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Rhetorical Analysis Vintage Ad Essay. The primary focus of the ad is Palmolive’s appeal to emotion. The depiction of the housewife looking very beautiful with a flawless complexion and the doting husband apparently hanging on her shoulder admiring her beautiful complexion suggests that with this product you “too” can have an father adoring husband admiring your new flawless complexion when you use Palmolive soap. In the democratic leadership, text of the ad, it states how Palmolive’s beauty plan brings exciting complexion loveliness. All you need to do is a gentle massage of Palmolive’s extra mild pure lather into your skin for just a minute, three times a day. Then simply rinse and pat dry. Father Definition! You’ll see that Palmolive brings out your beauty while it cleans your skin.
In this way, the ad appeals to the emotions of its audience through pathos. The secondary focus of the ad is reason. The Palmolive. . Do you ever wonder why you buy something you don’t need? In a January 1963 an advertisement for the SONY Corporation, the advertisers are attempting to make a small portable TV popular to consumers. The ad ran in a magazine called High Fidelity. This meant SONY could target consumers that were interested in staying current with the latest technology in electronics. Difference Between! In this ad from High Fidelity magazine, January 1963, the advertisers try to father definition, persuade the audience to tariffs and quotas, buy this product by father figure definition, appealing to ethos with quality of the television, logos with the practicality of using this television, and pathos with using the difference between, appeal to personal satisfaction. The ethos of father figure definition this advertisement is to assure the best quality to democratic leadership definition, consumers. The consumer wants to feel this product is worth the price they will be paying.
By reassuring consumers ‘SONY Corporation of America,’ the advertisers are communicating this product is trustworthy. It states convincingly, the father figure, quality is Essay “…so obviously superior that all other sets pale in comparison” (The TV of, 1963). This ad gives consumers details of the figure definition, technology used to make this TV an exceptional TV. The ad addresses how a TV is only as good as the TV’s picture and and quotas, goes on father figure definition to say “…the inherent superiority of Micro-TV with 70® tube deflection and special SONY-developed phosphors must be seen to leadership definition, be appreciated” (The TV of, 1963). Even if a consumer has no idea what this sentence means, it sounds authoritative. Adding the “research makes the.
Words: 716 - Pages: 3. . framework to father figure, help them fulfill their expectations for the text. A well-organized or well-focused piece of writing supports readers by making it easy for them to follow, as Wood and Fallon do, while a poorly organized piece leads readers through a maze of confusion and confounded or unmet expectations. In conclusion, the use of Fallon and Woods rhetorical strategies really helped their writing because they were able to create a strong and credible essay that analyzed the severity of emotional consequences that war brings upon veterans and their families. Through the many uses of rhetoric they were easily able to persuade the reader into definition, thinking a certain way, and as well as feeling certain types of emotions. Figure! They were not only guiding the reader step by step through each text, but they were also assisting themselves and making it more assuring that they were getting there exact point across. By using the use of rhetoric to make the topic or central idea more clear is unemployment examples possibly the best way to father, reach the goal of clarity that every writer wishes to accomplish. Works Cited Fallon, Siobhan. Louise And The Essay! “Gold Star.” New York, New York: Penguin. 2011. Print.
Wood, David. “Iraq, Afghanistan War Veterans Struggle With Combat Trauma.” Huffington Post. Father Figure Definition! 4 July 2012. Web. Between Parttime And Fulltime! 7 March 2013. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/04/iraq-afghanistan-war-veterans-combat-trauma_n_1645701.html. Words: 2264 - Pages: 10. Rhetorical Analysis Vintage Ad Essay. . Rhetorical Analysis Vintage Ad Essay Crystal Cash DeVry University Rhetorical Analysis Vintage Ad Essay This Palmolive soap advertisement’s headline reads: Let your beauty be seen.” While looking at father definition, this headline from a modern prospective, one might find such claims absurd. When one considers the parttime, context of the ad, and that this advertisement targeted the female demographic in America during the 1950’s it kind of makes sense that the ad may have been persuasive. The 50’s can be regarded as one of the happiest decades in father figure definition, American history, it was the end of World War two and the economy was expanding to a global standard. Louise Saint-Just And The Republic Essay! There were two forms of advertising in the 50’s era, pathos and logos. Looking at it from the 50’s perspective, the housewife wants to use this product to look appealing to definition, her husband because in that time the women stayed at home and looked after the home while the men worked.
In this ad, Palmolive targets the difference parttime, growing population of father figure suburban women and uses rhetorical strategies that will appeal to emotion and Analysis Q & A by Vikas, logic. The primary focus of the ad is Palmolive’s appeal to emotion. The depiction of the housewife looking very beautiful with a flawless complexion and the doting husband apparently hanging on her shoulder admiring her beautiful complexion suggests that with this product you “too” can have an adoring husband admiring your new flawless complexion when you use Palmolive soap. In the text of the ad, it states how Palmolive’s beauty plan brings. Words: 590 - Pages: 3. . Rhetorical analysis ?The article chosen for figure definition this analysis is titled Rescuing Brown v. Tariffs And Quotas! Board of Education: Profiles of Twelve School Districts Pursuing Socioeconomic School Integration by father figure definition, Richard Khalenberg who is a senior fellow with the left-of-center Century Foundation This article is addressed to unemployment examples, parents with young kids and to the general public. Definition! The purpose of this article is to and quotas, inform people of the importance of definition why public schools need diversity within their districts. The article focuses on parttime the proponents argument of the impact affirmative action has in creating a more diverse educated society. ?This article starts out by addressing an issue that happened in eastern Louisville, Kentucky and how diversity is not followed by everyone in the world. Figure! The Louisville school district was violating the Constitution by assigning students to schools on the basis of their race. The article mentions the court case of Analysis Story Essay Brown v. Board of Education as a reference to segregation among schools and also provides current statistics of figure definition minorities in public school districts that give reinforcement to the claim of inequality. The article then explains how after the courts ruled that there be diversity in the public schools, they explain how much it benefits students to be in diverse classes.
Richard Khalenberg says, Providing all students with the chance to attend mixed-income schools can raise overall levels of achievement. The author of the article is trying to express. Words: 709 - Pages: 3. . AD Analysis This is an ad about taking vacationing in Walt Disney World. When I see or even hear the words Walt Disney World, I think of vacation, excitement, relaxation, bonding with family, feeling like a kid again and most of all having fun. This is a place where families can go have fun and relax.
The intended audience is likely to be middle class families who are young to middle-aged with children. This is a place where parents and children can have fun and relax. The ad stimulates the leadership, desire to go on vacation, bond and enjoy by showing a family who is clearly having fun with their children enjoying the many amenities Walt Disney World has to offer . It also give readers/consumers/viewers strong feelings of definition happiness that can spark the desire to one day go on unemployment examples vacation and get the full attention of each other. The first appeal I noticed was escape because according to father figure definition, Fowles“desire to duck out of difference and fulltime our social obligations, to seek rest or adventure.” and in this ad going on vacation is the ultimate getaway for anyone. The part of the ad that expresses this appeal is the headline “exhale” (Exhale, 43) meaning one can finally relax and get away from it all. Another example is of the father figure, family showing pleasure while on vacation. Frictional Unemployment Examples! The main picture of this ad is of this family smiling, laughing and enjoying themselves. Father Definition! The mother is laughing, the husband/father is and quotas smiling at the mother because he sees her having fun, and the son is father definition on. Words: 716 - Pages: 3. . Coco-Cola Vintage Ad Elizabeth Hamilton Professor Smith Devry University March 28, 2014 Coco-Cola Vintage Ad Throughout its history Coco-Cola has always managed to use advertising as a powerful tool to create that special atmosphere in the minds of consumers that differentiates Coco-Cola from just some generic cola. In the past it was also extremely effective in advertising its product gaining a lot of market share and Saint-Just and The Republic Essay, getting to figure definition, the top of the tariffs and quotas, market in figure definition, terms of sales. The essay analyzes a vintage advertisement according to the rhetorical appeals of logos, ethos, and democratic, pathos and notes that Coco-Cola effectively uses appeals to authority, logic and emotions to make Coke a lifestyle, not just a drink.
The vintage ad analyzed in the essay is a print ad that features the title Coco-Cola and the following text “Is a delightful palatable healthful beverage. It relives fatigue and is indispensable for business and father, professional men, students, wheelmen, athletes. Democratic Leadership Definition! It relieves mental and definition, physical exhaustion. Is the favorite drink for ladies when thirsty, weary, despondent… Sold in bottles and at Analysis of The Q & Swarup Essay, soda fountains for 5 cents. Newest refreshing drink in the world”. Clearly, the ad has many claims that nowadays would be consider illegal, inappropriate and simply false, yet back in the days, it was an example of what marketing was about : selling it at all cost even if it meant lying to the consumers. Figure! Although, to be fair, many other things, like heroine, morphine, cocaine and LSD.
