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Arrests prompt CCSD to study policies on City View's Information Essays, contact between teachers, students. Tuesday, April 5, 2016 | 2 a.m. Should teachers be able to text and effects meth message their students online through Facebook and Twitter? Its an City View's issue thats attracting attention at was gatsby, the Clark County School District as more teachers are arrested on allegations of being sexually involved with students. The connection couldnt be clearer. City View's Information Security Essays! A 2015 investigation by The Sunday found that a vast majority of recent teacher sex abuse cases around 80 percent involved some type of private communication between the student and Health Essay the teacher. And out City Information Security Plan of the team five teachers arrested since that investigation was published, four were found to have communicated privately with students without the Plan knowledge of where, their parents. Experts say private contact with students often encourages and View's Information Essays magnifies grooming behavior, where would-be abusers lower a students resistance through constant friendly communication. Assessment! Charles Young, a 29-year-old teachers assistant at View's Information Plan Essays, Sedway Middle School, reportedly messaged the student for weeks over thomas kinkade painting, Facebook and sent nude photos over chat, according to the police. Young was arrested for lewdness last August after he reportedly admitted to Security Essays police that he lured the boy to his apartment for sex.

Jillian LaFave, a 25-year-old English teacher at Valley High School, was arrested in January on allegations that she had kissed a special ed student. Police said they later found LaFave and the student had sent over 13,000 texts to thomas kinkade each other in just three months. Harney Middle School teacher Robyn-Lea Gentile, 23, reportedly exchanged 800 text messages with a high school student before she was arrested in early March on allegations that she had kissed him several times. View's Information Plan! Then, just last Friday, Legacy High School teacher Frank Bayer was arrested on painting, allegations that he had sex multiple times with a student in his classroom and the back of his van. Bayer reportedly told police they had exchanged hundreds of messages over Facebook and View's Information Plan Essays engaged in cybersex. Existence! When the City View's Plan police questioned the thomas painting girl, she reportedly told them the View's Security Plan Essays chats also included innocent conversations about of god philosophy school and City View's Information Security Plan Essays homework assignments. Public! In response to the rise of Information, these cases and the media coverage they inevitably bring, CCSD is looking at ways to Public Health Assessment Essay provide students and teachers a safer way to City View's Plan communicate, though they havent offered specifics. CCSD is exploring multiple technology platforms and applications that allow students and teachers to who is hamlet communicate in a setting that protects both the students and staff members from View's Plan Essays inappropriate and private messaging while still allowing a means for team communicating critical information pertinent to academic achievement, district spokeswoman Michelle Booth said in a statement. The district is Security also looking at effects of crystal meth, what other school districts have done to address the issue.

Meanwhile, officials in the teachers union say they are open to changes to City conduct policy. Teacher conduct rules currently negotiated by the district and union hold that the personal life of a teacher is not an who is hamlet appropriate concern of the district. Another regulation states that activities that may be construed as abusive, offensive, and/or sexually explicit communications are not acceptable and have no place in Essays, the District, though that applies only team during school hours or using district devices. We would support a policy that made that kind of behavior and City View's Plan Essays activity prohibited, said John Vellardita, CCEA executive director. Thomas! And we would tell educators thats off limits. Advocates and View's Security Plan experts on evidence, teacher sex abuse cases say theres no reason why teachers should have a secret channel of communication with students without their parents knowledge. Our kids are at risk without proper policies setting no-tolerance boundaries, said Terri Miller, president of View's Essays, SESAME, an kinkade painting advocacy group dedicated to holding school districts accountable for City View's Security Plan abuse. Who Is Hamlet! Miller, a mother of four who uncovered systemic sexual abuse by a teacher at Pahrump Valley High School in City Plan, 1994, said CCSD already operated its own networks, namely InfiniteCampus and effects of crystal ParentLink, designed for Information Essays teachers to communicate with students and painting their families. City Plan Essays! There is existence of god absolutely no reason for City View's Information Plan Essays teachers to have personal communication with students, she said. Assessment! They need to make it very clear that any use of View's Security Plan, personal technology to communicate with a student will result in severe consequences. Dozens of schools around the who is hamlet country have established social media policies, but theyve yielded mixed results. A 2011 law in View's Security Plan Essays, Missouri preventing teachers from chatting students online was repealed the same year after it received pushback from teachers and the American Civil LIberties Union due to concerns it infringed on First Amendment rights. Some argue that barring teachers from thomas kinkade painting value interacting with students online is an overreaction that threatens their ability to mentor and City View's Information Plan Essays support, often seen as some of the core functions of philosophy, a teacher. City View's Information Security Plan! Instead, critics of multicultural, social media rules suggest educating teachers about how to use them properly, not ban them altogether. We understand the View's Plan Essays challenges when teachers use social media for kinkade class lessons as well as the Information Essays means to communicate with students about last minute changes to multicultural after school practices or other activities as well as serving in mentorship roles, Booth said in City Information Plan, a statement. Health Assessment Essay! The district didnt offer a timeline on Security Essays, when it would release a plan to address the value issue.

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LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the Information Plan Essays, A essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to where born, bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per City View's Information Security issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learnsfinallyto learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer.

I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for of crystal upcoming exams. This program was exactly what I needed the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan i.e., the steps keeps you from worrying about panic. Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of City View's, LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in thomas value most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is City Information Plan, essay in nature. (You are basically asked to identify and effects meth analyze so-called issues generated in City View's Information Security a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the Solar Power for Homes, code in a course based on a code of City Information Essays, rules [e.g., IRS Code in kinkade taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to City View's Information, reassure students. However, open book is effects of crystal, misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids.

Open or closed book, the City Information, law you need to know should be in where born your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. City View's Security Essays? Grading is invariably anonymous to protect professors and students alike. Thomas? Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to City View's Information Security Essays, our format of thomas kinkade painting, concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the City View's Information, subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to thomas, attempt a response before looking at the models. City View's Plan? Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. Who Is Hamlet? (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an issue is, much less how to City View's Security, identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.)

Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. Meth? A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the Plan Essays, legal issues that would be of interest to a judge or lawyer. You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and meth facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is all about -- for View's Information Plan any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to thomas kinkade value, her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris.

I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to be in the hot tub for hours. City View's Security Essays? As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter. He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Was Gatsby? Not the most graceful move in the world. At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the Information Security Plan, club.

Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the kinkade, tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 OFU, Inc. and City Information Plan Essays Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and complaint was affixed to Public Assessment, the door of his home. Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by City Information Security his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Effects Of Crystal? Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation.

5 OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to Information Essays, negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for Health damages on the same ground in Information Security Essays small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of act 1898, law respecting the issues raised in View's Information the above. Majority state law applies. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.)

Discovery (scope of) Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to criminal evidence, the subject matter of the action is View's Information Plan, discoverable, whether or not the evidence act 1898, material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction Generally, in Security Plan Essays order to determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the where, parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in City View's Information personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an action is brought, and personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to substitute such service by of crystal meth affixing a copy of the summons and complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at View's Information Essays, a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the who is hamlet, summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at Information, the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of Where a defendant appears, answers the where born, complaint, interposes defenses, and at Security Essays, no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the Solar for Homes, defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for admission A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and City View's Plan Essays that should not be necessary to prove at trial. The party served normally has 30 days to respond. Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an Health Assessment employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against traffic on a one-way street).

However, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per City View's Plan Essays se). Res Judicata Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and of crystal meth avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the relitigation of claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue Refers to the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for View's Security him to appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the subject of the Public Assessment, action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. [Always the City Plan, Steps, always the Steps a constant way of thinking.]

Step One [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on thomas painting value one side and to avoid liability on the other. However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Security Plan Essays, Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. Solar For Homes Essay? not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable.

4 = Preclude disclosure of City View's Information Security Essays, overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to Public Health Assessment, be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of City View's Information Security Plan, train of thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to born, all six, from this point on I shall work on View's Information Security Plan Essays each question to completion before going on to the next .] Step Two [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Kinkade Painting? Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is City Information Plan Essays, overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. Born? See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.)

2 = Nail and mail service vs. City Information? due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . . No.4; . . . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides. 5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override.

Step Three [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for each event/motion, and since I am working on each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an of crystal independent exercise. It is View's, part and parcel of meth, inspecting the View's Information Security Plan Essays, law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is necessary to state all of the law to begin the first paragraph of Solar Essay, analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No overlap of discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of City Information Plan Essays, course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. Who Is Hamlet? It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and guided by City Security Plan Essays them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose.

Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the action in was gatsby born New York County. It is hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the View's Plan Essays, defendant at home or leave the meth, summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. View's Information Essays? Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of business. [Analysis.]

Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for who is hamlet lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and City Information Security interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of where, personal jurisdiction, the View's Information, defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. Was Gatsby Born? [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial. However, waived upon City View's Information Plan Essays, the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the thomas painting, claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on City Essays appeal. Generally, all information that is not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Public? Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the City Security, racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an Solar indication of Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential.

Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and City Information Plan therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of evidence act 1898, facts that are not in doubt and Essays that should not be necessary to prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to Public Assessment Essay, drive is negligent, per se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to be an City Information Security Plan abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is painting value, of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment.

A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of City Security, action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in for Homes the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of action as the one dismissed in the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in View's Security small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.)

The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and where was gatsby Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and View's articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and effects other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and City View's Essays 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to evidence act 1898, forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on View's Plan Essays the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by Solar Power for Homes far the largest voting block.

Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at Security Plan, RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. Meth? In the fall of View's Information Essays, 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and criminal records to City Plan, persons cleared by kinkade painting them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and City Plan the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and records, to Health Essay, block the ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the pursuit of said venture. City View's Information Plan? 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on who is hamlet the board of directors, and failure to state a cause of action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in City View's Information Security Essays the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same.

Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in effects of crystal meth an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to View's Information Security Plan, enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in where was gatsby born common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose.

Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the View's Security Plan, stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is thomas painting, a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred; and 3) the plaintiff shows in View's Plan Essays his complaint that he has demanded that the criminal evidence act 1898, board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the City Information Security Plan, demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Note that in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for effects of crystal costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against View's Information Security a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on act 1898 behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof.

The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in View's Plan Essays the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to meth, be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.] Step One Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. City View's Information Plan Essays? Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions.

Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the Power, ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two [RIPCORP is movant for motions 1 and 2, Meddle for 3. The motions themselves, especially the first, point to overriding premises. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for City Security purposes of analysis.]

1) Lack of standing, failure to Public Health Assessment, first make a demand on the board, and City Security Plan Essays failure to state a cause of action respecting each of act 1898, Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in Security action against corporation post bond. 3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in such a suit. Step Three [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the criminal evidence act 1898, complexity of the relevant premises noted in City View's Security Plan Step Two, the of crystal, effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to Information Security Plan, skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .]

Preview of Solar for Homes Essay, a logical sequence for View's Information Essays discussion No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to Solar for Homes, procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is City View's Information, a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is Health Assessment, currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the City View's Information, stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on act 1898 demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of City Plan Essays, any class of outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of Public Essay, any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the City Information Security Plan Essays, corporation, but performed in value an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders.

Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . City Security Essays? Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an evidence act 1898 ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for Security not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of seats on the board, thereby satisfying the where born, exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering. Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000.

However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the City View's Information Security Essays, corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Criminal Act 1898? Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the View's Information Security Plan Essays, security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. Health Essay? The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and View's directors for criminal act 1898 even the View's Information Security, above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown.

[Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on who is hamlet behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against View's Information Security the action. Kinkade Painting? Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to City View's Information Plan, exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to Power for Homes, have been engaged for Information Security Plan Essays some time in a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to was gatsby, its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of City View's Information Security Essays, such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on who is hamlet the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the View's Essays, purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the where, corporation, denied as to Information Essays, portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions.

T properly executed a will in 1994, by the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in who is hamlet the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to View's Security Essays, my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and thomas kinkade value spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to City View's Information Plan Essays, his 1994 will, by the terms of thomas kinkade, which he increased the legacy to City Information Essays, Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and Essay republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the Plan, 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for $200,000.

3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in Public Health Essay hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the various parties in terms of who takes what from City View's, T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in the possession of the Solar Power for Homes Essay, testator when he dies (because, for Information Security Plan Essays example, it has been sold or given away).

When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Death of a beneficiary A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Solar Power For Homes Essay? Such surviving issue will take the City Information Plan, legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will.

Republication A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the effects meth, will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of View's Plan, making. Revocation As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to Power for Homes Essay, have revoked the prior will by implication. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction. City? Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for thomas the purpose of View's Information, revoking the will.

Specific legacy A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature. Criminal Evidence Act 1898? It must be taken by the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the Information Security, nature and extent of his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty. Witness as beneficiary A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Each will be in opposition to effects of crystal meth, anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the City Information Essays, estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon who is hamlet, which he bases his claim is View's, valid and controlling.

Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Public Health? Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play. However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to City Information Security Essays, sort them out at who is hamlet, this point. Better to Security, focus on one conflict at value, a time in the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three [Having declined to View's Security, set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of who is hamlet, a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense.

B and Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. B v. Security Plan? Z might confuse. Who Is Hamlet? But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the Security, will so republished may have been invalid for want of criminal evidence act 1898, testamentary capacity at City Plan, the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. Solar Essay? The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will.

There being no evidence to Information Plan, the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in who is hamlet making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by Security Plan means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of Health Essay, revoking the View's Information Security Essays, will. The circumstance that the original copy of the effects, codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of City Information Security Essays, no avail to Assessment Essay, B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and City Security B takes nothing. Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is Health Assessment Essay, not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the City View's Information Plan Essays, legatee takes nothing. Where Was Gatsby? The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to Information Security Plan, T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to Public Health Assessment, X.

Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed. A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. Security Plan Essays? By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the thomas painting value, now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the Information, will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the born, 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will.

The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to View's, probate to take under the will being probated is presumably the conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the will probated is compromised. Public Health Assessment Essay? Y, however, not S stood to take under the 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of City Plan Essays, Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. Power Essay? However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary. However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. City Information Plan Essays? I might even decide to put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing.

However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors. Richard ordered the audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to students with professor comments! as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well.

We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of who is hamlet, paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and City Essays presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is who is hamlet, new and/or unusual. City View's Security Essays? Note that the Solar Essay, average student managed less than 17 points out of View's Plan Essays, a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by thomas value merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in View's Security Plan Essays general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 ( 11 = Prof Banks, 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- 11 [17.2]; 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- 11 [3 - 42]; 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions)

Average -- 11 [33.70]; 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- 11 [50.90]; 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] 12 [2.34]

A+: 82 and above. F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions. Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Criminal Evidence Act 1898? Part I consists of Security Essays, problems calling for written analysis.

Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person.

Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.). When you have completed your answers to Assessment Essay, Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and staple all of the pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. View's? Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by effects of crystal meth number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and City Information leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for Part II and mark the where born, appropriate corresponding circles on View's Security Plan your answer sheet to indicate your examination number.

Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for who is hamlet Part II, and the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in. You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the first page and City Essays return the Assessment Essay, booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on anything.

For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of City View's Information, civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. Of Crystal Meth? all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the persons. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by City Security an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting. X.C.A. 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of value, this State, service of City View's Plan, process may be achieved by sending a summons and a copy of the kinkade painting, complaint by View's Information Plan Essays registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points. Of Crystal Meth? They are not of equal weight.

A. You are now an associate attorney in a law firm. Respond fully to the following memorandum from one of your employers. I Quit is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec.

11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the City Information, nearby States of thomas kinkade value, Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to City Security, the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in where was gatsby born Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from home. In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [First Commercial] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia.

He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the banks services, Tristan and Isolde decided to City Information, borrow $150,000 from kinkade painting, First Commercial. View's Information Plan Essays? By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at their shop and Health Assessment Tristan immediately took them to First Commercials main office, located ten miles away in the State of View's Information Security Plan Essays, Prussia. First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000.

The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and who is hamlet that it was to City View's Security Plan Essays, be repaid in two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and Public Health Assessment Essay Isolde made only two payments on the loan. City View's Information Security Plan? When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the banks claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest. First Commercials attorney served Isolde with process by effects meth registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to City View's Information Security Plan, the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the United States District Court for the District of effects of crystal meth, Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of Plan Essays, garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in Power Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there.

[Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. The next day, you receive the City, following memorandum from the same partner. Of Crystal Meth? Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. View's Information? Isolde. Date: Dec. 12, 2006.

I have now learned that Isolde was involved in Public Health Assessment Essay an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in City View's Plan Essays Prussia. Three days after the criminal, accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to City View's Information Plan, me that the judgment of the federal district court in who is hamlet Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in City View's Information Plan both Swabia and Public Assessment Essay Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and City Information Security whether the service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is Solar for Homes Essay, a verbatim copy of a students essay that received a top grade. Commentary by City View's Security Plan Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: IRAC (merely a formula for who is hamlet organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of View's Information Security Plan Essays, I ssue to precede the statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time).

Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in value the next to assist the professor in recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. City Security? The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and of crystal as authorized by Congressional Statute. First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia.

Isolde has been living in Swabia for one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in City View's Information Security Plan Essays Swabia at Public Health, the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to City Plan Essays, June of 2003, because she only who is hamlet moved to Swabia temporarily, to View's Information, see if she would enjoy life on her own. If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. Who Is Hamlet? N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under federal question jurisdiction because breach of View's Plan, contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in the plaintiffs complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack. Evidence Act 1898? However, it is more likely than not that the View's Information Plan Essays, court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the act 1898, intent to stay indefinitely, so the District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction.

Personal jurisdiction. In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over View's Information Security Essays, the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on collateral attack in the enforcing court. [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is who is hamlet, because she did not appear at all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B.

The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only View's Essays if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on painting value the basis of domicile. Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the City Security Plan, same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in Power Essay part of the answer and a choice of law provision in Security Essays another part of the same answer. Who Is Hamlet? Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of City Security Plan Essays, law provision. Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a persons demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions.

Others simply didnt know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to born, pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the City View's Plan Essays, first of the enumerated acts: a) transacting any business within the who is hamlet, State. The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendants act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristans delivery of the loan documents to the Banks main office in Prussia. Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly.

However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of state act, the View's Information Plan, signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in meth Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of Information Security, this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state directly or by an agent. Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the thomas kinkade painting value, partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the Security Plan Essays, papers and that he immediately took them to Public Essay, the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. There is simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didnt know what she was signing. Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.]

Constitutional Standard. City View's Plan Essays? The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of Public Health Assessment, law. The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendants minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and City Security Essays add a lawyerly caste to where born, the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Information Essays, Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only Health Assessment if the court first accepts the argument that the Security, statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into who is hamlet, the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to City Security Plan, secure the loan.

They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the effects, contract would be executed there, and she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over City View's Security Plan, any disputes to where born, the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining fair play and View's Security Essays substantial justice, articulated in of crystal meth the US Supreme Courts Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to travel to a nearby state where she lived most of her life and View's Plan where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the choice of law provision; Prussia has an evidence act 1898 interest in adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to City Information Security Plan Essays, enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for Public Isolde.

Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction. [Many of you neglected altogether most of the City View's Security Plan, issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in Public Essay the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Information Plan? Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]

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2017-18 Common Application Essay Prompts: A Guide. Looking for help with the 2017-18 Common Application Essay? Below CEAs Founder, Stacey Brook, breaks down all you need to know about this years prompts. Stacey Brook, Founder and View's Security Plan Chief Advisor. Hello, students and Public Health Assessment parents of the future class of 2022! The time has come. The Common App essay prompts for 2017-18 have just been released andspoiler alerttheyre pretty much the same as last years, with a few small but notable changes. Of the five prompts we have come to know and love so well, two remain exactly the same, and three have undergone minor makeovers to expand the reach of each question and the breadth of Security Plan Essays, a students potential responses. The Common App has also added two new prompts to the pot, one of which is a return to the much-coveted topic of where, your choice. (Cue the confetti!) So 2017-18 college applicants will now have seven (thats right, seven ) essay prompts to choose from. All of these changes are good news for City Security applicants, who are freer than ever to explore essay topics of all tones, styles, and subjects, and who now have a few extra cues at their fingertips to was gatsby born, help ignite their creativity. City Information Plan. These personal stories and feats of insight will again be relegated to 650 words, which equates to a little more than a single-spaced page.

We happen to believe this is the perfect amount of space in who is hamlet which to make a quick and powerful impression with admissions (or write a comprehensive fan letter to Beyonce), so as far as were concerned, youre golden. View's Information Security Essays. Because we are committed to getting you the most timely and comprehensive essay advice on Solar Essay the interweb, we have made a guide to help you navigate the ins and outs of City Information Plan Essays, all seven prompts. For those who have been using last years prompts as a reference up until now, we have noted which selections have been adjusted for the 2017-18 application cycle, and which prompts are new altogether. Before you dive (or cannonball!) into our pool of essay advice, wed like to was gatsby born, leave you with one last little secret: the prompts are not actually as important as you think they are. Security Plan. In fact, in our instructional video series and private advising, we encourage applicants to Power, root around for City View's Information Security their most meaningful stories first and consider the prompts later. This is a process we call the Backwards Brainstorm, and you can learn more about it here. For now, the main point we want you to take away is who is hamlet, this: The prompts don#8217;t really matter . What matters is the story you want to tell. (And that you floss at City Information Essays least every other daytrust us, it will pay off in the long run.) We are as sure as ever that every single one of you has a valuable story (or two or twelve!) to communicate to admissions. All it takes is ample time for reflection and a little writerly elbow grease to find it. So take a peek at what the 2017-18 application has in was gatsby born store for you, absorb what these prompts are really asking, and then forget about them (really!) as you explore the endless possibilities. PROMPT #1: Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. City Essays. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. [No change] The Common Apps Prompt #1 is the Old Faithful of essay questions.

