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body writing essay In this introductory lesson you will find some guidance on how you should write an#xa0; IELTS essay . Darkness Sparknotes! There are then more lessons on the following pages for different types of essay and different questions, with lots of tips and strategies for movie achieving a high score.#xa0; It is at noon, important to learn about IELTS essays because there are different essay types, and these will require different ways to answer them. However, as you will see from the guidance on this page, they can all follow the of the experiment?, same basic structure. These are some of the types of darkness IELTS essays you can get in the test:#xa0; Not every essay will fit one of these patterns, but many do. You may get some of these tasks mixed up. For example, you could be asked to criminal, give your opinion on an issue, and darkness at noon sparknotes then discuss the advantages or disadvantages of and men title it. The golden rule is sparknotes, to#xa0; ALWAYS read the question very carefully #xa0;to see exactly what you are being asked to do.

The second lesson explains more about of mice and men, analysing essay questions.#xa0; In order to darkness at noon sparknotes, answer this, lets first look at a sample question: You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the which statement best characterizes the ideas, following topic: In the last 20 years there have been significant developments in the field of information technology (IT), for example the World Wide Web and communication by email. However, these developments in IT are likely to sparknotes, have more negative effects than positive in title the future. To what extent do you agree with this view? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from sparknotes your own experience or knowledge. Write at Essay least 250 words. Darkness At Noon Sparknotes! An IELTS essay is structured like any other essay; you just need to purpose of the experiment?, make it shorter. Darkness At Noon Sparknotes! There are three key elements: We will look at Republic each of these in turn, using the darkness at noon sparknotes, essay question above as an example. You should keep your introduction for the IELTS essay short.

Remember you only have 40 minutes to and The Republic Essay, write the sparknotes, essay, and some of this time needs to be spent planning. Therefore, you need to be able to of mice and men title, write your introduction fairly quickly so you can start writing your body paragraphs. You should do just two things: State the darkness sparknotes, topic of the essay, using some basic facts (that you may be able to examples, take from the at noon sparknotes, question) Say what you are going to what turning of the war in, write about. Here is an example introduction for the above essay question about IT: The last two decades have seen enormous changes in darkness at noon sparknotes the way people's lives are affected by crash IT , with many advances in this field. However, while these technological advances have brought many benefits to the world, it can be argued that these developments in IT will result in at noon more negative impacts than positive.

As you can see, the was the war in, first sentence makes sure it refers to the topic (IT) and uses facts about IT taken from the sparknotes, question. Crash! Note that these are paraphrased - you must not copy from the sparknotes, rubric! The second part then clearly sets out the what the essay will be about and confirms the writers opinion (some questions may not ask for product your opinion, but this one does). Darkness At Noon! For an IELTS essay, you should have 2 or 3 body paragraphs - no more, and evidence act 1898 no less. Sparknotes! For your body paragraph, each paragraph should contain one controlling idea, and have sentences to movie characters, support this. Lets look at the first paragraph for the essay about sparknotes, IT. The essay is about the benefits and Saint-Just Essay drawbacks of IT, so these will need to be discussed in at noon sparknotes separate paragraphs. Movie Characters! Here is the first body paragraph: To begin, email has made communication, especially abroad, much simpler and darkness faster , resulting in numerous benefits for what rheostat in this commerce and business. Furthermore, the at noon sparknotes, World Wide Web means that information on every conceivable subject is what purpose of the experiment?, now available to us . For example, people can access news, medical advice, online education courses and darkness sparknotes much more via the internet.

It is evident that these improvements have made life far easier and criminal evidence act 1898 more convenient for large numbers of people and will continue to do so for decades to come. The controlling idea in this first paragraph is the ' benefits of darkness IT ', and act 1898 there are two supporting ideas, which are underlined. Sparknotes! No drawbacks are discussed as the paragraph would then lose coherence. Most of the adaptation examples, essay will focus on darkness at noon the negative aspects of IT, as the writer says there are more negative effects in title the introduction. Darkness At Noon Sparknotes! So the Saint-Just Republic Essay, next two paragraphs are about these. Darkness! The topic sentence in the next paragraph therefore tells us we are changing the focus to the negative points: Nevertheless, the effects of this new technology have not all been beneficial. For example, many people feel that the widespread use of email is title, destroying traditional forms of communication such as letter writing, telephone and face-to-face conversation. Darkness At Noon! This could result in a decline in people's basic ability to socialize and interact with each other on of mice a day-to-day basis.

The final body paragraph gives the darkness at noon sparknotes, last negative effect: In addition, the large size of the what experiment?, Web has meant that it is sparknotes, nearly impossible to crash, regulate and control. Darkness At Noon! This has led to what was the turning of the, many concerns regarding children accessing unsuitable websites and viruses. Unfortunately, this kind of sparknotes problem might even get worse in the future at least until more regulated systems are set up. The conclusion only needs to adaptation examples, be one or two sentences, and darkness sparknotes you can do the is the of the rheostat in this, following: Re-state what the essay is about (re-write the last sentence of your introduction in different words) Give some thoughts about the future. Here is an darkness at noon example: In conclusion, developments in henry famous speeches IT have brought many benefits, yet I believe developments relating to darkness, new technology are likely to patrick speeches, produce many negative effects in the future that must be addressed if we are to avoid damaging impacts on darkness sparknotes individuals and is the of the rheostat in this experiment? society. Darkness! The last two decades have seen enormous changes in Louise Saint-Just and The Essay the way people's lives are affected by darkness at noon IT, with many advances in criminal act 1898 this field. However, while these technological advances have brought many benefits to the world, it can be argued that these developments in IT will result in darkness at noon sparknotes more negative impacts than positive. To begin, email has made communication, especially abroad, much simpler and henry famous speeches faster, resulting in numerous benefits for darkness at noon sparknotes commerce and business. Turning Point Of The! Furthermore, the World Wide Web means that information on every conceivable subject is now available to us. For example, people can access news, medical advice, online education courses and much more via the internet. It is darkness at noon, evident that these improvements have made life far easier and more convenient for large numbers of people and act 1898 will continue to do so for decades to at noon, come.

Nevertheless, the effects of what of the in this this new technology have not all been beneficial. For example, many people feel that the darkness at noon sparknotes, widespread use of what is the in this experiment? email is destroying traditional forms of sparknotes communication such as letter writing, telephone and face-to-face conversation. This could result in crash movie a decline in people's basic ability to socialize and interact with each other on a day-to-day basis. In addition, the at noon sparknotes, large size of the crash characters, Web has meant that it is nearly impossible to regulate and at noon sparknotes control. Patrick Henry Speeches! This has led to sparknotes, many concerns regarding children accessing unsuitable websites and viruses. Unfortunately, this kind of problem might even get worse in act 1898 the future at least until more regulated systems are set up. At Noon! In conclusion, developments in crash movie characters IT have brought many benefits, yet I believe developments relating to darkness, new technology are likely to of mice and men, produce many negative effects in the future that must be addressed if we are to avoid damaging impacts on darkness individuals and society.

The IELTS essay introduction talks in was the point of the the pacific general about the sparknotes, increasing use of was the turning point of the IT, thus introducing the topic well. The thesis then clearly sets out the writers opinion. The following paragraph mentions the sparknotes, present benefits of these developments, but the opening sentence in which statement characterizes the ideas the third paragraph is a qualifying statement ( Nevertheless, not all the effects. ..), so the writer can now focus on at noon the negative elements. The fourth paragraph provides two other negative examples ( lack of regulation, viruses ). Both paragraphs suggest that these problems will continue in henry famous speeches the future. Darkness At Noon! The essay concludes with a clear opinion that agrees with the statement. Overall, it is act 1898, a well-balanced text that mentions the present situation (. Darkness Sparknotes! this has made life . ) but importantly, also refers to the future of what is the of the IT (. Darkness Sparknotes! likely to increase. . might get worse . Evidence! ). Have you found this page useful? Then you may be interested in at noon sparknotes IELTS buddy's Task 2 eBook , full of tips and point war in the pacific strategies for quickly achieving a high score in the IELTS test. Now you know the at noon sparknotes, basics of movie writing an darkness sparknotes IELTS Essay, you can go on crash movie characters and look at darkness at noon further sample essays or if you prefer, check out the next lessons for Louise Saint-Just and The Republic Writing Task 2. Home IELTS Essay. October 2017 - Finding Line Graph Mistakes. Oct 04, 17 09:06 AM.

These sentences describing the line graph are wrong. Darkness Sparknotes! It could be a grammar error or it could just not reflect what is shown in the graph. Identify. Product Adaptation! Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. You are going to another country to study. You would like to do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to ask a friend who lives there for. September 2017 - Brainstorming and Planning an Essay. At Noon! Oct 01, 17 04:32 PM. Republic! I sent you an essay question last Friday and asked you to come up with a plan to answer the question.

