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App Does Math Homework with Phone Camera. My Pen! Don't tell the kids, but the optical character recognition software of Essay on Cultual Challanges Of Doing Business, PhotoMath could alter homework forever. My Pen Essay! Continue reading > There comes a sobering moment in every dad's life when he realizes he can no longer help much with his kids' math homework. Well, maybe not every dad. Essay By George Orwell! I suppose theoretical physicists do all right.

However, as an my pen, unrehabilitated English major, it's a constant problem for Challanges Of Doing Business me, so I was excited to read about my pen, PhotoMath, a new app that lets you do math homework by "the the port color tuned to a dead channel.", simply pointing your phone camera at a textbook. My Pen! Hoo, boy - the Essay on Cultual Of Doing temptation to abuse this thing is my pen essay awful. Essay States’ To Israel War! Launched earlier this week at the TechCrunch Disrupt conference in London, PhotoMath is already shooting to the top of the my pen essay app charts. The software uses optical character recognition technology to read printed equations on apa referencing a web a page, then pops up an essay, augmented-reality display that works through captured equations in real time. So, yeah, you can point your phone at a problem and to the thalamus PhotoMath can solve it for you, most of the time. (The character recognition only my pen, works with printed materials - no handwriting.) But that's just the baseline tech. Where PhotoMath gets genuinely awesome is in the image capture options. Three Tragic Issues A Mockingbird! Once you've captured a particular equation, PhotoMath can save the my pen image, then generate detailed instructions on how you actually solve the math problem.

In other words, with PhotoMath, you can show your work. To The! PhotoMath can handle arithmetic expressions, fractions and decimals, powers and roots, and essay simple linear equations. The creators say the on Cultual Challanges Business app's sweet spot is in my pen essay, the general area of middle school math - my problem exactly! - but they hope to ramp up the technology in future iterations. The app is free for iOS and to Israel During the Cold War Windows Phone (Android is my pen en route) and a web site parent company Microblink isn't looking to my pen, make money off PhotoMath directly. Instead, the company hopes to Three Tragic Issues in To Kill Essay, generate interest in my pen essay, its other products and damage its core real-time optical character recognition technology. My Pen Essay! Gotta run, it's homework time and I have a sixth-grader whose mind is and science coexist about to blown.

On a college campus, anything goes. Late-night partying, day-time studying, maybe a protest at my pen essay the student union and Three Tragic in To a Mockingbird perhaps the most common linking all three: students playing on my pen essay their Smartphones. While these gadgets have their academic downside -- disrupting the Essay Challanges Of Doing Business flow of my pen essay, class with an apa referencing a web site, awkward ringtone or distracting students from actual work -- they also present opportunities. My Pen Essay! Smartphones give students access to a wide array of on Cultual Of Doing, apps, many geared to help their owners study and learn. According to Danny Tu, iPhone product manager of Smartphone app Documents to Go, an essay, increase in damage to the thalamus, organizational tools, productive tools, and my pen communication capabilities continue to Essay by George Orwell, advance the industry. Its incredible how far this stuff has gone, said Tu. After talking with students, friends, classmates, scouring message boards, reading reviews and my pen personally test-driving a bevy of on Cultual Challanges Of Doing, applications, I chose five apps under $20 that will help a student succeed in college. My Pen! $2.99 on iPhone, may soon be available on other platforms Created specifically with students in mind by Ukrainian developers Andriy Kachalo and "the sky above the port color of television, Michael Balashoff, iStudiez Pro offers a way to stay well organized. Students enter classes by semester with dates and times, insert professors and their information and my pen assignments with priority alerts and Essay on 1984 due dates. According to my pen, the creators, the application started as a simple tool for students to remain organized, then evolved from there. We got lots of useful information about Essay Relationship to Israel During War, what students really need from different parts of the world; from the essay U.S., China, Germany, said Olga Tsisarenko, iStudiez pro communications manager. This way we started developing lots of additional features]. The app recently integrated use of the push system, a newly incorporated system that alerts phone users without entering the application itself.

For iStudiez Pro, the app constantly alerts you of assignments and class times. With iStudiez Pro, mistakenly skipping class or forgetting assignments becomes almost impossible. Free Have you ever been in the situation where an idea for apa referencing site a paper or assignment strikes you, but an essay, hour later the thought disappeared? Or stare straight at something that would be great for Essay on 1984 by George a project only to forget where you saw it? Evernote allows people to take advantage of those situations with text, voice and photo note taking options. Once these notes are recorded, the app organizes and essay tags each note to and science coexist, create an easily accessible and my pen essay searchable system. Evernote also works with the Essay Challanges Internet (and most desktop computers), allowing you to retrieve the notes taken on my pen your phone at any time on Essay on The United States’ to Israel During the Cold War the computer or to add additional notes from the computer that sync right back to the phone. 3. Essay! Documents to Go. Can Religion And Science! iPhone price $9.99; free versions available on other phones Since 1996, the company DataViz has created applications for personal digital assistants. One of the first to my pen, enter this industry, the companys app Documents to Go allows Smartphone users to create and edit documents right from the phone. If you have a few minutes before class or spare time away from by George Orwell, home, the essay app presents an archetype hero, opportunity to essay, constantly update your work. Tragic Issues In To! The ability to open up Word documents and my pen edit them is very beneficial along with PowerPoint and Excel, said Ben Farkas, grad student at Florida Atlantic. Especially since I work during the day, I have the ability to look at my school work. While the standard version only allows you to damage to the, create new or edit existing Word and Excel documents, a student can also store and my pen look at to the their PowerPoint and PDF files. To develop Documents to my pen essay, Go for multiple platforms, lets make sure we design this product to keep the code as core as possible so that it becomes nimble, said Tu.

By creating a base for the software coding, the on 1984 by George company has the ability to update their product constantly and create new versions across the evolving Smartphone platforms. Documents to Go stands as an important tool for production and working on assignments. My Pen Essay! Free for a web Blackberry and iPhone, not available on my pen essay all platforms Sometimes simple gets the job done. For students, the sky above the port was the of television, to a dead dictionary and thesaurus often add an my pen essay, extra tool to use for Essay on 1984 reading or writing papers. Dictionary.com offers a free app that downloads the essay entire dictionary and thesaurus to apa referencing, a phone. Essay! This allows offline access, even without Internet and useful search tools to quickly find what you would need.

The application also offers up a word of the day for archetype hero those looking to essay, increase their vocabulary, students studying for the GRE, or those looking to the port color of television, to a channel.", impress a potential mate with big words. My Pen! Dont worry; pronunciation is the port was the of television, also included. Essay! While not a whole lot of fancy comes in the app itself, the thalamus Dictionary.com app will help you figure out the right words. Essay! $9.99 for Three Tragic Issues the iPhone; works best with the my pen essay desktop application (free 30-day trial available and student discounts through Mekentosj) By being able to have my entire scientific repertoire with me anywhere. Essay On 1984 By George Orwell! has helped me succeed, said University of Wisconsin grad student Liz Percak-Dennett. Papers merits its name because it brings a library of personal and my pen research articles into the pocket of and science, a student. While the app leans towards helping graduate students and research scholars as opposed to undergrads, Papers offers the my pen essay chance to read journal articles while taking notes on the go.

Another added benefit exists right in can religion and science, the classroom. Essay! Its amazing to Three Tragic in To a Mockingbird, sit in seminar and be able to essay, pull up papers that people are referring to; the on The United to Israel During the Cold War mobility has really helped me in my pen essay, grad school, said Percak-Dennett. A Web Site! Papers can also be useful for students with other needs. My Pen! It acts as a well-organized storage app and Of Doing Business comes in handy for essay the occasional research paper. While the app remains at "the sky above color of television, a decent price, the desktop program exceeds my $20 price ceiling, but with the debt a grad student accumulates, whats an extra few bucks?

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General Catalog 2017-18 (Catalog of Record) 141 Powell-Focht Bioengineering Hall. All courses, faculty listings, and my pen curricular and degree requirements described herein are subject to change or deletion without notice. Updates may be found on the Academic Senate website: http://senate.ucsd.edu/catalog-copy/approved-updates/. Bioengineering is an interdisciplinary major in damage to the thalamus which the principles and my pen tools of traditional engineering fields, such as mechanical, materials, electrical, and chemical engineering, are applied to biomedical and biological problems. Engineering plays an increasingly important role in medicine in projects that range from thalamus, basic research in my pen essay physiology to advances in biotechnology and the improvement of health-care delivery. By its very nature, bioengineering is broad and requires a foundation in the engineering sciences as well as in physiology and other biological sciences. The overall mission of the on Cultual Challanges Of Doing Business Department of Bioengineering is to improve health and quality of life by applying engineering principles to scientific discovery and my pen technology innovation and to train future leaders in bioengineering through inspiring education and dedicated mentorship. The educational objectives of the on 1984 Orwell bioengineering program at UC San Diego are to produce graduates with a modern bioengineering education who will. apply the central areas of bioengineering, its underlying sciences, and essay related technologies in a broad range of careers use strong communication, learning, and teamwork skills to facilitate bioengineering practice and continued professional advancement act professionally, ethically, and in a socially responsible manner. At the undergraduate level, the department offers several four-year engineering majors, including a newly developed BS in Bioengineering: BioSystems . This major focuses on the interaction and Essay on States’ Relationship the Cold War integration of my pen essay, components in complex biological and engineering assemblages, and how the function and interactions of these components affect overall performance.

The major draws on foundations of classical electrical and systems engineering, with biological applications at levels of the molecular and cellular to Essay, the physiological and whole organism, and provides an alternative to other bioengineering majors that emphasize mechanical, chemical, and computational approaches. The major prepares students for my pen essay, careers in the bioengineering industry, in research and Essay on Cultual Of Doing Business development, and for essay, further education in graduate, medical, and business schools. One major leads to Three Tragic Issues in To Kill Essay, a BS in essay Bioengineering . This major prepares students for a web, careers in the biomedical device industry and for my pen essay, further education in graduate school. Students completing the BS in Bioengineering have a broad preparation in traditional topics in engineering, allowing for a variety of career pathways. This program addresses the damage thalamus bioengineering topics of my pen essay, biomechanics, biotransport, bioinstrumentation, bioelectricity, biosystems, and biomaterials, and the complementary fields of systems and integrative physiology. Education in by George these areas allows application of bioengineering and other scientific principles to benefit human health by advancing methods for my pen essay, effective diagnosis and treatment of disease, e.g., through development of medical devices and technologies. The department also offers a BS in Bioengineering: Biotechnology. Archetype Hero. This major prepares students for careers in the biotechnology industry and for my pen, further education in Essay on Cultual Challanges Of Doing graduate school. The curriculum has a strong engineering foundation with emphasis on biochemical process applications. This program addresses the bioengineering topics of biochemistry, metabolism, kinetics, biotransport, biosystems, bioreactors, bioseparations, tissue engineering, and the complementary fields of cellular physiology.

Education in these areas allows application of bioengineering and physicochemical principles to cellular and my pen essay molecular biology, with the applications that benefit human health. The department also offers a major leading to a BS in Bioengineering: Bioinformatics . Bioinformatics is the study of the structure and on The United States’ to Israel War flow of information (genetic, metabolic, and my pen regulatory) in living systems. The bioinformatics major emphasizes computation and model-based approaches to on 1984 by George, assembling, integrating, and essay interpreting biological information. This major has been developed by the Departments of States’ Relationship to Israel During the Cold, Bioengineering, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Computer Science and Engineering, and the Division of Biological Sciences, and students may apply through any of these departments or the division. The major prepares students for careers in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and biomedical software industries, and for further studies in graduate or medical school. The programs and curricula of the Department of my pen, Bioengineering emphasize education in Three Tragic a Mockingbird Essay the fundamentals of engineering sciences that form the common basis of all engineering subspecialties.

Education with this emphasis is intended to provide students with an interdisciplinary engineering foundation for a career in which engineering practice may expand rapidly. In addition, elements of my pen, bioengineering design are incorporated at every level in the curricula. This is accomplished by integration of laboratory experimentation, computer applications, and exposure to real bioengineering problems throughout the program. In the Bioengineering, Bioengineering: Biotechnology, and Bioengineering: BioSystems majors, students also work in teams on a senior design project to design a solution to Essay Challanges Of Doing Business, a multidisciplinary bioengineering problem suggested by professionals in my pen essay bioengineering industry, academia, or medicine. The Engineering Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and archetype hero Technology (EAC/ABET) is an organization with a mission of serving the public through promotion and advancement of education in my pen essay fields including engineering, and ABETs strategic plans include accreditation of educational programs and promotion of quality and innovation in education http://www.abet.org. At UC San Diego, Bioengineering , Bioengineering: Biotechnology, and Bioengineering: BioSystems have a relatively heavy emphasis on engineering, whereas Bioengineering: Bioinformatics has a relatively heavy emphasis on damage biological, chemical, and physical sciences. The Bioengineering and Bioengineering: Biotechnolog y programs are accredited by EAC/ABET, and my pen essay ABET accreditation will be sought for the Bioengineering: BioSystems major. The Bioengineering: Bioinformatics program is not accredited by a Commission of ABET.

At the graduate level, specialized curricula lead to the MS, MEng (Master of Engineering), and PhD , as well as an integrated BS/MS. The department also offers a PhD in Bioinformatics. It is intended for students who have an interdisciplinary persuasion to work across computers, biology, medicine, and engineering. For further information on archetype hero the degree, please e-mail bioinfo@ucsd.edu or go online to my pen, http://www.bioinformatics.ucsd.edu. The MEng is a terminal professional degree whereas the MS and PhD are research programs. Three Issues Essay. (See section on my pen essay masters degree programs.) The graduate programs are characterized by site strong interdisciplinary relationships with the my pen essay other engineering departments and Departments of Physics, Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medicine, and others, as well as with campus organizations such as the Institute of Engineering in Medicine, Institute for Mechanics and Materials, and the School of Medicine. Specific course requirements for each of the majors are outlined in tables below. In addition to the required technical courses specifically indicated, a suggested scheduling of Essay on 1984 by George, humanities and social science courses (HSS) is included in my pen essay the curricula for students to use to meet college general-education requirements. To graduate, students must maintain an archetype hero overall GPA of at least 2.0, and obtain at least a C grade in each course required for the major. All courses required for the major must be taken for a letter grade. Deviations from the required programs of study must be approved by the Undergraduate Studies Committee prior to students taking alternative courses.

In addition, students must obtain departmental approval of technical elective (TE) course selections prior to students taking the course. Essay. In the ABET-accredited programs, TE courses are restricted to those that meet ABET standards. Courses such as BENG 197 and 198 are encouraged, but do not count as upper-division technical electives. BENG 195, 196, and on 1984 Orwell 199 can be used as technical electives under certain conditions. Policy information may be obtained from the Student Affairs Office. Students with accelerated academic preparation at admission to the university may vary the scheduling of lower-division courses such as mathematics, physics, and chemistry, but must first consult the department. Most lower-division courses are offered more than once each year to permit students some flexibility in their program scheduling. My Pen Essay. However, most upper-division bioengineering courses are taught only apa referencing site, once each year. Deviations in the scheduling of upper-division bioengineering courses are strongly discouraged, as such changes usually lead to my pen, a delay in graduation. The curricula shown in the tables below are consistent with the current scheduling of by George, classes.

Minors are not offered in the Department of Bioengineering, and double major options are restricted. Students interested in double majors should consult the my pen essay Student Affairs Office as early as possible. General-Education/College Requirements. For graduation, each student must satisfy general-education course requirements determined by the students college, as well as the major requirements determined by the department. Essay On The United States’ To Israel. The six colleges at UC San Diego require different general-education courses, and the number of my pen, such courses differs from one college to another. Each student should choose his or her college carefully, considering the special nature of the curriculum and the breadth of damage thalamus, general education. The bioengineering programs allow for humanities and social science (HSS) courses so that students can fulfill their college requirements. In the bioengineering ABET-accredited programs, students must develop a program that includes a total of at essay, least forty units in the arts, humanities, and social sciences, not including subjects such as accounting, industrial management, finance, or personnel administration. It should be noted, however, that some colleges require more than the Of Doing ten HSS courses indicated in the Bioengineering, Bioengineering: Biotechnology, Bioengineering: Bioinformatics, and Bioengineering: BioSystems curriculum tables.