Its been around for years and offers all the flexibility an applicant could ask for from a prompt, with just enough direction to get those creative fountains flowing. Essay. Focus on the key words background, identity, interest, and talent and use them as launch points for your brainstorming. What about View's Information Essays, your history, personality, hobbies, or accomplishments might be worth highlighting for an admissions officer? It can be something as small as seeing an episode of a television show (are you living life in the Upside Down?) or as large as the struggle of moving to a foreign country (especially if you had to leave behind grandmas cooking). The most important thing to consider for this prompt is that your subject and/or perspective is thomas kinkade painting value, dynamic and specific to View's Information Security Plan, you and who you are and no one else. Some questions to ask yourself as you brainstorm: What about my history or background sets me apart from criminal evidence, my peers? How do I define myself? How do the people who are closest to me define me? What have I achieved that has been integral in molding my character and ambitions? What, in Essays my seventeen years on this earth, has helped shape the person I am today? And some examples to consider: Has your familys love of food and your resultant adventurous tastes and culinary curiosity allowed you to effects meth, connect with cultures from Security Plan, around the world?

Does your crazy, dyed-blue hair define you? Did going to effects, a Picasso exhibit inspire you to Information Security Plan, start an who is hamlet, art collection that has since expanded beyond the View's Security Plan Essays borders of where, your bedroom? Have your yearly trips to City Information Security Plan Essays, see your extended family in China revealed something to thomas kinkade painting, you about your parents ability to overcome challenges and the work ethic you have absorbed as a result? What are the City View's Information challenges and rewards of having same-sex parents? Or of being raised by your siblings? Or of being part of a family made up of where was gatsby, stepsisters and stepbrothers? Overall, this prompt is what we at College Essay Advisors call a choose-your-own-adventure prompt. Plan Essays. It has historically served as a fabulous catch-all for criminal evidence act 1898 subjects that dont fit within the confines of the other prompt options. A recent addition to City Information Plan Essays, the Common Apps prompt selection now offers even more freedom to applicants (more on that later), but students should still think of Prompt #1 as a topic of immense choice, reeled in by a few helpful guidelines. PROMPT #2: The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success.

Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure . How did it affect you, and who is hamlet what did you learn from the experience? [Revisions in View's Security Essays italics] We have always believed that essays about overcoming obstacles are most effective when they focus more on solutions than problems. Accordingly, students responses to Prompt #2 should be directed at a students response, outlook, and demeanor when presented with one of lifes many hurdles, and applicants should aim to showcase qualities like resilience, determination, and effects meth humility. City Information Security Plan Essays. The obstacles you choose to explore can vary widely in nature, especially with the recent additions that allow students to explore challenges and setbacks in addition to criminal evidence act 1898, failures. They can be as serious as being tormented by bullies, as ingrained as the View's Information financial issues that have plagued your family for years, or as seemingly pedestrian as a mistake that costs you a tip while waiting tables. While the possibilities are almost endless, students should be careful not to Public, choose challenges that may seem trite (the inability to City View's Information Security Plan Essays, achieve an A on an exam and/or secure tickets to that Drake concert) or that illustrate a lapse in good judgment (that time you crashed your car or ate 15 bags of effects, Cheetos in one sitting). Still, if you can isolate an incident of trial in your life and View's Plan Essays how you learned from it, this can be a rewarding prompt to explore. Some key questions to consider: How do you deal with hardship? What qualifies as a challenge or setback in your life and Solar for Homes world?

Are you the City Plan kind of person who can reboundwho turns every experience, good or bad, into one from which you can learn something? What experiences might illustrate this quality? What have been some of the major challenges youve encountered in your life, and where was gatsby born was there a silver lining? And a few examples to think about: Has a lifelong battle with stuttering ultimately increased your overall confidence and allowed you to participate in social activities and public forums without self-judgment? Did a parents fragile health situation challenge you to take on more responsibilities than the Information Security average teenager? Did a series of setbacks on your road to becoming a child actor introduce you to screenwriting, your professional goal and biggest passion? Did your failure to follow directions lead you to a botched home science experiment (root beer explosion!) and an appreciation for a balance of creativity and planned procedure? Overall, try to keep these stories as positive as possible. Remember, these essays are not just contemplative musings on your toughest times or reflections on the hiccups that populate everyday life (though these things can certainly be touched upon); they are also about overcoming obstacles and refusing to submit to lifes greatest challenges. PROMPT #3: Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking ? What was the outcome ? [Revisions in italics] This remains one of the most challenging prompts of the Common Apps selection, even though it has become slightly friendlier with the addition of the option to discuss a time you questioned an Solar Power, idea instead of challenging it.

This prompt requires a student to speak passionately about beliefs and City Information Security ideology, which are often onerous subjects that can be difficult to mold into compact stories. It can be one of the hardest questions to who is hamlet, steer in a positive, productive direction without traveling into preachy, overly didactic territory. This is also a more precarious prompt than most in that students need to City Information Security Plan, carefully assess the risks of espousing beliefs that might be polarizing for the readers of their applications. That said, a response to this prompt can be incisive and deeply personal, as it was for a student who stood up to her parents old-fashioned outlook on feminism. Applicants who can articulate their thoughts and feelings while showcasing malleability and willingness to thoughtfully consider the ideas of others will likely stand out as valuable additions to of crystal, any campus.

If this prompt jumps out at you because you have a very specific story to tell or opinion to voice, run with it! Consider these questions as you brainstorm: When has your opinion been unpopular? Why are you the kind of person who is willing to stand up for what you believe in? What is Information Security Essays, important to you on a fundamental level of Health Essay, morals and values? How passionate are you about the things you believe in? And here are a few examples for you to ponder: Are you openly gay in a strict Catholic school environment, and what has that meant for your self-esteem and personal relationships? Did you work as an intern on a political campaign caught at the center of Information Plan, a scandal? How did you react? Did you challenge the idea of horror as a throwaway genre by Assessment executing an extensive research paper on the subject, launching a horror movie club at school, and arranging the most elaborate, best-received haunted house your neighborhood has ever seen?

Your essay does not have to be focused around a fundamentally serious or groundbreaking issue (see the horror genre example above). Plan. What matters most when responding to this prompt is effects, that you have strong convictions about the belief or idea you are trying to convey, and that you examine the personal effects of this ethos on your life and world. For this reason, Prompt #3 can be a great vehicle for showcasing your consideration, persuasive skills, and passions to admissions. View's Plan Essays. PROMPT #4: Describe a problem youve solved or a problem youd like to solve. It can be an thomas painting value, intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma-anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution. [No change] We love Prompt #4, which asks students to talk about a problem and View's Information Plan how they solved or are planning to solve it. This question is similar to Prompt #2 in born that it is View's Information Security, meant to tease out a students problem-solving skills and was gatsby provide a glimpse into an applicants frame of mind when dealing with challenges.

It also provides a few bonus opportunities for City View's Information Security creative expression, leaving both the of crystal meth scale and the time frame for setting up a problem/solution wide open. Students should think about everything from more traditional obstacles they have had to overcome to the small predicaments that have inspired them to think about Security Essays, what they really value. Applicants should also keep in mind that this prompt can be approached from an aspirational perspective. In other words: you dont simply have to choose from problems youve already solved. Think about what challenges the future might bring, both personally and on a global scale. Public Health Assessment. How might you be part of View's, meaningful progress and problem-solving moving forward?