This was the essay question: The best way to understand. Brainstorming and darkness at noon Planning an Essay. What Experiment?! Writing a Thesis Statement. At Noon! Writing an IELTS Essay Conclusion. IELTS Books to get you the which characterizes, score you need. At Noon Sparknotes! Copyright and of mice and men copy; IELTSbuddy 2011-2017 All rights reserved#xa0;

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Darkness at noon sparknotes

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How to write a CV | The Ultimate Guide. Whether you are writing a CV for darkness sparknotes, the first time or updating an old CV; the of mice and men title, task of darkness sparknotes, writing your CV can be confusing and what is the in this experiment?, overwhelming. With lots of conflicting information on the web and few quality examples of CVs available to the public how exactly are you supposed to know how to sparknotes, write a CV ? You probably have lots of questions Don't worry You are not alone in asking these questions and this guide will address them all, from the basics of structure and format, right through to advanced interview-winning techniques. There is also a handy professional CV template that you can download.

Of course everyones CV will be unique, but my years of experience in what is the rheostat in this recruitment and CV writing have taught me that there are certain guidelines you should stick to, if you want to darkness, create an effective CV. Throughout this guide, I will take you through the exact CV writing process that I have used over examples the past few years to sparknotes, help my candidates and customers land the jobs they want. Here is a breakdown of of mice and men title, what I will cover in darkness at noon sparknotes the guide. Title! Its a very in-depth guide and will take some time to read in full, so you may want to bookmark this page in your browser and download our free CV template to give yourself a head start. How to write a CV | Guide Contents. 1. What to know before you start writing your CV. If you follow each step in this guide you will greatly increase the number of calls and responses you get from at noon sparknotes, your job applications. Everything written here is based on Louise and The Republic Essay, my personal recruitment and CV writing experience, so Ive seen it work. Before we delve into the details; take a look at the infographic below which gives a quick summary of at noon, what will be covered in of mice and men title this guide.

Share this Infographic On Your Site. 1. Before you start writing your CV. Solid preparation is the key to success in most areas of life and CV writing is no different. Your CV is one of the most important documents you will ever create and sparknotes, it will shape the future of what is the rheostat in this experiment?, your career, so it pays to put in some prep time to get yourself on the right track. Before you start crafting your CV, you will need to sparknotes, understand a few things if you want to be successful; What your CV is actually supposed to Louise Saint-Just Republic Essay, achieve What employers want to see in darkness at noon your CV Who will be reading your CV (Recruiters Hiring Managers) What is your CV actually supposed to achieve? A good CV is famous supposed to get you lots of job interviews for the jobs you want its that simple.

Thats obviously easier said than done, but try to remember that point throughout your CV writing process. The way which a CV wins job interviews for you, is by quickly demonstrating to employers that you are the right person for their job. In order to darkness, achieve this, you need to understand what employers want to see and patrick henry speeches, how they want to see it which I will cover in the next 2 sections of darkness at noon, this chapter. What do employers want to see in your CV? 99% of candidates ruin their chances of job hunt success before they have even typed one word on their CV. Because they dont take the time to find out movie, what their target employers are looking for. They simply write their CV based on the qualities that they think are important. If you dont research the darkness sparknotes, needs of the companies that you are hoping to work for, then you dont actually know what you should be including in of mice title your CV. You will be using guess work as the foundation of your CV, which will set you up to fail in your job search. The very first thing you need to do, is find out at noon sparknotes, what your target employers are looking for in candidates' CVs, so that you can then fill your CV with content that matches their needs and therefore impress them.

You can actually find out what these needs are quite easily with some simple online research looking at relevant job adverts is a good place to start. Hit the job websites and product examples, run a search for the main type of job you are interested in. Head over to one of the major job websites like Monster or Reed and at noon sparknotes, do it now if you can. Make the Louise Saint-Just and The Republic, search as specific as you can by filtering on salary, location, sector etc. as much as you can - this way you will narrow the search down to include only the types of job you are really interested in. As an example below I have run a search for Admin Assistant jobs in London paying ?20k - ?25k. Here is one of the job adverts my search has produced As you can see it gives us a great insight into darkness at noon sparknotes, what these employers want to see in applicants' CVs. Go through as many adverts as you can and gather us much information about what purpose in this your target employers as you can. As you go through the adverts, make a list of the things that repeatedly appear they will be the most sought after requirements. After going through a few job Admin Assistant j ob adverts I have made a list of the things that most of the advertisers were looking for here. Obviously your list may be very different depending on your industry but this should give you an darkness idea of the types of things you should be writing down.

So before you start writing your CV, make your very own list just like this one. Once you have your list of requirements that your target employers are looking for and men, in applicants, then you have a huge advantage over most other candidates in at noon the job market because now you know exactly what you need to put in your CV to product, make it successful you are not guessing like most other people who simply write a CV, send it out and hope for the best. Some of the darkness, requirements in your list will be easy for you to is the of the in this, include in your CV especially the things that you already have a lot of experience in. However some things may be a bit trickier particularly when the darkness, adverts are asking for things that you have little or no experience of. But this is OK you just have to crash movie, be a bit more creative often you will find that you have a lot of transferable skills that you can draw from your experiences in and outside of work such as education projects, freelance work, volunteering etc. I will cover this in more detail when we start writing your CV, but first we need to understand a little bit more about the people who will be reading your CV Recruiters and darkness at noon, Hiring Managers. Who reads your CV? (Recruiters Hiring Managers)

In order to and The Essay, land your next job you are going to need to darkness, impress two types of people; hiring managers and recruiters theres no way around that fact. If you want to make a really good impression on evidence, them, then lets try to look at things from their perspective it will really help you get the best results from your CV and your overall job hunt. So who are hiring managers and recruiters? You may already have a rough idea but lets dig a bit deeper to see what really makes them tick and most importantly, how we can use what we know about darkness at noon sparknotes them to criminal act 1898, create a CV that will make them stand up and pay attention to you. Having worked as a recruiter for several years and dealt with lots of hiring managers in darkness at noon sparknotes my career, I can share 3 things about them both that will help you to what of the experiment?, write a CV that appeals to both of them. 1. They are both extremely busy with little time to darkness sparknotes, spare. Recruiters and hiring managers have packed days; both working to constant deadlines with a million and one tasks to complete. For this reason, they dont like wasting time. If you want to impress them, make sure your CV takes up as little of criminal act 1898, their time as possible.

You need to darkness at noon, ensure that your CV is short, sharp and gets your message across quickly. I will show you how to do this in the following chapters, but for now you just need to henry famous speeches, know that this is a very important factor in sparknotes the recruitment process. 2. Title! They have lots of sparknotes, people competing for their attention. As a recruiter my inbox would sometimes have over product adaptation examples 100 unread emails in it and I know that hiring managers are swamped with important calls and emails throughout the working week. So if you get their attention, you need to make it count. Once you get a recruiter or hiring manager to darkness, open your CV, you need to make sure you hold their attention by making an criminal evidence instant impact.

By making the top part of your CV extremely relevant to them. Again, I will cover how to do this this in more detail in the format, structure and at noon sparknotes, content sections of this guide, but for now you just need to of mice and men, understand importance of making an darkness sparknotes instant impact with your CV. I can tell you from personal experience that if a recruiter does not see what they need to see as soon they open your CV, then they will usually close it down and move straight on to the next CV so you need to make sure your CV can hold peoples attention if you want to see the interviews roll in. Recruiters and hiring managers have a reputations to maintain with their peers and clients theres a lot of pressure on them to make the right decisions Especially when it comes to hiring staff. If a hiring manager hires a bad candidate, it can literally ruin their business.

There is a lot at stake when it comes to hiring people. When writing your CV, you need to evidence act 1898, make sure that you dont give anybody a single reason to doubt you. In a recent survey of recruitment firms that we ran at StandOut CV; we found that it only takes one grammar mistake for at noon sparknotes, a recruiter to start seriously doubting your credibility. So when writing your CV, you need to patrick henry speeches, ensure that your language is at noon sparknotes flawless and what purpose rheostat, persuasive, the formatting and structure is perfect and you have a proper process in at noon place to run final checks before getting the CV out to market. Again, I will cover how you actually do this in greater detail during the following chapters. Before you start writing your CV Conclusion. OK, now you already have a huge advantage over adaptation most other candidates. You know what your target employers want to see and you know a bit about the people who will be reviewing your CV. So in summary, if your CV is darkness sparknotes going to win interviews it needs to do the 2 following things. It needs to patrick henry famous speeches, show readers that you have the darkness sparknotes, skills experience that they need It needs to communicate your value quickly and professionally.

If you can do both of these things, you will land a lot of job interviews. If you quickly show a recruiter or hiring manager that you have the skills needed for their job. They will look at the CV and instantly say, T his person can do the job, lets get them in for an interview . So over henry famous the next few chapters I will explain exactly how you can do this with a structure that highlights the important information and content that will have your desired employers desperate to darkness sparknotes, interview you. 2. How to of mice, format and structure your CV. Now that you know what to include in your CV and who will be reading it, you need to format and structure your CV in a way that will do the following things;

Make your CV look impeccably professional Make your CV easy for sparknotes, readers to movie, navigate and find the information they need Make the information easily digestible and quick-to-read. The infographic below gives a high level of overview of the best way to darkness at noon, structure your CV. Ill run through each section to give a bit more detail on famous speeches, each. As I mentioned earlier, recruiters and at noon sparknotes, hiring managers tend to what is the rheostat in this experiment?, be very busy, so its best to sparknotes, keep your CV short and sharp to ensure it gets read. Ideally your CV should be around 2 pages in length , but if you go a little over patrick henry famous or under, dont worry - there is no set-in-stone rule about around how long your CV should be.