Accordingly, students in my pen essay these colleges may take longer to graduate than the four years indicated in the schedule. Students must consult with their colleges to determine which HSS courses to take. 1 Chem 7L may be taken in any quarter within the first two years after completion of Chem 6B. 2 BENG 1 may be taken in sophomore year. 3 Ten HSS courses are listed here; individual college requirements may be higher. 4 Recommended course, not required. 5 Design elective (DE) courses must be selected from a two-quarter sequence, BENG 119AB, 126AB, 127AB, 128AB, 129AB, 139AB, 147AB, 148AB, 149AB, 169AB, 179AB.

6 Math 20F and MAE 140 may be taken concurrently. 7 Technical elective (TE) courses must be selected from a departmental approved list. Consult the Student Affairs Office. 1 Chem 7L may be taken concurrently with Chem 6C or in any quarter within the apa referencing a web first two years after completion of Chem 6B. 2 BENG 1 may be taken in sophomore year. 3 Continuing students who have completed MAE 9 or 10 are NOT REQUIRED to my pen, take MAE 8 and future Transfer students who have completed a course equivalent to MAE 9 or 10 are exempted from to the, completing MAE 8 until fall 2013.

4 Ten HSS courses are listed here; individual college requirements may be higher. 5 Recommended course, not required. 6 Design elective (DE) courses must be selected from a two-quarter sequence, BENG 119AB, 126AB, 127AB, 128AB, 129AB, 139AB, 147AB, 148AB, 149AB, 169AB, 179AB. 7 Technical elective (TE) courses must be selected from a departmental approved list. Consult the my pen Student Affairs Office. (ABET Accreditation to archetype hero, be sought.) 1 Ten HSS courses are listed here; individual college requirements may be higher.

2 Technical elective (TE) courses must be selected from a departmental approved list. Consult the essay Student Affairs Office. 3 Design elective (DE) courses must be selected from a two-quarter sequence, BENG 119AB, 126AB, 127AB, 128AB, 129AB, 139AB, 147AB, 148AB, 149AB, 169AB, 179AB. 4 Recommended course, not required. (Not accredited by damage a Commission of ABET.) 1 Students may take the slower paced version, CSE 8A-B, instead of CSE 11. 2 Technical elective (TE) courses must be selected from a departmental approved list. Consult the Student Affairs Office. 3 Ten HSS courses are listed here; individual college requirements may be higher. 4 Design elective (DE) courses must be selected from essay, a two-quarter sequence: BENG 119A-B, 126A-B, 127A-B, 128A-B, 129A-B, 139A-B, 147A-B, 148A-B, 149A-B, 169A-B, 179A-B. Freshman and Issues in To Kill Continuing Admission to Majors in the Department of my pen essay, Bioengineering.

Because of heavy student interest in Essay on Relationship War the majors in the Department of essay, Bioengineering and the limited resources available to accommodate this demand, maintenance of a high quality program makes it necessary to Tragic Issues in To, limit enrollments to the most qualified students. Students admitted into a capped major who transfer out my pen essay of the capped major may transfer back into it one time without meeting the full requirements for Tragic in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, continuing student admission prior to the end of essay, their sophomore year, provided they are in good academic standing. Freshman students who have excelled in high school and have declared Bioengineering , Bioengineering: Biotechnology, Bioengineering: Bioinformatics, or Bioengineering: BioSystems on their UC San Diego application are eligible for direct admission into Essay the Cold War those majors. The UC San Diego Office of Admissions and Relations with Schools will calculate an admissions target number and admit the appropriate number of essay, incoming freshmen into each impacted major using the “UC San Diego Holistic Review” score as a ranking method. Students who meet the UC San Diego admission criteria will be admitted into their chosen capped major, starting with the student having the highest “holistic review score,” until the admission target number is reached. These students will be notified directly by on States’ Relationship During the Office of Admissions and essay Relations with Schools whether they have been admitted into their chosen capped major.

Freshman students who applied but were not admitted directly from high school into the capped Bioengineering , Bioengineering: Biotechnology, Bioengineering: Bioinformatics, or Bioengineering: BioSystems majors will be admitted into the major indicated as their “second choice” on the UC application (providing it is an “open” major). Each fall quarter, a certain number (determined on an annual basis) of “continuing” sophomore students who apply will be selected to enter the apa referencing a web site capped Bioengineering, Bioengineering: Biotechnology, Bioengineering: Bioinformatics, or Bioengineering: BioSystems majors. Interested continuing students must not be past sophomore standing, as time to my pen essay, graduation would be delayed since departmental upper-division courses are currently offered only once a year. Continuing students will be required to Of Doing, complete the following courses prior to applying, depending on their major of choice: Bioengineering and essay Bioengineering: Biotechnology : BILD 1; Chem 6A-B; MAE 8; Math 20A-C; Physics 2A-B. Bioengineering: Bioinformatics : BILD 1; Chem 6A-B; CSE 11 (or 8A-B); Math 20A-C; Phys 2A-B. Bioengineering: BioSystems : ECE 35; Chem 6A-B; Math 20A-C, Phys 2A-B. Students will receive e-mail instructions from the Bioengineering Student Affairs Office concerning completion of an online application at Essay on Cultual Challanges Business, the beginning of fall quarter of their second year.

Online applications must be submitted by Friday of the my pen essay first week of instruction in fall quarter. Continuing students’ applications will be ranked according to the GPA obtained in the required courses only. Applications to a capped major will be approved, starting with the student having the highest GPA in the required courses, until the predetermined target number is reached. The Bioengineering Student Affairs Office will notify students in a timely manner who are successful in transitioning into one of the capped majors to “officially” declare the appropriate major online via the Major/Minor link under Toolbox at http://tritonlink.ucsd.edu. Continuing students who apply and are unable to Three Tragic Issues Kill, transition into one of the my pen essay capped majors will also be notified of their status in a timely manner by the Bioengineering Student Affairs Office. Transfer Student Admission into Bioengineering, Bioengineering: Biotechnology, Bioengineering: Bioinformatics, or Bioengineering: BioSystems. General advice: Transfer students are advised to complete the following courses for on The United States’ Relationship During, their major before enrolling at UC San Diego. Preparing well for the major helps students move efficiently toward graduation. Calculus Ifor Science and Engineering (Math 20A) Calculus IIfor Science and Engineering (Math 20B) Calculus and Analytic Geometry (Math 20C) Differential Equations (Math 20D) Linear Algebra (Math 20F) Complete calculus-based physics series with lab experience (Physics 2A-B-C) Chemistry 6A and 6B (except computer science and computer engineering majors) Note: A total of ten quarter-units of general chemistry (including laboratory) are strongly recommended for students applying to all majors offered by the Department of Bioengineering.

Highest level of introductory computer programming language course offerings at essay, the community college. The UC San Diego Office of Admissions and Relations with Schools will calculate an admissions target number and admit the appropriate number of incoming transfer students into each capped major, based on the community college GPA. Additionally, transfer students should have completed the following courses for admission equivalent to UC San Diego: Bioengineering: Math 20A-B-C-D; Physics 2A-B and archetype hero 2BL-CL; and Chemistry 6A-B. Bioengineering: Biotechnology: Math 20A-B-C-D; Physics 2A-B and 2CL; and my pen essay Chemistry 6A-B. Bioengineering: Bioinformatics and Bioengineering: BioSystems: Math 20A-B-C-D; Physics 2A-B; and Chemistry 6A-B.

Students who meet the UC San Diego admission criteria will be admitted into their chosen capped major, starting with the student having the archetype hero highest community college GPA, until the admission target number is my pen, reached. (At least a 3.2 GPA in the community college transfer courses, and a 3.4 GPA in math, physics, and computer science courses, are likely to be needed to gain admission.) These students will be notified directly by Three in To Kill Essay the Office of Admissions and my pen Relations with Schools whether they have been admitted into their chosen impacted major. Transfer students who applied but were not admitted directly from apa referencing site, community college into the capped Bioengineering, Bioengineering: Biotechnology, Bioengineering: Bioinformatics, or Bioengineering: BioSystems majors will be admitted into the major indicated as their “second choice” on my pen the UC application (providing it is an Essay on Cultual Business “open” major). Upon admission to a major, students are encouraged to seek advice from departmental staff in my pen essay the Bioengineering Student Affairs Office, Room 141, Powell-Focht Bioengineering Hall, to plan a program of study. Three Tragic Issues Kill. Students are expected to chart their progress within their major. As the department may make a small number of course and/or curricular changes every year, it is imperative that students check their e-mail for updates and consult a bioengineering undergraduate adviser on essay an annual basis. To enroll in Essay on The United States’ During War any courses required for my pen, a bioengineering major, a student must have completed prerequisite courses. On Relationship To Israel The Cold War. (The department does not consider D or F grades as adequate preparation for subsequent material.) Where these prerequisite course work and other restrictions apply, the registrar will not enroll other students except by department approval. My Pen. Students are advised that they may be dropped from course rosters if prerequisites have not been met. Bioengineering courses are typically offered only Three Issues in To Kill Essay, once a year and therefore should be taken in the recommended sequence. If courses are taken out of sequence, it may not always be possible to enroll in courses as desired or needed for timely graduation.

If this occurs, students should seek immediate departmental advice. Programmatic advice may be obtained from the Student Affairs Office. In addition, technical advice may be obtained from a specific bioengineering faculty adviser assigned to my pen essay, each student upon admission to Issues in To Kill Essay, the major. Program Alterations, Exceptions to Requirements, and Special Programs. Exceptions to any program or course requirements are possible if approved by the Undergraduate Studies Committee before the courses in question are taken. Petitions may be obtained from the Bioengineering Student Affairs Office. Capstone Design Course Sequence for Bioengineering, Bioengineering: Biotechnology, and Bioengineering: BioSystems.

A capstone design course sequence is required for senior level students in the Bioengineering , Bioengineering: Biotechnology , and Bioengineering: BioSystems majors. The capstone design course sequence consists of a multiquarter upper-division sequence of courses that totals ten quarter-units and includes (1) a series of four one-unit courses on selection (BENG 187A), design (BENG 187B), implementation (BENG 187C), and presentation (BENG 187D) of design projects, with consideration of professional issues, and (2) a sequence of two three-unit laboratory design projects, offered in many of the my pen essay primary areas of bioengineering, including biomechanics (BENG 119AB), systems bioengineering (BENG 127AB, 128AB, 129AB), nanoscale and damage to the thalamus molecular bioengineering (BENG 139AB), organ system bioengineering (BENG 147AB, 148AB, 149AB), tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (BENG 169AB), and bioinstrumentation (BENG 179AB). The design projects and presentations will be performed by student teams in my pen essay the course sequence. Independent Study for Undergraduates. Under the guidance of archetype hero, a bioengineering faculty member, lower- and upper-division level bioengineering students have opportunities to participate in independent study and research. Upper-division bioengineering students may take BENG 199, Independent Study for Undergraduates. Lower-division bioengineering students may enroll in my pen essay BENG 99, which is similar to BENG 199 except that less background in The United Relationship to Israel War the curriculum is needed. These courses are taken as electives on a P/NP basis. Under certain conditions, a BENG 199 course may be used to satisfy upper-division technical elective course requirements for the major. Students interested in this alternative must identify a faculty member with whom they wish to work and propose a two-quarter research or study topic for Bioengineering, Bioengineering: Biotechnology, and Bioengineering: BioSystems majors.

Completion of essay, two consecutive quarters of BENG 199 will satisfy both technical elective requirements in Essay on Relationship During War the Bioengineering, Bioengineering: Biotechnology, and Bioengineering: BioSystems majors. Bioengineering: Bioinformatics majors may satisfy up to two of the three technical elective requirements in those majors by completion of BENG 199 courses. After obtaining the faculty adviser’s concurrence on the topic and scope of the study, the student must submit a Special Studies form (each quarter) and a BENG 199 as Technical Elective Contract to essay, the Undergraduate Studies Committee. These forms must be completed, approved, and archetype hero processed prior to the beginning of the quarter in which the course is to be taken. Students interested in participating in the instructional activities of the department may take BENG 195, Undergraduate Teaching as an elective on a P/NP basis. Policy in my pen essay this regard may be obtained from the Student Affairs Office.

Industrial Internship Program and a web site Graduate Industrial Training Program. The Department of Bioengineering offers two industry-related programs: the Industrial Internship Program for undergraduates and the Graduate Industrial Training Program for essay, graduate students. Both industrial programs are designed to complement the departments academic curriculum with practical industry experience. Students interested in these programs should contact the Bioengineering Student Affairs Office well in advance of the apa referencing a web site quarter in which they would like to start their internship. The Industrial Internship Program is available to undergraduate students who have completed all lower-division course requirements. Academic credit under BENG 196, Bioengineering Industrial Internship, can be earned by spending ten weeks or more as interns in my pen essay an industrial setting. The intern may be involved in a range of activities, including design, analysis, manufacturing, testing, regulatory affairs, etc., under the Essay on 1984 direction of a mentor in the workplace. My Pen. At the completion of the internship experience, students are required to Essay on 1984, submit a brief report to the mentor and my pen essay faculty adviser describing their activities.

Up to four units of a web site, BENG 196 may be used towards technical elective credit. The Graduate Industrial Training Program is designed for students in the Master of Engineering Degree Program. This program serves to significantly enhance the professional development of MEng students in preparation for leadership in the bioengineering industry. Students will complete an independent industrial bioengineering project in a company setting under the my pen essay direction of an industrial and faculty adviser. UC San Diego 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093.

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NAFTA, Karl Marx and my pen Conflict Theory. At present, our society is still locked up with a classic structure of class distinctions or in other viewpoint, discriminations. The boundary categorizing each group of people is best epitomized by the pyramid structure in thalamus, which the my pen, base constitutes to the greater majority of individuals better known as the working classes or the proletarians while the upper part of the archetype hero, pyramid or the peak is best represented by the elite class in the society, the ones who exploit the proletarians for the pursuit of my pen, their own self-gratifying gains; better called as the non-working class or the bourgeoisies. On Cultual Business! The bourgeoisies are the my pen, ruling class of today who maximizes their capitals by providing the means for production and exploiting the working group of people for production (Kreis, 2000). Evidently, anywhere one puts his eyes on, there will prevail a one domineering identity or institution that governs a certain aspect of humanity. And of course, if there is Essay Relationship to Israel During the Cold War someone inhabiting the upper portion of the society and enjoying superiority, there would also in turn be inevitable subjugates to my pen essay play inferior with the ones above them. As such, the issue of class struggle has long been disputed by several philosophers in history and theories were since hypothesized in Essay Challanges Of Doing Business, order to predominantly discuss and my pen attend to the social issue itself (BLunden,1847).

One theory to name is the on to Israel During the Cold War, Conflict Theory which posits that in a given society, each individuals belonging within functions and participates in that society such that the benefits they could obtain is well maximized, consequently resulting into social change. This theory is mostly attributed to demonstrate and explain the conflicts between social classes and between the ideologies of capitalism and communism. Furthermore, assumptions to the conflict theory may be identified into for aspects namely for competition, structural inequality and revolution (Kreis,2000). Competition arises due to the progressing and unlimited needs of a growing population given only a limited set of. Need essay sample on NAFTA, Karl Marx and Conflict Theory ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. resources. Such resources include money, leisure, food, shelter and the likes. Secondly, inequality regarding power is structurally interwoven into the social network. Individuals or any player involved within the social structure seeks to maintain their positions or more, struggle to cut above the rest. Lastly, there resurface an assumption that points to the action of a revolution.

Relatively, change becomes the product of the conflict between or among the social divisions. Change, for this matter is considered often as drastic and revolutionary. And through the search for a change in the structure of the society and its prevalent norms discriminatory to most, a name in history sounds outstandingly; Karl Marx. social status and essay emerging political forms in the society. As such, he was quickly subjected to grave government fracases and divergences. This portrayal of radicalism by Marx tended to be recognized as purely communist.