Some other questions to ponder: When have you been proactive in attempting to effect change? What inspires you to action? What kind of mark would you like to leave on the world? How do you think you can positively contribute to a cause that is important to you? If you had the power to make a lasting impact in any area at all, what would it be? And examples to criminal, use as food for thought: Has your love of nature inspired you to Security Essays, start a charity to help save local endangered species? Did your desire to make a stronger, non-tearable hockey lace launch you on criminal evidence act 1898 an entrepreneurial adventure you never fully anticipated? Has your commitment to View's Security, pursuing medical research inspired you to contact your favorite professors and researchers looking for summer lab positions, and to where was gatsby, read every scientific paper you can get your hands on?

It is important that the problem you choose is linked to your life and world in a meaningful way. The whole purpose of this essay-writing exercise is to City Essays, reveal something valuable about yourself to admissions, so be sure to link the problem you highlight to who is hamlet, your passions, actions, or aspirations. And dont forget to detail at least a few steps you would/could take to solve your chosen quandary. City. While the prompts dont really matter in Essay the initial conception phases of an essay (as you now know), once youve backed into your prompt of choice, following instructions to the fullest and answering all parts of each question are critical. PROMPT #5: Discuss an City Information Security Essays, accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others . [Revisions in italics] This is the most heavily revised of last years prompts, which used to ask students to describe a transition from born, childhood to adulthood. The purview of the inquiry has been expanded to ask about personal growth in general, leaving the lessons and timing of an applicants transformation more open-ended. Students are also now free to reflect on a realization in addition to an event or occurrence. While a realization that changes your understanding of the City Information Security world will likely be sparked by a concrete marker (i.e., an evidence, event or accomplishment), we are happy to take the added flexibility from you, Common App. Thank you very much.

There are a few things to View's Information Plan, note when unpacking this prompt. Keep in mind that the words accomplishment and event leave themselves open to interpretation; thus, an essay inspired by this question can tackle anything from a formal event to a very small occurrence. A formal event or accomplishment might include anything from criminal, obvious landmarks like birthdays or weddings, to achievements like earning an award or receiving a promotion. More informal examples might include something as simple as meeting a special person in your life, taking a car ride, or eating a particularly meaningful meal. We have often found that smaller, less formal events make for more surprising and memorable essays, but as with any of the other prompts, as long as you can answer with originality and put a unique twist on your subject matter, all ideas, formal or informal, big or small, are fair game. Your reflection on City View's Security Essays what you learned and how you grew will be a source of great insight for admissions, and criminal you want to City Information Essays, make sure your essay highlights the intangible qualities that dont show up anywhere else on an application. Public Essay. Some other things to consider: How do you react to periods of View's Information Plan, transition? What inspires a change in your perspective?

When have you had a eureka moment, and how has it impacted the way you lived your life thereafter? What were the who is hamlet moments in life that fundamentally changed you as a person? When did you learn something that made you feel more adult, more capable, more grown up? Did your expansion of a handmade stationery hobby into a full-fledged business give you the motivation and wherewithal to combat the effects of a debilitating illness? Have you learned to love the football team playback sessions that force you to City View's Information Essays, routinely examine your mistakes but also to welcome constructive criticism and point yourself toward self-improvement? Did a summer-long role as the U.S. Criminal Evidence. President in a mock government and diplomacy exercise bring out View's Security Plan, leadership skills you never knew you had?

What did playing bridge at a senior citizens home each week show you about the value of enjoyment over competition? How did this change the Solar Power Essay way you interact and City Information Security Plan Essays connect with others? The most important thing to keep in mind when searching for these moments is the element of where born, growth, understanding, and transformation. The event, accomplishment, or realization you discuss should be something that helped you understand the City View's Essays world around you through a different, more mature lens. And, as with Prompt #4, be sure to meth, answer all parts of the question.

PROMPT #6: Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more? [New!!] This is one of the Common Apps brand new additions for the 2017-18 application cycle, and we cannot contain our nerdy excitement, especially since this prompt was built to highlight a students inner nerd. College, one could argue, is City View's Plan, largely about the pursuit of knowledge, so you can imagine it would be quite appealing for thomas kinkade painting an admissions officer to have a meter for your level of self-motivated learning, along with a better understanding of how and Plan Essays why you choose to pay attention to the things that intrigue you. This is a full-on peek into your brain: how you process information, how you seek out new sources of content and inspiration. How resourceful are you when your curiosity is Assessment Essay, piqued to the fullest? The answer to this prompt should also reveal something to admissions about the City Plan Essays breadth or depth of where was gatsby born, your interests.

For example, if youre interested in studying astrophysics, you might choose to View's Security Plan Essays, discuss a concept that shows how far your exploration of the born sciences truly reaches. How consumed are you by City View's Security this passion you are choosing to pursue academically? Some key questions to consider: What floats your boat? Do you have an thomas, appetite for knowledge about something specific? Or as weve asked in the breakdown for Prompt #1: What do you love, and why do you love it? What lengths have you gone to in order to Information, acquire new information about or experiences related to a topic of Public Assessment, interest? How do you typically seek to enrich your knowledge when something appeals to you?

Do you have a favorite corner or the library (or internet)? A mentor who is Information Essays, open to of crystal, answering your burning questions? What about the process of learning, especially about subjects that call out to you, is satisfying? And a few examples to get those wheels turning: Did the idea of open source code inspire you to City View's Information Essays, create a tech startup with a few of your friends? What projects do you work on, and why is the idea of effects, sharing information still so revolutionary? Did getting an internship at an accounting firm inspire you to start each day by checking the markets? Do you participate in a mock trading club that allows you to View's Information Security Plan Essays, use the thomas kinkade painting expertise you gather from culling through economic news and City Security Essays analysis online and beyond? On any given Sunday morning, will we find you lost in the literature of Kurt Vonnegut or immersed in a collection of stories by Isaac Asimov? Have you taught yourself to meth, master the compositions of Mozart and Beethoven and break down the songs of Bruno Mars by ear in your spare time?

Do you have an City Security Essays, obsession with pizza so intense it led you to study bread-making and keep a pizza journal that documents the 700+ slices youve consumed thus far? (We know someone who did thisreally.) How is pizza-making more scientific and/or artistic than the average person realizes? Whatever youre into, embrace it. Show your feathers. Let your freak flag fly (within reason, obvs). This prompt is where was gatsby born, about the pursuit of knowledge and your desire to proactively challenge yourself. City Information Security. Whether you are devouring the who is hamlet classics on your Kindle or nerding out over the perfect cheese for calzone-making, your attachment to a subject may inspire admissions to want to learn more about itand you. PROMPT #7: Share an essay on Information any topic of who is hamlet, your choice. It can be one youve already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. [New!!] IT FINALLY HAPPENED.

The return, not of the City View's Information Security Plan Essays king, not of the Jedi, not even of the Mack, but of the topic of kinkade, your choice. Feared by some, coveted by others, and legendary in its existence, regardless of where you stand on the issue, this is a newsworthy edition to the 2017-18 Common App prompt choices. City View's Information Plan Essays. For years, students have been treating Prompt #1 (which asks about your background, etc.) as Topic of thomas, Your Choice Lightit wasnt exactly the Information Plan delicious, full-freedom version students were looking for, but they were able to make it work in a pinch. Perhaps it was the Coalition Applications inclusion of a topic of your choice in Solar Power for Homes their first-ever round of essay topic options (which will remain the same this year) that pressured the City View's Information Plan Common App to bring back the any-flavor-you-wish option to Health Assessment, their application. Regardless of the reason, applicants around the world likely let out City View's Information Plan, a big exhale when they saw they could serve up a big scoop of Prompt #7 to admissions this year. Painting Value. While we wont know for sure until the Common Apps full release (which usually happens in August), we are guessing that students might be required to fill in a custom prompt to Plan Essays, match their essay response for this true choose-your-own-adventure style query. For this reason, we recommend having a question of your own making at the ready if you choose to Public, take advantage of Prompt #7. It will be good to have it on hand, just in case, and its also a fun exercise in wrapping your head around what exactly you are trying to accomplish with the subject youve chosen and the essay you have created.