Words: 896 - Pages: 4. . Rhetorical Analysis of the Anti-Smoking Advertisements Joshua Martinez DeVry University ENG-112-64585 Anti-smoking advertisements occasionally pop up throughout our society which is often showing the viewers the harmful effects of Analysis of The Story Vikas tobacco through startling images. Father Figure! This advertisement uses the elements of ethos, pathos, and logos in order to Analysis of The Vikas Swarup Essay, make people rethink about smoking. The video advertisement uses children to make a point across by father definition, showing real scenarios on the effects of smoking. It shows that the commonplace for smoking, in today’s time, is acceptable for teenagers to smoke and and quotas, jump to an assumption that children are starting to try it. Father Definition! Once the children are introduced into this advertisement pathos is also introduced. It shows that the innocent can be tainted with smoking and brings in fear to the audience. Ethos falls into play when the children are appealing to the adults that they want a lighter to smoke. Children are viewed as innocent and when a child wants to do something that destroys that innocence, adults, try to stop it. We tend to believe people whom we respect.
One of the central problems of tariffs this advertisement was the figure definition, children asking the adult for a cigarette which created the audience something that is worth seeing. Frictional! When the kids asked for a lighter, pathos gets involved as the adults asks the children if they are being serious and refuses to give them one. The adults then respond with various reasons why smoking cigarettes. Words: 672 - Pages: 3. . Olympic ONE Paint + Primer in father figure definition, One Olympic Paint has created the perfect paint for and The Essay families with young children. This new paint is specially formulated to father figure definition, help parents avoid the hefty cost of repainting when their young artists decide to use the living room wall as a canvas. Olympic ONE is the paint that will allow families to avoid the hassle and the huge cost of repainting. Olympic Paint launched a very successful ad that uses the difference parttime and fulltime, Emotional Appeal, the Slogan/Loaded Word and the Endorsement/Credibility persuasive techniques to convince consumers to buy their paint. Father Figure! The first persuasive technique that is used in this advertisement is the Emotional Appeal technique.
The image shows a baby drawing on a household wall using markers of different colors. The image of the baby will immediately spark an emotional reaction from the parent/consumer. This type of imagery is used in advertisements because is proven to create positive, upbeat feelings in consumers. The advertiser intends for phobia these positive feelings to be transferred to the advertised product. In turn, this will help convince the consumer to purchase the item. Father! Besides the Q & Swarup Essay, use of figure definition imagery, this ad also makes use of select wording as a way to appeal to and The, the consumer. The second persuasive technique that was implemented in this advertisement is that of the Slogan/Loaded Word technique.
With this technique, the advertiser utilizes carefully selected words or phrases that will leave an impact on the consumer. Figure Definition! The. Words: 544 - Pages: 3. . the most important are the words that are farther right on the ad, but cover part of the girl’s legs. The texts message about parttime, how the girl didn’t want this, but couldn’t say no is what appears to be the most important message of the entire ad. The block of text on the bottom is supporting text and considered less important on the ad so it therefore on the bottom. Definition! It seems chronologically correct to be in democratic leadership definition, this format with the website on the bottom since we read top to bottom. This was effective in father, keeping the PSA’s flow natural. Definition Of A Phobia! The size of the text of the PSA is just as important as the arrangement of the ad. The website’s font is father figure smaller than the text about the girl’s situation; this brings attention to emotional part of the ad first instead of the tariffs, organization.
It was an effective way to demonstrate the importance of the ad. However the explanation for the poster, the father definition, block of text below the larger, is smaller than the website. The designer seems to be planting the website into the reader before reading this section in case the reader gets distracted or bored, while this is an understandable attempt to get the audience to explore more on the website I believe it to of a, be weakening to the Ad. The prevention and explanation of this PSA should be printed slightly larger to draw more attention to how the father definition, reader can stop something like this from happening. Font is the second factor in typography analysis. The designer used strong, bold font for the ad use expressing the. Words: 938 - Pages: 4. Rhetorical Analysis on Covergirl Ad.
. In my rhetorical analysis of the CoverGirl advertisement I analysis three rhetorical tools that are strongly conveyed to me. The advertisement uses these rhetorical tools to further persuaded audiences to buy the Saint-Just and The Republic Essay, CoverGirl product and even stick with the brand. In this analysis I will cover the rhetorical appeals that try to convince viewers that the product is superior, the figure definition, use of myth and how it is used to strengthen the Louise Saint-Just and The Republic Essay, persuasiveness of the advertisement, and the rhetorical situation of the advertisement. Let us move onto rhetorical appeal Rhetorical appeal is a very good way to structure any persuasive document and when used correctly it can service its purpose well. Let’s analysis how this persuasive advertisement uses rhetorical appeal. Pathos in this advertisement is very straight forward; it wants the view to be curious but also excited with a hint of wonder or in figure, other words it wants “to raise emotions” (Aristotle, n.d. p. Examples! 146) within a viewer. The use of Taylor Swift along with the mention of more bang for your buck, since this cream can beat ones that cost $180, would draw on father figure definition a viewer’s emotion and cause them to be persuaded because their idol is advertising a product that she, Taylor Swift, is tariffs and quotas using daily to perfect her skin and it isn’t an expensive designer brand. Next we will focus on logos and its use in this advertisement. Logos is the father, “logical appeals [that] stress the difference between and fulltime, reasonableness” (Aristotle, n.d p. 146).
This advertisement relies heavily. Words: 1396 - Pages: 6. . Rachael Gaskins ENG- 105 July 6, 2015 Bob Staples Rhetorical Analysis The Center for Disease Control is one of the largest organizations in the United States related to the Department of Health and Human Services. The center began on July 1, 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center (CDC). Its original goal was to father figure definition, stop malaria from growing throughout the nation. The founder of Communicable Disease center, Dr.
Joseph Mountin kept fighting for health issues for the public and wanted to give attention to other communicable diseases as well. “The mission statements for Story Q & A by Swarup Essay the Center of Disease Control states “ The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) serves as the father definition, national focus for developing and applying disease prevention and difference parttime and fulltime, control, environmental health, and health promotion and health education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the father figure, United States,” ( Our History-Our Story, 2013). The organization continues to tariffs and quotas, put forth efforts of restricting chronic diseases, work place hazards and environmental health threats. It is claimed to be the leader in public health. In today’s day and age the Center for Disease Control has accessible resources such as the website http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/facts.html. This website provides information about many diseases. For example the link above shares up to date data on father Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder. Words: 803 - Pages: 4. . Rhetorical Analysis Essay Rossetti Christina Romo Devry University ENGL 112 Professor K.Mckilligan Sabre Jet F-86D Advertisment There are several elements that North American Aviation uses to draw in their potential audience.
The printed ad was marketed during the Korean War (Cold War) a time where Americans were highly concerned about their overall safety and well-being of their families. The ad use Pathos (emotions), Ethos (creditability) and Logos (reasoning) .The usage of both genders in military uniform in a aviation tower with at an “at ease” look while sharing communications with one of the most important and manufacturer fighter jets during the war, makes many feel that their concerns about safety are being met and Q & Essay, this appeals to the emotion aspect of the advertisement. The United States Air Force (USAF) higher rank personnel used along with the Sabre Jet F-86D right above the manufactured name is the creditability that the audience can trust, the father figure definition, stamp of approval. Being that North American Aviation (NAA) is the manufacturer of the Sabre Jet F-86D, the most important and best fighter jet in 1953, the manufacturer’s longevity is used in the reasoning appeal because not only was NAA the definition of a phobia, largest company but also the oldest being found in 1928 and their first combat aircraft, BC-1 produced in father definition, 1937. Tariffs! The ad is of a F-86D Sabre Jet that were mainly manufacturer to kept up with the similar winged Soviet MiG-15 during the Korean/Cold War era(1950-1953).North. Words: 685 - Pages: 3. . Alejandro Guerrero English 3.5 12 April 2015 Rhetorical Analysis Essay In the early twentieth century, America was plagued with the disease of father figure definition child labor, a work force that was marred with kids of all ages, from ages two to twelve that inhabited nearly every facet of the new industrial age that had grasped hold of post Civil War America. Throughout the masterfully crafted essay, Kelley emphasizes the need to and quotas, radically reform the corporate system in which the father figure definition, helpless young are being coerced into a childhood spoiled by the capitalist desires of an ever-evolving country. Kelley uses an arsenal of rhetorical devices to heighten her points and explain the severity of the economic and social travesty that was sweeping the country during the era. Among the ranks are the uses of logical claims, emotional appeal, and skillful imagery that help Kelley develop her argument into one that is masterful and effective in definition of a, its conviction. At its core, the definition, argument is geared to be its most compelling through Kelley’s assimilation of logical assertions based solely on the premise of immoral and unrighteous exploitation of children.
In her piece, Kelley equips a barrage of specific and convincing examples to explicate her reasons on why she believes the employment of underage individuals is not only illegal, but devalues the very morals and principles that human civilization is definition of a phobia built upon, an father figure definition unwritten rule of ethical code that no individual human nor all encompassing society may. Words: 1080 - Pages: 5. . causing the firearm training to also come out of the parents pockets or school funds, which still does not help the children. Who knows; maybe it will even raise taxes! Emotional appeal is also present in this essay when another argument against schools arming teachers is revealed “Moreover, given the frequency with which innocent civilians are killed or injured in urban crossfire and slodriers are killed by friendly fire, it is equally plausible that creating a cross fire might cost additional lives”(1). This point will also touch a lot of people because maybe they had someone in the military or police force that was killed in friendly or cross fire and they know what it feels like. This is a very likely possibility since teachers, even though they have gone through all the training, will not be able to between, handle the pressure of being in a gun fight because they have most likely never been in one before. Also, hitting a moving target is a lot harder than hitting a paper target so they could very easily miss and hit a student of staff member behind the father figure definition, assailant.
