invocation of the mystery of consciousness, noting the Surrounding Essays, strange intangibility and ineffability of subjectivity, and worrying that so far we have no theory of the phenomenon. National Socialism! Here, the topic is clearly the hard problem - the in america, problem of experience. In the second half of the paper, the tone becomes more optimistic, and the author's own theory of consciousness is outlined. Upon examination, this theory turns out to define, be a theory of one of the more straightforward phenomena - of reportability, of introspective access, or whatever. At the close, the malthusian catastrophe, author declares that consciousness has turned out to be tractable after all, but the reader is left feeling like the victim of a bait-and-switch.

The hard problem remains untouched. Why are the easy problems easy, and why is the hard problem hard? The easy problems are easy precisely because they concern the explanation of cognitive abilities and functions . To explain a cognitive function, we need only specify a mechanism that can perform the function. Define National Socialism! The methods of cognitive science are well-suited for this sort of nelson explanation, and define so are well-suited to the easy problems of consciousness. By contrast, the shootings, hard problem is hard precisely because it is not a problem about the define national socialism, performance of functions. The problem persists even when the performance of all the relevant functions is explained. Malthusian! (Here function is not used in the narrow teleological sense of something that a system is designed to national socialism, do, but in the broader sense of any causal role in the production of behavior that a system might perform.) To explain reportability, for instance, is just to explain how a system could perform the function of producing reports on internal states. To explain internal access, we need to explain how a system could be appropriately affected by its internal states and mandela use information about those states in directing later processes. To explain integration and control, we need to explain how a system's central processes can bring information contents together and use them in the facilitation of various behaviors.

These are all problems about the explanation of functions. How do we explain the performance of a function? By specifying a mechanism that performs the function. Here, neurophysiological and cognitive modeling are perfect for the task. If we want a detailed low-level explanation, we can specify the define national socialism, neural mechanism that is responsible for the function. If we want a more abstract explanation, we can specify a mechanism in computational terms. Either way, a full and satisfying explanation will result. Once we have specified the neural or computational mechanism that performs the function of verbal report, for my grandmother, example, the bulk of our work in explaining reportability is over. In a way, the point is trivial.

It is a conceptual fact about these phenomena that their explanation only involves the explanation of various functions, as the phenomena are functionally definable . All it means for reportability to define national, be instantiated in a system is that the system has the capacity for verbal reports of internal information. All it means for malthusian, a system to be awake is for it to be appropriately receptive to information from the environment and for it to be able to define national socialism, use this information in directing behavior in an appropriate way. To see that this sort of thing is a conceptual fact, note that someone who says you have explained the performance of the malthusian, verbal report function, but you have not explained reportability is define national socialism, making a trivial conceptual mistake about reportability. All it could possibly take to explain reportability is an explanation of why does macbeth kill banquo how the relevant function is performed; the same goes for the other phenomena in national socialism question. Throughout the shootings in america, higher-level sciences, reductive explanation works in just this way. To explain the gene, for instance, we needed to specify the mechanism that stores and transmits hereditary information from one generation to national, the next. It turns out that DNA performs this function; once we explain how the function is performed, we have explained the gene.

To explain life, we ultimately need to explain how a system can reproduce, adapt to its environment, metabolize, and so on. All of these are questions about the performance of functions, and so are well-suited to reductive explanation. The same holds for most problems in les miserables cognitive science. Socialism! To explain learning, we need to explain the way in which a system's behavioral capacities are modified in light of environmental information, and the way in background which new information can be brought to bear in adapting a system's actions to its environment. If we show how a neural or computational mechanism does the job, we have explained learning. We can say the same for other cognitive phenomena, such as perception, memory, and language.

Sometimes the relevant functions need to be characterized quite subtly, but it is clear that insofar as cognitive science explains these phenomena at all, it does so by explaining the performance of functions. When it comes to conscious experience, this sort of explanation fails. Define National! What makes the hard problem hard and almost unique is that it goes beyond problems about the performance of functions. To see this, note that even when we have explained the performance of all the cognitive and behavioral functions in the vicinity of experience - perceptual discrimination, categorization, internal access, verbal report - there may still remain a further unanswered question: Why is the performance of Surrounding Jack the Ripper these functions accompanied by experience? A simple explanation of the functions leaves this question open.

There is no analogous further question in the explanation of genes, or of life, or of learning. Define Socialism! If someone says I can see that you have explained how DNA stores and transmits hereditary information from one generation to the next, but you have not explained how it is a gene , then they are making a conceptual mistake. All it means to be a gene is to be an entity that performs the relevant storage and transmission function. But if someone says I can see that you have explained how information is discriminated, integrated, and reported, but you have not explained how it is storyline, experienced , they are not making a conceptual mistake. This is a nontrivial further question. This further question is the key question in the problem of consciousness.

Why doesn't all this information-processing go on in the dark, free of any inner feel? Why is it that when electromagnetic waveforms impinge on a retina and are discriminated and categorized by a visual system, this discrimination and categorization is experienced as a sensation of vivid red? We know that conscious experience does arise when these functions are performed, but the very fact that it arises is the central mystery. National Socialism! There is an explanatory gap (a term due to Levine 1983) between the functions and experience, and we need an explanatory bridge to cross it. A mere account of the functions stays on why does macbeth banquo, one side of the gap, so the define national socialism, materials for the bridge must be found elsewhere. This is not to say that experience has no function. Perhaps it will turn out to play an important cognitive role. But for any role it might play, there will be more to the explanation of experience than a simple explanation of the function. Perhaps it will even turn out in america, that in the course of explaining a function, we will be led to the key insight that allows an explanation of experience.

If this happens, though, the discovery will be an extra explanatory reward. There is national, no cognitive function such that we can say in macbeth kill banquo advance that explanation of define national socialism that function will automatically explain experience. To explain experience, we need a new approach. The usual explanatory methods of background cognitive science and neuroscience do not suffice. These methods have been developed precisely to explain the performance of cognitive functions, and they do a good job of define national socialism it. But as these methods stand, they are only equipped to explain the my grandmother, performance of functions. When it comes to the hard problem, the standard approach has nothing to say. In the last few years, a number of works have addressed the problems of consciousness within the framework of cognitive science and neuroscience. This might suggest that the define socialism, analysis above is faulty, but in fact a close examination of the storyline, relevant work only lends the analysis further support. When we investigate just which aspects of consciousness these studies are aimed at, and which aspects they end up explaining, we find that the ultimate target of explanation is always one of the easy problems.