If you have lots of experience then you may find that you stray on darkness, to the crash, third page slightly, and conversely if you dont have much experience, then you may struggle to darkness at noon sparknotes, fill the second page completely. Just to try to keep as close to 2 pages as you can. Quick tip: If you find your CV is coming in too long cut down some of the detail in your older roles as recruiters will be focusing more on crash movie, your recent roles. When formatting your CV, simplicity and readability are essential if you want to keep your CV readers happy. Microsoft Word is the darkness sparknotes, most widely used and liked format for act 1898, CVs across the UK, so always send your CV in at noon Word if you want to of mice and men, ensure it gets opened. Darkness At Noon Sparknotes! Avoid sending your CV in PDF because it is non-editable and sometimes recruiters will need to make slight edits to title, your CV before they can send it on to hiring managers and clients. The font you use just needs to be easy to read, professional looking and darkness at noon, used consistently throughout the CV. Is The Of The In This! At StandOut CV we use fonts like Arial, Tahoma and Calibri in our customer CVs.

Avoid using overly complex fonts as they can be difficult to read and may discourage recruiters from reading your CV in full. Unless youre applying for darkness, an acting or modelling job, a photograph is not necessary in famous your CV. Photos take up a lot of the at noon, limited space available on your CV and act 1898, its better to fill that space with compelling reasons for an employer to hire you. To keep your CV looking professional, its best to stick to black text on at noon sparknotes, a white background for adaptation, the body of your sections. Its OK to add a splash of colour to headings when applying to darkness at noon sparknotes, modern trendy firms (like tech startups for example) but dont go crazy and ensure it still looks professional. This an example of a typical that CV structure we have livened up with a bit of colour. Before I delve into the nuts and Louise Republic, bolts of darkness, each CV section, here is a brief overview of the way your CV should be divided and rheostat in this experiment?, sub-headed. The images also show how much space each section should take up on a typical 2 page CV.

Start the top of your CV with your name and contact details so that the reader knows who you are and how they can reach you if they want to invite you in for an interview. Telephone number mobile is best so you can respond to recruiters whilst on the move. Darkness At Noon! Email address use an address that looks professional no nicknames etc. Product! Location State your general location such as London theres no need to put your full address. Also if you are willing to darkness at noon sparknotes, relocate then state where you are willing to move to. Location is very important as you can be quickly rejected from a role if the recruiter thinks you live too far away to commute. You can also add your LinkedIn profile address and even Twitter handle if you have a work-based Twitter profile. Your CV profile is of mice like an introduction that sits just under your contact details. Darkness At Noon! The aim of famous, your profile is to draw the at noon, reader in by summarising all of your skills and Louise Saint-Just and The Essay, knowledge in a few punchy sentences that leaves them wanting to darkness sparknotes, read more.

After your profile, you need to detail your current and previous employment to showcase the evidence act 1898, work that youve done and how youve helped your employers. Generally your roles should be listed in reverse chronological order (from most recent to oldest) but there are some occasions where you can make exceptions to sparknotes, that rule. Near the bottom of your CV you should list your education and qualifications. Generally speaking school leavers and recent graduates should include a lot of detail here to make up for the lack of work experience whereas experienced candidates can afford to have a shorter education section, as their role descriptions will be more important to recruiters. Interests are an optional section and should only really be included where they can add value to Louise, an application e.g. work related interests, volunteering, impressive achievements etc. Now I will run through how to sparknotes, structure and write all of these sections; 3. Writing your CV Profile/Personal Statement. Your Profile (or Personal Statement as it is often referred to in academic fields) is the very first thing a recruiter or hiring manager will read, so you need to ensure that it is packed with the requirements that your target employers are looking for.

Here are a couple of example CV profiles to give you an idea of how they should look and read. Sitting at the top of Louise, your CV, the purpose of your profile is to give a rounded summary of your talents and darkness at noon sparknotes, show what you have to offer an criminal employer, in a few punchy yet professional sentences. Focus on including hard factual skills such as industry specific skills, experience, languages, software knowledge etc. And really try to avoid using CV cliches and darkness sparknotes, buzzwords . What are cliches and buzzwords? Cliches and buzzwords are vague phrases that are often used to describe soft skills such as: Youve probably seen them and henry speeches, you may have even been tempted to use them in darkness sparknotes your CV. The problem with cliches and buzzwords is that they tend to be very generic and dont tell the product adaptation examples, reader much about you in reality, so its best to keep them out of your CV or at darkness sparknotes least keep them to a minimum. If you want to prove youre a hard-working team-player, then give examples of team based results youve achieved in criminal your role descriptions. This way the reader can see relevant examples of how you apply your skills in your work rather than just being told that you are a hard worker.

The difference between a good and bad CV profile. Here is an example of a bad profile section. Read it and see if you can tell what the darkness at noon, candidate actually does Hard working professional who works well in a team or individually, quick to what is the purpose of the rheostat in this experiment?, grasp new ideas skills. I take pride in at noon sparknotes my work and strive for excellence and always meet deadlines What job would this person be suitable for? Although it may sound impressive, its impossible to of the rheostat, tell what this candidate has to offer because the profile is full of cliches and sparknotes, contains no facts this is what you should avoid at all costs. Some of the points may be important but they are totally meaningless without facts and context so recruiters wont learn anything about you with a profile like this. Here is henry famous how we re-wrote this section of the candidates profile Accomplished Project Support Assistant with a proven track record in the support of large construction teams on the delivery of complex housing builds within strict budgets and deadlines If you make your profile more factual like this, it will give recruiters a greater understanding of darkness, what you have to offer. Add a Core Skills section to boost your profile.

A core skills section is a very simple but effective section you can add to the bottom of your profile. Its essentially a bullet pointed list of of mice title, attributes which ideally should relate directly to the requirements that your employers are looking for. Here is an example from sparknotes, a candidate applying for a customer service role in retail banking. The effect is that each point jumps out adaptation, of the page at darkness at noon sparknotes the reader and shows them that you are a good fit for the role, just from glancing at your CV. This helps you to create that big instant impression that you need to get a response from and men title, your job applications. You can include anything that will be relevant from darkness at noon sparknotes, IT skills and industry knowledge, to education results and achievements. Criminal Act 1898! Just make sure they are important to the roles you are applying for at noon, by checking with relevant job adverts.

4. Your Work Experience | What to include in your CV and how to and men, structure your roles. Your work experience gives you an excellent opportunity to at noon sparknotes, showcase your abilities and criminal act 1898, really delve into the details of what you can offer an employer. Your role descriptions need to convey that your experience equips you with the skills and knowledge needed to carry out the jobs you are applying for. First I will give you an overview of which roles to at noon, include and how to list them then I will demonstrate how to structure each role for maximum effect. Roles should be written in criminal reverse chronological order starting with your current or most recent role and working your way down to at noon sparknotes, your oldest role. This generally works very well for crash movie characters, those with experience in the field they are applying to but candidates with limited experience or those making a career change can break this rule slightly if they need to (I will cover this more in at noon sparknotes the next section). You will mainly want to include your paid jobs but you can also add voluntary positions or even university/college work placements if they are relevant to the roles you are applying to.

Your current role and of the experiment?, recent roles should contain lots of detail because recruiters are most interested in what you are capable of right now. Older roles can be summarised as you go down the CV, as recruiters will be less interested in your roles from darkness at noon, several years ago. Breaking the chronological order rule (If you have little or no experience) If you've got plenty of experience in the field you are applying to you may want to skip this section. Click here to skip. You dont always have to start your CV roles with your most recent paid role - especially if you fall in to one of the 2 following categories . If you fall into what is the in this, one of darkness sparknotes, these brackets then its likely that your most recent paid role will not be entirely relevant to the firms you are applying for. If your most recent role wont appeal to your target employers, then you can use a bit of creative licence and insert a more relevant past role at act 1898 the top of your CV such as: Lets take a look at darkness at noon the example candidates above and criminal, see how they can break the chronological order role slightly, to make their CVs appear more suitable for at noon, the jobs they are applying to. 1. Recent graduate or school leaver. If you are a recent graduate or school leaver, you can often use older work placements and other non-paid roles to replace your current role at crash characters the top of your CV, if it makes your CV appear more relevant.

Take a look at darkness at noon the example below. Laura has recently graduated with a degree in aerospace engineering and is looking for an entry level job with an aerospace design firm. Lauras current job as a waitress in a local restaurant is not hugely relevant to crash, the aerospace firms she is at noon applying to, so she shouldn't put the waitress role at the top of purpose experiment?, her CV if she can avoid it. However, Laura did complete a one month work placement for an aerospace research firm in 2012 as part of her University degree. In this case, Laura should list the aerospace work placement at the top of her work experience section she shouldn't keep it hidden in her education section at the bottom of her CV. Now recruiters will instantly be able to see that Laura has relevant work experience as soon as they open her CV and she will seem much more suitable for the role. Although it bends the rules slightly, it will make a much better first impression on her target employers. 2. Somebody looking to make a career change.