Karl Marx as a thinker of archetype hero, various perspectives concerning the society, particularly with the creation of his major economic literary Das Kapital, is essay furthermore recognized rather as a revolutionary communist than a crude social philosopher during the twentieth century. In relation with the discussed notion of social or class struggle, Marx conjectured a theory of history known as his historical materialism which principally concentrates its ground upon the idea that social status rise and fall (Stanford,2003). Furthermore, such alteration in the forms of the society will be then dictated by an obstruction to the development and Essay Of Doing continuous progress of any human beings productive power. As for Marx, he advocates the notion that each and my pen every human beings have such an instinct to assert their communal essence. The humanity is a structuralized community mutually benefiting from other individuals or group as well and whether or not we are able to distinctively recognize such essence, our existence thrives through the arena of being a coherent community. On The United States’ Relationship To Israel War! The mutual dependence of the. individuals involved on the wide range of social and essay economic relations given in the network of the society is the main rationale that makes the possibility of human existence.

However, the communal essence supposedly innate within the damage to the, social context of the society should be at hand with equality. Equality, for essay, religion is on the contrary deviously acknowledged thus creating a false impression of an equally divided community(Stanford,2003). Such is said to be a false insinuation of a community due to the fact that individuals, on archetype hero the perspective of any religion, is considered equal only and only in the eyes of God. This falsifying by my pen the religion to establish a bogus community soon fragmented. To compensate, reformation was done by the state. To The! The state in essay, turn offered the society another illusion to dwell on; a community of citizens. People are now classified as citizens; citizens due to a common privilege in the society and such privilege is manifested through the equality depicted by the legal constitution or the law(Burke,2000). Here in archetype hero, this case, equality among individuals is seen only through the eyes of the law. As with regards the competence between the class of proletarians and the class of the bourgeoisies, Robert Owen and essay others put forth the assumption that people can be changed only by altering or modifying the circumstances besetting them.

Karl Marx, regarding this issue perceived the apa referencing a web, materialization of my pen, change within the society via the self-imposed convictions and eventual transformation of the proletarians to disentangle themselves from their current status in the social order and archetype hero achieve a higher level of living(Kreis,2000). Marx, being a firm advocate of communism, markedly desires for a classless society. Via the creation of essay, his opus, The Communist Manifesto , Marx instigated a venture for a revolutionary action that would suggest the ousting of the bourgeoisies. social order by the revolt of the proletarians. The Communist Manifesto seeks to Tragic in To Kill Essay enlighten the groups of the proletarians of my pen essay, their current social position in the society by Essay Of Doing which the non-working classes of the my pen, bourgeoisies overpower (Stanford, 2003).

The suppression of the equal rights by the bourgeoisies in the hierarchy of the society is a mere product of capitalism. The capitalist system is an economic system wherein the means of production are chiefly owned privately and operated for profit. On States’ Relationship To Israel During! Of these, Marx values the state by which the proletarians are being held inferior by the upper non-working social class. To depict such discriminations, Marx identified four types of alienated labour being encumbered by the workers under the system of capitalism. The first alienation suffered by the labourer is their alienation from the my pen essay, product they have produced. Philosophically, the producers of a certain product are the a web site, ones who shed the effort in creating it, and in this case, the labourers are considered as the producers. However, because there exists a non-mutual arrangement between a worker (proletarian) and the non-worker or the supplier of the means for production (bourgeoisie) , alienation from product occurs since as immediate as the product was produced, it is then taken away from the laborer. Secondly, the alienation in the productive work of the laborer or the worker is practiced in torment. There is inevitably an unjust treatment to workers, for example through the optimum utilization of ones capabilities beyond his limit. Third isolation suffered by the worker is from species-being. Humans, according to Marx, is produced not in accordance with their corresponding human capacities but for the pursuit of the capitalist to profit from the production (Burke ,2000) This type of alienation labour matches up with what have previously mentioned as the obstruction to essay a human beings productive development and progress.

Laborers tend to work on something inappropriate or under their conviction, thus, their. productivity as a laborer is impeded (Blunden,2000). Ostensibly, the skills of any worker must be directed properly to any work for a better functioning and improved production. Lastly, the site, workers are variably isolated from other human beings where mutual needs are replaced by essay the relation of exchange. On 1984 Orwell! Mutual dependence, in this instance, is wearied off and inequality turns up. Bourgeoisie economics, including the idea of wages, exchange, rent, profit and others settle into the community, which is an apparent and a clear provision of prejudice among the two concerned classes because the economics of the proletarians on the other hand are discriminated (Blunden,1847). And for Karl Marx, if he were to familiarize himself with the present social state of the working classes and the prosperity they currently are engaging in, he would supposedly still point the grave discrimination they are experiencing despite their prosperity. Currently, laborers are still subject to various discriminations or suppressions from the capitalist they work for. For example, the chief capitalist of any production still acquires the greater share of profit whilst the workers were left for hardly a meager compensation, granting the fact that efforts and time were enterprised for the carrying on my pen essay of the Orwell, production.

Karl Marx would not alter his view of capitalism since the prevailing state of class distinction has not achieved any further change prior to his advocacy. Moreover, a man whose principles are deeply rooted in practice and essay personal application would be stern to stand up for damage to the, what he has already based upon. Marx, being a philosopher which is strongly revolutionary in my pen essay, nature will not easily alter his viewpoint. Karl Marxs say on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Canada, United States and Mexico formed the worlds largest free trade treaty in January 1944 (Williams,2004). The agreement seeks to call off the archetype hero, tariffs on the products traded among the three participating countries.

Restrictions were to be removed from computers, textiles, motor vehicles and others. Additionally, the treaty furthermore protects intellectual property rights which include copyrights, patents and trademarks. Supplemental to the NAFTA is the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC) which aims to my pen create a rigid foundation for cooperation among Canada, the United States and Mexico(Berta,2005). It additionally fostered the growth for labor production. North American Free Trade Agreement along with the archetype hero, North American Agreement on Labor Cooperations resolution for labor empowerment is a positive effect defined by the treaty for the three respective countries continuously benefiting from it(Williams,2004). In this light, Karl Marx, moreover would think of NAFTA as something really beneficial for the laborers because when they purchase a certain product, the amount that they will pay for it will not include any taxes, so it appears that they are not buying their own labor production. In contrast with a product levied with tariff, if a laborer who created the product bought it, then his labor for the production is seemingly being quantified as the tax.

Obviously, the laborer is my pen essay disadvantaged given such case. On the other side, the Orwell, capitalist or the non-working class further tends to increase his profits granted the condition that tariffs were to be imposed because as a higher price is bid upon a product, then supply for it would increase as well especially if the product is a necessity(Berta,2005). Thus, if it is essay a commodity, more laborer is. needed and damage to the thalamus entitled to produce it and so, allocation of benefits of each laborer is likewise decreasingly apportioned among them. Discrimination is evident without the procurement of NAFTA in this likely instance indeed. Effects in the masses within the partner countries.

The possible benefits that can be achieved via the essay, aid of having similar agreement would be one-sided, that is, considerable only for the capitalist since the apa referencing site, are the principal coordinators of the prevailing production and whatever increase in my pen, profit is attained, levying of taxes for example, then the amount that they incur from Essay on 1984 by George Orwell, such is pocketed as part of my pen, accumulating wealth as well as with the nature of any business they are in. And since the NAFTA treaty is advantageous for Three in To, several reasons, Karl Marx would think of it as proletarian-oriented. Several benefits that has been recorded out of the commencement of the North American Free Trade Agreement is its positive upshot to essay poverty rates in Mexico. It was seen that poverty rates have drastically been decreased while increasing Mexicos real income(Beta,2005). United States achieved a fifteen million growth in Tragic Issues in To Kill a Mockingbird, employment rate between 1993 and 2001. Essay! To note also, the automobile industries of Mexico has reached a high percentage of industrial export. North American perspective of NAFTAs effects is significantly remarked in the lingual labeling of products for Essay on 1984 by George, a simultaneous retail distribution in Canada, the United States and Mexico (Cahoon ,2004). The agricultural productions for the United States and Canada have further shown to be increased. Figure 1 illustrates this. Growth in US Agricultural Exports to the rest of the world 55%

Figure 1. Growth of Agricultural Exports. Growth in U.S. Agricultural Exports to Canada Increases for 1994-2002 and Growth share of exports to the rest of the world increases up to essay 55% (Cahoon,2004). Effects in culture. The differentiating cultures of Canada, the Essay Orwell, United States and Mexico may well be affected at my pen essay, the same time due to the substantiation of NAFTA. Culturally speaking, the variations among the individuals themselves likewise renders similar variations to each of their customs or way of life. The exports in automobiles for example by Mexico would mobilize the areas to which the Essay on 1984 by George Orwell, vehicles were exported.

Increased production in agriculture, on the other hand may affect the culture of the three countries by the further utilization of agricultural products instead of the synthetically manufactured products that may be classified detrimental to my pen ones health (Cahoon,2004). Health consciousness or awareness may then be promoted and applied into the cultures of the three involved countries. Consequently, since there is a direct contact and/ or transaction agreed upon by each and among the localities of Canada , the United States and Mexico, then the Three Tragic Kill Essay, possibility for a direct sharing or distribution of cultures from one country to another. Provided that there is a strict implementation of governance to exports of goods and my pen essay that illegal production in black markets is completely tracked and eventually blocked out, then sharing of Essay on Cultual Of Doing Business, cultures among the three countries will prove to be advantageous and my pen essay an aspect of trade worthy of imitation. Cultural differences would be alleviated, and as for Karl Marx, his stand of agreement upon the matter of a web, NAFTA would be strengthened because as mentioned beforehand, his intense advocacy to a non-discriminatory world is my pen essay where his philosophies and principles are embedded. Effects in the wealth of the ruling class and the marginalization of the poor. The creation of NAFTA is unmistakably seen to be egalitarian in the sense that there is an The United Relationship to Israel the Cold, equal exchange of essay, Canadian, Mexican and US products or goods . At some point, it may increase or further accumulate the current wealth of the ruling classes nevertheless preventing the marginalization of the poor. The ruling class, or those who are labeled earlier as the non-working social order of the bourgeoisies will inevitably accrue and build up their assets because trade via the Essay to Israel, legalization of NAFTA is still stable.

And as long as trade is mobilized and operates in my pen essay, the business or commercial world, then gaining profitable amounts would still be possible because there is a source of Issues Kill, trilateral consumers who are willing to purchase certain products from different countries. The poor, alternatively, will not be marginalized since the North American Free Trade Agreement would account and pave the way for a relatively low-cost products. My Pen! Such circumstance would afford the unruling social order to avail products at a lower value but of similar quality as with an untaxed product.

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essay greedy Book contains two essays, Greed and my pen, Greed II. Click on cover. Is exploitation wrong? by Julian Edney.

This is not the first time the nation has produced dramatic economic inequalities. What are very wealthy people like? The everyday world of work vs. values of democracy. How assumption of self-interest leads to Essay Of Doing Business, fear in the workplace. Freedom, the illusion of freedom, coercion. Essay! Exploitation.

Credit cards. Essay On Cultual Challanges! Meritocracy. Sociopaths. Corporations and the economic justification for the damage they do. Historically we are emerging from an era with no clear ideology, but an era in which materialism and business has expanded powerfully and internationally, and out of the vacuum two old, discredited ideologies, laissez-faire and Social Darwinism appear to my pen, be rising again in modern guise.

These ideologies are still flawed; the first (contained in modern Libertarianism) vigorously promotes freedom but ignores justice and is indifferent toward democracy. The second is supported by archetype hero, science, is my pen, disinterested in humane values and accommodates exploitation as part of the nature of things. The search for a modern economic theory closer to thalamus, reality. Essay! Is this a society of individuals rationally maximizing happiness? Andrewss view: at least among the disadvantaged, it is a political economy of hope and fear. (1) Looking for to the morning news, I click on my computer. My internet service flashes with color, the biggest houses, the biggest jewelry, the most expensive toys. The internets financial press waxes muscular.

Television is the same. The media are a river of adulation for all this glitter and the people who own it. School textbooks carry a similar message. Despite setbacks, the economy is ever expanding, its power is unparalleled, we are now spreading free market capitalism around the globe, bringing unimagined wealth and improvement to mud-level nations and my pen essay, countries sucked out by socialism, raising everybody, because thats what capitalism does. Has everybody been raised here? Actually, with talk of equality written into this nations founding papers, the scenery never looks right.

The contrast between rich and on 1984, poor grows, and this year has been no exception. As an acquaintance on the street puts it: every year there are more homeless people and every year the limousines get longer. If the stated goal of the system was to gradually create inequality, it might also claim success. We barely notice because we are adjusted. But if you are a foreign visitor, how does this nation show? A svelte Scottsdale, of essay course. Damage To The Thalamus! Disneyland, of course. The flamboyant homes of the film stars. Lavish Marin County neighborhoods (some of the least affordable rents) (2). But if you are a visitor, your tourist bus will also whisk you past sights never found in the guide books nor in our kids social studies texts. Essay! Neighborhoods awash in shootings (1,200 gun injuries in South Los Angels alone last year (3) ); square miles of city filled with houses with barred windows, chaotic schools, downtown blocks of sweatshops; whole neighborhoods sunk in semi-literacy, drugs, gangs, fear; and our nightmarish jails (4).

Not everybody looks like they have been raised. The numbers show a radically skewed society. Rather than pages of numbing statistics, Ill sketch a couple of facts, the first from sociologist Steven Rose. If you drew a line on Essay by George, a building three stories high to represent the my pen distance between the lowest and the highest family income, the average (median) income sits at only 10.5 inches off the ground and half the nation is clumped below that (5). Second, despite the archetype hero prodigious numbers of poor, housing for them is so scarce that of the 3,141 counties in the United States, in my pen essay, only 4 can a person making minimum wage afford a one-bedroom apartment (6). I believe this imbalance mauls the national psyche because the on Relationship to Israel During the Cold media repeatedly show us images of people and places from the beautiful upper stretches of that vertical line.

In the comparison, thrown at us daily, most of us lose. This nation equates decency with wealth and indecency with poverty. These media images also create floods of anxiety. Being less than, being poor, carries a stigma. Another sociologist thinks we are so materialistic, poverty now actually carries the shame that cowardice carried in my pen essay, earlier, warrior times (7). And actually if the economy is on fire, we have some funny facts. The dollar has dropped to a fraction of what it was worth thirty years ago. No amount of policy tinkering has been able to stop manufacturings chronic decline.

The national trade deficit is at an all time high (meaning roughly, if its foreign made we want to own it). Personal debt has reached swaggering amounts. And bankruptcies have ballooned, now running 1.46 million a year (8) - outstripping the divorce rate, also outstripping annual college graduations (9) . Defenders say, but compared with dusty nation X or backward country Y - its so much worse elsewhere. We are the envy of the world. When we compare nations, we should keep in Essay, mind who we are comparing.

Every third world nation has a middle class, no matter how small, with houses, and those folks are still better off than our hordes of homeless. And our wealth inequalities are so stark, poor people here are worse off than many of their foreign counterparts (10). And if you start comparing nations, what about the quality of life? Are our 30 million citizens on antidepressants also the envy of the my pen world? And our suicide rate, with suicide now the third leading cause of death among the young (11) ? Here lurks the question of how much life is Essay on 1984 by George Orwell, worth living. I wish I could get away from these inequalities, but I cannot. Fly away from my pen, it all? Board a plane, and damage to the thalamus, we take off. Having settled in at cruising altitude on a flight, surrounded by other passengers, I look out the sun-filled window and we float among the iridescent clouds and for a moment it seems we are transcending the world's concerns. Then the stewardess carefully draws the essay cabin curtain across the Essay on 1984 aisle between us and the passengers in first class section.

This act is noiseless and delicate. All passengers eyes are riveted on it. Nowadays, nobody seriously criticizes the rich. Criticizing the rich doesnt make much sense if you think youre going to be one. But it wasnt always that way. This isnt the first time this nation has produced a huge separation between rich and poor. In the my pen essay 1870s-1890s America actually had a brush with serious economic revolt (12). Tragic Issues A Mockingbird! The trouble was started by common farmers in the hinterland - stake holders in the new frontier - dismayed that all their hard work didnt deliver. The Civil Wars aftermath was a time of immense capital growth for some and hopeless drudgery for others. Chicago and New York contained both wealth-aristocrats in frivolously decorated mansions that mocked European aristocratic manors, and on the other side, smoke-stained factories with legions of ragged workers.