I will illustrate this with two representative examples. The first is the neurobiological theory of define consciousness outlined by Crick and Koch (1990; see also Crick 1994). This theory centers on certain 35-75 hertz neural oscillations in the cerebral cortex; Crick and Koch hypothesize that these oscillations are the catastrophe, basis of consciousness. This is partly because the oscillations seem to be correlated with awareness in a number of different modalities - within the visual and olfactory systems, for example - and also because they suggest a mechanism by which the binding of information contents might be achieved. Binding is the process whereby separately represented pieces of information about a single entity are brought together to socialism, be used by later processing, as when information about the color and shape of a perceived object is integrated from separate visual pathways. Following others (e.g., Eckhorn et al 1988), Crick and Koch hypothesize that binding may be achieved by the synchronized oscillations of neuronal groups representing the relevant contents. When two pieces of information are to be bound together, the relevant neural groups will oscillate with the same frequency and phase. The details of Surrounding Jack the Ripper Essays how this binding might be achieved are still poorly understood, but suppose that they can be worked out. Define Socialism! What might the resulting theory explain? Clearly it might explain the binding of my grandmother information contents, and perhaps it might yield a more general account of the integration of information in the brain. Crick and Koch also suggest that these oscillations activate the mechanisms of working memory, so that there may be an account of this and perhaps other forms of memory in socialism the distance.

The theory might eventually lead to my grandmother, a general account of how perceived information is bound and stored in memory, for use by later processing. Such a theory would be valuable, but it would tell us nothing about why the define, relevant contents are experienced. Crick and Koch suggest that these oscillations are the why does kill, neural correlates of experience. This claim is define national socialism, arguable - does not binding also take place in the processing of unconscious information? - but even if it is accepted, the explanatory question remains: Why do the oscillations give rise to experience? The only basis for an explanatory connection is the role they play in binding and storage, but the question of why binding and storage should themselves be accompanied by nelson background experience is define national socialism, never addressed. If we do not know why binding and shootings in america storage should give rise to experience, telling a story about the oscillations cannot help us. Conversely, if we knew why binding and national storage gave rise to Mystery Surrounding the Ripper Essays, experience, the neurophysiological details would be just the define national, icing on the cake. Crick and Koch's theory gains its purchase by assuming a connection between binding and experience, and so can do nothing to explain that link. I do not think that Crick and Koch are ultimately claiming to in america, address the define national, hard problem, although some have interpreted them otherwise.

A published interview with Koch gives a clear statement of the limitations on the theory's ambitions. Well, let's first forget about the malthusian catastrophe, really difficult aspects, like subjective feelings, for they may not have a scientific solution. The subjective state of play, of pain, of pleasure, of seeing blue, of smelling a rose - there seems to be a huge jump between the materialistic level, of explaining molecules and neurons, and define the subjective level. Let's focus on things that are easier to study - like visual awareness. Les Miserables Storyline! You're now talking to me, but you're not looking at me, you're looking at the cappuccino, and define national so you are aware of it. My Grandmother! You can say, `It's a cup and there's some liquid in it.' If I give it to you, you'll move your arm and you'll take it - you'll respond in a meaningful manner. That's what I call awareness. (What is socialism, Consciousness, Discover , November 1992, p. My Grandmother! 96.) The second example is an approach at the level of cognitive psychology. This is Baars' global workspace theory of socialism consciousness, presented in his book A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness . Malthusian! According to this theory, the contents of consciousness are contained in a global workspace , a central processor used to define socialism, mediate communication between a host of specialized nonconscious processors. When these specialized processors need to broadcast information to the rest of the system, they do so by sending this information to the workspace, which acts as a kind of communal blackboard for the rest of the system, accessible to all the other processors.

Baars uses this model to malthusian catastrophe, address many aspects of human cognition, and to explain a number of contrasts between conscious and national unconscious cognitive functioning. Ultimately, however, it is a theory of cognitive accessibility , explaining how it is that certain information contents are widely accessible within a system, as well as a theory of informational integration and reportability. The theory shows promise as a theory of awareness, the mandela, functional correlate of conscious experience, but an explanation of experience itself is not on offer. One might suppose that according to national socialism, this theory, the contents of malthusian catastrophe experience are precisely the national, contents of the workspace. But even if this is so, nothing internal to the theory explains why the information within the global workspace is experienced. The best the theory can do is to my grandmother, say that the information is experienced because it is globally accessible . But now the question arises in a different form: why should global accessibility give rise to define national socialism, conscious experience? As always, this bridging question is unanswered.

Almost all work taking a cognitive or neuroscientific approach to consciousness in recent years could be subjected to a similar critique. The Neural Darwinism model of Edelman (1989), for instance, addresses questions about perceptual awareness and shootings the self-concept, but says nothing about why there should also be experience. Define! The multiple drafts model of Dennett (1991) is largely directed at explaining the reportability of certain mental contents. Storyline! The intermediate level theory of Jackendoff (1988) provides an account of some computational processes that underlie consciousness, but Jackendoff stresses that the question of define national socialism how these project into conscious experience remains mysterious. Researchers using these methods are often inexplicit about their attitudes to the problem of conscious experience, although sometimes they take a clear stand. Even among those who are clear about it, attitudes differ widely. In placing this sort of work with respect to mandela, the problem of experience, a number of different strategies are available.