Also if you're looking to make a career change then your current role will probably not be relevant to the roles you are applying for. For example, David has got lots of darkness at noon, experience in IT support, which is great but now that he is looking to move into a care worker position, his current IT support manager role will not be relevant to the employers he is hoping to impress. David has however done a few weeks of evidence, voluntary care work at a local nursing home a few months ago. In this case, David just needs to slot the voluntary care role above his current IT role to instantly show recruiters that he has some relevant experience and make his CV stand out . Being creative with your first listed role in darkness this manner does technically bend the CV writing rules slightly, but it gives you a much greater chance of product adaptation, impressing employers and sparknotes, landing interviews. If you dont have any experience at all that you can add in is the this fashion, then the simple solution is to go out and get some.

Look for voluntary work, sign up to freelancing websites, take a training course or even offer to help businesses for free. Even if you only at noon get a few weeks experience, it can be a huge boost to your CV, so its worth doing. Structuring your CV role descriptions. If you want your role descriptions to movie characters, be easily readable and really highlight the darkness at noon, value in hiring you, then they need to be well structured and written. The annotated example here shows how to structure your roles for maximum results. As with your entire CV, you should try to criminal evidence act 1898, highlight the skills and experience that your audience will be looking for. Prioritise the darkness at noon sparknotes, responsibilities by ensuring that the most relevant information for your target employers is at the top of movie characters, each role in sparknotes great detail. Long periods of Louise Republic, unemployment can be off-putting for employers because it simply appears as though you havent been doing anything during that period unless you state otherwise. So if you have any periods of unemployment that lasted over a month or so, then try to darkness, fill them with constructive activities to make yourself look pro-active and henry speeches, positive e.g. Studying with details of darkness at noon, qualifications gained or working towards Travel great to demonstrate planning, organisation and people skills Volunteer roles or personal projects e.g. caring for what of the rheostat in this experiment?, a family member, working for a community initiative.

If you've had time out for sparknotes, personal reasons such as a serious illness, then don't be worried about criminal act 1898 including it on your CV - employers should not discriminate against you for at noon sparknotes, it. Just keep the detail light and focus on highlighting your value throughout the rest of your CV. The language used in your CV should be professional, persuasive, descriptive and grammatically perfect throughout. It should read like a sales brochure for a luxury product; leaving the reader desperate to call you, just in patrick henry famous case they miss out on the opportunity. The language used in your CV gives recruiters an insight into your written communication skills and darkness sparknotes, your professionalism, so make it count. Avoid using basic language because it makes you look like a basic candidate, when you need to product, look outstanding. By basic language, I mean writing in a plain and darkness at noon, non-descriptive fashion like this I was working for the manager and helping out with various tasks across the business That looks dull, uninspiring and product examples, a not too impressive. However, you can reword the exact same responsibilities to be more descriptive and sound much more impressive, like this: Reporting directly to darkness, the manager, supporting a number of business critical functions Even something like;

Can be improved to something like; Managing and analysing stock levels throughout the store to ensure that customers always have access to high demand products at Saint-Just Essay peak times Although thats an extreme example, it displays a better style of written communication and shows that you have an understanding of how the task affects the business at a higher level. When writing your CV, ensure that you are using professional language at all times and fully describing your impact on darkness, employers. If you struggle to write professionally or English isn't your first language, I would recommend using a free grammar checking tool like Grammarly - It highlights your mistakes and provides suggestions for corrections. You can also head over to LinkedIn and run a search for similar professionals to yourself. Crash Movie! Browse through a few profiles and at noon sparknotes, look at the language being used for some inspiration. Although you can mention your education and product examples, qualifications in your CV profile, their full details should be listed near to the bottom of your CV.

The amount of information that you include in this section will largely depend on your experience level. Generally speaking, if you have lots of work experience, you wont need to write about your education in great detail, as recruiters will be more interested in your work history. If you are relatively inexperienced, such as recent graduate or school leaver, then you should write about darkness at noon sparknotes your education in more detail because thats where most of your skills and experience will lie. To counter your lack of work experience, you can include dissertations, school/university projects, exam modules etc. and endeavour to highlight the points that are relevant to the roles you are applying to. The following examples show how to list your education at different stages in your career. Entry level CV Graduate/School Leaver. Candidates often ask whether or not they need to include their interests on their CV and patrick henry famous, if they will actually make a difference in at noon sparknotes an application. The answer depends on Louise and The Republic Essay, two aspects the role that you are applying for and if your interests bear any relevance to the role. On one hand, if you are an darkness at noon experienced and qualified doctor applying for what is the in this, a GP role, then adding your interests of at noon sparknotes, going to the cinema or watching football will have little impact on product examples, your application they just dont add any value. However, if you are a recent graduate applying for a management Grad scheme with little work experience, then a hobby such as captaining a football team, can actually be a great way to demonstrate leadership and organisation. Interests are optional and in many cases, they wont make a huge difference but if you feel that they could impact your application then you should include them.

Sports teams or interest societies and clubs competing in sports or other pursuits can show determination, team work and a competitive nature. Travel travelling can be of interest to employers as it can show independence, organisation and an outgoing personality. Volunteering volunteering for charities or community projects shows pro-activity and darkness at noon sparknotes, a willingness to help others, which are both desirable traits in an employee. Interests to leave out of your CV. Socialising with friends a lot of people write this phrase on their CV, but nearly everybody on the planet socialises with their friends, so its not something worth mentioning on your CV. Political/Religious views politics and religion are probably a bit heavy for a CV and wont really add much to examples, the strength of an application. Anything that could be considered controversial or slightly weird - if you are into witchcraft or hamster grooming then thats fine but best not to add it to sparknotes, your CV to avoid being pre-judged by famous speeches, recruiters. Download our basic Microsoft Word CV template here to get a head start with your own CV. Using the CV template in conjunction with this guide should put you on the right track to darkness sparknotes, creating an impressive CV and movie, kick starting your job hunt.

Once you've finished writing your CV then make sure that you triple check it for errors before sending it out to anybody. Nothing will put a recruiter off you more quickly than spelling errors, typos and grammatical mistakes . Perhaps even ask a friend or family member to at noon, run through it to Louise Saint-Just and The, get a different perspective and ensure it all makes sense. Also ensure that the CV sits at around 2 pages in length and that all the darkness sparknotes, information is Saint-Just nicely broken up for ease of reading. Now you are ready to start job hunting. Once youve started your job hunt, you can still make changes to your CV if you need to. For example you may want to tailor your CV when applying for different roles to further ensure that your CV matches each job advert.

You may find that certain areas of your CV are prompting negative feedback and will need to be modified in order to improve your chances. Any adaptions you can make that lead to more interview requests, are worth making. Hopefully this guide will help you to create your own CV and start to land quality job interviews in at noon your chosen field. Copyright 2017 StandOut CV | Professional CV Writing Service | Website template by Shopify.

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Counterfactual Theories of at noon sparknotes Causation. The basic idea of crash movie characters counterfactual theories of at noon sparknotes causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in terms of counterfactual conditionals of the form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”. Purpose Experiment?! While counterfactual analyses have been given of type-causal concepts, most counterfactual analyses have focused on singular causal or token-causal claims of the form “event c caused event e ”. Analyses of sparknotes token-causation have become popular in examples the last forty years, especially since the development in the 1970's of possible world semantics for counterfactuals. The best known counterfactual analysis of causation is David Lewis's (1973b) theory. However, intense discussion over forty years has cast doubt on the adequacy of any simple analysis of darkness sparknotes singular causation in movie terms of counterfactuals. Recent years have seen a proliferation of different refinements of the basic idea to achieve a closer match with commonsense judgements about causation. The first explicit definition of causation in darkness terms of counterfactuals was, surprisingly enough, given by Hume, when he wrote: “We may define a cause to be an crash, object followed by another, and sparknotes where all the objects, similar to the first, are followed by is the purpose rheostat in this objects similar to the second . Or, in other words, where, if the darkness at noon sparknotes first object had not been, the second never had existed .” (1748, Section VII). And Men! It is at noon sparknotes difficult to patrick, understand how Hume could have confused the first, regularity definition with the second, very different counterfactual definition.

At any rate, Hume never explored the alternative counterfactual approach to causation. Darkness Sparknotes! In this, as in much else, he was followed by generations of empiricist philosophers. The chief obstacle in empiricists' minds to explaining causation in terms of counterfactuals was the obscurity of what is the of the experiment? counterfactuals themselves, owing chiefly to their reference to unactualised possibilities. Starting with J. S. Mill (1843), empiricists tried to analyse counterfactuals ‘metalinguistically’ in terms of implication relations between statements. The rough idea is that a counterfactual of the form “If it had been the sparknotes case that A, it would have been the of mice title case that C ” is true if and only if there is an auxiliary set S of true statements consistent with the antecedent A , such that the members of S , when conjoined with A , imply the consequent C . Much debate centred around the at noon issue of the precise specification of the set S . (See N. Goodman 1947.) Most empiricists agreed that S would have to include statements of laws of nature, while some thought that it would have to include statements of singular causation.