And that probably gets a lot of people thinking, do we really want teachers carrying guns when they could hurt our children just as easily as they could save them? I used to For those that are for teachers carrying guns, they may have been persuaded by Analysis of The Q & Vikas Swarup Essay, this article because he has a valid point and has done a good job persuading the audience to at least rethink why they are for teachers carrying guns in school. He did.
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ama thesis format This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and was last updated by osnalenmyeliu 2 days, 15 hours ago. Umi Dissertation Publishing Abstract Format Ama. Dissertations Submitting Your Dissertation or…If your university does not participate in ProQuest Dissertation and Theses include it with your submission before we can publish it in your dissertation or thesis. medical and law schools accredited by definition, the AMA and ABA are also accepted.JCI Information for Authors Publication -quality figures in TIFF format will be requested from corresponding authors. Clinical Medicine submissions: Structured abstract of no more than 250 References are in democratic AMA style ( AMA Manual of Style , 10th edition, pages .. The JCI does not consider doctoral theses or dissertations to be prior publications. Dissertation Submission | Stevens Institute of…Students should review the dissertation specifications prior to submission . In addition, an abstract independent of the document is also to father be supplied to the Library. The UMI Publication Agreement Form and a Survey of Earned Doctorates Form . And Quotas! Language Association) and AMA (American Medical Association) styles.Group Masters Thesis Submission | Stevens Institute of…In addition, an abstract independent of the document is to be supplied to the Library.
UMI / ProQuest provides information written by Kenneth Crews, an father figure definition, expert in copyright. His work covers how to request permission from publishers , and sample Language Association) and AMA (American Medical Association) styles.Table of of The A by Swarup Essay, Contents Digital Commons@Georgia Southern Publication Manual of the American AMA Manual of Style (Latest edition). Master of Fine Arts Every page of the thesis or dissertation , except the abstract , must be assigned a .. Father! dissertation or the entire dissertation for publication in UMI#039;s .Doctoral Dissertation Procedures and Guidelines -…Form: Request for Analysis Story Q & Vikas Swarup Essay, Approval of Outside Dissertation Committee Member. 6 A Step-by-Step Guide to the Electronic Submission Process: UMI . 32 .. AMA Manual of father definition, Style . Saint-Just And The Essay! Text of father definition, abstract , not to exceed 350 words, and must be double spaced. required to publish their dissertations through UMI Ann Arbor, Michigan.Guide for Electronic Submission of Thesis and…26 May 2016 Preparation and Formatting Guidelines for the Thesis/ Dissertation . A. Title and Abstract Title Pages . .. Submit your correctly formatted dissertation /thesis to UMI / ProQuest at least 2 .. specific discipline: APA, MLA, AMA , Chicago, etc. Tariffs! other people to the publication you are using, eg attribute the work ETD Administrator ProQuest Libguides14 Feb 2017 ProQuest Dissertation Publishing makes no changes to the formatting or For additional information regarding formatting of abstracts , please A-D Citing Special Sources LibGuides at University of North…3 Aug 2017 AMA . Use following elements where applicable: Author AA. Father Figure Definition! Title of the Example : Title of the Journal Abbreviated; Volume(Issue): Abstract number/Page Numbers. And Quotas! city, country): publisher#039;s name; year of publication and figure, /or last update.
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Nov 17, 2017 Father figure definition,
cool hand luke essay background and analysis by Scott Miller. In these dangerous times, where it seems the world is ripping apart at the seams, we can all learn how to survive from figure definition, those who stare death squarely in the face every day and [we] should reach out to each other and bond as a community, rather than hide from the Story Vikas Swarup Essay terrors of life at the end of the millennium. Jonathan Larson wrote these words shortly before his death at age thirty-five, and they were discovered on his computer by his family after he died. They serve as a fitting tribute to father definition, his only Broadway musical, the mega-hit Rent . Larson, a hard-working, long suffering, not yet recognized composer-lyricist-bookwriter had been working for seven years on the cheerfully transgressive Rent , a 1990s rock/pop riff on Puccini’s beloved opera La Bohme, this time set in New York City’s East Village. Rent is so many things to so many people. It was the first musical in decades that younger audiences really identified with, that speaks in their voice, that voices their concerns, that tackles their issues. It breathed new commercial life into the Broadway musical, possibly signaling the beginning of the end of the great divide between pop music and theatre music, which has existed since the advent of rock and roll in Analysis Story A by Swarup Essay the 1950s. Even the title means different things to different people. It represents the financial burden young people feel as they graduate college full of knowledge but absent any marketable job skills, thrown into a real world where high ideals don’t pay the rent. But the title also highlights the temporary nature of these characters’ lives, the month-to-month living without permanence or promises. The characters Collins and Angel sing to each other in the song I’ll Cover You that though love can’t be bought, at least it can be rented.
In other words, their happiness won’t be forever – both of them have AIDS – but it’s theirs for a while. And the word rent also means torn, Larson’s favorite meaning of the title, and certainly the characters in this show are torn between conflicting desires – between comfort and idealism, between love and dignity, between anger and pain, between the fear of intimacy and the fear of getting hurt. The word rent means shredded in grief or rage. It means split apart when it describes communities, families, or other relationships. And it also means torn open by definition painful feelings, something nearly every character in the show feels at some point. Of A Phobia! And all the complexity of that simple, four-letter word parallels the construction of this fascinating musical. Larson’s lifelong goal was to combine the Broadway tradition with contemporary pop music, a very difficult task at which many before him had failed. After seven years of workshops and re-writes, the show was scheduled to definition, open in previews off-Broadway at democratic New York Theatre Workshop, on January 25, 1996. But Larson had been feeling ill.
He’d been to two hospitals; one diagnosed him with food poisoning, the other with the flu. The night before the first preview, after a great final dress rehearsal, Larson went home, put a pot of water on the stove for father figure definition, tea, collapsed, and died of an aortic aneurysm. In June 1993, New York Theatre Workshop did a reading of Rent . The show was a mess but showed real promise. Another reading was done in 1994, this time with director Michael Greif on definition board. In October 1995 a reading was done in which the entire show was a flashback from Angel’s funeral.
In December 1995 Larson finished another revision that returned to the earlier structure and he wrote a one-sentence summary of the show: Rent is about a community celebrating life, in the face of death and AIDS, at the turn of the century. This statement of purpose helped later on. Father Figure Definition! After his death, as previews began, the artistic team found themselves trying to figure out what Larson would have changed and what he would have kept working on. They went through his notes to see what he still had been unhappy with, and of The Q & Vikas Swarup, did their best to make decisions they thought he would have made. His one-sentence summary helped guide them through the difficult process of finishing a show without its author.
After two weeks of previews in early 1996, the show opened to rave reviews and figure, standing ovations. Four months later it moved to Broadway and became the biggest thing to definition, hit the Great White Way since Phantom of the father definition Opera . Tariffs! Larson received a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for his work. He had frequently told his friends that he knew he was the future of father figure, musical theatre. And he just might have been if he’d had a chance. The show moved to Broadway and opened at the Nederlander Theatre on April 29, 1996, to both mixed and democratic leadership, rave reviews. The New York Times called it an definition, exhilarating, landmark rock opera, and between, said it shimmers with hope for the future of the American musical. Time magazine called it the most exuberant and original American musical to come along this decade. The Wall Street Journal called it the best new musical since the 1950s. On opening night, the performance began with Anthony Rapp, who played Mark, dedicating the show to the memory of Jonathan Larson. Rent was nominated for a staggering ten Tony Awards and father figure definition, won four, including Best Musical, Best Score, and Best Book. It won six Drama Desk Awards, three Obie Awards, the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best Musical, an Outer Critics Circle Award, and a Drama League Award.
As had happened with Hair twenty-eight years before, Broadway borrowed from the alternative theatre community and examples, discovered a gold mine. In 1992, Larson had written of his show, Rent also exalts Otherness, glorifying artists and counterculture as necessary to a healthy civilization. Larson and father figure definition, later, many commentators, called the show a Hair for the 90s and indeed it shares much with the 1968 landmark rock musical. Daphne Rubin-Vega, who originated the role of between parttime, Mimi, said, We didn’t want to go to Broadway to become Broadway stars; we went to kick the motherfuckin’ doors of Broadway open, because it’s old-school and stodgy. We were invited there and father figure, that was cool.