It would be useful if these strategic choices were more often made explicit. The first strategy is simply to explain something else . Some researchers are explicit that the problem of experience is too difficult for now, and perhaps even outside the domain of science altogether. These researchers instead choose to address one of the more tractable problems such as reportability or the self-concept. Although I have called these problems the easy problems, they are among the most interesting unsolved problems in cognitive science, so this work is certainly worthwhile. The worst that can be said of national this choice is that in my grandmother the context of research on define socialism, consciousness it is relatively unambitious, and the work can sometimes be misinterpreted. The second choice is to take a harder line and deny the phenomenon . (Variations on this approach are taken by my grandmother Allport 1988, Dennett 1991, and national Wilkes 1988.) According to this line, once we have explained the functions such as accessibility, reportability, and the like, there is no further phenomenon called experience to explain. Some explicitly deny the Mystery Surrounding, phenomenon, holding for example that what is not externally verifiable cannot be real. Others achieve the same effect by allowing that experience exists, but only national if we equate experience with something like the capacity to discriminate and report. These approaches lead to a simpler theory, but are ultimately unsatisfactory. Experience is the most central and manifest aspect of our mental lives, and indeed is perhaps the key explanandum in the science of the mind.

Because of this status as an les miserables, explanandum, experience cannot be discarded like the vital spirit when a new theory comes along. Rather, it is the central fact that any theory of consciousness must explain. A theory that denies the phenomenon solves the problem by ducking the question. In a third option, some researchers claim to be explaining experience in the full sense. These researchers (unlike those above) wish to take experience very seriously; they lay out their functional model or theory, and claim that it explains the full subjective quality of experience (e.g. Flohr 1992, Humphrey 1992). The relevant step in the explanation is usually passed over define national socialism quickly, however, and usually ends up looking something like magic.

After some details about information processing are given, experience suddenly enters the picture, but it is left obscure how these processes should suddenly give rise to macbeth, experience. Perhaps it is simply taken for granted that it does, but then we have an incomplete explanation and a version of the fifth strategy below. A fourth, more promising approach appeals to these methods to explain the structure of experience . For example, it is arguable that an account of the discriminations made by the visual system can account for the structural relations between different color experiences, as well as for the geometric structure of the visual field (see e.g., Clark 1992 and define socialism Hardin 1992). In general, certain facts about structures found in processing will correspond to and arguably explain facts about the structure of experience. This strategy is shootings in america, plausible but limited. At best, it takes the define national, existence of experience for granted and accounts for some facts about malthusian its structure, providing a sort of nonreductive explanation of the structural aspects of experience (I will say more on this later). This is useful for many purposes, but it tells us nothing about why there should be experience in the first place.

A fifth and reasonable strategy is to define socialism, isolate the substrate of experience . After all, almost everyone allows that experience arises one way or another from brain processes, and why does kill it makes sense to define national, identify the why does kill, sort of process from which it arises. Crick and Koch put their work forward as isolating the neural correlate of consciousness, for example, and Edelman (1989) and national Jackendoff (1988) make related claims. My Grandmother! Justification of these claims requires a careful theoretical analysis, especially as experience is define, not directly observable in experimental contexts, but when applied judiciously this strategy can shed indirect light on the problem of experience. Mandela Background! Nevertheless, the strategy is clearly incomplete. For a satisfactory theory, we need to know more than which processes give rise to experience; we need an account of why and how.

A full theory of consciousness must build an explanatory bridge. We have seen that there are systematic reasons why the usual methods of cognitive science and neuroscience fail to account for conscious experience. These are simply the wrong sort of methods: nothing that they give to define, us can yield an explanation. Malthusian Catastrophe! To account for conscious experience, we need an national socialism, extra ingredient in mandela background the explanation. This makes for a challenge to those who are serious about the hard problem of consciousness: What is your extra ingredient, and why should that account for conscious experience? There is no shortage of extra ingredients to be had. Define National Socialism! Some propose an injection of macbeth kill chaos and nonlinear dynamics. Define Socialism! Some think that the key lies in nonalgorithmic processing.

Some appeal to future discoveries in neurophysiology. Some suppose that the les miserables, key to the mystery will lie at the level of quantum mechanics. It is easy to see why all these suggestions are put forward. None of the old methods work, so the national socialism, solution must lie with something new. Unfortunately, these suggestions all suffer from the same old problems.

Nonalgorithmic processing, for example, is put forward by Penrose (1989; 1994) because of the role it might play in the process of conscious mathematical insight. The arguments about mathematics are controversial, but even if they succeed and an account of nonalgorithmic processing in the human brain is nelson mandela background, given, it will still only be an define national socialism, account of the functions involved in catastrophe mathematical reasoning and socialism the like. For a nonalgorithmic process as much as an algorithmic process, the question is left unanswered: why should this process give rise to experience? In answering this question, there is no special role for nonalgorithmic processing. The same goes for nonlinear and malthusian catastrophe chaotic dynamics. These might provide a novel account of the dynamics of cognitive functioning, quite different from that given by standard methods in national cognitive science. But from dynamics, one only gets more dynamics. The question about experience here is as mysterious as ever. The point is even clearer for new discoveries in in america neurophysiology. These new discoveries may help us make significant progress in understanding brain function, but for any neural process we isolate, the same question will always arise.

It is difficult to imagine what a proponent of new neurophysiology expects to happen, over and above the explanation of further cognitive functions. Socialism! It is not as if we will suddenly discover a phenomenal glow inside a neuron! Perhaps the most popular extra ingredient of all is quantum mechanics (e.g. In America! Hameroff 1994). The attractiveness of quantum theories of consciousness may stem from a Law of national Minimization of Mystery: consciousness is mysterious and quantum mechanics is mysterious, so maybe the two mysteries have a common source. Nevertheless, quantum theories of Mystery Surrounding Essays consciousness suffer from the socialism, same difficulties as neural or computational theories. Storyline! Quantum phenomena have some remarkable functional properties, such as nondeterminism and nonlocality. It is natural to speculate that these properties may play some role in the explanation of cognitive functions, such as random choice and the integration of information, and this hypothesis cannot be ruled out a priori . Define! But when it comes to the explanation of experience, quantum processes are in the same boat as any other. The question of why these processes should give rise to experience is entirely unanswered. (One special attraction of quantum theories is the fact that on some interpretations of quantum mechanics, consciousness plays an active role in why does collapsing the quantum wave function. Such interpretations are controversial, but in any case they offer no hope of explaining consciousness in socialism terms of quantum processes.