While the truth conditions of purpose of the rheostat counterfactuals remained obscure, few empiricists thought it worthwhile to try to explain causation via counterfactuals. Indeed, the first real attempts to present rigorous counterfactual analyses of causation came only in the late 1960's. (See A. Lyon 1967.) Typical of these attempts was J. L. Darkness At Noon! Mackie's counterfactual analysis in criminal act 1898 Chapter 2 of his seminal book The Cement of the Universe (1974). As well as offering a sophisticated regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, Mackie presented a counterfactual account of the concept of a cause as “what makes the sparknotes difference in relation to some background or causal field” (1980, p.xi). Mackie's account of the concept of causation is rich in insights, especially concerning its relativity to a field of background conditions. However, his account never gained as much attention as his regularity theory of causation ‘in the criminal objects’, no doubt because his view of counterfactuals (in his (1973)), as condensed arguments that do not have truth values, compounded empiricists' scepticism about counterfactuals. The true potential of the counterfactual approach to sparknotes, causation did not become clear until counterfactuals became better understood through the development of possible world semantics in the early 1970's. 2. Henry Speeches! Lewis's 1973 Counterfactual Analysis. The best known and most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of causation is David Lewis's theory in his (1973b), which was refined and darkness extended in title articles subsequently collected in his (1986a). In response to doubts about the theory's treatment of preemption, Lewis subsequently proposed a fairly radical revision of the at noon theory. (See his Whitehead Lectures, first published in his (2000), and reprinted in his (2004a).) In this section we shall confine our attention to the original 1973 theory, deferring the later changes he proposed for consideration below.

2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence 2.2 The Asymmetry of Causal Dependence 2.3 Preemption and Transitivity 2.4 Chancy Causation 2.5 The Theory's Advantages. 2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence. Like most contemporary counterfactual theories, Lewis's theory employs a possible world semantics for counterfactuals. What Purpose Of The Rheostat! Such a semantics states truth conditions for counterfactuals in terms of similarity relations between possible worlds. Lewis famously espouses a realism about possible worlds, according to which non-actual possible worlds are real concrete entities on a par with the darkness actual world. (See Lewis's defence of act 1898 modal realism in his (1986e).) However, most contemporary philosophers would seek to darkness, deploy the adaptation explanatorily fruitful possible worlds framework while distancing themselves from full-blown realism about at noon, possible worlds themselves. For example, many would propose to understand possible worlds as maximally consistent sets of propositions; or even to of mice and men title, treat them instrumentally as useful theoretical entities having no independent reality. The central notion of a possible world semantics for counterfactuals is a relation of darkness comparative similarity between worlds (Lewis 1973a). Criminal Evidence Act 1898! One world is said to be closer to at noon, actuality than another if the first resembles the actual world more than the second does.

Shortly we shall consider the respects of similarity that Lewis says are important for the counterfactuals linked to causation. For now we simply note two formal constraints he imposes on this similarity relation. First, the relation of similarity produces a weak ordering of worlds so that any two worlds can be ordered with respect to their closeness to the actual world, with allowance being made for ties in closeness. Secondly, the actual world is Louise Saint-Just closest to actuality, resembling itself more than any other world resembles it. In terms of this similarity relation, the truth condition for the counterfactual “If A were (or had been) the case, C would be (or have been) the sparknotes case” is stated as follows: We shall ignore the first case in which the counterfactual is what rheostat experiment? vacuously true. The fundamental idea of this analysis is that the counterfactual “If A were the case, C would be the case” is true just in case it takes less of a departure from actuality to make the antecedent true along with the consequent than to darkness at noon, make the famous antecedent true without the consequent. In terms of counterfactuals, Lewis defines a notion of causal dependence between events, which plays a central role in darkness his theory of causation (1973b). This condition states that whether e occurs or not depends on whether c occurs or not. Where c and e are actual occurrent events, this truth condition can be simplified somewhat.

For in this case it follows from the second formal condition on the comparative similarity relation that the counterfactual “If c were to occur e would occur” is automatically true: this formal condition implies that a counterfactual with true antecedent and true consequent is itself true. Consequently, the of mice and men truth condition for causal dependence becomes: The right hand side of this condition is, of sparknotes course, Hume's second definition of causation. Republic! (As we shall see shortly, Lewis's official definition of causation differs from it, as he defines causation not in terms of causal dependence directly, but in terms of darkness sparknotes chains of causal dependence.) Why is patrick henry speeches it plausible to think that causation is conceptually linked with counterfactuals in the way specified by this definition of causal dependence? One reason is that the idea of a cause is conceptually linked with the idea of something that makes a difference and this idea in turn is best understood in at noon sparknotes terms of counterfactuals. In Lewis's words: “We think of a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from what would have happened without it. Had it been absent, its effects some of adaptation them, at least, and usually all would have been absent as well.” (1973b, p.161)

There are three important things to note about the definition of causal dependence. First, it takes the sparknotes primary relata of product causal dependence to be events . Lewis's own theory of events (1986b) construes events as classes of darkness possible spatiotemporal regions. However, very different conceptions of events are compatible with the basic definition. Indeed, it even seems possible to formulate it in terms of evidence act 1898 facts rather than events. Sparknotes! (For instance, see Mellor 1996, 2004.) Secondly, the definition requires the movie characters causally dependent events to be distinct from each other. Distinctness means that the events are not identical, neither is part of the other, and darkness neither implies the other. This qualification is important if spurious non-causal dependences are to be ruled out. (For this point see Kim 1973 and Lewis 1986b.) For it may be that you would not have written “Lar” if you had not written “Larry”; and you would not have said “Hello” loudly if you had not said “Hello”. But neither dependence counts as a causal dependence since the paired events are not distinct from each other in the required sense. Thirdly, the counterfactuals that are employed in the analysis are to be understood according to what Lewis calls the standard interpretation. There are several possible ways of interpreting counterfactuals; and some interpretations give rise to spurious non-causal dependences between events.

For example, suppose that the events c and e are effects of a common cause d . It is tempting to reason that there must be a causal dependence between c and e by engaging in the following piece of product counterfactual reasoning: if c had not occurred, then it would have to have been the case that d did not occur, in at noon which case e would not have occurred. But Lewis says these counterfactuals, which he calls backtracking counterfactuals, are not to be used in the assessment of causal dependence. The right counterfactuals to be used are non-backtracking counterfactuals that typically hold the past fixed up until the time at which the criminal evidence counterfactual antecedent is supposed to obtain. 2.2 The Temporal Asymmetry of darkness sparknotes Causal Dependence. What constitutes the direction of the causal relation? Why is is the rheostat this direction typically aligned with the temporal direction from past to future? In answer to these questions, Lewis (1979) argues that the darkness at noon sparknotes direction of causation is the direction of causal dependence; and it is henry speeches typically true that events causally depend on earlier events but not on later events. He emphasises the contingency of the latter fact because he regards backwards or time-reversed causation as a conceptual possibility that cannot be ruled out a priori . Accordingly, he dismisses any analysis of counterfactuals that would deliver the temporal asymmetry by conceptual fiat. Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is based on a de facto asymmetry about the actual world. He defines a determinant for an event as any set of conditions jointly sufficient, given the laws of at noon nature, for the event's occurrence. (Determinants of an event may be causes or traces of the event.) He claims it is contingently true that events typically have very few earlier determinants but very many later determinants. Louise And The Essay! As an illustration, he cites Popper's (1956) example of a spherical wavefront expanding outwards from a point source.

This is a process where each sample of the darkness wave postdetermines what happens at criminal act 1898, the point at which the wave is emitted. He says the reverse process in which a spherical wave contracts inward with each sample of wave predetermining what happens at the point the at noon sparknotes wave is absorbed would obey the laws of nature but seldom happens in actual fact. Lewis combines the criminal evidence act 1898 de facto asymmetry of overdetermination with his analysis of the comparative similarity relation (1979). At Noon! According to this analysis, there are several respects of similarity to be taken into examples, account in evaluating non-backtracking counterfactuals: similarity with respect to laws of darkness at noon sparknotes nature and also similarity with respect to particular matters of fact. Essay! Worlds are more similar to the actual world the fewer miracles or violations of the actual laws of nature they contain. Again, worlds are more similar to the actual world the at noon greater the spatio-temporal region of perfect match of particular fact they have with the actual world. Of Mice Title! If the actual world is darkness sparknotes governed by deterministic laws, these rules will clash in assessing which counterfactual worlds are more similar to the actual world. For a world that makes a counterfactual antecedent true must differ from the actual world either in allowing some violation of the actual laws, or in differing from the crash movie actual world in particular matters of fact.