In the essay rural South rich plantation owners lived in white-columned country homes while paying barefoot field workers scrip they could only spend at the owners store contract labor working in endless debt. This was the Essay on Cultual Business era of flamboyant corporation owners in top hats chomping on outsize cigars, also the era of my pen essay steep child mortality rates, pestilences that swept the streets, misery and short life expectancies for the poor. It was an era of unrestrained markets, the Essay Challanges era of monopolists who collaborated with each other in setting prices; little was illegal. Following the Civil War, there were a couple of different currencies in circulation, one sinking in value and less reliable. City banks peddled mortgages widely on new farmland they had never seen. A new farmer could sign on in either currency. My Pen! Then a national money contraction occurred, consolidating the two issues. Farmers took the fall.

They were left owing the banks up to twice what they had signed for. Believing in the national promise that hard work brings wealth, they found they only archetype hero, worked and lost money on their slow-producing farms, then worked harder and lost more. Meanwhile, the banks flourished. They grew spectacularly. They argued they were only my pen essay, being patriotic. Bewildered, farmers actually started trying to Essay on Cultual Challanges Business, understand what was wrong by reading books on economics.

The result was a bitter understanding of the money power, of lenders rights, of monopolistic control, and of American credit corporations as fortresses of wealth. In desperation, farmers cooperatives started up. They aimed for debtors independence. They were made up of plain people seeking self expression. First in the South, this movement swept across Texas, then the Western plains states, attracting farmers by my pen essay, the thousand. Then they joined up with railroad workers who were desperate over low wages and ruinous equipment and on The United Relationship, who were striking. Eventually the National Farmers Alliance and Industrial Union spread far west and north, and at my pen, its peak had over a million members. The Populist Party was started. This new party was virulently anti-monopoly, and to the, its hero was the opposite, the poor-but-good worker. It successfully ran candidates for local government, and then William Jennings Bryan, a Populist, actually won the Democratic nomination for my pen essay President.

Bryan had risen from stump-speeches in open fields to the political crest with firebrand oratory telling farmers and workers they were crucified on a cross of gold, nailed to the impossible demands of credit merchants, and the victims of a monied tyranny (13). The poor have always been demonized. On The United To Israel The Cold! But for the first time, in the 1890s, the rich were being demonized. Bryan lost the election to McKinley in 1896. The railroad strikes were crushed by essay, robber baron Jay Gould who somehow got local sheriffs to deputize all his strikebreakers. Strikers were called mutinous, and apa referencing a web, local magistrates declared union leadership a crime. Without Bryan rising, the essay Populist movement suddenly faded.

There was capitulation and disgust. People muttered you cant fight the Issues nations banks. Some farmers even left the country and moved to Canada. My Pen! Corporate power rose everywhere again. Sentiment changed. In memory, words like the peoples, and to the, progressive, became tainted with the shadow of socialism. That era is my pen essay, remembered in history books. But it has been so diluted that Populism is damage thalamus, described as an agrarian movement, a protest. My Pen! Omitted are the rage, the oratory, the fires, the marches, the riots, the militia shooting strikers. I believe some of the early conditions of that movement are reappearing.

But today we are mute. We are back to the dogma that whatever the wealthy do is good for damage the poor. Only a few modern writers like Christopher Lasch see that the my pen essay detachment of our modern elites is actually betraying our democracy (14). Fewer writers, like Charles Derber, are saying the moral decay in this country starts at the top (15). We live in a peculiar era. There is said to be no ideology. What is ideology? It is a visionary assertion of values, goals and aims. It ties a people together, explaining what is bigger and more important than each of us. It is part theory, part speculation. It urges loyalty.

Ideologies can be national, grand and visionary, or subdued and local. They may be delivered from the podium, or they may be unspoken but lurking everywhere as if a colorless gas that saturates a cultures thinking (16). Damage Thalamus! An ideology can move a community to prepare for my pen essay war, or it can move a nation to peace; but it gives motivation and meaning, it states the common good, and explains why the people must work together. Without ideology, people can live active lives but they are atomized - there is a hollowness and insecurity beneath. Daniel Bell wrote a book The End of Essay on Cultual Of Doing Business Ideology which says that in the United States, ideology has dissolved (17).

Bell: Through the last century - at least through the belligerent period of the two World Wars and the 1950s Cold War - the United States had plenty to say about what it stood for, also what it hated. Ideology was sharp and it was national. But with the advent of peace, and especially with the decline of communism, there was suddenly less reason to my pen essay, deliver thunderous speeches about why we are here, what we are ready to die for - the speeches that bring urgency and purpose and meaning to people. We have drifted since the Vietnam era without an ideological rudder. We exist in a kind of void, in which individualism flourishes, and narcissism, ego, materialism, the pursuit of self, wealth, status and greed - but nothing that moves the Essay Of Doing masses together. Predicting the future may best be left to crystal-gazers, but we can always take hints from newly published books because they contain ideas that may be influential for years. Some new publications are unsettling. Into this void, Ill argue, are creeping two quasi-ideologies. Essay! Actually they are not new. They are two old ideologies, mutated, which are rising again.

First a popular book which appeared in Essay on 1984 by George Orwell, 2002. It describes a part of my pen this society. The way the author works is Essay Challanges Of Doing Business, a new fashion and it is revealing. Beyond that Curtain. Very rich people are hidden from us because they want it that way.

Naturalist Richard Conniff uses sociobiology to describe the upper class. Essay! He has patiently followed the superrich around (and these folks are above 'junior wealth' which is about $5-10 million) and has interviewed them in Essay on to Israel, their natural environment. This is the my pen essay new fashion, to explain what humans do because of damage to the thalamus their genes and their evolution. My Pen Essay! The exotic customs of the moneyed class fill his book The Natural History of the Rich (18). Three Tragic Issues! Because he is a naturalist, he unflinchingly compares the my pen people at Relationship During the Cold War, the top with the my pen alphas (top members) of other animal species.

Conniff says the superrich are an intensely narcissistic and competitive small group. They arrange their lives so that wherever they go (Aspen, Monaco, Paris) they see the same few hundred people. They are self-encapsulated. They regard the damage to the thalamus rest of us as irrelevant, uninformed, even subhuman, and they don't like to talk to us. (One fabulously wealthy lady used her cell phone to call her chief-of-staff who was in another country to call her maid to tell the maid what to do next. The maid had a cell phone and was on the opposite side of the my pen essay room from the lady). Conniff reports that just like other top animals, the superrich are driven by the quest for status, mating opportunities and dominance - except that the human version constantly denies it. Top-rungers also flout the basic rules of economics.

While average folks purchase more stuff when it becomes less expensive (supply and demand), the leisure class prefers to buy stuff that is more expensive, even when comparable stuff is available for less. The object is to dazzle. Relationship To Israel During The Cold! Sociologist Thorstein Veblen identified that odd habit back in 1899 and termed it conspicuous consumption. Its waste in order to impress (19, 20). Conniff points out animals do this too. The cascading tail feathers of essay alpha male peacocks have no useful function. They are there to impress other peacocks - in fact they are so conspicuous they practically prevent the bird from Essay The United States’ Relationship to Israel War, flying. More biology: the way the superrich have isolated themselves for centuries now qualifies them as a pseudospecies. By hanging out and mating only with their own kind, over many generations, they have effectively removed themselves from the gene pool.

Sociobiology is a fairly new division of biology. My Pen Essay! Its been around since the 1970s. It holds that human behavior is genetically shaped, like animals which run largely on instinct. It says our behavior is evolved. Sociobiology has a younger sister, evolutionary psychology, which talks more about humans than animals, but in the same way. Evolutionary psychology holds that our daily routines and our choices are not nearly as spontaneous as we think because our behavior and our emotions are determined by the long tracks of natural selection. Both these disciplines are in their infancy. Both are busily looking for parallels between animal behavior and our behavior to show we are more instinct than we think. So what Conniff does is to illustrate the dominant posturing of The United Relationship During War top rats versus the belly-crawling of my pen their subordinates, and the bluster of top baboons versus the rump-presenting submissiveness of subordinates - and compares it to the obsequious behavior of human underlings who attend to our superrich. Dominance patterns in this species fit dominance patterns in that.

So for instance in both human and walrus communities, the site top elite have more. They copulate more, they get more of essay what they want, and they guard more resources than they need. Essay Relationship During War! Conniff states: Humans seem to be 'ethologically despotic,' like chimpanzees; that is, we have a natural predisposition to hammering other people into submission. My Pen! Except that in human males this is Three Tragic Issues in To Kill a Mockingbird, expressed as a single-minded determination to impose their vision on the world (21). Why do the rest of us go along with this? We cant help it.

A stare from high authority throws us into rabbit-panic. Lower ranking humans throw themselves into my pen submission, even sacrificing themselves for archetype hero their high superiors. Its all biologically evolved behavior. Inequality is everywhere in the animal kingdom - even animals that cant do much else, such as chickens, are expert at knowing the ranks of all other chickens. Essay! And a low ranking wolf will fight to the death for its pack even while its daily life is made miserable by cruel tormenting from the animals above it because belonging to a hierarchy is everything. Essay By George! According to sociobiologists, hierarchy chains us humans too. It makes no sense, but animals and humans alike sometimes cling to those who batter them. It's in essay, the genes. Along the way, it would be heartening to learn from sociobiologists that our top people are good people. That part is missing. The ultra rich are likely to have serious mayhem in the family history.

Conniff traces this old saying to Balzac: Behind every fortune theres an undiscovered crime. Generations ago, many alpha families originally ascended by force and illegal conquest - and, in site, his interviews, often show themselves proud of my pen essay it. And what of our popular belief the wealthy are that way because they work very hard? Do they? Well, maybe. Conniff interviewed one extremely wealthy woman who told him, I'm the most normal, normal person, I'm not like most rich people. Archetype Hero! I work really hard. Essay! Most rich people I know don't do anything but eat, drink, sleep, pardon the term, fuck, and have a good time (22). Genius and Alcoholism.

If our behaviors are genetic, it means we dont have much control over them. Simple actions, breathing, sleeping, coughing are all behaviors we cant change. But evolutionary psychology says many of our more complicated behaviors are partly genetic. We have a genetic predisposition towards overeating or dominance or addiction or depression, musical genius, alcoholism, and possibly some criminal behaviors too - because these things have been found to run in families. Todays cutting edge research is looking for behaviors that are controlled by genes, and how much. There is a scale called a heritability index that runs from 0.0 to 1.0, the idea being that behaviors high on the scale are genetic and cant be controlled voluntarily. The implications ripple across our legal system. If it is established that somebody has a genetic disposition towards criminal behavior, then he doesnt have control over it. Essay The United Relationship To Israel War! Think of the possibilities: imagine a criminal lawyer putting on the following defense, Your Honor my client is not to blame - he couldnt control his thieving - he was just fulfilling his genetic destiny In fact, these legal defenses may become more common as evolutionary psychologist are now arguing that using pornography (23), not paying child support (24) and rape (25 ) are in the genes. Evolutionary psychology is deliberately pushing into public policy.

The appearance of my pen essay a new book Evolutionary Psychology, Public Policy and Personal Decisions shows its intended scope (26). But two topics - we might not have guessed which - are keeping biologists agitated. Three Issues Essay! Are we run by my pen essay, selfishness? And how important is the individual, as opposed to the group? This is the way its coming down: 1. Selfishness. Darwins starting point was that life is Essay on 1984 by George, everywhere a struggle for survival.

If you want to survive, you cant waste time helping others. My Pen Essay! In fact most sociobiologists say, dont bother looking for the tender, caring or even cooperative behavior in humans; it isnt there (27). But the central issue being kicked around: is selfishness by damage to the, itself sufficient to my pen, keep a group surviving? Or does a species of animal also need another type of behavior, like cooperation or altruism, in which members help each other? One camp, the hard-nosed Darwinists, says yes to selfishness that also means genes-powered greed, genes-powered waste-to-impress (28) and a web site, no to altruism. 2. Selection between whole groups. Darwin said natural selection happens between individuals.

But what about selection between communities (and herds and flocks)? This issue is so hot, arguments between sober academics almost read like kids having tantrums. Essay! The point is this: if there is competition between groups (communities) for survival, the winning group will be stronger because of teamwork, which takes something like cooperation or altruism between members. A group of only selfish individuals is weakened from within. And these two issues go hand-in-hand. Orthodox Darwinists say, you dont need to think about altruism because there is on Cultual Of Doing, no group-level selection. Daniel Batson writes on this debate.

At this point, sociobiology is new and unsure. It keeps issuing statements then correcting itself. My Pen Essay! Does natural selection exclude group selection? Yes; correct that, no. Does natural selection produce only selfishness? Yes; correct that, no (29). Actually this is not just a scuffle under the stairs among academics. Because of Darwins assumptions, all this threatens the very planks on which the theory of evolution rests. So a lot of people are watching this fight (30). When these infant disciplines finally get their sea legs, they will bring home the bogeyman of Essay Of Doing Business all questions, because selfishness and altruism are not just behaviors, they are moral values. Whats really lurking behind all this work: is essay, our morality controlled by our genes? (31)

Adam Smith cares. Recall that Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations tell us all people act in their own interest (selfishly) - and that is fine, according to him since the whole community eventually benefits. Who does this sound like? It sounds similar to Darwin claiming that animals are naturally selfish - its a matter of survival. Both Smith, in Wealth of Nations, and Darwin dont truck with altruism. It would change the basic assumptions of both of their whole theories. And we get the Orwell hint that Charles Darwin and Adam Smith were singing off the my pen essay same sheet of music. So the archetype hero appearance of Conniffs book waves a flag. Essay! Any alliance between biology and big money should keep us nervous. On States’ War! This alliance has a scurrilous history. A contemporary of Darwins was English philosopher Herbert Spencer.

Spencer was not only thinking on the same tracks, it was Spencer who invented the term survival of the fittest. Darwin was cautious how much evolution actually applies to us humans, but Spencer was not cautious. Spencer applied the fittest to the wealthy (32). Spencer became very popular with the monied classes towards the end of the nineteen century. On the lecture circuit in America he said humans, like the animals described by Darwin, are all in a competition for survival. This was normal. For wealthy industrialists to exploit and discard hordes of the poor in their factories was also understandable. The poor were the unfit. Nature was red in tooth and claw. The industrialist was just hastening natures way of essay weeding out the weak members.

Spencer also said welfare - even charity - was a bad idea. It encouraged the poor, who would multiply and spread their unfitness. Overall, did the rich prosper at the expense of the poor? Of course - and in in To, the long run, Spencer said, this was good for a nation. After WWI, Social Darwinism was discredited as a vulgarized version of Darwinism. At the time, communist ideology was flourishing in Europe, and the argument that the workers were going to control everything was turning Russia inside out like a glove.

Socialism was on the rise in my pen, Europe, and America decided to keep one eye on its poor. On The United States’ Relationship The Cold! Pro-worker feeling grew and between the World Wars, President Roosevelt built a more poor-friendly, worker-friendly atmosphere, and my pen, started Social Security. But it is now sixty years since WWII, and times have changed again. During this last century, of course, many things changed. Science itself made vast progress, reaching peaks, so that at 2000 it could point back at Of Doing Business, a moon walk, the my pen atom opened, the defeat of plagues as points on archetype hero, its startling ascent. Today science has tectonic credibility. It is unimpeachable. If a layman attacks science, nobody listens. But this topic, Darwinism, will not sit down.

Among the few with credibility to my pen essay, question science are philosophers. Philosophers are carefully trained in logic. Philosopher Richard Perry, in Three Issues in To a Mockingbird, the staid journal Ethics , quietly walks up and kicks the struts out from under sociobiology. Is it really science? Or is it a con? Perry shows the logic under all sociobiology to be not the my pen essay grid of deductive logic you would expect in science, but only archetype hero, a patchwork of essay analogies. Now there is a certain use for analogies, but analogies do not prove anything, they only show likenesses. The best use of analogies is in the persuasive arts, oratory and poetry. Analogy is the warp-and-woof of sociobiology. Thats what they do, says Perry. If you want to say humans are aggressive, describe the aggressiveness in Essay, rats show the my pen similarities.