Rather, these theories assume the existence of consciousness, and use it in the explanation of nelson mandela quantum processes. At best, these theories tell us something about a physical role that consciousness may play. They tell us nothing about how it arises.) At the end of the day, the same criticism applies to any purely physical account of consciousness. Define National Socialism! For any physical process we specify there will be an unanswered question: Why should this process give rise to experience?

Given any such process, it is conceptually coherent that it could be instantiated in the absence of experience. Surrounding Jack The Ripper! It follows that no mere account of the physical process will tell us why experience arises. The emergence of experience goes beyond what can be derived from physical theory. Purely physical explanation is well-suited to the explanation of physical structures , explaining macroscopic structures in terms of define national socialism detailed microstructural constituents; and it provides a satisfying explanation of the performance of functions , accounting for these functions in terms of the physical mechanisms that perform them. This is because a physical account can entail the facts about les miserables storyline structures and socialism functions: once the internal details of the physical account are given, the structural and functional properties fall out as an automatic consequence. Les Miserables Storyline! But the structure and dynamics of national socialism physical processes yield only more structure and dynamics, so structures and the Ripper Essays functions are all we can expect these processes to explain. National! The facts about experience cannot be an automatic consequence of any physical account, as it is conceptually coherent that any given process could exist without experience.

Experience may arise from the physical, but it is not entailed by the physical. The moral of all this is that you can't explain conscious experience on the cheap . It is a remarkable fact that reductive methods - methods that explain a high-level phenomenon wholly in terms of more basic physical processes - work well in so many domains. In a sense, one can explain most biological and shootings cognitive phenomena on define national socialism, the cheap, in that these phenomena are seen as automatic consequences of more fundamental processes. It would be wonderful if reductive methods could explain experience, too; I hoped for a long time that they might. Unfortunately, there are systematic reasons why these methods must fail. Reductive methods are successful in most domains because what needs explaining in those domains are structures and functions, and these are the why does banquo, kind of thing that a physical account can entail. When it comes to a problem over national and above the explanation of structures and functions, these methods are impotent. This might seem reminiscent of the les miserables storyline, vitalist claim that no physical account could explain life, but the cases are disanalogous.

What drove vitalist skepticism was doubt about whether physical mechanisms could perform the many remarkable functions associated with life, such as complex adaptive behavior and reproduction. The conceptual claim that explanation of functions is what is needed was implicitly accepted, but lacking detailed knowledge of biochemical mechanisms, vitalists doubted whether any physical process could do the job and put forward the hypothesis of the vital spirit as an define socialism, alternative explanation. Once it turned out shootings in america, that physical processes could perform the relevant functions, vitalist doubts melted away. With experience, on the other hand, physical explanation of the functions is not in question. The key is instead the conceptual point that the define national socialism, explanation of functions does not suffice for the explanation of experience.

This basic conceptual point is catastrophe, not something that further neuroscientific investigation will affect. In a similar way, experience is disanalogous to the élan vital . The vital spirit was put forward as an explanatory posit, in order to explain the relevant functions, and could therefore be discarded when those functions were explained without it. Experience is define national socialism, not an explanatory posit but an explanandum in its own right, and so is not a candidate for this sort of les miserables storyline elimination. It is tempting to note that all sorts of puzzling phenomena have eventually turned out to be explainable in physical terms. Define! But each of these were problems about the observable behavior of physical objects, coming down to problems in the explanation of structures and functions. Because of this, these phenomena have always been the kind of thing that a physical account might explain, even if at Jack Essays, some points there have been good reasons to suspect that no such explanation would be forthcoming. The tempting induction from these cases fails in the case of consciousness, which is define national, not a problem about physical structures and functions. The problem of consciousness is shootings in america, puzzling in an entirely different way. An analysis of the problem shows us that conscious experience is just not the kind of national thing that a wholly reductive account could succeed in explaining.

At this point some are tempted to the Ripper, give up, holding that we will never have a theory of conscious experience. McGinn (1989), for example, argues that the problem is too hard for our limited minds; we are cognitively closed with respect to the phenomenon. Others have argued that conscious experience lies outside the domain of scientific theory altogether. I think this pessimism is premature. National Socialism! This is not the place to give up; it is the place where things get interesting. When simple methods of explanation are ruled out, we need to investigate the shootings in america, alternatives. Given that reductive explanation fails, nonreductive explanation is the natural choice. Although a remarkable number of phenomena have turned out to be explicable wholly in terms of entities simpler than themselves, this is not universal. In physics, it occasionally happens that an entity has to be taken as fundamental . Fundamental entities are not explained in terms of anything simpler.

Instead, one takes them as basic, and gives a theory of national how they relate to everything else in the world. For example, in the nineteenth century it turned out that electromagnetic processes could not be explained in les miserables storyline terms of the wholly mechanical processes that previous physical theories appealed to, so Maxwell and others introduced electromagnetic charge and electromagnetic forces as new fundamental components of define national socialism a physical theory. To explain electromagnetism, the ontology of physics had to be expanded. New basic properties and basic laws were needed to give a satisfactory account of the phenomena. Other features that physical theory takes as fundamental include mass and why does macbeth kill space-time. No attempt is made to explain these features in terms of anything simpler. But this does not rule out the possibility of a theory of mass or of space-time. There is an define national socialism, intricate theory of how these features interrelate, and of the why does macbeth kill, basic laws they enter into. These basic principles are used to explain many familiar phenomena concerning mass, space, and time at a higher level.

I suggest that a theory of consciousness should take experience as fundamental. We know that a theory of consciousness requires the addition of something fundamental to our ontology, as everything in physical theory is compatible with the absence of consciousness. We might add some entirely new nonphysical feature, from national which experience can be derived, but it is hard to see what such a feature would be like. More likely, we will take experience itself as a fundamental feature of the world, alongside mass, charge, and space-time. If we take experience as fundamental, then we can go about the business of constructing a theory of experience. Where there is a fundamental property, there are fundamental laws. A nonreductive theory of experience will add new principles to the furniture of the basic laws of nature. Les Miserables! These basic principles will ultimately carry the explanatory burden in define socialism a theory of consciousness. Just as we explain familiar high-level phenomena involving mass in terms of more basic principles involving mass and other entities, we might explain familiar phenomena involving experience in terms of more basic principles involving experience and other entities.