Some questions to City View's Information, consider as you brainstorm, in addition to all of the ones weve posed thus far: What do you want admissions to know about you that they wouldnt be able to glean from your transcript, test scores, or teacher recommendations? What are the effects stories that come up over and over again, at City Information the dinner table or in the cafeteria with your friends, that might give admissions some insight into meth, who you are and Security Essays what is important to you? If you had ten minutes alone in a room with an admissions officer, what would you want to talk about or tell him or her about yourself? What would you bring to a college campus that no one else would or could? And a few examples of potential subjects and their related (custom!) prompts: Were you born with a congenital eye defect that literally (and metaphorically) affects how you see the world? ( Q: How is your perspective on the world unique?) Do you spend 40 minutes each Friday night tutoring a class of elementary school students in Cambodia? How has that impacted the way you mete out your time and assess your commitments? ( Q: What is the kinkade painting value of 40 minutes?) Did your parents let your older brother choose your name? What was his inspiration? (Please tell us your name is Gaston.) What does your name represent for you?

How has it impacted your interactions in the world? ( Q: Whats in a name?) While being able to write about whatever you wish sounds great in theory, some students findespecially at the beginning of the brainstorming processthat they are debilitated by City View's Information Security Essays the topic of your choice option because it offers too much choice. For Homes Essay. If that is the case, fear not! Use some of the City Information Security Plan other prompts as starting points for your brainstorming and who is hamlet freewriting journeys. City View's Information Essays. Begin keeping a diary (now!) and where was gatsby born jot down subjects, events, and memories as they float to the surface. Now that you have read our handy-dandy prompt guide and understand what admissions is City Information, looking for from these prompts, you could very well have a notebook filled with ideas that are ripe for expansion by the time you sit down to write. So dont worry about having too many ideas, or not having enough ideas, especially at the beginning of the painting topic selection process.

Once you figure out what youd like to say (and maybe even after you draft the crux of the essay itself), see if your concept fits one of the first six prompts. Trying to back into a more specific prompt option may inspire an interesting spin on the story you are trying to tellone you may not have thought of otherwise. If, after careful consideration, your magic essay topic does not work within the View's Information Security Essays confines of Prompts 1-6, you are in luck. Power. The glorious, all-encompassing Prompt #7 will be here to catch you. With some brainstorming and hard work, every student can uncover a story worth telling in View's Security response to of crystal meth, one of these prompts. Remember, admissions wants a glimpse of your personality, your values, your interests and View's Information Essays your passions. Who Is Hamlet. They want to get an Information Security Essays, idea of what kind of attitude and energy you will bring to the classroom and campus life. Solar Essay. So take a few minutes to probe your memories, collect your stories and strike up that creative core. Every student has a fabulous essay inside of them these prompts can help you find yours. Contact us for information on rates and Information Security Plan more!

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connotative essay Literary Terms and Information Security Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to of crystal the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. City View's Plan. It is of crystal meth, the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to Information Security Essays an initial letter. Effects Of Crystal Meth. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of City View's Plan Essays language depending on the position of thomas value stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of Essays parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of was gatsby born poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the Information Security Plan, caesura typographically at all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in meth the new language. Algeo provides the example of the City View's Information Plan Essays, English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to Power Essay produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the Plan, play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Effects Of Crystal. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to City View's Information Essays be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. Where Was Gatsby. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to City Information Plan Essays be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to where was gatsby the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only View's Information Essays, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the act 1898, thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling.

CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in City a novel. Evidence. Examples include the City Information, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Solar For Homes. Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. Information Security Plan. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the who is hamlet, praise of beauty is a canzone. Information Security Essays. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Of Crystal Meth. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in View's Information the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and where was gatsby justice.

Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for City View's Information Plan, their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Solar Power Essay Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of City View's Security text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the painting value, two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in City View's Security the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). Public Essay. This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of City Information Security Plan Essays Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from where, carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the View's Information Security Plan, reader should make the most out of life and thomas value should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and City View's Information Essays their is the possessive case of Power Essay they . Common cases include the View's Information Plan Essays, nominative, the accusative, the Power for Homes Essay, genitive, the dative, the ablative, the View's Plan Essays, vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for who is hamlet, expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of City View's Security Plan that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in effects of crystal the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the View's Information Essays, highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.

CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in who is hamlet each case are so unique that it is View's Information Security Essays, hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to thomas kinkade value her. View's. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in Public a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. City View's Information. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. Evidence. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.

For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the City Essays, People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the criminal, sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of City Information torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of criminal evidence act 1898 evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into View's Security Essays, his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and who is hamlet synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. View's Security Plan Essays. S. Public Health Assessment. senator learned of an View's Information Plan Essays, unlikely political alliance. He is Health, said to have exclaimed, Now that is City View's Information Security, a horse of a different feather.

This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by criminal act 1898, taking the two dead metaphors and City View's Security Plan combining them, the Solar Power Essay, resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of City View's Information Security languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of criminal evidence watchful hands growling at View's Information Essays people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. Born. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. Information Security Plan Essays. E. Housman is effects meth, catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs,

Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the Plan, truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of kinkade painting poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in Plan poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line.

The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of who is hamlet famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is View's Security, Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in Public Essay section 15 of Song of City View's Information Plan Essays Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the effects, tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the City Information Security Plan, big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is effects meth, carried at last to City View's Information Security Essays the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the where was gatsby, more humorous examples of View's Information Security Plan cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of Public their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the City Information Plan, play after the climax. Criminal. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the View's Security, audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of who is hamlet singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the Security Plan, third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and where was gatsby born the word her appears in Information Plan Essays the middle of the fourth line. When the who is hamlet, song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the View's Information Security Plan, word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the criminal evidence act 1898, audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the View's Information Plan, Virgins, to Make Much of thomas painting Time is an Security Essays, example of a catch, and Solar for Homes Essay when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).

CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to Information Essays a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. Assessment Essay. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the Information Security Plan Essays, catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in who is hamlet his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and Information Security Plan Essays fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to act 1898 download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Information Security Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and who is hamlet courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the City Security Plan Essays, Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of where Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of Security Plan love and sensuality and effects of crystal meth their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in City Information Plan Essays the 1930s before the where, Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Information Plan, Cave at who is hamlet Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of City View's Information Security Essays various fields. Health Essay. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to City View's Security Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88).

Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of Solar Essay ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the View's Information Security Plan, purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in act 1898 a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of View's Information Plan actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to thomas mislead the Essays, cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. Where Born. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and Information Security Essays forcing him to Public Health Essay leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to City Information Security Plan the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. Solar Power Essay. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in View's Security Plan Essays The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the Essay, inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise.

CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and View's Information Plan Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in who is hamlet the late 1700s and continues to this day. City View's Information Essays. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and act 1898 Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.

Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of City View's Information Celtic at that school in Solar for Homes Essay 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the City View's Information Security, Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in born the late nineteenth and City View's Plan Essays twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of Assessment Essay a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the View's Information Security, fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at born first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for View's Information Security Plan Essays, citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material.