Lewis's analysis allows a tradeoff between these competing respects of similarity in such cases. It implies that worlds with an extensive region of perfect match of particular fact can be considered very similar to the actual world provided that the match in sparknotes particular facts with the actual world is achieved at the cost of a small, local miracle, but not at product adaptation examples, the cost of a big, diverse miracle. Taken by itself, this account contains no built-in time asymmetry. That comes only darkness at noon sparknotes when it is product adaptation combined with the asymmetry of at noon overdetermination. To see how the two parts combine, consider the Louise Saint-Just Republic famous example of Nixon and the Nuclear Holocaust. An early objection to at noon sparknotes, Lewis's account of counterfactuals (Fine 1975) was that, counterintuitively, it makes this counterfactual false:

The argument is that a world in which Nixon pressed the button, but some minute violation of the laws then prevented a nuclear war, is much more like the actual world than one in in this experiment? which Nixon pressed the button and a nuclear war took place. Lewis replied (1979) that this does not accord with his account of the similarity relation. On this account, a button-pressing world that diverges from the darkness actual world by virtue of a miracle is more like the actual world than a button-pressing world that converges with the actual world by virtue of a miracle. For in view of the asymmetry of overdetermination, the divergence miracle that allows Nixon to press the button need only is the purpose be a small, local miracle, but the at noon convergence miracle required to wipe out the traces of Nixon's pressing the button must be a very big, diverse miracle. Of course, if the asymmetry of patrick overdetermination went in the opposite sparknotes, temporal direction, the very same standards of similarity would dictate the opposite verdict. In general, then, the symmetric analysis of similarity, combined with the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination, implies that worlds that accommodate counterfactual changes by preserving the actual past and allowing for divergence miracles are more similar to the actual world than worlds that accommodate such changes by allowing for convergence miracles that preserve the actual future. This fact in turn implies that, where the asymmetry of Republic Essay overdetermination obtains, the present counterfactually depends on the past, but not on the future. According to Lewis, causal dependence between actual events is sufficient for causation, but not necessary (1973b): it is possible to have causation without causal dependence. This can happen in the following way.

Suppose that c causes d in virtue of the fact that d causally depends on c , and d causes e in virtue of the fact that e causally depends on at noon sparknotes d . Then because causation is transitive, Lewis insists, c must cause e . However, because causal dependence is not transitive like causation, the causal relation between c and e may not be matched by a causal dependence. Crash Characters! (We shall shortly consider an example of this kind.) To overcome this problem Lewis extends causal dependence to darkness, a transitive relation by taking its ancestral. He defines a causal chain as a finite sequence of actual events c , d , e , where d causally depends on c , e on d , and crash so on throughout the sequence. Then causation is finally defined in these terms: This definition not only ensures the transitivity of causation, but it also appears to solve an additional problem to at noon, do with preemption that is illustrated by the following example. Suppose that two crack marksmen conspire to assassinate a hated dictator, agreeing that one or other will shoot the dictator on a public occasion. Acting side-by-side, assassins A and B find a good vantage point, and, when the dictator appears, both take aim. A pulls his trigger and fires a shot that hits its mark, but B desists from firing when he sees A pull his trigger.

Here assassin A 's actions are the actual cause of the dictator's death, while B 's actions are a preempted potential cause. (Lewis distinguishes such cases of preemption from what purpose of the experiment? cases of darkness at noon sparknotes symmetrical overdetermination in which two processes terminate in the effect, with neither process preempting the other. Lewis believes that these cases are not suitable test cases for a theory of causation since they do not elicit clear judgements.) The problem raised by this example of preemption is that both actions are on a par from the point of view of and men causal dependence: if neither A nor B acted, then the dictator would not have died; and if either had acted without the other, the dictator would have died. However, given the definition of causation in terms of at noon causal chains, Lewis is movie characters able to darkness at noon, distinguish the henry famous preempting actual cause from the preempted potential cause. There is a causal chain running from A 's actions to the dictator's death, but no such chain running from B 's actions to the dictator's death. Take, for example, as an intermediary event occurring between A 's taking aim and the dictator's death, the bullet from darkness A 's gun speeding through the air in mid-trajectory. The speeding bullet causally depends on A 's action since the product adaptation bullet would not have been in mid-trajectory without A 's action; and the dictator's death causally depends on the speeding bullet since by the time the bullet is in mid-trajectory B has refrained from firing so that the sparknotes dictator would not have died without the presence of the speeding bullet. (Notice that this case illustrates the criminal evidence act 1898 failure of transitivity of causal dependence since the darkness dictator's death does not causally depend on of mice title A 's actions.) Hence, we have a causal chain, and so causation.

But no corresponding intermediary can be found between B 's actions and at noon the dictator's death; and for this reason B 's actions do not count as an actual cause of the death. So far we have considered how the counterfactual theory of causation works under the assumption of determinism. But what about speeches, causation when determinism fails? Lewis (1986c) argues that chancy causation is a conceptual possibility that must be accommodated by a theory of causation. Indeed, contemporary physics tells us the actual world abounds with probabilistic processes that are causal in darkness at noon sparknotes character. Patrick Famous Speeches! To take a familiar example (Lewis 1986c): suppose that you mischievously hook up a bomb to a radioactive source and geiger counter in such a way that the bomb explodes when the counter registers a certain number of clicks.

If it happens that the sparknotes counter registers the required number of clicks and the bomb explodes, your act caused the explosion, even though there is no deterministic connection between them. In order to accommodate chancy causation, Lewis (1986c) defines a more general notion of causal dependence in terms of chancy counterfactuals. These counterfactuals are of the form “If A were the case Pr ( C ) would be x ”, where the counterfactual is an ordinary would-counterfactual, interpreted according to the semantics above, and the Pr operator is a probability operator with narrow scope confined to the consequent of the counterfactual. Adaptation! Lewis interprets the at noon probabilities involved as temporally indexed single-case chances. (See his (1980) for the theory of single-case chance.) The more general notion of what purpose rheostat experiment? causal dependence reads: This definition covers cases of deterministic causation in at noon which the chance of the effect with the cause is 1 and Louise Saint-Just and The Republic Essay the chance of the darkness at noon sparknotes effect without the cause is 0. But it also allows for cases of irreducible probabilistic causation where these chances can take non-extreme values. Louise Saint-Just And The! It is similar to the central notion of probabilistic relevance used in probabilistic theories of type-causation, except that it employs chancy counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities. Darkness Sparknotes! (See the discussion in Lewis 1986c for the advantages of the Louise and The counterfactual approach over the probabilistic one.

Also see the entry “Probabilistic Causation”.) The rest of the theory of chancy causation follows the outlines of the darkness sparknotes theory of deterministic causation. Causal dependence is extended to a transitive notion by taking its ancestral. Title! As before, we have causation when we have one or more steps of causal dependence. Before turning to survey some of the at noon sparknotes problems confronting Lewis's theory of causation, it is worthwhile pausing to consider some of the advantages it affords. At the time that Lewis advanced his original theory, regularity theories of causation were the product adaptation orthodoxy. Taking Hume's first definition as their point of departure, these theories defined causation in terms of subsumption under lawful regularities.

A typical formulation went like this: c is a cause of e if and only c belongs to a minimal set of conditions that are jointly suficient for e , given the laws. It was well known that theories of this kind were faced with a number of recalcitrant counterexamples. At Noon! Thus, while c might belong to a minimal set of is the purpose rheostat in this experiment? sufficient conditions for e when c is a genuine cause of e , this might also be true when c is an darkness at noon sparknotes, effect of e an effect which could not have occurred, given the laws and the actual circumstances, except by being caused by e . Speeches! Or it might be true when c and e are joint effects of sparknotes a common deterministic cause. Or when c is a preempted potential cause of e something that did not cause e , but would have done so if the actual cause had been absent. In contrast, Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation is not subject to the same counterexamples, so long the counterfactuals in the definition of causal dependence and what of the rheostat in this experiment? causation are interpreted in a non-backtracking fashion. The theory implies that even if c belongs to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e , e will not causally depend on darkness c when c occurs after e as its effect, since earlier events do not typically causally depend on evidence act 1898 later events. Nor will e causally depend on c when c and e are joint effects of a common cause, since the non-backtracking counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would still have occurred” will be true in view of the fact that it holds fixed the presence of the common cause. Nor will c count as a cause of e when c is a preempted potential cause of at noon e in a typical case of preemption. For, as we have seen, c will not be connected to henry speeches, e by darkness sparknotes a chain of causal dependences. So at the time it was first proposed, Lewis's counterfactual analysis offered considerable explanatory benefits. (For a more negative assessment of the explanatory benefits of Lewis's theory see Horwich 1987.

For extensive discussions of the merits of counterfactual theories of causation, including Lewis's, see Moore 2009: Chaps. 16-17; Paul 2009; Paul and Hall 2013 passim ). 3. Problems for Lewis's Counterfactual Theory. In this section we consider the principal difficulties for Lewis's theory that have emerged in discussion over the last thirty years. 3.1 Context-sensitivity 3.2 Temporal Asymmetry 3.3 Transitivity 3.4 Preemption. In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to the context-sensitivity of causal statements. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Hitchcock, forthcoming; Hitchcock 1996a, 1996b, 2007; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009; Maslen 2004; Menzies 2004a, 2007, 2009; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005, 2013) In so far as Lewis's theory overlooks this context-sensitivity, it represents a shortcoming of the theory. The theory assumes that causation is an absolute relation whose nature does not vary from one context to another. (This follows from the way the counterfactuals that define the central notion of evidence causal dependence are governed by a unique, context-invariant system of weighted respects of similarity.) According to the theory, any event but for which an effect would not have occurred is one of the effect's causes.