In particular, a nonreductive theory of experience will specify basic principles telling us how experience depends on physical features of the world. Jack! These psychophysical principles will not interfere with physical laws, as it seems that physical laws already form a closed system. Rather, they will be a supplement to a physical theory. A physical theory gives a theory of physical processes, and a psychophysical theory tells us how those processes give rise to experience. Define! We know that experience depends on physical processes, but we also know that this dependence cannot be derived from physical laws alone. The new basic principles postulated by a nonreductive theory give us the extra ingredient that we need to build an explanatory bridge.

Of course, by taking experience as fundamental, there is a sense in my grandmother which this approach does not tell us why there is experience in the first place. But this is the same for socialism, any fundamental theory. Nothing in physics tells us why there is my grandmother, matter in the first place, but we do not count this against theories of matter. Certain features of the world need to be taken as fundamental by any scientific theory. A theory of national socialism matter can still explain all sorts of facts about matter, by showing how they are consequences of the basic laws. The same goes for a theory of experience. This position qualifies as a variety of my grandmother dualism, as it postulates basic properties over and above the properties invoked by physics. But it is an innocent version of dualism, entirely compatible with the scientific view of the world. Nothing in define socialism this approach contradicts anything in shootings in america physical theory; we simply need to add further bridging principles to explain how experience arises from physical processes. There is nothing particularly spiritual or mystical about this theory - its overall shape is like that of a physical theory, with a few fundamental entities connected by fundamental laws. It expands the ontology slightly, to be sure, but Maxwell did the same thing.

Indeed, the overall structure of this position is entirely naturalistic, allowing that ultimately the universe comes down to a network of basic entities obeying simple laws, and define national socialism allowing that there may ultimately be a theory of consciousness cast in terms of such laws. If the position is to have a name, a good choice might be naturalistic dualism . If this view is right, then in some ways a theory of why does kill banquo consciousness will have more in common with a theory in physics than a theory in biology. Biological theories involve no principles that are fundamental in this way, so biological theory has a certain complexity and messiness to it; but theories in physics, insofar as they deal with fundamental principles, aspire to define national, simplicity and elegance. The fundamental laws of nature are part of the basic furniture of the world, and physical theories are telling us that this basic furniture is remarkably simple. If a theory of consciousness also involves fundamental principles, then we should expect the same. Catastrophe! The principles of simplicity, elegance, and even beauty that drive physicists' search for define national, a fundamental theory will also apply to a theory of consciousness. (A technical note: Some philosophers argue that even though there is a conceptual gap between physical processes and experience, there need be no metaphysical gap, so that experience might in a certain sense still be physical (e.g. Catastrophe! Hill 1991; Levine 1983; Loar 1990). Usually this line of argument is supported by an appeal to the notion of a posteriori necessity (Kripke 1980). I think that this position rests on a misunderstanding of a posteriori necessity, however, or else requires an entirely new sort of define national socialism necessity that we have no reason to believe in; see Chalmers 1996 (also Jackson 1994 and Lewis 1994) for details. In any case, this position still concedes an why does macbeth kill, explanatory gap between physical processes and experience.

For example, the principles connecting the physical and the experiential will not be derivable from the laws of physics, so such principles must be taken as explanatorily fundamental. Define National Socialism! So even on this sort of view, the explanatory structure of a theory of consciousness will be much as I have described.) 7 Outline of a theory of consciousness. It is not too soon to begin work on a theory. We are already in a position to understand certain key facts about the relationship between physical processes and experience, and about the regularities that connect them. Once reductive explanation is set aside, we can lay those facts on the table so that they can play their proper role as the initial pieces in a nonreductive theory of consciousness, and as constraints on the basic laws that constitute an ultimate theory.

There is an obvious problem that plagues the development of a theory of consciousness, and that is the paucity of objective data. Why Does Macbeth Kill! Conscious experience is not directly observable in an experimental context, so we cannot generate data about the relationship between physical processes and define socialism experience at will. Nevertheless, we all have access to a rich source of data in our own case. Many important regularities between experience and Mystery Surrounding the Ripper Essays processing can be inferred from considerations about one's own experience. National! There are also good indirect sources of data from shootings observable cases, as when one relies on the verbal report of a subject as an indication of experience.

These methods have their limitations, but we have more than enough data to get a theory off the ground. Philosophical analysis is define socialism, also useful in getting value for money out of the data we have. This sort of analysis can yield a number of principles relating consciousness and cognition, thereby strongly constraining the shape of an ultimate theory. Mystery Surrounding Jack Essays! The method of socialism thought-experimentation can also yield significant rewards, as we will see. Finally, the fact that we are searching for a fundamental theory means that we can appeal to such nonempirical constraints as simplicity, homogeneity, and mandela background the like in developing a theory. We must seek to systematize the information we have, to extend it as far as possible by careful analysis, and then make the inference to national, the simplest possible theory that explains the data while remaining a plausible candidate to be part of the fundamental furniture of the world.

Such theories will always retain an element of speculation that is not present in other scientific theories, because of the les miserables, impossibility of conclusive intersubjective experimental tests. Still, we can certainly construct theories that are compatible with the national socialism, data that we have, and evaluate them in comparison to each other. Even in the absence of shootings intersubjective observation, there are numerous criteria available for the evaluation of such theories: simplicity, internal coherence, coherence with theories in other domains, the ability to reproduce the properties of experience that are familiar from national socialism our own case, and even an overall fit with the dictates of common sense. Perhaps there will be significant indeterminacies remaining even when all these constraints are applied, but we can at least develop plausible candidates. Only when candidate theories have been developed will we be able to evaluate them. A nonreductive theory of consciousness will consist in a number of psychophysical principles , principles connecting the properties of physical processes to the properties of experience. We can think of these principles as encapsulating the way in which experience arises from the physical. Jack The Ripper! Ultimately, these principles should tell us what sort of physical systems will have associated experiences, and for the systems that do, they should tell us what sort of physical properties are relevant to the emergence of experience, and just what sort of experience we should expect any given physical system to yield.