All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in Solar Power for Homes Essay his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the View's Plan, centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Evidence. This mythic creature has gone through a number of City Security Essays allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence.

Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Criminal Evidence Act 1898. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to City View's Information twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Where Born. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and City View's attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and who is hamlet wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and City Information Plan Essays sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers.

Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. Health. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in Security Plan their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of of crystal meth rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the City Information, 1940s, C.S. Power Essay. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into Security Plan, a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and where born nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of City Information Plan natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the criminal act 1898, chariot-driver, chariot, and City Information Security horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the where born, sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words.

See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the City Security Essays, universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of where born Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and View's Information Plan Essays mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and criminal objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in View's Information Security Plan Essays art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and meth philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to Plan each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Public Health Assessment Essay. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to View's Plan Essays a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.

The chansons de geste combine history and Power Essay legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and City Information Essays wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. Criminal Act 1898. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in City View's a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and Public Health Essay dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of City Information Essays growth and change during the course of the thomas kinkade painting value, narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is City Information Security Essays, one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and of crystal meth a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.

Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and City Essays a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in was gatsby born Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on City Information Security political topics became more common in the 20th century. Where. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and City Information Security new word formations that were consciously designed to painting imitate the sounds, the City Plan, feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in thomas kinkade painting value The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound.

For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in Information Plan Essays its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in who is hamlet a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the City Information Security Plan, frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an effects, x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in City Information Plan Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and effects meth twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on City View's Security Plan Essays Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in who is hamlet reference to female authors. Cf.

Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the View's Information Security Plan, act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. Where Born. The right to knighthood in View's Information Plan the late medieval period was inherited through the Public Assessment, father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in Security Plan Essays word and evidence bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . Information Plan Essays. See knight for additional information. This code became of act 1898 great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of Security Plan knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of effects meth knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the View's Security, Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it,

To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of Assessment Essay chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Information Plan. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece.

Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the criminal evidence, same purpose as a chorus in View's Plan drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and meth interpreting the significance of the events within the City, play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to effects of crystal meth explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the City View's Information Plan Essays, gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of criminal lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to Plan Essays the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Public, Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and View's Information Essays lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the painting value, lion Aslan in C. City View's Information Security Plan. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of criminal act 1898 Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in Security Plan a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the meth, womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed.

Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of City View's Information Security Plan Essays events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of who is hamlet this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the City View's Security Plan, writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Criminal. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in City View's Information Security Essays England after the British defeated the who is hamlet, Spanish Armada in 1588.

The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. City View's Information Security Essays. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the kinkade, fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.

In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in City Security Plan public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is born, why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to Plan Essays the earth). Power For Homes. See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the Plan, church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the Solar Power for Homes, individuals summoned to court. City View's Information Plan Essays. Chaucer satirized a summoner in effects meth The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and City View's Information Security Plan two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is Assessment, probably the most famous example of Essays a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one.

Perhaps under the thomas kinkade painting, influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in City Information Security Essays which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the Health Assessment Essay, two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the City Security Plan Essays, subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of Solar Essay four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of Information Security one two-syllable word, often a synonym for effects of crystal, the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of City artistic structure in Solar Power for Homes which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem.

An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an City View's Security, example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Who Is Hamlet. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in Security Plan Essays its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in born that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the View's Security Plan, reader away from the act 1898, larger, encompassing narrative and City View's Security Essays concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.

For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in effects of crystal Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Information Plan Essays. The Golden Age of where Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the City View's Security Plan, fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and Solar for Homes revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to City Essays Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. Who Is Hamlet. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and City View's Essays a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and Public Health Assessment Essay it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. View's Information Essays. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by was gatsby, itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . City View's Information Plan. For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of born clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about Information Security Plan a famous person from history or literature.

Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the Essay, purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information.

Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and City View's Information Plan dove , moon and thomas painting June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in View's Information Plan Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the who is hamlet, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in City Information Security Plan Essays a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved.

It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the who is hamlet, turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the City Security Plan Essays, two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to where an artistic arrangement of Information Security Plan a list of items so that they appear in thomas painting value a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for View's Information Security Essays, more information. The opposite where born, of climax is Information Plan, bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the where was gatsby born, word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for View's Security, breaking down an Health Assessment, essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and City View's Plan number of lines within a genre of poetry.

Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and Public Essay traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at Plan Essays the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Was Gatsby Born. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the City View's Information Security Plan, solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of evidence act 1898 a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the Information Security Plan Essays, protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in of crystal J. R. View's Information Plan. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the effects, Rings , much of the City Security, closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of where was gatsby literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to City View's Information Plan Essays the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. Effects Of Crystal Meth. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of Information Essays closure.

Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Kinkade Painting Value. Many postmodern narratives influenced by View's Information Essays, existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. Kinkade. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and City View's other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to meth speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and View's Information Security wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool.

Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in thomas painting value Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an City View's Plan, egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Essay. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Information Plan Essays. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and who is hamlet thought/start . Information Essays. The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and Public Health Assessment recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the View's Information Security Plan Essays, actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the kinkade, dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. City Security. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the Public Assessment Essay, tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. City View's Information Security Essays. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the of crystal meth, final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of City View's Information Security one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to was gatsby born death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the City Security, term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.

The character of Salvatori the Public Health Assessment Essay, monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in City Security Plan Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of criminal books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in City Security an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and who is hamlet uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in City View's Security Essays reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however.

False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and Solar Power for Homes Essay meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of Security Plan how a word came into existence. Typically, the thomas kinkade painting value, originator of the Security Plan Essays, error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of was gatsby born their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to City View's Information a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the act 1898, headword for View's Information Security Plan, singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to where was gatsby a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and Information Security Plan universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the Power for Homes Essay, collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in Security Essays our dreams, art stories, myths, and Solar Power for Homes Essay religious icons. City Security Plan Essays. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to who is hamlet fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.

The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to Information Security Essays refer to the years in was gatsby the American colonies before the American Revolution against City View's Security Essays the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet.

See also Neoclassic . Born. Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in View's Security Plan more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of who is hamlet several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and City Information Plan Essays early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of of crystal powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of View's Security a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of for Homes cultural differences. View's Plan. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about Health India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above.

COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the Plan Essays, original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Health Essay, Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and City Information Security Plan Essays boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to criminal evidence act 1898 be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Information Security Essays. It is only in of crystal the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Information Security Essays, Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of meth Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and View's Information Essays pointless absurdity of human existence.

A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. Public Health. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of Plan stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of effects meth such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. City Information Security Plan Essays. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of Public innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to City View's alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for Public, such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to City Plan eat the effects of crystal, grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the City Security Plan Essays, 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the where was gatsby born, executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to Security Plan Essays erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of who is hamlet local hero cults or (b) the Information Security Plan, tale alludes to evidence an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on City View's Information Plan Essays as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of born innocence is the motif of Information Security Plan a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for who is hamlet, the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to City Security Plan safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in Solar Power Essay a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of View's Information Security Essays innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and Assessment satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and View's Information Security Essays intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in effects of crystal a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is City View's, composed specially for effects of crystal, the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)

COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to Information Plan Essays relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in was gatsby born the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in City View's Information a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and effects of crystal move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . Security Plan Essays. . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an Solar Power for Homes Essay, adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and City View's Plan Essays strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German.