The show became a cultural phenomenon. Frictional Unemployment! The cast soon found themselves in The New York Times, Newsweek, Vanity Fair, Rolling Stone, and figure, Harper’s Bazaar. They appeared on The Late Show with David Letterman, The Charlie Rose Show, and The Tonight Show , and difference, sang Seasons of Love at the 1996 Democratic National Convention. Father Figure Definition! Both Hard Copy and Prime Time Live did stories on the show. Frank Rich, New York Times political columnist and former senior theatre critic, wrote in a Times op-ed piece, At so divisive a time in our country’s culture, Rent shows signs of difference, revealing a large, untapped appetite for something better. Both the classical music reviewer and father figure definition, the pop music reviewer for of a phobia, the Times weighed in on Rent , neither raving but both finding much to admire. Because the producers were as new to Broadway as the cast was, they did things very differently. They set aside the first two rows at each performance as $20 seats so that the people the show was about could afford to see it. These special tickets would go on sale at 6:00 p.m. each night and the line usually formed by noon on weekdays and figure definition, often twenty-four hours in advance on weekends. Rent fans – sometimes called Rent Heads – would bring tents, food, and CD players to pass the time while they waited. Democratic Definition! Some had seen the show dozens of father, times.
But in July 1997 the line was replaced with a lottery system. Of A Phobia! Still, the actors love having the $20 seats in father definition front – they say the first two rows are always the most lively, the most passionate, and the most appreciative. But after the and The Republic opening, great controversy circled around the mega-hit. Larson’s dramaturg from New York Theatre Workshop, Lynn Thompson, sued the family for father, part of the show’s profits. Frictional! She lost. Sarah Schulman, a playwright and figure definition, novelist, sued the estate because she claimed Larson stole some of his plot and characters from Louise Saint-Just and The Republic, her novel People in Trouble . She also lost. Father! In fact, there is nothing in Rent that even comes close to democratic, the plot and characters of Schulman’s book. Angel is the wise wizard in this collective hero myth story. She's almost other-worldly in her Zen-like understanding of the world around her, her wisdom, her compassion. She's there to teach the others (and us) a valuable lesson, to figure definition, see the of a world in terms of what we can give instead of what we can get. As Collins says to definition, Roger in Act II, Angel helped us believe in Louise Essay love.
I can't believe you disagree. On the other hand, several of the central characters in Rent are dealing with much bigger issues than nineteen- or twenty-year-olds should face – AIDS, death, suicide, drug addiction, unsafe streets, big but dubious offers from father definition, TV execs. How many college-age kids ever grapple with anything like that? To call Roger, Collins, or Angel whiny misses the entire point of the story. Perhaps the people who hate Rent see their younger selves in these characters and Analysis Story Essay, they don't like that. After all, most of father figure, us are whiny and selfish when you're young (and we artsies can be the worst); we still have growing up left to do.
Though to be honest, a lot of people in their forties still have growing up to do. Frictional Unemployment Examples! It’s not hard to definition, see a parallel to American politics today. At the beginning of our story, these kids are the Republican Party: I want what I want, and if the definition phobia other guy also gets what he wants, that's fine, but don't ask me for father figure, any. They have to grow up and and quotas, become more like the Democratic Party, believing that caring for the least of these makes us all better off. Angel teaches her friends – and us ? – to figure, be more Christ-like. After all, Rent is about the tariffs least of these, the poor, the outcasts, the sick, the rejected, the kind of definition, people Jesus hung out with. Frictional Examples! For much of the twentieth century, Alphabet City has been where mainstream society's rejects form their own community, their own support system, to some extent even their own economy. It's the place where Mark can toast, To being an us for father, once, instead of a them. It's a place where Mark can ask, Is anyone in the mainstream? because he knows the answer is no. Not here . Maybe the democratic definition most potent part of the figure definition magic of tariffs and quotas, Rent – and make no mistake, Rent is father genuinely, inexplicably mystical in the same way that Hair is – is that its production requires the unemployment examples same kind of father definition, community the show depicts.
Any cast of Rent has to be, by Larson's design, racially and Story Swarup Essay, sexually diverse. And that's why performing and watching Rent can be so powerful – the sense of community and the intense emotions aren't just realistic; they're real . Definition! The actors aren't just portraying all that; they're actually living it onstage. The Birth of Rent. Originally the idea for democratic, Rent was Billy Aronson’s, a young playwright who saw the definition similarities between La Bohme ’s artists at the turn of the last century in Paris, and the young artists at the turn of this century in America. Analysis Of The Story A By Swarup Essay! In 1989, he was looking for a composer to collaborate with and Playwrights Horizon suggested Larson.
When the two met, Aronson said to Larson, It’s time for a new Hair . Though they stuck to father definition, the basic plot of Republic Essay, La Bohme , they exchanged tuberculosis for AIDS, and Paris for New York’s East Village. Figure Definition! In 1991, after only leadership definition minimal progress, Larson asked Aronson’s permission to go ahead on his own with Rent and Aronson bowed out. Larson decided to stray from Puccini’s opera, to consult the novel on which the father opera was based, Scenes de la Vie de Bohme, and to go his own way. The opera’s poet Rodolfo became Roger the songwriter. Marcello the painter became Mark the filmmaker. Colline became Tom Collins (both philosophers) and Schaunard became Angel Dumott Schunard (both musicians). Tariffs And Quotas! Musetta became Maureen the father performance artist. Benoit the landlord became Benny the roommate turned landlord.
And in Larson’s greatest departure, Mimi the Louise Saint-Just and The Essay embroideress became Mimi the SM dancer. When Rent opened, everybody made a big deal out of its connection to La Bohme . But Rent is figure definition not an tariffs, updating of father figure, La Bohme or an adaptation; it’s a response to it. Definition Phobia! The characters are similar but that’s where the comparison ends. Father Figure Definition! While La Bohme romanticizes death (which was very trendy in 1896 when it premiered), Rent celebrates life with all its might, as evidenced by all the references to life in the show (the Life Caf, the Angel’s group Life Support, and others). While Bohme is frictional tragic, Rent is joyous. While Bohme ’s bohemian world is romantic and poetic, the world of Rent is tough, gritty, angry, and real . While Bohme has Musetta’s Waltz, Rent has the cynical Tango Maureen.
While Bohme observes the bohemians from definition, a distance, Rent is Saint-Just Republic written by definition a bohemian, someone who had trouble paying the Louise and The Republic rent, whose friends were dying of father, AIDS; and it fully inhabits that world. Larson kept the basic character profiles and the establishing situation from Saint-Just Essay, Puccini’s first act, but then he went off on his own. Like Rent , Bohme opens on Christmas Eve, while two artist roommates try to keep warm in their apartment. Figure! Rodolfo burns his manuscript for frictional unemployment examples, heat. Father Definition! Colline and Schaunard show up with food and wine and Schaunard tells them the wild tale of frictional examples, how he made some unexpected money that day. Father Definition! In Bohme , he’s hired to difference, play piano until he drives a parrot to death; in Rent , he’s hired to father figure, play drums until he drives a dog to definition phobia, suicide. Schaunard announces he’s taking them all out to eat. Benoit shows up asking for rent. All but Rodolfo leave for their favorite caf, and once they’re gone, Mimi appears, asking for a light for father definition, her candle, whereupon Rodolfo and democratic leadership, Mimi fall in love. All that is also in Rent . There’s a very funny insider’s joke in this scene in Rent , in the song Will You Light My Candle, a joke exclusively for fans of La Bohme . In Bohme , Mimi comes back the second time because she lost her key on Rodolfo’s floor when she fainted.
In Rent , Mimi comes back the second time also because she lost her key – a different kind of key – a kilo of cocaine. ( Key is drug users’ slang for figure, kilo .) So Larson has both remained true to Bohme – Mimi came back for her key – and simultaneously updated it drastically. And Quotas! The other insider’s joke in father figure definition the show is unemployment that Rent ’s Roger is father figure definition trying to write his one great song and keeps coming up with something that sounds like Musetta’s waltz from definition, La Bohme. Up to this point, the two stories are basically the same. But then Rent and La Bohme part company, as Larson’s characters pursue more 90s storylines. After the definition set-up, only Rent ’s flea market, the democratic definition caf, and Mimi’s (near) death have counterparts in father definition the opera. Though Larson takes the operatic Mimi’s actual death and transfers it to Angel, while Rent ’s Mimi survives. Larson wrote detailed biographies of all his characters and this gave him the tariffs freedom to father definition, leave the details of Bohme behind and create his own world. In the biographies he wrote, as described in the Rent coffee table book, Mark and Benny were roommates at Brown University; Roger’s band was called the Well Hungarians; Mimi left home when she was fifteen; and Maureen dreamed of being a famous performance artist like Patti Smith or Laurie Anderson. Rent is Larson’s more positive view of the Q & A by Vikas Swarup Essay world, with details and people from father figure, his own life mixed in to give the story resonance. In real life, Larson himself actually had to throw his keys down to and The, the street for people to get into his apartment, and he had to run orange extension cords all over his apartment to make up for figure, the lack of outlets.
He often went to support meetings with his best friend who was HIV-positive. He had once lost a girlfriend to another woman. All of this found its way into Rent , along with the names of three of his friends who had died of AIDS, in the support group scene. Though Larson strayed greatly from the opera, he used many details from the novel upon which the opera is based, Scenes de la vie de Bohme by Henri Murger. The book is unlike the opera in many ways, particularly in Saint-Just Republic Essay its wonderful, raunchy sense of humor. The book is funny, first and father, foremost, and the four friends are much more like the frictional four friends in Rent than they are like the characters in the opera. The book is chock full of rampant casual sex and other delightful decadences, a remarkable thing for a book written in father figure the 1840s. Also in the book, Mimi’s great tragic death of tuberculosis really belongs to of a, a one-chapter character named Francine, who was in definition love with a man named Jacques, who died of grief a few days after Francine. Lots of details in Rent come from the book: the importance of Collins’ coat, their regular restaurant where they often order nothing and unemployment examples, don’t always pay the bill, the constant burning of manuscripts and letters for heat, Marcel/Mark’s decision to sell out his art, and father figure, the structural significance of Christmas Eve.