If you want to prove humans territorial, talk about the territoriality of mockingbirds - invite the similarities. On The United States’ To Israel! And so on. Perry says, but wait. Why these analogies in the first place? - Theres something odd about circling around one species to make pronouncements about another. My Pen! Why are we studying animals to understand humans? Would you investigate houseflies by studying blue herons? Wouldnt that distort what we already know about Essay by George Orwell, flies? His article Sociobiology: Science in the service of ideology warns us the logic is my pen essay, so bad, sociobiology should be embarrassed. It is more like weaving a net with the study of animals and throwing it over humans. And it should tip us off to archetype hero, ulterior purposes. We should look for essay what else it does.

Perry urges us to decline trust in sociobiology. It is Essay on The United Relationship War, engaging reading. But it does what Herbert Spencer did. It tells us we dont have to feel guilty if we are brutal with each other - animals do it. It gives comfort to perpetrators of social injustice (33 ). The next point in essay, this essay is that Social Darwinism, or some modernized variation, is rising again. Supported as a science, our neo-Darwinism is fed by hours of exquisite photography on Essay by George Orwell, Discovery Channel where we repeatedly watch hungry leopards stalk innocent deer, fell them and my pen essay, gorge on thalamus, their entrails hour after hour. (What car salesman hasnt watched, and said to himself, that animal lives in me, I can use any method to drag down fleeing customers?) Darwinism has a dangerous ally. Another twist in logic, which always gate-crashes the party and says, if it happens in nature, it must be right. But the problem is, you cannot logically convert a fact into a right . (Example: its a fact some kids beat up other kids on the playground, therefore they have a right to do it).

Morality should step in. It took a long time to get that right in western civilization. My Pen! Because its a fact Charles Darwin reported on a species of slave-making ants, humans do not have a right to Essay Challanges, make slaves. Then as now, using analogy as a justification for ignoring human pain and fear, or creating it, is a perversion. Social Darwinism will be much harder to get rid of this time. If we are not vigilant, sociobiology and evolutionary psychology will set new standards of indifference. The implications are stirring. What if our politicians and policy makers, administrative agencies and essay, bureaucracies, our military, our justice system, our legislators, watching, all believe that rich and poor, good and Essay Challanges Of Doing Business, bad, winning and losing are in the genes? Place your bets, because depending on the way a couple of these controversies turn out (especially selfishness) we may have biologists telling us what is right and wrong, that democracy is unnatural, and that inequality and injustice are in the nature of things.

Laissez-faire was the table-thumping cry of monopolistic big business in the 1860s through the 1920s overlapping the Populist era, but on the capitalist side. From the businessmans point of view, this was the Gilded Age. Will power was a virtue, expansion always seemed the my pen way to go, and Essay on 1984, everything was believed to be better if it was bigger. (The Crystal Palace, the Eiffel tower, and the Titanic were industrial symbols). My Pen Essay! The concept traces back to 1825, and it means government abstention from interference with individual action, especially commercial action. But it was found that if business was not restrained at all, the economy rose and fell in a cycle of peaks and destructive crashes. Second, it produced monsters that worked people to disease or death.

During the laissez-faire era, people died or got maimed on the job in perilous mines, foundries and rail yards, getting no compensation (because, it was argued, they worked there by choice). This is what the Populists battled. The battle was rough and long, with repeated strike actions, and poverty and despair for workers. Laissez-faire , the philosophy of robber barons, was eventually collared and muzzled, notably in archetype hero, Supreme Court decisions headed by my pen, Justice Brandeis who saw unfettered business practices as an eventual threat to democracy. It took many years to produce a real turn. The Seattle General Strike of Essay The United Relationship to Israel 1919 was another attempt to break through. Eventually both Social Darwinism and laissez-faire were abandoned. Laissez-faire is rising again. The Libertarian Party, formed in my pen essay, 1972, looks New Age-ish.

Libertarians promises a bright new beginning, the kind of thing that always attracts young people with spirited talk about freedom from authority. In fact libertarians almost never stop talking about freedom. Libertarians believe this: Individualism is what a society is site, all about. The promotion of self, and self-interest, life, liberty and property rights are important. Businesses and markets should also be free from restraint. Libertarianism hates constraint. It condemns anything too powerful government or police power and anything social welfare, rent control. Here are its founding assumptions.

At heart, libertarians believe that all human relationships should be voluntary. They think there is a natural harmony of interests among people, and any society works by a sort of spontaneous order. In politics, libertarianism claims to be against essay both the Kill left wing and the right. It states opposition to my pen, fundamentalist religion as much as against any state agency - both threaten individual freedom. How do we know the old ideology of laissez-faire is in here? Because a 1997 book which explains the basics, by Essay on 1984 Orwell, David Boaz (executive vice president of the my pen Cato Institute) called Libertarianism: A Primer , says so. In To Kill Essay! It states that laissez-faire capitalism is the answer to everything because it brings incredible wealth to all. And it proudly champions Adam Smiths ideas as its heritage (34).

Justice in Two Pages. Those founding assumptions are nonsense. First its obvious not all people are interested in my pen, harmony. Some are excessively greedy. Some people prefer power, which tends to corrupt. Second, world history books have shown few human societies working smoothly by spontaneous order. In general, we should evaluate a theory by what it says, also by what it doesnt say.

What does libertarianism say about exploitation? Nothing. The word isnt even in the index. Next, its treatment of justice is negligible. And what does it say about equality? - Almost nothing.

It is hard to convey libertarianisms disinterest in equality. Or perhaps this: Boazs book has 314 pages. Damage To The! Just over one page is essay, given to equality. Equity? - nothing. Justice? - under two pages. Consider a modern concern. What about big-business abuse of the environment? Among other points in the book - to give environmentalists nightmares - is that libertarians see no contradiction between industry expansion and the environment. On Cultual Challanges Of Doing Business! Quote: Economic growth helps to produce environmental quality. (35) Reading Libertarianism reveals something much more troubling. The book explains that freedom is so prime, it is more important than democracy.

Libertarianism is essay, disinterested in democracy. Rather, libertarians believe in Natural Law, laws seated in ancient, even tribal, crude customs, which are hardly enlightened ways. There is actually a fringe element among libertarians, gaining momentum, which seriously wants to Essay on 1984 Orwell, dismantle democracy in America (36) which it interprets as mob rule. While this style of business in my pen, the 1890s, for profits, freely harnessed uneducated millions of the poor into sweatshops and mills, at wages that always seemed to keep them frightened and hungry, all those problems are now forgotten by Essay by George Orwell, libertarians - as if the century had no shadow. And without a twitch of embarrassment, a Chicago Tribune review on the dustcover of Boazs book Libertarianism explains that these are ideas that are coming to dominate the my pen essay thinking of government all over the world. But laissez-faire is critical for todays aggressive corporations because they cannot operate at their gargantuan level without almost total freedom. Corporate businessmen cite as their biggest enemy, government.

They see greed as a solution rather than a problem. They despise the push for equality as a death-knell. They refer to justice as something the envious dreamed up (37). For them, democracy is no more than a bright tinsel wrapping to on Cultual Of Doing, be torn off the moment it poses any real constraint to their freedom. Despite these concerns, our market economy is my pen, not weakening in any way. The reverse. At this point in history, capitalism is just getting started on apa referencing a web site, a second Big Bang. We are recently launched into another expand-or-die wave that dates back approximately to the fall of the Berlin Wall and is already showing geometric power. Its being promoted by our massive gifts and loans to foreign countries and by our placing key capitalists in my pen essay, international banking.

And, less benevolently, by the starting of foreign wars, which require repairs, for which we provide contractors, whose profits return to us. This new wave is on Cultual Of Doing Business, not powered by my pen, any single ideology. But this odd combination of Social Darwinism and laissez-faire is Essay on Relationship the Cold War, a soil mixture that produced the explosive capitalism and my pen, empire-building at the turn of the last century, and it will work again. I say odd combination because these two theories are actually contradictory. Libertarians should look over Essay their shoulders. My Pen! Biology promotes the opposite point, that we humans dont have much freedom because our behavior is controlled by to the thalamus, our genes. Sociobiologists say even the functioning of our societies is constrained by our genes, so the idea of us choosing to my pen essay, expand our liberties is hilarious to Tragic in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, them. These two theories were also contradictory a hundred years ago. That didnt stop monopolists then and it will not stop the high-octane business leaders of today - none of whom are exactly intellectuals. Turn on the television and watch our national leaders talk policy. My Pen! They explain we are bringing our way of to the doing business to foreign lands because capitalism brings democracy.

We are the bringers of fortune, uplift, goodness, opportunity and freedom for all - the best destiny humanity has to offer. Just because this argument is delivered from a podium bathed in rotating lights does not make it true. It is also broken logic. One of the main events in my pen, capitalism is the creation of inequality. We recall that the two basic values of democracy are freedom and equality.

They are the Essay by George two wings on which that exalted bird flies. And we notice these official speeches on foreign policy promise freedom, but they never promise equality. We cannot export equality. You cannot give away what you havent got. Second, a point always omitted from essay, these speeches is that capitalism comes in different species. Apa Referencing A Web! One type is my pen essay, authoritarian capitalism and it is decidedly undemocratic. A governing power, sometimes a military dictator, promises businessmen they will make astonishing profits if they just follow his orders. This - the melding of business and state - happens to be one of the elements of The United Relationship the Cold War fascism. My Pen! Another defining element of fascism is that inequality is The United to Israel the Cold War, a virtue. But free market economics are being built everywhere.

This is so powerful, it has the face of a titan. So we cannot do it any harm, analyzing it. We have plenty of time to pull up our chairs, and at our leisure examine its beating heart. The major musculature of our modern free markets is essay, corporations. They deserve attention. Corporations are collections of people doing business.

Other types of business entities exist, sole proprietorships and partnerships, but corporations are surely the largest. (Some corporations are more wealthy than some countries). They inspire joy in some people, fear in others. Corporations have been harshly attacked in several books by Tragic Issues in To, investigative reporters. For example, Mokhiber and my pen essay, Weissmans Corporate Predators and Courts Corporateering warn of the way corporations influence politics (by shifting massive capital around) as well as the way they take away our personal privacy and security. Essay Challanges Business! As a rule, they lack transparency. Essay! And they seem invulnerable surrounded as they are by walls of lawyers (38,39). Many corporations hire their own economists so they are also difficult to comprehend.

These books are a good and healthy part of the Issues in To Kill a Mockingbird publics reading. But these attacks have made no difference. One book, however, written by a lawyer, may make a difference. It translates the stygian legalese and economics into common language. The book is no less frightening. The author reveals the my pen corporate Achilles heel. Bodies in Tragic Kill a Mockingbird Essay, Two Parts.

Law professor Joel Bakans The Corporation explains that corporations date back to the 1690s in Britain. From the start corporations were peculiarities, being bodies that are split into two parts. Directors and managers run the my pen essay firms, but stockholders own them. And the stockholders are an ever shifting bunch, being owners today, sellers tomorrow. Most stockholders have no interest in how the firm does business. They only Essay on The United Relationship the Cold, look at the daily value of the stock. Essay! Since the only business of a corporation is to to the, make profit, this is a recipe for my pen corruption, because the stock's value can fluctuate on rumor and reputation, and a firm might grow wealthy on lies, or by overcharging, or by selling a dangerous product, or by not doing anything except issuing promises, and the stockholders are just as delighted. Stockholders dont ask questions. Second, the corporation has a legal mandate to pursue, relentlessly and without exception its own self interest and this regardless of the harmful consequences it might cause others. If along the Essay by George Orwell way they have to pay some fines for essay damage they have done, this is Essay on During, calculated into business expenses. Its all numbers.

And since some corporations make massive profits, they dont flinch at my pen, paying out archetype hero very large sums to people and environments they have damaged very badly. And then return to my pen, do it again. Anything that is an unfortunate byproduct of making profit, such as stress, lives lost, disease, broken laws, pollution, immorality, collateral damage, grief, disruption, riots, is called an externality - because it is outside the crisp equation for calculation profit and loss. Most of what we know as morality and humanity are externalities. This breakage can have enormous effects on the world. Corporations are externalizing machines, says Bakan. Bulldozing through to more profits, they routinely break stuff wherever they go and this single-mindedness has produced what we have today, colossuses of to the indifference of such power as to weaken governments ability to control them, so that corporations now govern society perhaps more than governments do. Yes, there are some corporation CEOs who exercise morality and judgment. But they are not supported by Nobel Prize winning economist Milton Friedman, who believes the only moral duty of the corporation is to put profit over my pen social and environmental goals (and business guru Peter Drucker thinks likewise).

Bakan goes further. He likens corporations to psychopaths (sociopaths). For his book he interviewed Dr. Robert Hare, a psychologist and expert on psychopathy, to get a list of personality traits that psychopaths exhibit (no empathy, asocial behaviors, manipulativeness, no conscience, no remorse) and then tries those out on corporations. They fit.

For instance corporations return repeatedly to make profits from things they know are lethal and Essay on Cultual Of Doing Business, that strew grief - cigarettes, cars that catch fire in crashes, drugs with devastating side effects - because the money is there. My Pen Essay! Enough money gives them a psychopathic contempt for legal constraint. Or any constraint. Removing democracy may seem like a good business plan, if it hinders a firms mission. In corporate culture there is an emerging social order that is wide and dangerous, as dangerous as any fundamentalism, Bakan states. For in a world where anything or anyone can be owned, manipulated, and damage thalamus, exploited for profit, everything and my pen, everyone will eventually be. Bakan says every corporations Achilles heel is concealed in its original incorporation papers. I will return to this point in the later section on remedies (40). If corporations are really like that, we might wonder about the States’ to Israel the Cold people who work in them. Essay! Tens of millions of The United States’ to Israel During the Cold War regular folks work in corporations, of essay course, which gives them the surface look of well fed averageness.

But because of Three Tragic Issues in To Kill Essay their aggressive business agenda, they also attract some odd personalities. The sociopath (also called psychopath) in the publics mind is a loathsome and fascinating figure, imagined as a berserk serial killer. Actually, most sociopaths couldnt be more different. Suave and charming, manicured starters of conversations, many look like they come from the pages of GQ . (There are plenty of lissome women sociopaths too.) Consummate actors, you melt when they talk to you. They are smooth as glass. They exhibit a tapered arrogance. They are also persistent, repetitive, remorseless violators of the rights of others, and essay, the rules of society (41).

In todays high stakes, empire-building business climate, sociopaths are some of the fastest rising stars. In corporate maneuvering they have no loyalty, virtually no emotion, and no conscience. Promiscuous in friendships as in sex, they start instantly and leave an alliance instantly it creates advantage. Their specialty is stirring and steering feelings in others without being touched themselves. Usually the epitome of self control, they are capable if cornered of archetype hero sudden viciousness. My Pen! Few will challenge them, sensing that underneath is their calculated enjoyment of the destruction and humiliation of others.

This is not a new type of personality. But in modern culture, where success has become separated from archetype hero, honor, they thrive. The sole passion they have is to win. The particular combination of sociopathy and high intelligence is a prototype for business success. Harvards psychopathy expert Martha Stout estimates about 1 in 25 people are these indifferent, charismatic liars and the proportion is growing. You may have one at your picnic; there was one in essay, your classroom at school; at one time you probably tried to date one. Stout sketches a prototype sociopath growing up.

He came from a privileged city family and stole from his parents. He enjoyed stuffing live firecrackers down frogs throats. He was so intelligent he cruised through college almost without studying and, graduating with an MBA, he was quickly hired by a large corporation, where he proved he could sell anything. Lying comes as easily as breathing, and despite subordinates complaining that he is insulting and Orwell, vicious he starts on essay, a meteoric ascent, marries a sweet, quiet woman, and before middle age is given a division presidency. Essay States’! He makes many millions of dollars for the company and essay, enjoys his female subordinates as sexual plunder. Stout explains that the brains of Three Tragic in To Kill sociopaths work differently. My Pen Essay! Watched through brain scans, normal people, given words to think about, quickly process emotional words like love and damage to the, happy, but sociopaths are a bit slower because they process emotions in the temporal lobe where most people solve algebra problems. High Mating Effort.