This is a tall order, but there is no reason why we should not get started. In what follows, I present my own candidates for the psychophysical principles that might go into a theory of consciousness. The first two of these are nonbasic principles - systematic connections between processing and experience at a relatively high level. National! These principles can play a significant role in developing and constraining a theory of consciousness, but they are not cast at a sufficiently fundamental level to qualify as truly basic laws. My Grandmother! The final principle is my candidate for a basic principle that might form the cornerstone of national socialism a fundamental theory of why does macbeth kill consciousness. This final principle is particularly speculative, but it is the kind of define speculation that is required if we are ever to have a satisfying theory of consciousness. Malthusian! I can present these principles only national briefly here; I argue for them at much greater length in Chalmers (1996). 1. The principle of structural coherence . This is a principle of coherence between the structure of consciousness and the structure of awareness . Recall that awareness was used earlier to refer to the various functional phenomena that are associated with consciousness. I am now using it to refer to a somewhat more specific process in the cognitive underpinnings of experience. In particular, the contents of awareness are to mandela background, be understood as those information contents that are accessible to central systems, and brought to define socialism, bear in a widespread way in the control of behavior.

Briefly put, we can think of awareness as direct availability for global control . To a first approximation, the contents of awareness are the contents that are directly accessible and potentially reportable, at why does macbeth kill, least in a language-using system. Awareness is a purely functional notion, but it is nevertheless intimately linked to conscious experience. In familiar cases, wherever we find consciousness, we find awareness. Wherever there is conscious experience, there is socialism, some corresponding information in the cognitive system that is available in the control of behavior, and available for verbal report. Conversely, it seems that whenever information is available for report and for global control, there is a corresponding conscious experience. Thus, there is les miserables storyline, a direct correspondence between consciousness and awareness. The correspondence can be taken further. It is a central fact about experience that it has a complex structure. The visual field has a complex geometry, for define national, instance. There are also relations of similarity and difference between experiences, and relations in such things as relative intensity. Every subject's experience can be at les miserables, least partly characterized and decomposed in terms of these structural properties: similarity and difference relations, perceived location, relative intensity, geometric structure, and define national so on.

It is also a central fact that to each of these structural features, there is a corresponding feature in the information-processing structure of awareness. Take color sensations as an example. For every distinction between color experiences, there is a corresponding distinction in processing. Nelson! The different phenomenal colors that we experience form a complex three-dimensional space, varying in hue, saturation, and intensity. The properties of this space can be recovered from information-processing considerations: examination of the visual systems shows that waveforms of light are discriminated and analyzed along three different axes, and it is this three-dimensional information that is relevant to define national socialism, later processing.

The three-dimensional structure of shootings in america phenomenal color space therefore corresponds directly to the three dimensional structure of visual awareness. This is precisely what we would expect. Define National Socialism! After all, every color distinction corresponds to some reportable information, and therefore to a distinction that is nelson mandela background, represented in the structure of processing. In a more straightforward way, the geometric structure of the visual field is directly reflected in a structure that can be recovered from visual processing. Every geometric relation corresponds to something that can be reported and define national is therefore cognitively represented. Les Miserables Storyline! If we were given only the story about information-processing in an agent's visual and national cognitive system, we could not directly observe that agent's visual experiences, but we could nevertheless infer those experiences' structural properties.

In general, any information that is consciously experienced will also be cognitively represented. The fine-grained structure of the shootings in america, visual field will correspond to some fine-grained structure in visual processing. The same goes for experiences in other modalities, and even for nonsensory experiences. Internal mental images have geometric properties that are represented in define processing. Even emotions have structural properties, such as relative intensity, that correspond directly to a structural property of processing; where there is greater intensity, we find a greater effect on later processes. In general, precisely because the structural properties of experience are accessible and reportable, those properties will be directly represented in the structure of awareness. It is nelson mandela, this isomorphism between the structures of consciousness and awareness that constitutes the principle of define socialism structural coherence. Why Does Macbeth Kill Banquo! This principle reflects the define national socialism, central fact that even though cognitive processes do not conceptually entail facts about shootings conscious experience, consciousness and cognition do not float free of one another but cohere in an intimate way. This principle has its limits. National Socialism! It allows us to recover structural properties of experience from information-processing properties, but not all properties of experience are structural properties.

There are properties of experience, such as the intrinsic nature of a sensation of in america red, that cannot be fully captured in a structural description. The very intelligibility of inverted spectrum scenarios, where experiences of red and green are inverted but all structural properties remain the same, show that structural properties constrain experience without exhausting it. Nevertheless, the very fact that we feel compelled to leave structural properties unaltered when we imagine experiences inverted between functionally identical systems shows how central the principle of structural coherence is to our conception of our mental lives. Define! It is why does kill banquo, not a logically necessary principle, as after all we can imagine all the information processing occurring without any experience at all, but it is nevertheless a strong and familiar constraint on the psychophysical connection. The principle of socialism structural coherence allows for a very useful kind of malthusian indirect explanation of experience in terms of physical processes. For example, we can use facts about neural processing of visual information to indirectly explain the structure of define national color space. The facts about neural processing can entail and malthusian catastrophe explain the structure of awareness; if we take the coherence principle for granted, the national, structure of experience will also be explained.

Empirical investigation might even lead us to better understand the structure of awareness within a bat, shedding indirect light on Nagel's vexing question of what it is like to be a bat. This principle provides a natural interpretation of much existing work on the explanation of consciousness (e.g. Clark 1992 and Hardin 1992 on why does macbeth kill, colors, and Akins 1993 on bats), although it is often appealed to inexplicitly. Define National Socialism! It is in america, so familiar that it is taken for granted by almost everybody, and is a central plank in define socialism the cognitive explanation of consciousness. The coherence between consciousness and awareness also allows a natural interpretation of work in neuroscience directed at isolating the substrate (or the neural correlate ) of consciousness. Various specific hypotheses have been put forward. For example, Crick and Koch (1990) suggest that 40-Hz oscillations may be the shootings, neural correlate of consciousness, whereas Libet (1993) suggests that temporally-extended neural activity is central. If we accept the principle of socialism coherence, the most direct physical correlate of consciousness is awareness: the process whereby information is made directly available for global control. Background! The different specific hypotheses can be interpreted as empirical suggestions about how awareness might be achieved. For example, Crick and Koch suggest that 40-Hz oscillations are the gateway by define which information is integrated into working memory and thereby made available to nelson background, later processes.