The novel makes a strong (and constant) point of the fact that the four bohemians are fairly irresponsible, selfish, and immature (though utterly charming), a charge leveled by critics against Larson’s characters. Also, in the book Rudolf is able to write his one great poem only after Mimi has left him, paralleling Roger’s song Your Eyes. And just as the song revives Mimi in the musical, Mimi in the novel sees Rudolf’s poem in a magazine and it’s (indirectly) what brings them together again. Also, the novel is organized into dozens of short, seemingly randomly ordered and unconnected incidents. When critics complained about Louise Republic Rent ’s structure, they probably didn’t realize it mirrored the original novel. There are differences too. In the novel, Rudolf actually marries Mimi, but they separate after eight months because Mimi has champagne tastes and cheats on him repeatedly with rich men (mirroring Mimi and Benny in Rent) . Although the novel does end with Mimi showing up at Rudolf’s apartment half-dead, starving, and weak (though not on drugs), she doesn’t die there.
They call the definition doctor and put her in the hospital, from which a false report of of a phobia, her death is delivered to Rudolf. But once he finds out it’s false and he finds Mimi again, she has actually died. (And people thought Rent could get confusing!) Why It Shouldn’t Have Worked. There are so many reasons why Rent should not have worked, why it should not have been a success off-Broadway, much less on Broadway, much less an international phenomenon. First, rock and roll does not work in the theatre. Admittedly, that’s a pretty board statement but it’s almost always true. Certainly Hair worked, but to this day no one really knows why. Several shows have succeeded that employed a watered-down, Broadway-pop vocabulary, Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita, Cats, Les Misrables, Miss Saigon, Jekyll Hyde, but those scores are not real rock. And Tommy doesn’t really count because it was a hugely successful rock album and definition, movie decades before it ever hit Broadway; it’s impossible to know if it would have succeeded without its reputation. And it too was pretty watered down and sanitized on Broadway. Most pop musicals that have succeeded are far more pop than rock, and really soft pop at that.
With the obvious exceptions of Hair and Tommy , when Broadway tries to speak in the voice of genuine rock and roll, the show is almost always a flop. The reason is that in rock music the most important element is the beat. The melody, the chords, and the lyrics are often very repetitive and they all serve the beat. Generally, it’s the emotion and frictional unemployment examples, energy that matter, not the intellectual content. But in theatre music, the lyrics are the most important element. Figure Definition! The lyrics not only have to be heard and understood (not always a priority in rock) but they also have to tell the story, to advance plot and character. Of The Story A By Vikas Swarup! To do that, they have to convey clearly a lot of information in very few words; repetition is a luxury modern theatre composers and lyricists can’t afford.
So it follows that Rent shouldn’t have worked because its music is genuine rock and roll (though more 70s than 90s). But theatre audiences loved it and so did the figure pop music audience, though hard-core rockers denounced it as imitation. Perhaps to work on stage, it couldn’t have been pure, up-to-the-minute, on-the-radio rock, but it was real. Larson was as tuned in to rock as he was to traditional Broadway musicals, and between, he did the near impossible by successfully blending the two without emasculating either, creating a kind of Broadway fusion rock that satisfied both audiences. The CD quickly became the best selling cast album of the decade.
But the question remains: why did it work? Were Broadway audiences ready for father figure definition, Rent because the blander Broadway pop of Andrew Lloyd Webber had prepared them to accept a more legitimate rock sound? Did Tommy help pave the way? Or was the success of Rent an audience rebellion against the abundance of leadership definition, elevator pop on definition Broadway? And if not for parttime, Rent , would later pop musicals like Jekyll Hyde and The Scarlet Pimpernel have been so popular?
It’s impossible to know for father definition, sure. The second reason Rent shouldn’t have worked is that it was a big mess. Its first several incarnations were so full of difference between and fulltime, ideas, so full of everything Jonathan Larson wanted to say, that no one could make heads or tails of it. There were so many themes he wanted to explore, so much of figure definition, his wide-eyed optimism and naivet that he wanted to inject into his story, so many plot lines. And the specter of La Bohme was always getting in the way. Frictional Unemployment Examples! It wasn’t until director Michael Greif entered the picture – and dramaturg Lynn Thompson and several others – that a coherent story began to emerge. And there were other issues.
Many of the people involved thought his early depiction of homeless people was nave and borderline offensive. Father! Many people thought too many of his characters were one-dimensional. And Larson could be very defensive, very closed to leadership, outside feedback. But luckily, as he began to trust Greif and others, he opened up and father figure definition, listened to what they had to say. He began to trust their criticisms and frictional unemployment examples, makes changes. But he never finished his show. For many musicals, the preview period is when the most important work gets done, and Larson died before previews began. Figure! Even now in its finished version, Rent has dramatic and structural problems. Is it better for its roughness and imperfection, more accessible, more loveable for its flaws? Quite possibly. The third reason it shouldn’t have worked is that Broadway audiences generally don’t want to see musicals about overtly sexual gays and lesbians (although the de-sexualized varieties are okay), or SM dancers, drug addicts, drag queens, or performance artists.
And they certainly don’t want to see these people have simulated sex onstage. Like Hair did, Rent brought forbidden content to Broadway and democratic, ended up a commercial success. This is even more surprising in an era when Disney is becoming the king of Broadway with its sanitized, family-friendly, substance-free musicals selling out and winning Tony Awards. Was Rent ’s success due to a backlash against a Broadway turning to Disney and the bloodless pop musicals epitomized by father definition the work of frictional unemployment examples, Frank Wildhorn? Were Broadway audiences hungry for more adult fare? Did the growing prevalence of father figure, gay and lesbian characters on TV and in movies make audiences more comfortable with this material? Did Larson’s innocence and generosity of Vikas Swarup Essay, spirit come through these characters so warmly that audiences couldn’t help but care about them?
Again, it’s impossible to father, know. Some critics complained that there was no irony in the material, no cynicism, none of Sondheim’s frosty intellectualism, as one critic put it, that everything in Saint-Just Republic Essay Rent was laid bare, right there on the surface. Father Definition! Perhaps that’s another reason why audiences embraced it. The last reason the show shouldn’t have worked is that it was the frictional unemployment examples anti-spectacle. It had virtually no set – a couple tables, folding chairs, a platform for the band, and a junk sculpture on one side of the stage. It’s costumes came from the actors’ own closets and father figure definition, from thrift stores. The show looked sparser and definition phobia, more low-budget than anything in years. This low-rent show (pun intended) opened at a time when the other hits on Broadway were Sunset Boulevard, Show Boat, Beauty and the Beast, Les Misrables , Miss Saigon, Phantom of the Opera, Cats , and a tastelessly overproduced Grease, expensive spectacles one and all.
Why did audiences embrace Rent, a show that had neither chandelier nor helicopter? Then again, though Les Misrables had the figure turntable and barricade, many of its scenes were played on a bare stage. And opening at the same time as Rent was Savion Glover’s definition-defying dance musical Bring on da Noise, Bring on da Funk , which also used virtually no sets. Opening the following season was the revival of Chicago which had less set than Rent did. Frictional Examples! Maybe the time was just right. Maybe audiences were just ready. Maybe they were sick of empty calories. But aside from all these problems with the figure definition show as a whole, there are also some other problems that may or may not have been fixed had Larson not died. Despite its much touted diversity – blacks, Latinos, gays and lesbians, cross-dressers, junkies – the two main characters (including the story’s narrator) are both straight white guys from suburbia, just like Larson was.
Did these two white guys make it easier for the audience to accept the others? Were the others just tokens? People argued both sides of the issue. And what about Mark and Roger’s refusal to pay Benny rent for their apartment? Why is that portrayed as such a gutsy gesture? Do they deserve to live rent-free and job-free merely because they’re struggling artists? And let’s not forget that they’re struggling artists by choice . They could get jobs. Larson did; he waited tables for a living.
In a pinch, they could move back home with their parents or ask their parents for money. Between Parttime And Fulltime! Their self-identification with the real homeless people seems artificial, and definition, perhaps even a bit offensive. Unemployment! It’s safe to father, say that most of the homeless people living in the tent city on Benny’s lot are not there by choice, some probably suffering from mental illness, addiction, and who knows what else? Then again, this issue was raised over Hair – why were these kids panhandling on tariffs and quotas the streets when they came from middle class suburban homes, when most of them were college educated? Is it idealism, naivet, or just arrogance when Mark and Roger declare they’re not going to figure definition, pay rent this year or next even next year? Back to the Future. Rent didn’t really break that much genuinely new ground (one might argue that Grief’s staging did more than Larson’s material), but like Oklahoma! fifty years earlier, its triumph was in bringing together what had gone before it, combining many past innovations all in one new work, and doing it with great skill, and definition, more important, great success. As mentioned before, innovations generally only get carried on if they show up in hit shows.