Stout also says there is a genetic base. Sociopathy runs in families and my pen, is partly hereditary she estimates about 50 percent of it is inborn (42). There is debate among evolutionary psychologists over whether psychopaths are mentally disordered (i.e. have something wrong with them) or whether they are just a separate genetic strain of deceitful, manipulative people, in which case they are normal. Archetype Hero! If it is a disorder, psychopaths are notoriously difficult to treat (they dont voluntarily come in for psychotherapy, and if required to, they dont change). Either way, because of their short-term, high mating effort strategies (43) they produce more offspring, and their genes will spread through the pool. From an evolutionary point of view, this type is becoming more common. Our culture is unwilling to stop them. We furiously promote these smooth surfaced, antisocial people when they turn their talents to making money for the company. Then as CEOs and CFOs we give them extraordinary business power.

In that position, the law supports them, because (as above) current law says the corporation has the legal mandate to pursue, relentlessly and without exception, self interest, regardless of the my pen often harmful consequences (44). Wrap this all around in the ruthless ideology of Essay Business Social Darwinism, and nobody is safe. Democracy itself is essay, not safe. Democracy is something a sociopath loathes, because it represents public constraint by little people on his autocratic power. Thalamus! And he doesnt practice democracy inside corporate walls. What he often practices in the corridors and boardrooms is my pen essay, coercion and intimidation. Returning to Conniffs observations: Great fortune builders are also often great screamers [who use] the diatribe as a favorite toolHe calls meetingsat which he rages, growls and site, curses at his weary employees (45). Why is this type so successful? One possibility: because these malignant personalities are at home in the system. My Pen! And the Tragic a Mockingbird Essay reason for that is my pen, that the Essay on 1984 by George Orwell system is malignant. History contains several examples of my pen essay sociopaths who have flattened democracies.

Here are some other odd personalities who appear in corporations, as described by Jean Hollands, a business consultant who can calculate the dollar loss due to a valuable employees bad behavior. Large corporations sometimes hire high-ranking specialists and archetype hero, managers who come with personal problems which wear everyone down. These people are not just occasional curiosities; they can be found in my pen, every large organization. Company owners are aware of these scabrous personalities under the roof, but are startled to find out just how much they are draining the company since their styles affect many other people. Hollands shows the owners the company they could be making hundreds of thousands of dollars more profit if they got rid of these misfits, but they dont, partly because of the expense of archetype hero firing and rehiring. In her book Red Ink Behaviors she gives illustrations. The Intimidator (loud, domineering, abusive, throws tantrums, but somehow thinks he is funny), the Stressor (severe workaholic, spills her chronic frustration over coworkers in sarcasm and unending interruptions), the my pen Micromanager (requires written reports at every turn which he examines line by Tragic Kill a Mockingbird Essay, line, is chronically overwhelmed by all this work), the Withholder (has data necessary for my pen essay operations which she will not share, chronically late to meetings or absent), the Inconsistent (thin skinned, high drama, unpredictable hysteric, lapses into stream-of-consciousness communications) and the Techno-specialist (brilliant but wont talk to anyone whos not a technician).

These personalities are not easy to confront. They are extremely judgmental, to the point of mild paranoia, and if confronted they turn rabid or wall themselves up in Three Tragic Issues in To, their offices which is devastating to company morale, creating ripples of anxiety across the cubicles. And because coworkers usually back away from my pen essay, them, the Essay on 1984 offenders interpret this as a win, and my pen essay, they do it again. Apa Referencing A Web! Hollands points out that this event, winning, is highly valued in high-stakes businesses (sales, legal, brokerage) where competitive individualism is prized, so nobody is sure what to do. So the toxic atmosphere spread by essay, these bullies is borne, and everybody dreads going to work (46). Adam Smith never talked about these odd personalities. Damage Thalamus! Adams Smiths main point is essay, that humans are naturally self-centered, and Essay by George Orwell, if you allow all people to work in their self-interest, the nation will benefit. But individual self-interest will not explain everything. You cannot build a successful economy with something like self-interest any more than you can toss a bunch of my pen boards in the air and expect them to on 1984, come down in the shape of a house. Essay! Much is missing.

Which means a search. On States’ Relationship To Israel During The Cold! Requiring a long journey through rarified concepts? No, I believe the my pen essay search will take us places we already know. And I am swayed by Nietzsche and archetype hero, his habit of scorning academics who want to make things complicated. My Pen! The great problems of this world, he said, are not in archetype hero, misty metaphysics. They are in the street. My Pen Essay! Particularly they are in places we don't expect. We don't care to look down.

Is it because that direction is filled with nothing interesting? The media seems to affirm that. Apparently, time spent on the lives of workers would be gilding a vacuum. If we follow the media, we will always look up. That is why we are missing answers. A trees height and its depth are connected. Everybody accepts that because the tree is an organic whole. A building is another kind of Essay The United States’ to Israel During the Cold War organic whole, and if the essay building is built taller, its foundation must go down.

But libertarian economists refuse the heights and depths of our own society to Essay on Cultual, be connected yes, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer, but that is somehow a coincidence because everybody is free. In the life of a tree, what happens below determines what happens above. And I believe if we want to understand how an economy creates such high levels of wealth, we will need to look at my pen essay, its soil, and Essay on States’ During the Cold War, below, even if it is not pretty where the essay roots are coiling and clenching the rubble. What do we hear when we hold our ear to Challanges Of Doing Business, the soil? We can start with the broad question. Why do we work? It is a fair question. We want to jump in: To earn a living, To support the family, To get ahead. - All partly true, or true for some people. Actually the broader question stumps professional analysts. The cover story of a 2003 issue of US News and my pen essay, World Report titled Why we work wanders around for on Cultual Of Doing several pages and is simply evasive, but says: Some do it for love.

Others do it for money. Essay! But most of us do it because we have no other choice. (47) That doesnt sound like the freedom shouted up by libertarians. The goal of businesses is product and profit. If American all produced something new in their work, we would be a prodigious and much happier society. In fact, worksites are often not what we would expect. Huge amounts of work effort are spent overcoming inefficiencies. What inefficiencies? Workers often spend hours trying to find, cleaning up, checking, losing, leaving messages, not connecting with, misunderstanding, delivering to the wrong place, catching up, waiting, repairing, clarifying miscommunications, correcting mistakes - myriad forms of in To blather and delay and all exhausted at the end of the day. So answers to the question why do we work? like, to make, or to produce, are part of the my pen myth of work, but to Three Tragic Issues, get a little more reality we need to look at things the my pen essay textbooks dont talk about. A part of the on States’ Relationship War answer is supplied by what happens at work.

One thing that never fails to happen on the job is hierarchy. Hierarchy is ever present in manufacturing, service, private, government, military, civilian, inside-work, outside-work, unsuccessful, successful, full time, part time, day, night, sea, land, intense and my pen essay, indifferent jobs. It is much more predictable than - much more reliable across worksites of different kinds than - money, motivation, service, satisfaction, effort, efficiency, profit or product, which vary. What hierarchy ensures is control. (The US News article does point out that although more workers are using their homes, it is no escape from hierarchy - and the phone and emails dont stop after 5:00 p.m.) So if I go to work for Essay someone, I will enter some sort of hierarchy. And if I go to essay, work for someone, somewhere, I am also selling my personal freedom for a wage. So most work sites create the opposite of the two basic values of democracy, which are freedom and equality. This is a dark pond into which nobody ever tosses a stone. Should we say, the Essay on States’ the Cold War more people working, the more satisfied the nation? That would be nice.

But realistically, the more people work, the more people are enmeshed in a system of my pen essay control which is nondemocratic. Orwell! Thats not such a cheery thing to my pen, say, but we are tired of having the on 1984 world made cheery by my pen, the method of painting our windows blue. If we want to see better, we will have to scrape it off. And these topics do not make easy conversation with our co-workers. At this point in our search well meet with a lot of silences. We verge on taboo. Michael Novak believes people resist analyzing work because that would be tampering with a necessary myth.

We might find contradictions. Any contradiction would threaten societys foundations. The value of hard, competitive work is our society, Novak says. It is painstakingly reinforced from birth and without that myth our society is apa referencing, inconceivable. (48) The origins? Generation after generation of my pen essay young persons are taught that work is the route to personal dignity and worth. For each child this is repeated in one form or another through school and a light is turned on. Success and failure is everything; no ambition is too high. These myths take a deep hold; they have the apa referencing spiritual power of hope, and by my pen essay, the time a school graduate enters the workforce he is ready for something momentous to happen. So each worker starts out on a personal quest. If he talks to other workers about in To a Mockingbird, his dreams of growth and expansion, they smile, and my pen, later he notices old workers at his job doing much the same work and he starts to think, and to Essay on Cultual Challanges Of Doing Business, keep his inner visions quiet.

Gradually he sinks into routines. He dodges the inanities and politics of the workplace. After many years, that inner light, once supple and strong, is changed. Work doesnt change much. If the child originally dreamed of being in the NBA or being an my pen essay, explorer, working in an office will feel like a cul-de-sac. But he does the work. He becomes a watcher-of-others. Later perhaps he still has hope, but it is in on Cultual Of Doing Business, a different form: now he is darkly working on essay, a distant hope of archetype hero vindication. Even later he changes again. My Pen Essay! Where he once listened inside, he has become other-oriented, he changes again, becomes harried or distracted.

He works because of obligations, or for in To Kill Essay security, or for the company. If the light goes out, this is the way he will finish his days, in routines, swimming with all the others, in these vast pools of irrelevant direction. (49) He was from the start harnessed to somebody elses dream. Nonetheless, as this person grows up he will stir the same myth in essay, his own children. This wreckage of thalamus myths is where we do not want to look. Studs Terkel in 1972 put together a thick book of my pen self-reports entitled Working . He interviewed workers of all kinds, from proofreaders to nurses, to stockbrokers, to archetype hero, hookers, to jockeys, to welders, to executives, to stone cutters, to accountants, to dentists . At publication, it brought down the wrath of one church, wanting the book banned. My Pen Essay! Its 589-page collection of short narratives is an expose of Three Tragic a Mockingbird Essay our everyday work world, in the original language of the workers. My Pen Essay! This is the introductory paragraph: This book, being about work, is, by its very nature, about violence - to the spirit as well as to the body. It is about ulcers as well as accidents, about shouting matches as well as fistfights, about nervous breakdowns as well as kicking the dog around.

It is, above all (or beneath all), about Three Tragic Kill, daily humiliations. My Pen! To survive the day is triumph enough for the walking wounded among the apa referencing a web site great many of us. (50) This doesnt match Adam Smiths snappy view of the workaday world as busy pin factory workers and energetic vendors hauling goods to market, like bees in a hive. So is it lies? If Terkel was the only writer, we might come away thinking he's a hothead. But hes not the my pen only one. More recently a woman from the academic elite used a different method.

In 1999 Barbara Ehrenreich, who holds a Ph.D. in Biology, tried an experiment. She changed her clothes and Three Issues in To Kill, climbed down the social ladder to be a person living on minimum wage. This level of society is called the working poor. Being trained as a scientist, she took careful notes. She detailed her experiences in the book Nickel and Dimed . One after another she took six jobs, for a minimum of a month each, including waitress, hotel maid, house cleaner, nursing home aide, and WalMart salesperson. She drove a car, but made herself live each month only on what she could earn mostly at $6 and $7 an hour. This meant living in the cheapest lodgings (trailer parks, motels, downtown hotels) and eating on a narrow, bland diet. The jobs were available. Once on the job she was an my pen, exemplary worker. But her first finding was that it is almost impossible to work for those wages and survive.

For instance, monthly earnings as a waitress in Florida were $1,039. The cheapest rental she could find was a $500 efficiency, and food, gas, laundry, utilities and phone and toiletries came to another $517, leaving her $22 for everything else. She moved to Essay on 1984 Orwell, Maine, hired out as a house cleaner, scrubbing young yuppies houses, making $6.65, and paying $480 rent for a room, and so on. Her second finding was that the jobs often involved exhausting effort, and overtime, and in my pen essay, some jobs she literally worked by the sweat of her brow so that all she wanted to on Cultual Of Doing, do at night was watch TV over her dinner and then fall asleep. She became socially invisible - interacting with nobody except her immediate supervisors and coworkers; she felt disappeared from society. It was not a question of the rich and poor coexisting in quiet harmony; the poor are treated as if they are not there. She endured humiliation, abuse, and routine violation of privacy, and my pen essay, sometimes had to surrender basic civil rights. As a waitress she was told that her purse could be searched at on 1984 Orwell, any time by management. There were rules against talking on the job.

Constant surveillance, being written up by the shift supervisor, and my pen, being reamed out by managers were all customary parts of the job, also being subjected to drug tests (which in some cases included stripping to underwear and to the thalamus, urinating in presence of a specimen collector.) After a while, she felt she was not just selling her labor but her life. Ehrenreich muses that since the people she was around were all hard workers, there seemed no purpose to the authoritarianism of managers except to create a culture of extreme inequality. Demeaning employees sometimes seemed attractive for employers. The repressive management style also produced the feeling of failure and shame, which, she suspects, keeps down wages because eventually workers think so little of their own worth that they accept the my pen essay low pay. Ehrenreich is to the thalamus, one writer who has paused by this thought. We have a massive cultural contradiction. We can hardly pride ourselves on being the essay worlds preeminent democracy, after all, if large numbers of thalamus citizens spend half their waking hours in what amounts, in plain terms, to essay, a dictatorship. (51) To our Western minds, some kinds of apa referencing site inequality are less tolerable than others, less fair. Actually there is no human society with perfect equality. All cultures contain some inequality and the big question is the my pen essay criterion, because some reasons for archetype hero inequality are seen as unjust.

For instance America thinks monarchy and inherited aristocracy are wrong, but in neighboring Canada they are accepted. In some communities, rank is based on brute strength, in others, pureness-of-heart. Nobody likes to be low in any hierarchy. Societies with inherited rank also find its inefficient. The British, for instance, used to my pen essay, give all their top government jobs and high offices to relatives of apa referencing a web site nobles. The problem was a lot of the nobility and their relatives are not very bright.

As a society grows more technological it needs more pure intelligence to run it. So a century ago, the British started awarding important positions by qualifying exams and educational achievement, open to anybody. But theres a benefit to my pen, being in a hierarchy by birth: being low is not your fault, and Relationship to Israel the Cold War, its not a moral problem. In America the idea that anybody should be able to rise is my pen essay, old, and Challanges, a persons position has always depended more on ability and accomplishments. This is my pen essay, meritocracy. Meritocracy seems more democratic. It is appealing because it seems to be all about self-steered destiny. But by archetype hero, the same token, meritocracy introduces blame for low rank. Essay! If you havent accumulated accomplishments during your life, your low rank is a moral problem because you were free and you had the chance. In America, therefore, the rich are better, the Essay on Cultual Challanges poor should be ashamed. All this creates a special set of my pen fears called status anxiety by de Botton (52) and fear of sinking by Kilmer (53), an obsessive concern with social status.

After all that work at minimum wage, Ehrenreich experienced how it was easy to spend your working life sinking deeper into debt. Economic indebtedness takes away some of to the thalamus your freedom, but many people who are affluent dont understand money traps, so here Ill spend a few words on a topic that is technically on the consumer side. Perhaps this will all fall into focus leaf by leaf. After decades of aggressively distributing credit cards to virtually anyone who can sign, lenders have worked themselves into my pen essay a paramount position of power. Now the average person is obligated at about $8,500 in debt. Lenders can charge interest up to to the, 30%.

These higher rates are charged on my pen, late payments and delinquencies, and at damage to the thalamus, that level, monthly payments become largely interest. Lenders are secure, because at those rates, by the time a debtor finally declares bankruptcy, the lender has often collected multiples of the original debt. The lenders are making most of their money from poor people - people who dont have the money to make prompt payments. My Pen Essay! Nevertheless, new bankruptcy laws will allow creditors to claim on a bankrupt debtors future earnings, which essentially removes the protection a person gets from declaring bankruptcy. Lower-income credit card holders get on a financial treadmill that requires them to make ever larger monthly payments to keep themselves solvent. People who are ill, poor, old, and on fixed income have all been urged to Kill a Mockingbird Essay, take credit cards. Then they are largely sealed onto a wheel which never pauses. Debt payments are the my pen scourge of the poor but this is a spreading problem and it now includes the middle class. Many countries have usury laws that control predatory interest rates.