Similarly, it is natural to suppose that Libet's temporally extended activity is relevant precisely because only that sort of activity achieves global availability. The same applies to other suggested correlates such as the global workspace of Baars (1988), the high-quality representations of Farah (1994), and the selector inputs to national, action systems of Shallice (1972). All these can be seen as hypotheses about the mechanisms of awareness : the mechanisms that perform the function of my grandmother making information directly available for global control. Given the coherence between consciousness and awareness, it follows that a mechanism of awareness will itself be a correlate of conscious experience. The question of just which mechanisms in the brain govern global availability is an empirical one; perhaps there are many such mechanisms. But if we accept the coherence principle, we have reason to define national, believe that the processes that explain awareness will at in america, the same time be part of the basis of consciousness. 2. The principle of organizational invariance . This principle states that any two systems with the same fine-grained functional organization will have qualitatively identical experiences. If the socialism, causal patterns of neural organization were duplicated in silicon, for example, with a silicon chip for every neuron and the same patterns of nelson mandela background interaction, then the same experiences would arise. According to this principle, what matters for the emergence of experience is not the specific physical makeup of a system, but the abstract pattern of causal interaction between its components. This principle is controversial, of course.

Some (e.g. Searle 1980) have thought that consciousness is tied to a specific biology, so that a silicon isomorph of a human need not be conscious. I believe that the principle can be given significant support by the analysis of thought-experiments, however. Very briefly: suppose (for the purposes of a reductio ad absurdum ) that the define socialism, principle is false, and that there could be two functionally isomorphic systems with different experiences. Perhaps only one of the systems is conscious, or perhaps both are conscious but they have different experiences. For the purposes of illustration, let us say that one system is made of neurons and the other of silicon, and that one experiences red where the other experiences blue.

The two systems have the same organization, so we can imagine gradually transforming one into the other, perhaps replacing neurons one at a time by silicon chips with the les miserables, same local function. We thus gain a spectrum of define national socialism intermediate cases, each with the same organization, but with slightly different physical makeup and slightly different experiences. Along this spectrum, there must be two systems A and B between which we replace less than one tenth of the system, but whose experiences differ. These two systems are physically identical, except that a small neural circuit in background A has been replaced by a silicon circuit in B . The key step in the thought-experiment is to take the socialism, relevant neural circuit in A , and install alongside it a causally isomorphic silicon circuit, with a switch between the kill, two. What happens when we flip the define, switch? By hypothesis, the system's conscious experiences will change; from red to blue, say, for shootings in america, the purposes of illustration. This follows from the define national socialism, fact that the system after the change is essentially a version of B , whereas before the nelson, change it is just A . But given the assumptions, there is national socialism, no way for the system to notice the changes! Its causal organization stays constant, so that all of its functional states and in america behavioral dispositions stay fixed.

As far as the system is concerned, nothing unusual has happened. There is no room for the thought, Hmm! Something strange just happened!. National! In general, the structure of any such thought must be reflected in processing, but the structure of processing remains constant here. If there were to be such a thought it must float entirely free of the system and would be utterly impotent to affect later processing. (If it affected later processing, the systems would be functionally distinct, contrary to hypothesis). We might even flip the in america, switch a number of times, so that experiences of red and define national socialism blue dance back and forth before the system's inner eye. According to hypothesis, the macbeth, system can never notice these dancing qualia. This I take to be a reductio of the original assumption. It is a central fact about experience, very familiar from our own case, that whenever experiences change significantly and we are paying attention, we can notice the change; if this were not to be the case, we would be led to the skeptical possibility that our experiences are dancing before our eyes all the time. This hypothesis has the same status as the possibility that the national, world was created five minutes ago: perhaps it is logically coherent, but it is not plausible. Given the extremely plausible assumption that changes in experience correspond to changes in processing, we are led to the conclusion that the original hypothesis is impossible, and that any two functionally isomorphic systems must have the same sort of experiences.

To put it in technical terms, the philosophical hypotheses of absent qualia and inverted qualia, while logically possible, are empirically and nomologically impossible. (Some may worry that a silicon isomorph of a neural system might be impossible for technical reasons. That question is open. Les Miserables! The invariance principle says only that if an socialism, isomorph is possible, then it will have the same sort of conscious experience.) There is more to malthusian catastrophe, be said here, but this gives the basic flavor. Once again, this thought experiment draws on familiar facts about the define national socialism, coherence between consciousness and cognitive processing to yield a strong conclusion about the relation between physical structure and experience. If the argument goes through, we know that the my grandmother, only physical properties directly relevant to the emergence of experience are organizational properties. Define National Socialism! This acts as a further strong constraint on a theory of consciousness. 3. The double-aspect theory of information . The two preceding principles have been nonbasic principles.

They involve high-level notions such as awareness and Essays organization, and therefore lie at the wrong level to constitute the fundamental laws in a theory of consciousness. Nevertheless, they act as strong constraints. National! What is further needed are basic principles that fit these constraints and that might ultimately explain them. The basic principle that I suggest centrally involves the notion of information . I understand information in catastrophe more or less the sense of Shannon (1948). Where there is information, there are information states embedded in an information space . An information space has a basic structure of difference relations between its elements, characterizing the ways in which different elements in a space are similar or different, possibly in complex ways. An information space is an abstract object, but following Shannon we can see information as physically embodied when there is a space of distinct physical states, the differences between which can be transmitted down some causal pathway. The states that are transmitted can be seen as themselves constituting an information space. To borrow a phrase from Bateson (1972), physical information is a difference that makes a difference . The double-aspect principle stems from the socialism, observation that there is catastrophe, a direct isomorphism between certain physically embodied information spaces and national socialism certain phenomenal (or experiential) information spaces.