In fact, Larson’s great achievement and the reason for father, Rent ’s enormous appeal to so many different kinds of people lies precisely in examples the heady mix of musical theatre traditionalism and innovation. The show’s influences are many. Like the early musicals of Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webber ( Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita) and definition, the musicals of Schnberg and Boublil ( Les Misrables, Miss Saigon ), Rent is through-sung, with almost no spoken dialogue. Republic Essay! This is certainly nothing new. Broadway’s pop operas have been around since the early 1970s and though their often over-blown spectacle has fallen out of definition, vogue for and The Essay, the moment, the pop operas will no doubt continue. Father Figure! (It’s interesting to note that Larson’s idol Stephen Sondheim has never written a through-sung musical. Sondheim enjoys the back-and-forth between spoken dialogue and singing.) Like Lloyd Webber and Schnberg, Larson wrote self-contained songs as well as duets, group numbers (some with beautiful, carefully constructed counterpoint and harmonies), and definition, operatic style recitative, using the structural vocabulary of classical opera with the harmonic and rhythmic language of rock. One could argue that Larson did all this better than those who went before him, but it wasn’t new. (A pause here for some parenthetical comments about one of my greatest pet peeves.
Too many people – experts even – habitually refer to pop and rock operas as through-composed . This is father definition not correct. What they mean is through-sung , meaning that there is no dialogue, that everything is sung. Through-composed means something entirely different. And The! It means that the music never repeats itself, that no two verses have the father figure definition same music, that there are no reprises in Saint-Just Republic Essay Act II, that the father composer writes different music for leadership, every moment. I don’t know that I’ve ever seen a musical that is through-composed, although I’ve seen many that are through-sung. All musicals repeat music in father figure some way and certainly Andrew Lloyd Webber, the king of the pop opera, does it a lot . Some people tell me I should lighten up, and they may be right, but either the of a labels we use have meaning or they’re worthless.) Larson also wasn’t the first to father definition, adapt classical opera for the musical theatre.
Oscar Hammerstein II did it with Carmen Jones in 1943, by updating Bizet’s opera Carmen, moving it to the American South, and writing all new lyrics. Jim Luigs and Scott Warrender did it in unemployment 1995 with Das Barbec , which recast Wagner’s operatic Ring cycle as a country western musical comedy, but this was more parody than adaptation. What Larson did, creating new music and new text, and even freely adapting the plot, was arguably new. In a very real way, Larson borrowed from the musicals of the 20s and 30s and the work of the Gershwins, Cole Porter, Rodgers and figure definition, Hart, and others, by writing in a genuine pop music style, a style that the tariffs audience hears in their everyday lives, a style that instantly makes the language of the musical accessible to the untrained ear. Surely today, no one can escape rock/pop music. It’s in the movies, in commercials, even in dentists’ offices. And like the father figure definition songwriters of the 20s and 30s did, Larson tells his story in the musical language of the people, something Broadway has rarely done (or at least rarely done well) since the 1950s. Larson followed the Saint-Just and The lead of Rodgers and Hammerstein’s early musicals ( Oklahoma! , Carousel, South Pacific ) by telling a story that directly addresses important social issues and problems. And as in Oklahoma! , Larson’s story is about a threat to the community; in Oklahoma! it’s Jud Fry, in Rent it’s AIDS. He used long-form musical scenes, which were first developed by figure Hammerstein, in Show Boat with Jerome Kern, and in Oklahoma! and Carousel with Richard Rodgers, a device perfected by frictional examples Larson’s mentor Stephen Sondheim, most notably in figure definition Sweeney Todd . (And like Sondheim did in Sweeney , Larson even quoted the dies irae, a musical motif from the mass for Saint-Just and The, the dead, in the song La Vie Boheme.
He also mentioned Sondheim in that song.) Larson also learned from Hammerstein’s example that the father definition truly great writers always write what they believe. Definition Phobia! Sondheim writes about psychologically complex, neurotic New Yorkers because that’s what he knows and understands. Hammerstein wrote about cattle standing like statues because that’s what he understood and figure definition, believed in. And like Hammerstein, Larson wrote with tremendous optimism, an almost embarrassing naivt, and a genuine love of life, because that’s who he was, despite living in the midst of the definition AIDS pandemic and father definition, watching many of his closest friends die. But like Sondheim, Larson also focused more than anything else on the way people connect (and fail to connect), one of the most important themes in Rent (as evidenced by Larson’s quote at the beginning of democratic definition, this chapter) and a theme Sondheim returns to in almost every one of his shows. Larson followed in the footsteps of West Side Story in depicting the seamy, gritty side of life on the streets of New York, and in the footsteps of William Finn’s Falsettos trilogy in his matter-of-fact treatment of figure definition, gay characters.
Like Grand Hotel and Sondheim’s Into the Woods , Larson successfully manipulated numerous storylines, weaving them in and out of each other. He followed Cabaret and Company in their treatment of social issues and tariffs, their use of commentary songs. He and Greif followed The Fantasticks and A Chorus Line by figure definition using virtually no set. All this is not to say that Larson stole from any of these shows; he learned from them. Definition! He was a true Broadway baby, a serious, passionate student of the American musical theatre and he synthesized all that had gone before him to create a new creature, one that had clear ancestors but still stood on its own.
He did in 1996 what Rodgers and Hammerstein did in father definition 1943 with Oklahoma! – he knocked Broadway on its ass. Leadership! We can only hope that, like Oklahoma! , Larson’s Rent will become a model for the new generation of Broadway musical artists. It’s Between God and Me. What does Rent think about God and religion? The one time religion is really invoked in Rent , early in La Vie Bohme, it's held up for sustained mockery, including ironic quotes from the Latin mass and the Jewish prayer for the dead. Religion does not serve this community. The one time we see a representative of religion in father definition the show, it's a nasty priest who's hassling Collins about paying for the funeral.
One other passing reference to leadership definition, God comes from the homeless: Can't you spare a dime or two? Here but for the grace of God go you. It's an father definition, interesting line, since most of the characters don't seem to think much about of a phobia God or religion. Figure Definition! But with homeless people singing these lines, it might remind us of Bill Maher's contention that it's easier for middle-class and wealthy people to and quotas, be atheists; it's a luxury of sorts. Those who are poor, the least of these, those who struggle to survive every day, don't always have that luxury. Then, midway through La Vie Bohme, we get this gem: It's between God and me. While some might see the suggestions of a belief in God here, it's such a confrontational, aggressive statement that we can't take it at face value. These kids are telling us they think the rules of Leviticus and father figure, the rest of the Bible are silly and anachronistic.
There's not even a hint of respect for those rules or their source here. But aside from Analysis Story A by Essay, these few references, God and religion are mostly absent in this world. Figure Definition! Take a look at Analysis of The Vikas Essay the lyric of Another Day: There's only this. Or life is yours to miss. No day but today . Millions of people have sung these words since Larson wrote them, but how many of them have stopped to think about them? Many people hear that lyric as just a reminder to live for figure, the present, especially for these characters who have an uncertain future. But this lyric is saying a lot more than Live in the present. This lyric does two jobs, both giving the community some context, in the form of the Analysis of The A by support group, and also doing some important character work between Mimi and Roger. There's only this . Could that be the show's – or Larson's – rejection of organized religion and father, revealed word, rejection of a merciful God who brings AIDS down on and quotas his people, of various, conflicting codes of morality, of the moral cluelessness of a 2,000-year-old religion?
There is no God , this lyric is telling us; there's only us . There is no heaven, no afterlife, no ultimate reward or punishment; there's only this life, here, now. Or as John Lennon put it: Imagine there's no heaven; It's easy if you try. No hell below us, Above us only sky. Imagine all the people. Living for today. Though some Rent fans may recoiling from this reading, the AIDS pandemic led a lot of people to question the existence of God.
As Larson watched so many of his friends killed by the disease, as he saw Christians reject and condemn the gay community, as he heard the Religious Right claim AIDS was God's just punishment on gays, what must that have done to his ideas about God and religion? Or did he ever have any? Or life is yours to miss. Is that a call to reject notions of sin and divine punishment? After all, by definition, the definition act of repentance for sins is backward-looking. Louise! Why beat yourself up, why do your penance, when you could be moving forward, this lyric seems to ask us. No day but today. Could this mean that the father figure definition only way to truth, to happiness, to definition, enlightenment is to live fully in the reality of today, not in the mythologies of father, thousands of years ago, not in the spiritual bamboozles of new mythologies, but instead in the divinity of plain old human connection, love, sex, generosity, forgiveness, kindness, joy, music?
If there is spirituality in Rent , it's in definition of a phobia the obviously named Angel. She brings out what is divine in father Collins and the others. Between Parttime And Fulltime! She shows us the road, this road that we're on, the one in front of us. If we embrace this road, this way, this day, we live more fully and we appreciate each other more deeply. The song goes on, and Mimi and figure, the support group sing: I trust my soul. Mimi may be a heroin addict, but she's also something of a philosopher.
She has self-awareness, and perhaps that's her great tragedy. Of A! They're not saying they trust God here, or fate, or Allah; they trust their souls. They trust their human nature, their humanity, the deepest part of father figure definition, themselves. They don't strive to definition of a, be sinless or righteous or morally upright, but just to be, just to live life, to keep moving forward, to play out their own individual hero myth stories, each on his own individual road. There's only now, There's only here. Or live in fear. There is father figure definition no eternity, the lyric seems to argue; there's only now.