But this generates some absurd results. For example, suppose a camper lights a fire, a sudden gust of wind fans the at noon sparknotes fire, the fire gets out of control and the forest burns down. It is true that if the camper had not lit the Louise Saint-Just and The fire, the forest fire would not have occurred. But it is also true that the forest fire would not have occurred if any of a vast number of contingencies, including the darkness at noon sparknotes camper's birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor before striking the match, had not occurred. But commonsense draws a distinction between causes and crash movie characters background conditions, ranking the darkness at noon sparknotes camper's lighting of the fire among the of mice title former, and his birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor, among the latter. H. L. A. Hart and at noon sparknotes A. Honoré (1965; 2nd ed 1985) argue that the distinction between causes and conditions is relative to product adaptation examples, context in at least two different ways. One form of sparknotes relativity might be called relativity to patrick speeches, the context of occurrence.

If a forest is darkness sparknotes destroyed by fire, the presence of oxygen would be cited as a mere condition of the forest's destruction. On the other hand, if a fire breaks out in a laboratory where oxygen is deliberately excluded, it may be appropriate to cite the adaptation examples presence of oxygen as a cause of the fire. The second form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of enquiry. For example, the darkness cause of a great famine in India may be identified by an Indian farmer as the what of the drought, but the darkness World Food Authority may identify the Indian government's failure to build up reserves as the cause, and the drought as a mere condition. For the most part, Lewis ignores these subtle context-sensitive distinctions, as he says he is interested in a broad, non-discriminatory notion of cause. Crash Movie Characters! In his view (1986d), every event has an darkness sparknotes, objective causal history consisting of a vast structure of events ordered by causal dependence. The human mind may select parts of the causal history for attention, perhaps different parts for and men title, different purposes of enquiry. However, Lewis does not specify the ‘principles of invidious selection’ by which some parts of the causal history are selected for attention, except to mention the relevance of Grice's maxims of conversation. But Grice's maxims of conversation, as general principles of rational information exchange, are not well suited to explaining the causation-specific distinctions we draw. As several philosophers have pointed out (A.

Garfinkel (1981); C. At Noon! Hitchcock (1996a, 1996b); P. Lipton (1990); J. Woodward (1984); and B. Van Fraassen (1981)), some of the contextual principles behind our causal judgements seem to rely on considerations concerning which class of situations the effect is contrasted with. Thus, in the example of the Indian famine, we contrast the criminal act 1898 actual situation in which a famine occurs with another situation in sparknotes which normal conditions prevail and a famine does not occur. A cause is then thought of as a factor that makes the adaptation difference between these situations; and the background conditions are thought of as those factors that are common to the two situations. In different contexts of enquiry, the contrast situation is framed in different terms. A farmer may take the contrast situation to be the normal situation in which the government does not stockpile food reserves but there is no famine. In this case it would be reasonable for the farmer to identify the drought as the factor that makes the difference between this contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is famine.

On the other hand, an official of the World Food Authority with a different conception of what normally happens may take the contrast situation to darkness at noon, be one in which governments build up food reserves as a precaution against Louise and The Republic droughts. Darkness At Noon Sparknotes! Consequently, it would be reasonable for the official to see the failure of the government to build up food reserves as the factor that makes the difference between the contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is a famine. And Men Title! (For discussion of the relevance of contrastive explanation to the causes/conditions distinction see Menzies 2007 and Schaffer 2005.) A good case can be made that causal statements display contrast-relativity not only at at noon sparknotes, the effect-end but also at the cause-end. (See Hitchcock, 1996a, 1996b; Maslen 2004; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005) Recognising this helps to deal with a problem affecting Lewis's original theory. In evaluating whether an patrick, event c caused an event e , Lewis's theory says we have to consider what would have happened in those closest worlds in which c did not occur. For example, in evaluating whether the camper's lighting of the fire caused the forest, we have to consider what would have happened in those closest possible worlds in which the camper's action of lighting the fire did not occur. Darkness! Are these worlds in which the camper does not light the fire but does something else instead, or are they worlds in which he lights the fire in slightly different manner (perhaps with a lighter instead of matches) or at a slightly different time (three minutes later when the wind died down)?

In order to what purpose of the, answer such questions, Lewis says it is necessary to say how much of a change or a delay it takes for an event to become an altogether different event, rather than a different version of the same event. (Lewis sometimes discusses this issue as the question of how fragile events are: a modally fragile event is darkness sparknotes one which cannot occur in act 1898 a different manner or at a different time from its actual manner and time of occurrence. See Lewis 1986b.) The problem, as he sees it, is that there is no unique principled way in which we do this: there is linguistic indeterminancy about darkness sparknotes, what event nominals refer to. He writes: “We have not made up our minds: and if we presuppose sometimes one answer and adaptation examples sometimes another answer, we are entirely within our linguistic rights. This is itself a big problem for a counterfactual analysis of causation, quite apart from the problem of preemption.” (2000, p.186) However, if we recognise that the cause-end of causal statements displays contrast-relativity as well as the effect-end, we can obviate the need to provide an account of the identity of events under counterfactual changes. For example, suppose we are interested in at noon sparknotes why the forest fire took one path P 1 rather than another path P 2 . Variation in the starting point of the crash fire will be relevant to this difference. So it would be appropriate to say that the camper's lighting the fire in location L 1 rather another location L 2 caused the forest fire to take path P 1 rather than P 2 . On the other hand, suppose that we are interested in why the forest occurred rather did not occur at all. Variation in the starting point of the fire will probably not be relevant to this contrast. Rather the appropriate causal statement will be one that says the darkness at noon sparknotes camper's lighting the fire (in some or other location) rather his not lighting it (in any location) caused the fire to act 1898, occur rather than not to occur. Such causal statements reveal the relevant contrasts at both the cause- and the effect-ends. Sometimes, such contrasts are indicated by the use of emphasis as in at noon sparknotes “The fire's starting in location L 1 caused the fire to take path P 1 ”.

But more often than not the surface form of evidence causal statements does not disclose the darkness contrasts that are intended and they must be supplied by context. This fact means that there may be linguistic indeterminacy in examples causal statements. But it is not indeterminacy about the reference of event nominals, but rather about the situations that are intended as contrasts for the cause and the effect. Once these are resolved the linguistic indeterminacy is resolved as well. The contrast-relativity of causal statements, if it is genuine, has significant implications for the form that a counterfactual analysis should take. Those who accept the arguments above for the context-relativity of causal statements think that the canonical form of causal statements is “ c rather than c* caused e rather than e* ”, where the contrast situations c* and e* are supplied by context. This suggests that the definition of darkness sparknotes causal dependence should not be formulated in terms of the counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would not have occurred”, but the more specific counterfactual “If c* had occurred instead of c , then e* would have occurred instead of e ”. This formulation has several advantages over the old formulation. (For discussion of this point see Schaffer 2005. For criticisms see Steglich-Petersen 2012; Reiss 2013) Its chief advantage from the point of our discussion is that it obviates the need for the counterfactual theory to provide an account of the identity of events under hypothetical changes. With this new formulation, there is no need to work out whether c* and e* are identical with, or different from, c and e ,respectively. It is simply stipulated on the basis of contextual considerations that c* and e* are intended to act as contrasts to c and adaptation examples e . There have been several important critical discussions of Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of sparknotes causation. (See Elga 2000; Frisch 2007; Hausman 1998: Chap.

6; Horwich 1987: Chap. Evidence Act 1898! 10; Loewer 2007; Kutach 2013: Chaps. 3-7; Price 1996: Chap. 6.; Price and darkness sparknotes Weslake 2009) One kind of criticism has focused on the psychological implausibility of Louise Saint-Just Essay Lewis's explanation. (See Horwich 1987.) Recall that the explanation appeals, on the one hand, to a system of weighted respects of similarity between possible worlds that is at noon delivered by movie characters a priori conceptual analysis and, on the other hand, to an asymmetry of overdetermination that is claimed to be a contingent a posteriori truth about the actual world. The two-part explanation is supposed to darkness sparknotes, employ facts that are sufficiently well known to play a role in the explanation of our linguistic use of counterfactuals. However, it is psychologically implausible that the intricate system of weighted respects of similarity involving comparison of miracles of different sizes could capture the intuitive similarity relation used in counterfactual reasoning. Why should we have developed such a baroque notion of similarity?

Moreover, the asymmetry of overdetermination is an esoteric scientific hypothesis that is not common knowledge to everyone using counterfactuals. Louise And The Republic! So it is darkness very unlikely that this hypothesis could account for ordinary speakers' mastery of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. (For Lewis's reply to this criticism see Postscript E to “Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow” in his (1986a, p. 66).) Another criticism is that the asymmetry of overdetermination does not exist in the form required to support Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. Crash Movie Characters! Lewis's idea is that any event e has many postdeterminants and few predeterminants, where a predeterminant or postdeterminant of an sparknotes, event is a set of product conditions that are jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the occurrence of the event. But if Lewis is assuming that the laws involved are like those of classical mechanics, he is mistaken on this score. For a theory that is time symmetric and deterministic in sparknotes both the forward and backward direction will imply that for any local event e and any time t , there is a unique set of conditions obtaining at t that are necessary and sufficient, given the laws, for the occurrence of the event e . The conditions may not be localized conditions that are typically regarded as events, but nonetheless they will qualify as predeterminant or postdeterminants. For example, consider Popper's example of the wave spreading out from henry famous speeches a point source. If there is a process that postdetermines what happens at the point at at noon sparknotes, which the wave is emitted, there is also a process, perhaps a very unlocalized process, that predetermines this. Pace Popper and Lewis, both processes are equally likely; and whether they occur depends on the boundary conditions of the system. (For discussion of this point see Arntzenius 1993; Frisch 2005; North 2003; Price 1996. Also see the entry “Thermodynamic Asymmetry in product adaptation examples Time”.)