In Europe these laws date back centuries. In the United States the laws vary from state to Essay on 1984 by George Orwell, state. Until 1999, charging interest higher than 5% above the Federal Reserve discount rate was criminal under the constitution of my pen essay Arkansas. But some states have no usury laws, which is why powerhouse Citibank relocated its credit card division from New York (interest cap 12%) to South Dakota, and to the thalamus, from there works an essay, interstate credit card business charging as high as the market will bear. Todays trend is for states to loosen their usury laws to attract more banks. Public opinion is to the, gathering against these lenders. And a local newspaper article tells of a municipal judge handing down a routine judgment against a card company for my pen unreasonable, unconscionable and unjust business practices. (54) Is collecting high interest rates on loans a hard-work method of making a lot of money? Hardly. One financial analyst: With these rates and fees, the card industry is a gravy train (55). What about the people who declare bankruptcy?

Arent they gamblers, system tweakers, profligate spenders? Rarely. People usually go bankrupt because of severe misfortune. Commentator Paul Krugmans belief is that more than half are due to medical emergencies (56). Actually a Harvard-based study by Warren and Tyagi, the ongoing Consumer Bankruptcy Project, shows only 13% of bankruptcies stem from Essay on Cultual Of Doing Business, credit card overspending or from my pen, covering bad investments, or the like. Nearly nine out of ten bankruptcies (87%) follow one of the Big Three events in a persons life: job loss, medical problems, divorce or separation (57). But with the new bankruptcy law, many debtors will never get off the wheel. Krugman fears America is gradually returning to Three Issues in To a Mockingbird, a debt peonage society, after a practice in the post-Civil War South, in which debtors were forced to work for creditors. For the past few years our national leaders have encouraged us to believe our national destruction is imminent at the hands of an evil foreign enemy. Possibly before that, legal loan sharks will eat us out from within.

Predatory lending practices are one more burden on the poor, keeping them poor. It is very hard for essay the exploited to escape shame and inescapable debt is one reason for the melancholy that haunts the lowest regions of this society. Credit companies look resplendent in media commercials, situated high in States’ Relationship to Israel During the Cold War, wind-brushed, glass buildings with whispering elevators, manicured executives, and elegant beauties for receptionists. This industry is banditry. Is Exploitation Wrong?

If you can make wealth through hard work, you can also make it by getting others to my pen essay, do the archetype hero work for you even children get this insight. Getting other people to work for you is using them. Whether using people is my pen essay, immoral is on States’ During the Cold War, a debatable question. If somebody is willing to essay, change a flat tire for me, I am using that person. Nobody sees anything wrong. But isnt that exploitation? Actually, says ethicist R. J. Arneson, there are everyday examples of Relationship to Israel War real exploitation in which people see nothing wrong. Children exploit their parents for trips to the mall and money to spend.

Parents exploit their children getting them to do household chores. So it seems exploitation is not always bad. My Pen Essay! Arneson says the Three Tragic Issues Kill word exploitation has two meanings (1) simply to use somebody no problem, but (2) if you use them and mistreat them in the process, there may be a moral problem (58). Further, for wrongful exploitation to exist, there should be two conditions. First, the mistreatment (an injustice); second, the person cannot leave.

We should look carefully at this because exploiters often use it as a loophole. But together, mistreatment plus no freedom to leave amounts to oppression. Again, history is my pen, replete. Orwell! No culture has been free of it, and the revolts, revolutions, mutinies and reformations found in the pages of essay history books are all accounts of oppression and archetype hero, its overthrow. But whether exploitation is wrong continues to be argued. Sometimes exploited humans do nothing but adjust. What if the oppression is accepted? And religions sometimes abet this, such as Christianitys advice to slaves just to be good slaves. Karl Marx was the first to open exploitation for economic debate (59).

After a brief summary of Marxs points, Ill touch on some modern theories. Marx detailed the my pen essay appalling work conditions of to the thalamus his day and he was not the first. Ferguson (60) Ruskin (61) and Dickens in essay, his classics also portrayed workers at mind-destroying work in thundering foundries, weather-torn fields, slippery meat houses, 14 hours a day, six days a week, and forced overtime; all for trickle-thin wages, and all accompanied by routine abuse from foul overseers, capricious fines, and often, at these wages, only floor space to sleep and bread and soup to eat and ragged clothes in all a bestial lifestyle; but in all the Essay on Cultual Challanges Of Doing same, across cities and farms, workers were paid just enough to survive. (Adam Smith himself estimated wages were kept just above survival level, Marx said they were just below). And since the essay employers also owned the rentals and the stores, the money workers made frequently went back into the same pockets it came from and the laborers found themselves in a trap from which they could never rise. Heres the way it goes, Marx said. Laborers produce things. Being poor they can only rent out their labor. They have to site, use their employers tools or land or raw materials. My Pen! The product of their toil is taken from them by apa referencing site, the employer who then sells it for as much as he can, and my pen, turns round and Tragic Issues in To a Mockingbird Essay, pays the employee as little as he can in wages, because the difference is my pen, profit and the mission of capitalists is to maximize profits.

Marx said, paying the worker less than what the worker could get selling his own work was exploitation - the worker labors under the employers commands, but suffers miserable poverty. This, Marx goes on, is not an aberration. It is a routine part of capitalist operations (62). Marx could discuss everything capitalists talk about; profit margins, the Essay on 1984 Orwell utilitarian greatest good, risk, stockholders, overhead, economies of scale and my pen, the expansion of industry. But he picked up the whole situation by archetype hero, a different handle. He said, exploitation is immoral. Capitalists protested, work is a free exchange. Essay! The workers are in our factories by choice - so wheres the Tragic in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay oppression? Marx said in practice the essay workers are not so free to leave because the wealthy owners of site factories and farms across the land roughly match each others wages and rents.

So in practice the worker can do no better by moving. In all, labor is sealed into a large closed system. The system is my pen essay, oppressive. It is also to the benefit of the employer class, who do very well. If you are forced to work, that is States’ Relationship to Israel, called coercion. Capitalists argue: we are not talking about slavery here, nor prison labor. Signing on to work with us is a consensual act. Marxists throw back: but these workers are constantly in debt due to your starvation wages, and this amounts to economic coercion because each person is obliged to try to clear his debts. The type of debt you can never clear amounts to never-ending work in your factories.

Wheres the freedom? And another thing, Marx went on. Notice how property ownership is connected. The exploiters have the essay factories and the tools, the on 1984 by George exploited dont. Since property ownership is one mark of social class, we have the haves exploiting the have-nots. Marx asserted this: property itself is a moral problem. And since the property-ownership system is wholly supported by the law its not going to be easy to change.

Marx builds his points up: Property is not a guarantee of personal freedoms, as the essay philosopher Locke maintained, and as the framers of the American Constitution believed. Property is a legal instrument of oppression. And there is class warfare. Capitalists rebutted: but the damage to the poor are free to buy their own property any time. Marxists reply, that also is prevented by these starvation wages - a practice which is no accident. It is deliberately in the capitalists interest to keep a large supply of people poor, desperate and willing to my pen essay, work dirt cheap. So, in setting wage levels, business owners create and maintain poverty as they go. Poverty is also powerlessness. Labor was always negotiating without power, which explained its misery.

Marx was an thalamus, energetic writer and he used words like theft and embezzlement to my pen essay, describe employers taking what their employees made. He exaggerates when he described the damage thalamus unpaid laborers when he means underpaid. But Marx also said: all this has got to change. Essay! The workers (proletariat) have to realize that the apa referencing site system also rides on them. Without the my pen workers it collapses. So the workers should seize power. Which led to revolutions. Tragic In To Essay! Last century, entire national social structures were overturned. Because Marxs points were clear. They show that the less the my pen workers are paid, the archetype hero greater the success of business owners. They show that a moral wrong, exploitation, can be routinely inserted in economics formulas, and the formulas still work. Marx got the topic started, but other political scientists have added on to it (63).

John Brewer thinks exploitation should cover more than Marxs idea of command in the workplace. If a person is unfairly taken advantage of in any market transaction, it is my pen, exploitation. So according to Brewer, an unfair exploitation can be brief and does not have to mean rich vs. poor. Exploitation involves a person receiving lack of just deserts (64). R. Essay By George! J. van der Veen adds that exploitation is not just a feature of capitalism. It is my pen essay, just as possible for exploitation to occur under socialism and communism if the state commands the individual which work to do, pays him what the state thinks he needs, and if he winds up mistreated and not free to exit (65).

Robert Goodin states that behind the whole notion of exploitation is the expectation in a civilized society that we practice fair play. Its alright to go for advantage against others who are roughly equal. But it is wrong to Essay on Relationship During the Cold, play for my pen essay advantage when your advantage derives from others misfortunes. Archetype Hero! Second, he says, in a civilized society, there is a basic duty to protect the my pen essay vulnerable. Exploitation is violating this duty (66). The last point allows us to catch up with a particularly dark personality, greed incarnate. This employer thinks he is his money. Essay On Cultual Of Doing! He believes the more people he has dependent on him, the more righteous a person he is. So he employs a lot of people and wants to hear all their gratitude. He pays wages, but whatever else he does, he is also going to keep them needy and dependent, and the pay is shadow-thin.

This ancient personality may be young, may look excessively healthy, may play with modern gadgetry and make modern jokes at high tech parties, and he moves through our modern society like a quiet abyss. Varieties of my pen Fear. Most people think there is on Cultual Challanges Business, no fear in my pen essay, the contemporary workplace. Our offices and factories are bright, modern, high-tech, everybody is well dressed and the receptionist always has a ready smile. How could two business consultants Kathleen Ryan and Daniel Oestreich write a book Driving Fear out of the Workplace ? (67).

Because the authors have interviews and survey data from archetype hero, their work in 22 modern business organizations showing fear is my pen, common. Damage To The! True, American employees are not afraid of my pen being slugged, ambushed in Essay on Cultual Challanges Of Doing Business, the restroom or assaulted in the parking lot unless they work as teachers in inner city schools. My Pen Essay! But in the nations factories and office buildings there is fear of other varieties. And most workers are not afraid of the customers or clients. Issues Kill Essay! The source of my pen their fear is supervisors and managers. Seventy percent of their interviewees reported that they will not speak up on the job. Site! They will conceal work hazards, quota failures, quality lapses - anything - because they are afraid of repercussions. My Pen Essay! What kind of repercussions? Depending on the firm and Essay The United to Israel the Cold, the manager, anything from refusal to answer and glaring eye-contact (the look), to public criticisms, to yelling, insults, threats, tantrums, demotion, being written up as a whiner or troublemaker, to loss of the job. The result is that when managers call workers in to my pen essay, meetings to ask for feedback, or reports, or policy sessions, the damage thalamus workers sit around the table in frigid silence - pure anxiety. Ryan and Oestreichs analysis shows the more fear there is in a company, the less it is talked about.

In Chris Argyriss words, fear seems to be self-sealing. An extreme example would be the military, where hierarchy is absolute, and essay, any lower-rank soldier knows harsh repercussions will fall on him for Essay by George Orwell speaking out - but fear itself is never admitted. Fear is often quenched by anger, so unpredictable outbursts, rantings, shouting, are symptoms of fear-oriented companies. Third, they say, the more fear-based an organization, the more it will make claims to be efficient, systematic and rational - it defines any emotion as irrelevant, so fear is denied or ignored. Still other companies treat fear as an externality. (Some corporations actually asked these consultants what is an acceptable level of essay fear.) Actually a fear-based organization may be doing well financially, if it has good markets. But other things being equal, these authors say, fear loses you profits. Fear produces unmotivated employees who sabotage productivity in passive or active ways, who refuse effort, who make mistakes, who hide or falsify mistakes, who will not communicate with their supervisors.

Other symptoms are slow to appear. Some effects of fear are gradually accumulating. Threats and insults may make employees work harder in the short run but in the long run will produce absenteeism, loss of Three Tragic in To a Mockingbird creativity, depression, sleeplessness, crying, tension, ulcers and illness. These are very difficult to reverse. Essay! The damage to apa referencing a web, both workers and to the firm is my pen, deep and can take years to heal. Nevertheless, many company officers and managers believe fear is apa referencing a web site, a good motivator. Essay! Some maintain autocratic control, using harsh management, threats, pressure and a web site, control, to make employees perform. How does this all start?

Ryan and Oestreichs theory says in the beginning management assumes that workers operate from a philosophy of my pen essay self-interest. Site! The next step is distrust, because management starts thinking the employees will try to achieve their self-interest at companys expense. This leads to self-protection, sometimes with managers justified harsh measures. My Pen Essay! Workers interpret this as aggression, they react with fear, and they retaliate. Relationship War! A cycle is my pen, started. It will escalate. The basic formula is that assumptions of self-interest eventually lead to fear.

Naturally in fear-based groups, there is to the thalamus, no trust. Instead, owners and managers aggressively demand loyalty. The therapeutic goal is to essay, reestablish trust in the organization. This is not easy. On The United States’ During The Cold! Thick walls of antagonism and resentment prevent cooperation growing again.

Ryan and Oestreichs points are clear enough. But they are nave when they saying that management starts out by adopting this assumption of self-interest. Actually, management has little choice. My Pen! Anyone who has survived a course in college Economics 101 or Business 101 is indoctrinated with this assumption of self-interest, because it is at the core of our founding economic theory which has hardly been touched since 1776 and on The United Relationship During the Cold, which saturates business theory. Essay! Any manager who has been to school considers it straight thinking. Which puts a new contour on things. If the assumption of self-interest leads to fear, then Adam Smiths theory, which rests on self-interest, is apa referencing, responsible for my pen spreading vast amounts of fear, for eons, for a web miles, and into the depths of the spirit of the my pen essay workaday world. Three Issues A Mockingbird! And the many-footed formulas of economists do not change that. Anyone who employs other people and uses these assumptions to essay, maximize profits is a promoter of thalamus these vile externalities. Telling employees that it is all for their own good will not reverse that. The employer protesting that he is uplifting the community by bringing in business, manufacturing and my pen essay, sales does not reverse it.

If we believed those protests, we would have to believe that fear is Essay, uplifting for business and uplifting for my pen everybodys life, and so, ultimately is patriotic. In these worksite descriptions democracy looks remote. These contradictions are everywhere and deeply infect our national psyche. If you want to remove all the fear, youll first have to change the Essay on States’ Relationship to Israel During the Cold War overarching Adam Smith theory. I have readers here who do not believe there is fear in the workplace. My Pen! A hundred years ago, you say, perhaps, workers in factories fretted and feared under loathsome overseers. The following description is from last years newspaper. It describes work conditions in a mortgage loan office in site, suburban Minneapolis.

Sales employees work the phones hour after hour. They sit in essay, rows of cubicles. They are cold-calling, trying to find house-buyers to sign up for mortgages. Three Issues In To Essay! The company owner is a billionaire. The companys stated mission includes helping its customers enhance their quality of life. And what is it like working inside the walls of the my pen essay companys offices? By the testimony of one ex-employee, it is endless goading by bosses; Sales agents would work the phones hour after hourtrying to turn phone calls into mortgages. Apa Referencing A Web! The demands were relentless: one manager prowled the aisles between decks like a little Hitler, hounding agents to make more calls and push more loans, bragging that he hired and fired people so fast that one worker would be cleaning out his desk as his replacement came through the door. Another employee from the my pen essay same office: [Its managers] really are all about making the dollar and dealing with the apa referencing consequences later. The same article includes that this particular company has also been touted as an industry model (68). These managers arent waiting for the theories of Darwin to explain that injustice is in the nature of things. My Pen! They are taking things into their own hands. Of course, the workers are always free to site, leave.

But what if we dont have the money to pay our debts? We are legally obliged to pay our debts. So that freedom fades. The poorer you are in this democracy, the more this freedom sounds like a technicality. Or perhaps we self-delude.

Our desire for freedom sometimes leads us to see things the way we want, somewhat along these lines by poet Fernando Pessoa: Inside the coop where hell stay until hes killed, the rooster sings anthems to liberty because he was given two roosts. (69) If Adam Smith was right, then all the people in this nation who dont like their work are maximizing their happiness by choosing between the dread of no income or the dread of endlessly going in to essay, work they despise. This is a slender improvement in happiness. Both choices inhabit the region of fear. It is a strange political economy we have that stands on this slender ledge and yells, freedom! Millions of the Essay on Cultual Challanges Business undereducated, poor, or vulnerable do unending menial jobs, and are told they can follow their life dreams, and my pen, told they can rise, when they never have the power.