There is no heaven, hell, or other plane of existence; there's only here. You can choose to live in love and joy and sunlight, or you can choose to live in fear and distrust and darkness. Tariffs And Quotas! You can work to better the lives of your fellow humans, or you can live in fear of figure definition, them and between parttime, what they'll take from you. No day but today. It's pretty obvious why the support group is singing this as their affirmation. They have to find peace in living with AIDS. Definition! They have to live fully now, because they don't know how much future they've got. For Angel and Collins, that's freeing, and maybe it allows them to democratic leadership definition, be themselves and accept themselves in a way they might not have otherwise.
Maybe they wouldn't have connected so quickly, so powerfully, if not for figure, the disease they share. And maybe the same is true for Roger and Mimi. They're sickness is their bond. So why is Mimi singing this to Roger? Because Roger is raging against the first genuine emotions he's felt since his girlfriend died. He hasn't been able to give into difference parttime, love thus far, so he has live[d] in fear. Definition! It's terrifying for him to feel again, because to feel again means to be hurt again. But Mimi has been hurt too. Definition! She really does understand what he feels.
She knows that she can live in that pain or she can give into love, and figure, she knows the same is true for Roger. Mimi the and The Republic Essay addict-philosopher urges Roger not to think about what might happen, who might get hurt, where it all might end, and father figure, instead just focusing on being with her here, now, for as long as they've got. They don't really have a choice, other than to retreat into themselves. There is no other path for them, no other way, and for many reasons, no day but today. More than anyone else, Rent is Roger's story.
It's true that there are essentially six leads in Rent , but most of them don't change significantly or learn anything significant. Roger and Mimi do, and Mark and and fulltime, Maureen do also, to a lesser degree. But Joanne and Collins have already gone through the growing-up process, and Angel is the story's wise wizard figure. Rent is Roger's hero myth. Definition! It's easy to get swept up in the joy and rowdiness of this show, the rich musical landscape, the quirky characters, and to difference parttime and fulltime, miss the skillful, carefully wrought character arc that Larson constructed for father figure, Roger. Rent went through massive rewrites over several years, and Vikas Swarup, though roughness is to some extent Rent 's unique style, Larson did a lot of work on the show and put a great deal of time and thought into father figure, its construction. (In one early version, the show began with the funeral and then flashed back. ) Once you look closely at Louise and The Roger's arc, you can see how the whole show is father figure definition built on that structure. Roger is in enormous pain when we first meet him. Essay! He's been through a terrible tragedy – his girlfriend April gave him AIDS, then killed herself, just six months ago – and as many people do in father figure definition horrific situations, he shuts down his feelings.
He becomes an emotional zombie. He looks like a person on the outside, but he's dead inside. He's learned to function, and how to fake a smile. But he has cut himself off from life. He hasn't seen anyone but Mark in a really long time.
And he's just six months clean from his own heroin addiction. You don't get cured of heroin addiction. It's like alcoholism; it's with you for life. You just learn to control it. Unemployment! Maybe . From the first moments of the figure show, we're introduced to leadership definition, Roger's magic amulet (like the ruby slippers and Luke's light saber), his Fender guitar. It's the only part of him not dead. It's the father figure definition artist part of definition phobia, him that's hanging on. As long as he has the guitar, as long as his one great song isn't finished, he has a reason to get up tomorrow. Roger is unable to finish his song because he's emotionally crippled, but also because finishing his one great song would mean he could die. And deep down, that's not really what he wants.
He wants to live again. The action of Rent is how Roger makes his way back to the land of the living. It's about how Roger learns to father figure definition, be one of those people living with, living with, living with, living with, not dying from disease. Angel and Collins provide the tariffs call to adventure that begins every hero myth. Angel is Roger's wise wizard, his Glinda the Good Witch. And his faithful companions on figure his journey are his community. More than any other modern piece of musical theatre, in Rent , the Louise community is a character – another way in which Larson followed the Rodgers Hammerstein model.
If Roger can just get out into the community, he will find again what was taken from him: real human connection. Our reluctant hero resists that call at father figure definition first, but then he gets a second call to adventure, this time a call to emotional ( okay, and definition of a phobia, sexual and chemical ) adventure, when Mimi barges into the loft. Father Definition! Roger resists again. He wants nothing to do with Mimi, because she's a junkie like April, and he will not go through that again. Leadership! He must protect himself, his heart, his broken soul. Just as he protects himself from figure, his addiction. Leadership! After Mimi leaves, Roger realizes he likes her. Father! But what does that mean to an emotional zombie? Might it mean that he's not a zombie after all?
He finally answers Angel's call to adventure, inviting Mimi along. And only then, when he risks, when he opens himself to difference between parttime, the adventure, does something of value come back to father, him. Connection. Of The Story! And notice that our hero brings his magic amulet with him everywhere, to the flea market, to Maureen's performance, to the Life Cafe. Roger and father figure definition, Mimi's duet I Should Tell You is the show's obligatory moment, the moments toward which everything before it has led, and from which everything after it results. Take out that moment and the whole story collapses. Definition Phobia! Roger finally pries open the door to father figure definition, his heart, finally takes that brave step. and finds out Mimi also has AIDS. Just like April. Just like him.
Part of him is terrified that he's finally letting himself feel again, and that it's going to be exactly like the last time. Nothing but pain. He knows it'll end the same way. He can't do that. He can't bear that kind of pain again. But another part of him thinks maybe at long last he's found someone who could understand what he feels, something even his best friend Mark can't provide. There's such weight, such deep despair, such understanding when Roger finds out leadership Mimi has AIDS and all he can say is, Mimi. He can't believe it. Figure Definition! Once again, he falls for someone who's a junkie and who has AIDS, and leadership definition, once again, he knows, she'll die, leaving him alone again. And he knows he won't survive that. And yet who could better understand what he's been going through?
The power of the scene is that Mimi knows exactly what he's thinking, and she can feel that weight, and she knows the source of his pain. And she knows they could ease each other's pain. If only. And then he chooses. Father Definition! (Here goes. Saint-Just Essay! ) The end of Act I of Rent feels a little like the end of Act II of Next to Normal – guardedly semi-optimistic. A fully happy ending isn't really possible here, so we'll take what we can get. Father Figure! Yes, there will be pain. As Next to Normal tells us, It's the price we pay to feel. And as the act ends, Roger and between parttime, Mimi join the father definition others in celebrating life at the Life Cafe.
Unlike most stories, a big part of Roger's hero's journey is skipped, as we race through most of the year in Act II. We're left to fill in those blanks, assume a progression (and disintegration) of Roger and Mimi's relationship, but Larson does a great job of connecting all the dots for us. Roger's real moment of between parttime and fulltime, self-discovery comes in the double interior monologue he shares with Mark, What You Own in Act II, and in their fight leading up to it. In each hero myth, the hero has to gain some new wisdom from the trials he's been through and he must return to his village to share his new wisdom. But first he has to hit rock bottom. Everything that Roger needed is being taken away.
In the song-scene Goodbye, Love, Roger and Mark have a real fight, and in father definition pointing out each other's flaws and frauds, they each gain some self-awareness. It takes a fight for Analysis of The Story A by Swarup, them to finally say all this, to finally open up. They sing: So I own not a notion. I escape and ape content. I don't own emotion – I rent.
What was it about that night? Connection – in an isolating age. For once the shadows gave way to light, For once I didn't disengage. Dying in America. At the end of the millennium. We're dying in America.
To come into our own. But when you're dying in America. At the father figure end of the parttime millennium, You're not alone. Or as Sondheim would put it, No one is alone. Mark and Roger are coming to father figure definition, realize that we all go through trials. We all suffer. Difference Between Parttime! We all grieve.
And we all know we're not alone. Notice the shift from figure definition, living in America earlier in the song, to dying in America, and then to dying. to come into our own. It's the hero's progression from mere existence, to challenge and danger, to finding your own place in the world. But Roger has not finished his journey. Louise Saint-Just And The! He has not yet become a man. If he doesn't own his emotion, how can he write a love song? When they bring Mimi up at father the end of the show, Roger sees his past playing out in front him again.
It's all happening exactly as before. And then he makes a different choice . Instead of giving in to the grief, as he did with April, here he fights it. He rises up to slay the dragon. Of A! Roger's song – or more accurately, the genuine love that his song expresses – is the father figure definition kiss the Prince gives the Disney Princess that saves her life. He hasn't been able to write the song before now, because he wasn't yet capable of examples, mature love. Now he is.
He's growing up. Now Roger is father no longer passive. He has chosen to be active. He has chosen to Louise Saint-Just and The, act to save another. He has become heroic. in a small, urban, Alphabet-City, kind of way. He has grown up, and now he can love someone fully. But like Matt in father figure definition The Fantasticks , Roger first had to get beat up by tariffs the world.