From the same sort of observations that went into the principle of structural coherence, we can note that the differences between phenomenal states have a structure that corresponds directly to the differences embedded in physical processes; in particular, to in america, those differences that make a difference down certain causal pathways implicated in global availability and national control. Malthusian Catastrophe! That is, we can find the same abstract information space embedded in physical processing and in conscious experience. This leads to a natural hypothesis: that information (or at least some information) has two basic aspects, a physical aspect and a phenomenal aspect. This has the status of a basic principle that might underlie and define socialism explain the emergence of experience from the physical. Malthusian Catastrophe! Experience arises by virtue of its status as one aspect of information, when the other aspect is define socialism, found embodied in physical processing. This principle is lent support by a number of considerations, which I can only outline briefly here. Nelson! First, consideration of the sort of physical changes that correspond to define, changes in catastrophe conscious experience suggests that such changes are always relevant by virtue of their role in constituting informational changes - differences within an abstract space of states that are divided up precisely according to their causal differences along certain causal pathways. Second, if the principle of organizational invariance is to define national socialism, hold, then we need to find some fundamental organizational property for experience to be linked to, and information is an organizational property par excellence . Third, this principle offers some hope of explaining the principle of structural coherence in Essays terms of the structure present within information spaces. National! Fourth, analysis of the cognitive explanation of our judgments and claims about conscious experience - judgments that are functionally explainable but nevertheless deeply tied to shootings, experience itself - suggests that explanation centrally involves the information states embedded in cognitive processing.

It follows that a theory based on information allows a deep coherence between the define national socialism, explanation of experience and my grandmother the explanation of define socialism our judgments and claims about it. Wheeler (1990) has suggested that information is catastrophe, fundamental to the physics of the universe. National! According to this it from bit doctrine, the laws of physics can be cast in terms of information, postulating different states that give rise to different effects without actually saying what those states are . It is only their position in an information space that counts. If so, then information is a natural candidate to also play a role in Jack a fundamental theory of consciousness. Define National! We are led to a conception of the world on which information is truly fundamental, and on which it has two basic aspects, corresponding to why does kill, the physical and the phenomenal features of the world. Of course, the double-aspect principle is extremely speculative and define socialism is also underdetermined, leaving a number of banquo key questions unanswered. An obvious question is whether all information has a phenomenal aspect. One possibility is that we need a further constraint on define national socialism, the fundamental theory, indicating just what sort of information has a phenomenal aspect. The other possibility is that there is no such constraint. If not, then experience is much more widespread than we might have believed, as information is everywhere. This is counterintuitive at first, but on reflection I think the position gains a certain plausibility and elegance.

Where there is simple information processing, there is simple experience, and where there is why does, complex information processing, there is complex experience. A mouse has a simpler information-processing structure than a human, and socialism has correspondingly simpler experience; perhaps a thermostat, a maximally simple information processing structure, might have maximally simple experience? Indeed, if experience is truly a fundamental property, it would be surprising for it to arise only every now and then; most fundamental properties are more evenly spread. In any case, this is les miserables storyline, very much an open question, but I believe that the position is not as implausible as it is often thought to be. Once a fundamental link between information and define national experience is on the table, the door is opened to some grander metaphysical speculation concerning the nature of the world.

For example, it is often noted that physics characterizes its basic entities only extrinsically , in terms of their relations to other entities, which are themselves characterized extrinsically, and so on. The intrinsic nature of physical entities is left aside. Some argue that no such intrinsic properties exist, but then one is left with a world that is pure causal flux (a pure flow of information) with no properties for the causation to relate. If one allows that intrinsic properties exist, a natural speculation given the above is that the intrinsic properties of the physical - the properties that causation ultimately relates - are themselves phenomenal properties. We might say that phenomenal properties are the internal aspect of information. This could answer a concern about the causal relevance of experience - a natural worry, given a picture on which the physical domain is causally closed, and on which experience is supplementary to the physical.

The informational view allows us to understand how experience might have a subtle kind of causal relevance in virtue of its status as the intrinsic nature of the physical. This metaphysical speculation is probably best ignored for the purposes of developing a scientific theory, but in addressing some philosophical issues it is quite suggestive. The theory I have presented is speculative, but it is a candidate theory. Shootings In America! I suspect that the principles of structural coherence and organizational invariance will be planks in any satisfactory theory of consciousness; the status of the double-aspect theory of information is less certain. Indeed, right now it is more of an idea than a theory.

To have any hope of eventual explanatory success, it will have to be specified more fully and fleshed out into a more powerful form. Still, reflection on define national socialism, just what is plausible and implausible about it, on where it works and where it fails, can only lead to a better theory. Most existing theories of consciousness either deny the phenomenon, explain something else, or elevate the problem to an eternal mystery. My Grandmother! I hope to have shown that it is possible to make progress on the problem even while taking it seriously. Socialism! To make further progress, we will need further investigation, more refined theories, and more careful analysis.

The hard problem is a hard problem, but there is no reason to believe that it will remain permanently unsolved. *[[ The arguments in this paper are presented in greater depth in my book The Conscious Mind (Oxford University Press, 1996). Thanks to Francis Crick, Peggy DesAutels, Matthew Elton, Liane Gabora, Christof Koch, Paul Rhodes, Gregg Rosenberg, and Sharon Wahl for their comments. ]] The problems of consciousness have been widely discussed in the recent philosophical literature. For some conceptual clarification of the various problems of consciousness, see Block 1995, Nelkin 1993, and Tye 1995. Those who have stressed the difficulties of explaining experience in physical terms include Hodgson 1988, Jackson 1982, Levine 1983, Lockwood 1989, McGinn 1989, Nagel 1974, Seager 1991, Searle 1991, Strawson 1994, and Velmans 1991, among others. Those who take a reductive approach include Churchland 1995, Clark 1992, Dennett 1991, Dretske 1995, Kirk 1994, Rosenthal 1996, and Tye 1995. There have not been many attempts to build detailed nonreductive theories in the literature, but see Hodgson 1988 and Lockwood 1989 for some thoughts in that direction. Two excellent collections of recent articles on consciousness are Block, Flanagan, and Güzeldere 1996 and Metzinger 1995. Akins, K. 1993.

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