Millions of Americans struggle and suffer trying to make ends meet and find themselves diverted for a web life, paying debts. And will abused workers leave? This psychological research is my pen essay, haunting. Sixty years ago, a psychologist named Prescott Lecky got some research results so contrary to common knowledge they were shuffled aside as impossible. The common knowledge principle was (still is) that humans will always choose pleasure over pain. Archetype Hero! Lecky found people suffering with low self-concepts are the exception; they seek confirmation of their low belief in my pen essay, themselves - which is to say, given a choice, they will rather be in the company of a person who puts them down. In 1945 this little bit of heresy expired quickly and psychology pushed ahead believing people with low self-concepts should all the more hungrily seek reward and pleasure.

Leckys findings were junked. But fifteen years ago William Swann and his colleagues decided to damage to the thalamus, give the idea another shot. After several new, independent experiments were run it turned out essay Lecky was right. A typical experiment goes like this (they vary in on Cultual Of Doing Business, detail). First a large pool of people is given a paper-and pencil test of self-concept (a common test in psychology). These are scored, and people with high and people with low self-concepts are identified. Later on, these individuals are contacted and asked to come in and participate in an apparently unrelated study. When each one comes in, he is asked to sit down and write a personal essay about essay, himself, about archetype hero, a page. Next, a person hes never seen before comes in the room. He comes over, picks up the essay.

He reads it, and either exclaims (depending on the flip of a coin just before he came in the door), Well I can see from your essay youve got a great personality, honest, intelligent, popular or Well I can see from your essay youre not so great, not very bright, unpopular, also a phony. In other words, half the my pen essay people get rewarding feedback, the other half get nasty criticism. Now comes the main point in the experiment. Essay On 1984 By George! All of the essay writers are asked how much more time they would like to spend with the person who read their essay. My Pen! Results? People with high self-concepts say they want to spend more time with him if he was positive. But the people with low self-concepts want to Essay Of Doing Business, spend more time with the reader who was criticizing.

It appears they choose more pain over pleasure. Apparently, more important than pleasure is to be with somebody who verifies the way you see yourself. Yeah, thats pretty close to the way I am, and He sums up pretty close to the way I feel, were typical explanation for the choices of people who felt low about themselves. This effect is especially marked in depressed people (70,71,72 ). Which explains why managers and employers can routinely abuse employees and claim that it is not oppression. If workplace supervisors abuse their employees, creating low self concept, then take advantage of essay this quirk in damage to the, human nature when the employees return, to my pen, claim there is no wrong, then no matter how profitable, it is a perversion. Ive avoided the topic of race. Site! Race has been, and still is, a chronic source of debilitating problems. My Pen Essay! But we are conditioned to think about social problems in terms of race, so for instance, when we read underclass we reflexively think, inner city blacks. Actually the poorest people are Appalachian whites and damage thalamus, inner city blacks. They are the lowest class, but Americans have been discouraged from using class to understand anything (Noam Chomsky says if you talk about my pen, social class they label you a conspiracy theorist (73) ).

So to damage thalamus, take up Wellesley Colleges Marcelus Andrews new argument, which focuses on race and capitalism, seems inconsistent in this essay, and my pen essay, I find Andrewss Political Economy of Hope and Fear difficult in parts. But he runs through Americas economic house yanking doors open and Essay on States’ to Israel During the Cold, it is hard not to pay attention. Andrews: For hundreds of years we have assumed race and poverty go together (poor equates with other races) so we may be surprised to learn that today, the my pen largest group of very poor people in America are whites; and their numbers are increasing. The numbers of poor whites are growing so rapidly it is a mystery they are politically ignored. Poor people of all races now have little chance of ever making it up to the middle class - for a web a complex of reasons including economic: the loss of jobs as capitalism goes global; technological: the sudden demands of computer skills at work; and attitude: Americans are really unsure if they want to provide equality of my pen opportunity, because they believe a market economy thrives better on archetype hero, inequality. Andrews says modern conservatives always have been deeply suspicious of social justice. They are openly opposed to welfare programs. They are going to my pen essay, let poverty be a goad.

Next, he says race makes a different pattern now on the landscape than it did in the 1960s. Three Tragic Issues! Blacks have more than proved themselves capable, as many, released from the old Jim Crow laws, have climbed and essay, 75% of by George black families are not poor any more, but the lagging 25% are in a predicament shared by my pen essay, very poor whites. They live in dirty and dangerous neighborhoods which are sites of continuing failure and dysfunction, and crime, and violence. Middle-class Americans, who believe in meritocracy, and War, who cling to myths of self-reliance and freedom, find it difficult to accept the essay idea of these poverty traps. Middle class people are always pointing to an ancestor of theirs a century ago who worked his way up from the archetype hero slums to success - but those were times when education was not a requisite. With todays technology, a poor education really is a suffocating disability. My Pen! And that is apa referencing site, what the poor get in these neighborhoods. But that is my pen, interpreted as the by George Orwell free market. With selling drugs and selling sex always an alternative, the poor inhabit the essay underside of the same free market where there is misery and death. The rest of America, believing its system of meritocracy should be universally applied, accepts that fate as the a web site penalty for lack of ability, education and willingness to work. Andrews continues.

In general, conservative America believes if the poor can only be made to drop their envy and stop their whining, if they would take on more appropriate habits and attitudes, they would begin to succeed. They believe the poor are behaving badly. Hearing that feelings of my pen essay despair and inferiority are unequally distributed does not move conservatives. Under meritocracy, it is just deserts. And to add more encouragement, they apply penalties (with that certain righteousness) and the poor are rejected, cursed for their laziness, despised, and arrested for homelessness. That creates fear, because in fact they cannot leave - first because the a web poor are discriminated against, just as blacks are - and second, they are not all free to leave their failure behind because of the nature of meritocracy. Meritocracy is a system in which some must fail.

Resentment and my pen essay, hostility boil in the underclass, which the rest of society dreads and sends in police with nightsticks (punishment is by a web, its very nature the my pen essay deliberate use of public power to inflict pain on apa referencing, offenders) and the feelings and the alienation only grow worse. Andrews projects that out of our present society of vast economic inequalities, our future society may contain two camps: a chronically poor, undereducated, fearful, murderous proletariat and an economically comfortable majority (74). I could use the essay milder word and say anxiety is a persistent part of the lower reaches of the economy. It is better to be honest and call it by its real name: fear. I am not arguing the poor are colonized by wealthy employers and lenders in the market system of work-and-debt, but if I wanted to apa referencing a web site, make that argument, there is plenty of ammunition. Our economy runs on a good deal of fear, including fear-of-consequences, which is missing from current economic theory. And, with the credit card industry as model, the more greed at the top, the more fear at the bottom. Some people turn their eyes.

Others actually prefer it that way. It is in the interest of our economy, at least of the top rungs of my pen essay business, to maintain this anxiety. Next, with most people working and to the thalamus, with most work places being undemocratic, we may wonder about our aggregate claim to democracy. A herd cannot move one way while the individual cows are pointing other ways, and my pen, democracy cannot be advancing if its parts are autocratic. We dont have equality. Preserving what freedom and Issues Kill a Mockingbird, what justice we have will take eternal vigilance.

Fear does to a nation what it does to a business. It may be a short term motivator. But in the long run, fear is debilitating. It is an enzyme of decomposition and dissolution. Even when Darwinists say fear and hierarchy are unavoidable parts of a dog-eat-dog world, we can press for my pen essay justice. We always have.

We have been fighting injustice, and winning sometimes, as long as weve existed and we should not let the authority of science shut us up. We want our morality back. 1. Apa Referencing A Web! GREED copyright Julian Edney 2002 and my pen essay, first published on the internet 2003 at. www.g-r-e-e-d.com. GREED II copyright Julian Edney 2005 and first published on. 2. Least affordable rents in nation found in State. Los Angeles Times , 21 December 2004. p. C2. 3. Leovy J. To The Thalamus! A week of painful losses tests police chiefs mettle. Los Angeles. Times 12 Feb 2005 p. A 1.

4. Leonard J, and R Winton, L.A. Jail called deadly, outdated. Los Angeles Times. 3 Feb 2005. p. A1. 5. Rose, S.J. My Pen Essay! Social stratification in the United States . Three Tragic! New York: The New Press, 6. Those four counties are Wayne, Crawford and Lawrence Counties in Illinois, and. Washington County, Florida. My Pen! In Piutcoff, W., Pelletiere, C., Trekson, M, Dolbeare, C., Crowley, S. Out of Reach 2004 . Washington DC: National Low Income Housing. 7. de Botton, A. Status anxiety . New York: Pantheon Books, 2004.

8. Gosselin, P. Damage To The Thalamus! Credit card firms won as users lost. Los Angeles Times , 4 March 2005. p. 9. New York Times 2004 Almanac (Ed. J. W. Wright). New York: Penguin Reference. 10. Francis, D.R. Its better to be poor in Norway than in the US. My Pen Essay! Christian Science. Monitor 14 April 2005.

Can be retrieved at: http://www.csmonitor.com/2005. 11. New York Times 2004 Almanac (Ed. J. W. Wright). New York: Penguin Reference. 12. Goodwyn, L. The populist moment. New York: Oxford University Press, l978.

14. Lasch, C. The revolt of the elites and the betrayal of democracy . New York: Norton, 15. Derber, C. The wilding of Essay on 1984 America. New York: Worth Publishers, 2002. 16. de Botton, A. Status anxiety . Essay! New York: Pantheon Books, 2004.

17. Bell, D. The end of archetype hero ideology. My Pen Essay! Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1965. 18. Conniff, R. The natural history of the rich. New York: Norton, 2002. 19. Veblen, T. The theory of the leisure class. On Cultual Of Doing! (1899) New York: Penguin Books, 1979. 20.

British evolutionist Geoffrey Miller takes this new step in essay, his article Waste is. good. Miller says we have evolved ways of signaling to each other who is more. genetically fit its who can afford to waste in spectacular ways. A person who uses. a pair of 9,652 Sennheiser earphones to damage, listen to music gets almost no better audio. quality than someone who uses 25 Vivanco SR250s. The point is, the buyer sees the. price as a benefit, not a cost because it publicly shows him different from average. people.

In other words, Thorstein Veblens conspicuous consumption now gets the. nod from Darwinists. G. Miller, Waste is good. Prospect. February 1999. p 18-23. 22. Conniff. p. 24. 23. My Pen Essay! Salmon, C. The pornography debate: What sex differences in erotica can tell about.

human sexuality. In C. Crawford and C. Salmon, (Eds.) Evolutionary Psychology, Public Policy and damage to the thalamus, Personal Decisions. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate. 24. Shackelford, T.K. and my pen, Weeks-Shackelford, V A. Why dont men pay child support?

Insights from on 1984 Orwell, evolutionary psychology. In C. Crawford and C. Salmon,(Eds.) Evolutionary Psychology, Public Policy and Personal Decisions. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate. 2004. 25. Thornhill, R and Palmer, C.T. My Pen Essay! Evolutionary life history perspective on rape.

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C. Crawford and C. Salmon, (Eds.) Evolutionary Psychology, Public Policy and. Personal Decisions. On The United States’ During The Cold War! Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate. 2004. 27. Dawkins, R. My Pen! The selfish gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976.

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See this debate in D.S. Wilson and E. Sober. On 1984 By George Orwell! Reintroducing group selection to the. human behavioral sciences, Behavioral and Brain Sciences . 1994, 17 , 585-654. 31. Nesse, R. M. Why is group selection such a problem? Behavioral and Brain. 32. Kennedy, J.G.

Herbert Spencer. My Pen! Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers. Essay On Cultual Of Doing Business! 1978. 33. Perry, R.J. Sociobiology: science in the service of essay ideology. Ethics, 1980, 91, 125- 34.

Boaz, D. Libertarianism: a primer . New York: The Free Press. 1997. 36. Hoppe, H. H. Democracy: the Essay Relationship to Israel god that failed . My Pen! New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. 37. This is a favorite theme of Hayeks. F.A.

Hayek, The constitution of liberty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960. See p. 93. 38. Mokhiber, R. and Three Tragic Kill a Mockingbird Essay, Weissman, R. Corporate predators. My Pen! Monroe, ME: Common. Courage Press. 1999. 39.

Court, J. Corporateering: How corporate power steals your personal freedom . New York: Jeremy Tarcher/Putnam. 2003, 40. Bakan, J. Tragic In To A Mockingbird Essay! The corporation: the pathological pursuit of essay profit and site, power. Toronto: Penguin Canada, 2004.

41. Barr, K.N. and Quinsey, V.L. Is psychopathy pathology or a life strategy?: Implications for social policy. In C. Crawford and C. Salmon, (Eds.) Evolutionary. Psychology, Public Policy and Personal Decisions. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence. Erlbaum Associate.

2004. 42. Stout, M. The ice people. Psychology Today. February 2005. Pp. 72-78. 43. Barr, K.N. and Quinsey, V.L. My Pen Essay! p.301. 45. Conniff, p. On 1984! 85. 46. Hollands, J.A.

Red ink behaviors: Measuring the surprisingly high cost of problem. behaviors in valuable employees. Mountain View, CA: Blake/Madsen Publishers, 47. Curry, A. Why we work. U.S. News and essay, World Report. 2003, 34 , 49-52. 48.

Novak, M. The experience of nothingness. New York: Harper and Row, l970. 50. Archetype Hero! Terkel, S. Working . New York: The New Press, 1972. 51. Ehrenreich, B. Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in essay, America. Essay By George Orwell! New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2001. 52. My Pen! de Botton, A. Status anxiety . New York: Pantheon Books, 2004. 53.

Kilmer, P.D. The fear of sinking. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1996. 54. Gosselin, P. Credit card firms won as users lost. Los Angeles Times. 4 March. 2005. p. To The! A1-24, quote p. 24. 56. Krugman, P. The debt-peonage society.

New York Times Op-Ed. Late edition. 57. Warren, E. and Tyagi, A. W. The two-income trap. My Pen Essay! NY: Basic Book, 2003. 58. Areneson, R.J. Whats wrong with exploitation? Ethics, 1981, 91, 202-227. 59.

Marx, K. Capital. A Web! Vol. My Pen Essay! 1. (1867). New York: Penguin Books, l976. 60. Ferguson, A. An essay on the history of civil society . On 1984 By George Orwell! (Ed: Oz-Salsberger, F.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 61. Ruskin, J. Unto this last . (1862). New York: Penguin Books, l985.

62. See also Brewer, J.D. My Pen Essay! The Scottish Enlightenment in Modern theories of. exploitation. A. Reeve (Ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987. 63. On The United The Cold! Reeve, A. Essay! (Ed.). Modern theories of Three in To Kill a Mockingbird exploitation. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

65. van der Veen, R.J. Can socialism be non-exploitative? in A. Reeve (Ed.). Modern theories of exploitation. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987. p. 80. 66. Goodin, R.E. Exploiting a situation and exploiting a person. in my pen essay, A. Reeve (Ed.). Modern theories of a web exploitation. My Pen! Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987. 67.

Ryan, K and Oestreich, D. Driving fear out of the archetype hero workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1998. 68. Hudson, M. and Reckard, E. Workers say lender ran boiler rooms. Los Angeles.

Times. 4 February 2005. p. A1. 69. Pessoa, F. The book of essay disquiet . London: Penguin Books, 2002. p. 125. 70. Swann, W. B., Stein-Serrousi, A., Giesler, R. On Cultual Challanges! B. Why people self-verfiy. Journal of. Personality and my pen, Social Psychology. 1992, 62, 392-401. 71.

Swann, W. To The! B. My Pen! The trouble with change. Psychological Science. 1997, 8, 177-183. 72. Swann, W. B., Wenzlaff, R. M., Krull, D.S. and Pelham, B. W. Allure of negative. feedback: Self-verification strivings among depressed persons. Journal of. Abnormal Psychology. Archetype Hero! 1992, 101 , 293-306. 73.

Chomsky, N., with Mitchell, P. R. and my pen, Schoeffel, J. (Eds.) Understanding power. NY: The New Press, 2002. 74. Andrews, M. The political economy of hope and fear. NY: New York University.