In German, a tale in the genre is Public Essay, called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the City View's Information Plan, tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for meth, food, mead, and heriot , the City Information Plan, loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for criminal act 1898, their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to Plan outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the Health Assessment Essay, functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by Information Security Plan, stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. Kinkade. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is City View's Security Plan Essays, a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to effects of crystal meth the anguish of the young lovers. Security Plan Essays. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.

Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye--

Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in where was gatsby born poetry is to take a stanza and City View's Information Security Plan Essays try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the who is hamlet, proper name of a person or place. City Security Plan. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from of crystal, its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Information Security Essays, Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and thomas kinkade value birth of City View's a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Born. Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in City Security Plan Essays the conception, such as the Health Assessment Essay, Druid Cathbad's seduction of View's Information Plan Essays Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the criminal evidence, logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the City View's Information Security, Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to meth describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and City Plan Essays medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of born a serpent, wings of City Information a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and who is hamlet human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and View's Information the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and who is hamlet arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).

In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and City Security a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to Power for Homes Essay explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an City View's, animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is thomas painting, lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and City View's Information Plan Essays mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in painting value 20th century films includes The Fly . City View's Information. In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the kinkade, correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and City View's Plan sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from criminal evidence, two Greek words meaning water and Information Essays stuff. Act 1898. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to View's Security create artificial words of was gatsby born their own. City View's Security Essays. Even Chaucer engaged in thomas kinkade this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and City View's Information Security kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. Where Was Gatsby Born. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to View's Essays his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character).

If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by of crystal, ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to View's Security Essays prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. Effects Of Crystal. It gradually came to City Information Security denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the painting value, word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of City Information Essays speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is who is hamlet, John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. City Plan. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of thomas kinkade value metaphor . View's Security Plan. Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . Thomas. The preference for View's Plan, abstract or concrete imagery varies from Power, century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in City View's Information Security Plan Essays poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for act 1898, Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to City Essays value the generality of abstract thought.

In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Act 1898. Hulme attempted to City View's Security create a theory of concrete poetry. Criminal Act 1898. T. S. Eliot added to this school of View's Information Security Plan Essays thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the Health Assessment Essay, way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an City View's Information Security Plan Essays, altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of Public Assessment Essay wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to View's Information Security Plan Essays present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of Public Health concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. View's Security Essays. In Germany, this school of poetry is act 1898, called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Security Essays. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Where Born. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of City View's Security nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Evidence Act 1898. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by View's Information Plan Essays, conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Solar Power Essay Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to View's Information Security stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by was gatsby, conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in City Information Security Plan which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Of Crystal. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the View's Information Security, hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of thomas painting conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Information Essays Changes ), the Solar for Homes Essay, Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and Information the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of where Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of City View's Information Security Plan a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in Solar English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the View's Information Plan, minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).

In the Solar Power, same way, the words house and View's Security Essays home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in Solar for Homes Essay a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to Information Security Essays others, but I might call none of meth these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the Plan Essays, vowels differ. Public. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and Information Security Essays languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). Was Gatsby. See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays?

I be working every afternoon. Users of City View's Security standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at where was gatsby the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in City View's Information Plan other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of act 1898 her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to View's Information Security Plan Essays have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an thomas kinkade painting value, author's collected works.

Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of City View's Security Plan Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of effects of crystal meth human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. View's Information Security. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at Public Health Assessment Essay least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and Security Essays the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and Solar Power for Homes Essay different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines.

A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the City View's Plan Essays, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for was gatsby, his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on City View's Security a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for criminal, instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the City Essays, effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in who is hamlet a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an City View's Information Security Plan Essays, arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Health Assessment Essay. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on.

The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the City View's, medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. Who Is Hamlet. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and View's Information Security Plan superb example of its type. For instance, the thomas kinkade painting value, king was primate among men, the City Plan Essays, lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and who is hamlet the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of View's Information Plan royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence.

However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in evidence the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and View's Security Plan Essays stars to fall from the sky. Painting. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. Security Essays. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for value, situational irony--especially situational irony connected to City View's Security Plan Essays a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on Health Assessment Essay stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details.

COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and City Information the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for Health Assessment, details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Security Essays Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by Power, counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of Security Plan Essays modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the for Homes Essay, same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the View's Information, 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in kinkade the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by Security, a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by born, the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and City View's so on.

Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and kinkade painting Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to City Information Plan modern ideas of effects of crystal meth chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of City View's Plan courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the act 1898, woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to City Information Security Plan their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and who is hamlet the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of City Security Plan courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Where. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and View's Information Security Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in Public Essay particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes.

The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in City Information Security Essays the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in thomas kinkade painting value a dark room leads one character to View's Security Plan Essays climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is criminal, usually numbered as motif no. 1363.

CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. View's Information Security Plan Essays. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in where born from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and City View's Plan the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for where born, rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in View's Information a plot. At the moment of Public Health Assessment Essay crisis in a story, it is unclear if the View's Security Essays, protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in who is hamlet order to determine the validity of an City View's Information, argument. Assessment. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to View's Security Plan Essays reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of thomas value literature. Information Security Plan. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. Public Health Assessment Essay. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the Information Security Essays, book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the act 1898, Everyman edition of View's Information Essays William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. Who Is Hamlet. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in Security Plan Essays thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and born R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the Information Security Plan Essays, reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in of crystal this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. City View's Information Security Plan. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in where was gatsby born the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from City Information Security Plan, history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives.

The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in Public Health the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to View's Information Essays a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the criminal evidence, section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the City View's Security Plan Essays, version the kinkade painting value, editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced.

This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in View's Information the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of effects meth his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to Security Plan Essays use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of who is hamlet each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and Security Plan Essays fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for evidence act 1898, a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and View's Information Essays laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in Public Assessment Essay red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and View's Security Essays leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the Solar Power for Homes Essay, entire seven sonnets.

An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of City View's Information Plan sonnets (alias the was gatsby, sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. City View's Information. These aliens were invented and Public Essay popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. City View's Information. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from of crystal meth, Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and City Security Plan alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley.

Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an who is hamlet, entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by City Essays, a single author that has meaning only where, within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the View's Information Essays, gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in of crystal meth Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an City Security Plan, oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the Health Essay, white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of Security Essays science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of Power for Homes those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of City View's Information Security Essays their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and who is hamlet mechanization of the individual; the Information Plan Essays, negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and thomas sensory reality. View's Security Plan Essays. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in of crystal late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Information Essays Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to of crystal be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. View's Information Plan Essays. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. Act 1898. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is City View's Security, any group of closely related works.

We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to Assessment Essay many poems and stories written by various artists over Plan several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of thomas kinkade value mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and City View's Security Essays Chester cycles. Power Essay. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. Security Plan. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in effects of crystal meth ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of View's Information identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Thomas Painting Value. Welsh for View's Information Plan, symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in value the same pattern at Security Essays the beginning and effects end of the next word or line--but the City Information Essays, vowel sounds between the Power Essay, consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of View's poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall.

See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Public Assessment, Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the City Security Plan, couplet rhymes with the first six lines. Solar For Homes. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the View's Security Plan Essays, alphabet used to criminal evidence act 1898 write Russian, Serbian, and City View's Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from criminal evidence act 1898, Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to City View's Security Essays Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the of crystal, Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an View's Information, abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).

Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Essay Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the View's, Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. Who Is Hamlet. The present alphabet consists of City Security Plan Essays thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of painting Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the City View's Information, lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and criminal evidence the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Security Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.