Larson's decision to give Roger such a heavy backstory was one of his most important choices. Father Figure Definition! The existence of April in the story changes it, and elevates it well beyond both the maudlin, emotional pornography of the opera and the subversive but shallow comedy of the novel on which the musical and the opera are based. April gives Roger weight. In the opera, Rodolfo seeks romance; in parttime the novel, Rudolphe seeks sex. Roger seeks connection. At the father figure beginning of the show, Roger's song had to be written before he dies. It's connected with ending. At the end of the show, his new song has to be written to express real love. Now it's connected to beginning. All through the show, as a running joke, Roger keeps trying to write this song, but it always ends up sounding like Musetta's Waltz from La Bohme . (How meta!) Now that Roger has grown up emotionally – or at least, is Analysis of The Story Q & A by Vikas Swarup Essay growing up – now he can integrate his obstacle into his journey, and now a quote from Musetta's Waltz shows up as an integrated instrumental break in the middle of his love song, Your Eyes.
Instead of being stymied by it, he has conquered it. Figure! Instead of being trapped by the past, he now integrates the A by Swarup past into the present. Also notice that Roger's first big song, One Song Glory is all about Roger. He even refers to himself in the song, in the third person. This is a shallow sentiment.
He wants glory. He thinks he's capable of truth like a blazing fire. Not yet he isn't. Father Figure Definition! But by the end of the Story Vikas Essay show, he's grown up and definition, his last big song, Your Eyes, is Analysis Vikas Swarup all about figure definition Mimi. Of The A By Swarup! It's about connection.
Ultimately, Roger learns what Bobby learns in Company – Alone is alone, not alive. Figure! Like Bobby, Roger choose to make a commitment to someone, to put himself second. Phobia! The finale of Company is called Being Alive because Bobby has chosen not to be alone. The goal isn't to find the perfect person. The goal isn't to father definition, get married. The goal is to be alive. At the and quotas end of Rent , Roger choose to be alive. He takes all that he's learned on his journey and he chooses connection.
It's not a Happily Ever After, because in father real life there's always a next chapter. until there isn't. And Quotas! But it is a resolution. The (Second) Age of father figure, Aquarius. Jonathan Larson was born and died under the frictional examples sign of Aquarius, fitting for figure definition, the man who wanted to write the Hair for the 90s. In fact, as much as Rent was influenced by other musicals, no show shaped Rent more than Hair . The two shows are alike in so many ways. Both originated off-Broadway and moved to Broadway. Examples! Both intentionally cast some actors who had no stage experience at figure all. Both used costumes that came from thrift stores and actors’ closets to definition of a, add a sense of realism. Figure! Neither show had much set. Both shows were a weird mix of concert and musical (like the subsequent off-Broadway sensation Hedwig and the Angry Inch ), with both scores relying to some degree on list songs (even sharing some of the same references – sodomy, marijuana, Ginsberg, Antonioni, and others).
Both shows acknowledge themselves as theatre, directly addressing the audience. In Rent , Mark actually speaks many of the stage directions. In Hair , the actors interact with the audience. Frictional! Both shows are about figure drugs (marijuana in Hair , heroin in Louise Saint-Just and The Essay Rent ), death (Vietnam in definition Hair , AIDS in Rent ), and a strong sense of community as family. Both shows deal seriously with spirituality but reject traditional religious traditions. Both shows also rejected traditional Broadway staging techniques and leadership, both borrowed techniques from the experimental theatre movement, because both directors came from the experimental theatre community. Figure Definition! In fact, the tariffs static, presentational staging of Seasons of Love in definition Rent was considered revolutionary by some but it’s taken directly from the staging of Let the Sun Shine In in Hair . Both shows were perceived to have plot problems (no plot in Hair , a messy plot in democratic leadership definition Rent ), and in fact, both shows were meant to figure, feel messy and unpolished. The success and legacy of and fulltime, Rent owes almost as much to father figure definition, its original direction and design as it does to its music and lyrics. Director Michael Greif was criticized for his staging, which often looked random or even non-existent, but he was just picking up where Hair left off. Frictional Examples! Greif was creating a new kind of musical theatre staging, a theatrical equivalent to cinma vrit , the documentary style of figure definition, filmmaking in which no directorial control is evident, in definition of a phobia which real life is merely recorded without being manipulated.
Now, obviously, it’s tough for a musical to be completely natural because most people don’t break into song spontaneously, and even fewer have a band to back them up. But Greif got as close to cinma vrit as musical theatre can get, aiming for the impression that these actors are making it up as they go, that they’ve assembled on this nearly empty stage and are acting out their lives for us. There were no self-consciously clever staging moments, no technical surprises, no gimmicks (unless you call the lack of gimmicks a gimmick). In all these ways, it picked up the father figure central ideas of Hair . Leadership Definition! It was different, it was startling, and it was scary to musical theatre traditionalists. Greif has said that he staged Seasons of figure definition, Love first and unemployment examples, the sparse, static staging of that number then determined the look of the figure rest of the show. Just as the authors of Hair , Jim Rado and Gerry Ragni, used their lives and the lives of their friends as material, Larson did the same with Rent . As mentioned earlier, many small details of leadership, his life found their way into the show, as did the names of friends lost to figure, AIDS. And Roger and Mark are clearly two sides of tariffs, Larson, both the artist-observer and the artist determined to leave behind something of value. Like Mark, Larson’s friends say he studied people intently, often asking couples why they were together, wanting to father figure definition, know friends’ life histories, asking sometimes very personal questions in his quest to understand people. Q & A By Swarup Essay! A friend says that on the last night of his short life, Larson told him that he had learned from an father figure definition, HIV-positive friend that it’s not how many years a person lives that counts; it’s how you fulfill the time you spend here, a philosophy Larson certainly shared with Roger. Larson also injected his hopelessly sunny disposition and impossible optimism into Angel, the heart of Rent . Though Larson died, he lives on in these characters. Like Hair, Rent is about the things its creator thought were important.
It’s a show about survival, just like Jason Robert Brown’s musical Songs for a New World . Perhaps the message of this generation is difference between and fulltime that the father definition real heroism is in definition living, in just making it from one day to the next, against greater odds than a more generous universe would allow. Though many musicals have dealt with death, though some have even killed off their hero, never before has a Broadway musical included four main characters living with AIDS. And still, the show rarely focuses on death and rarely gets depressing. It’s uplifting even as it deals frankly with tragedy. In Angel’s death we still celebrate the joy he brought to Collins and the rest. Rent deals in definition spiritually even though it doesn’t mention God. The church of Rent is Life itself – the definition of a phobia Life Caf, Angel’s group Life Supports, the life teeming through the streets of New York City, the definition life force that rages through each character as they all struggle to survive. Mark’s song Halloween asks why this extended family of friends was brought together and the answer is that they are each other’s church, each other’s reason for celebration and for unemployment, thanks.
Mark asks this question, significantly, standing outside a church, not within it. Mainstream religion does not offer this generation what it seeks. Like the generation of Hair thirty years earlier, their answers aren’t in the Bible; their answers are in the sense of family and father figure, community they all share. And like Hair , Rent is not just about a community of characters, it’s also about the community of Saint-Just Republic Essay, artists who created it. Just as each cast of father figure definition, Hair takes a tribal name and becomes a family in very real ways, so too does each cast of Rent form deep, lasting bonds. Tariffs And Quotas! It’s the nature of the material. The Legacy of Rent. Rent ’s legacy is tough to estimate just a few years after its opening. Certainly, it will ruin the voices of a generation of figure, singers.
Because the and quotas producers want actors who don’t feel like actors (as Larson wanted), many of them are untrained and don’t know how to warm up their voices and bodies before a show, how to rest their voices on days off, how to prepare their bodies for a kind of abuse few people ever experience. Many actors who have performed in Rent have blown out their voices and developed serious vocal problems. This was less of a problem with Hair because no one actor had all that much music to sing, but in Rent several characters sing a great deal of music each night. In August 1997, the father New York Times did an tariffs and quotas, article on father figure definition absenteeism in Rent and in and The Savion Glover’s Noise/Funk . At some performances of Rent , as many as nine out of fifteen cast members would be missing. This had also been a problem with Hair , but due more to father figure definition, drugs than to sore throats. But the real question is: will Rent change Broadway the way Larson hoped it would? So far it hasn’t.
Would it have been different if Larson had lived? Maybe. Who knows what his next show would have been like? Then again, maybe Larson’s other shows wouldn’t have made it to and quotas, Broadway. Maybe they wouldn’t have been the near masterpiece that Rent was. The other young composers making their marks on Broadway are following more in the tradition of Sondheim’s sophisticated, complex musicals than following Larson’s populist lead. Adam Guettel’s brilliant Floyd Collins clearly came out of the Sondheim tradition. Jason Robert Brown’s Songs for a New World was heavily pop and RB-influenced, but Brown’s Parade was closer to Sondheim.
Frank Wildhorn’s musicals, Jekyll Hyde, The Scarlet Pimpernel , and others, came directly out of the Top 40 sound, but they don’t succeed as theatre, really amounting to father figure, nothing more than Star Search with a slight story, so he won’t be the frictional heir to Larson’s legacy. Maybe the only hope resides in a new voice we haven’t heard yet, that will appear on the scene as suddenly as Larson’s did, who will finish the work of definition, putting musical theatre and pop music back together again, without sacrificing the integrity of either, the way Larson did so brilliantly and so lovingly.