A related criticism concerns the asymmetry of miracles that is central to Lewis's account of the temporal asymmetry of causation. The asymmetry of miracles consists in the fact that a miracle that realises a counterfactual antecedent about darkness, particular facts at time t by having a possible world diverge from the actual world just before the time t is patrick henry speeches smaller and less diverse than a miracle that realises the same counterfactual antecedent and makes a possible world converge to the actual world after the time t . Adam Elga (2000) has argued that the asymmetry of miracles does not hold in many cases. Elga's argument proceeds by way of an example: Gretta cracks an egg into at noon sparknotes, a hot frying pan at 8:00am and at title, 8:05am the egg is darkness at noon cooked. Consider the process that occurs in the period from 8:00am to criminal evidence, 8:05am, run backwards in time: a cooked egg sits in the frypan; it coalesces into at noon sparknotes, a raw egg and leaps upward; and a shell closes around it. The laws of thermodynamics allows that this process is physically possible but extremely rare. These laws also state that the process is very sensitive in its initial conditions: even the slightest changes in the molecules making up the state of the cooked egg would result in the process evolving in such a way that the cooked egg continues to sit in the pan rather than coalescing into a raw egg and leaping upwards. But this is, Elga points out, exactly the kind of change that would make for adaptation, a “convergence miracle”. Take the state of the actual world at 8:05am, holding fixed its future after this point; make some small changes to the molecules making up this state; and then run the laws of thermodynamics backwards in time, and we will almost certainly arrive at a state in which the egg sits in the pan growing colder.

This state will be one in which Gretta does not crack the darkness at noon sparknotes egg. The small change in the state of the actual world at adaptation examples, 8:05am is a “convergence miracle” that yields a possible world that realises the counterfactual proposition that Gretta does not crack the egg at 8:00am while holding fixed the actual future after 8:05am. But this miracle is not the large, diverse miracle that Lewis claims a convergence miracle would have to be. As we have seen, Lewis builds transitivity into causation by defining it in terms of chains of causal dependence. The transitivity of causation fits with some of our explanatory practices.

For example, historians wishing to explain some significant historical event will trace the explanation back through a number of darkness causal links, concluding that the event at crash characters, the beginning of the causal chain is responsible for the event being explained. On the other hand, a number of counter-examples have been presented which cast doubt on darkness sparknotes transitivity. (Lewis 2004a presents a short catalogue of these counterexamples.) Here is a sample of Louise Saint-Just Essay two counterexamples. First, an example due to darkness sparknotes, Ned Hall (2004). Evidence! A person is walking along a mountain trail, when a boulder high above is dislodged and comes careering down the mountain slopes. The walker notices the boulder and ducks at the appropriate time. At Noon Sparknotes! The careering boulder causes the walker to duck and Louise Saint-Just and The Republic this, in turn, causes his continued stride. Darkness At Noon! (This second causal link involves double prevention : the of mice and men title duck prevents the collision between walker and boulder which, had it occurred, would have prevented the walker's continued stride.) However, the darkness at noon careering boulder is the Louise and The Republic Essay sort of thing that would prevent the walker's continued stride and so it seems counterintuitive to say that it causes the stride. Second, an example due to Douglas Ehring (1987). At Noon! Jones puts some potassium salts into a hot fire.

Because potassium compounds produce a purple flame when heated, the flame changes to a purple colour, though everything else remains the same. The purple flame ignites some flammable material nearby. Here we judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the purple flame, which in Louise Republic turn caused the darkness flammable material to ignite. Adaptation Examples! But it seems implausible to judge that putting the at noon sparknotes potassium salts in the fire caused the henry speeches flammable material to ignite. Various replies have been made to these counterexamples. The second counterexample seems the most easily deflected. For example, Maslen (2004), who endorses the contrast-relativity of causal statements, has argued that this example is darkness at noon sparknotes misdiagnosed as a counterexample to transitivity, as the contrast situation at Louise and The Essay, the effect-end of the first causal statement does not match up with the contrast situation at the cause-end of the second causal statement. Thus, the first causal statement should be interpreted as saying that Jones's putting potassium salts in the fire rather not doing so caused the flame to turn purple rather than yellow ; but the second causal statement should be interpreted as saying that the purple fire's occurring rather than not occurring caused the flammable material to ignite rather not to ignite. Where there is a mismatch of this kind, we do not have a genuine counterexample to at noon sparknotes, transitivity.

L. Paul (2004) offers a similar diagnosis of the second example, though her diagnosis proceeds in terms of event aspects, which she takes to of mice and men title, be causation's primary relata. She argues similarly that there is mismatch between the darkness at noon sparknotes event aspect that is the effect of the criminal evidence first causal link (the flame's being a purple colour) and darkness the event aspect that is the cause of the second causal link (the flame's touching the criminal evidence flammable material). The first example cannot be handled in the same way. Some defenders of transitivity have replied that our intuitions about the intransitivity of causation in these examples are misleading. For instance, Lewis (2004a) points out that the counterexamples to transitivity typically involve a structure in which a c -type event generally prevents an e -type but in the particular case the c -event actually causes another event that counters the threat and causes the e -event. If we mix up questions of what is generally conducive to what, with questions about at noon sparknotes, what caused what in this particular case, he says, we may think that it is reasonable to deny that c causes e . But if we keep the and men title focus sharply on the particular case, we must insist that c does in fact cause e . The debate about the transitivity of causation is not easily settled, partly because it is tied up with the issue of how it is best for darkness sparknotes, a counterfactual theory to deal with examples of preemption. As we have seen, Lewis's counterfactual theory relies on what of the rheostat in this experiment? the transitivity of at noon sparknotes causation to of mice title, handle cases of preemption. At Noon Sparknotes! If such cases could be handled in product adaptation examples some other way, that would take some of the theoretical pressure off the at noon sparknotes theory, allowing it concede the persuasive counterexamples to transitivity without succumbing to Saint-Just Republic, the difficulties posed by preemption. (For more on this point see Hitchcock 2001.

For an at noon, extensive discussion of the issues around transitivity see Paul and Hall: Chap. 5.) As we have seen, Lewis employs his strategy of defining causation in terms of Louise and The Republic chains of causal dependence not only to make causation transitive, but also to deal with preemption examples. However, there are preemption examples that this strategy cannot deal with satisfactorily. Difficulties concerning preemption have proven to be the biggest bugbear for darkness at noon sparknotes, Lewis's theory.(Paul and Hall 2013: Chap 3 contains an extensive discussion of the problems posed by movie preemption and other kinds of redundant causation for darkness sparknotes, counterfactual theories.) In his (1986c), Lewis distinguishes cases of what is the purpose rheostat in this experiment? early and sparknotes late preemption . In early preemption examples, the of mice and men process running from the at noon sparknotes preempted alternative is cut short before the main process running from the preempting cause has gone to completion. The example of the two assassins, given above, is an example of this sort. The theory of causation in evidence terms of chains of causal dependence can handle this sort of example.

In contrast, cases of late preemption are ones in which the process running from the preempted cause is cut short only after the main process has gone to completion and brought about the sparknotes effect. The following is an henry, example of darkness at noon late preemption due to and men, Hall (2004). Billy and Suzy throw rocks at a bottle. Suzy throws first so that her rock arrives first and shatters the glass. Without Suzy's throw, Billy's throw would have shattered the bottle. However, Suzy's throw is the actual cause of the shattered bottle, while Billy's throw is merely a preempted potential cause. This is a case of darkness at noon late preemption because the alternative process (Billy's throw) is cut short after the main process (Suzy's throw) has actually brought about the effect. Lewis's theory cannot explain the patrick henry famous judgement that Suzy's throw was the actual cause of the shattering of the bottle. For there is no causal dependence between Suzy's throw and the shattering, since even if Suzy had not thrown her rock, the bottle would have shattered due to Billy's throw. Nor is there a chain of stepwise dependences running cause to effect, because there is no event intermediate between Suzy's throw and the shattering that links them up into a chain of dependences.

Take, for at noon sparknotes, instance, Suzy's rock in mid-trajectory. Certainly, this event depends on Suzy's initial throw, but the problem is that the shattering of the bottle does not depend on it, because even without it the bottle would still have shattered because of Billy's throw. To be sure, the what purpose of the rheostat in this experiment? bottle shattering that would have occurred without Suzy's throw would be different from the bottle shattering that actually occurred with Suzy's throw. At Noon Sparknotes! For a start, it would have occurred later. This observation suggests that one solution to the problem of late preemption might be to insist that the criminal act 1898 events involved should be construed as fragile events. At Noon Sparknotes! Accordingly, it will be true rather than false that if Suzy had not thrown her rock, then the actual bottle shattering, taken as a fragile event with an essential time and manner of occurrence, would not have occurred. Lewis himself does not endorse this response on the grounds that a uniform policy of construing events as fragile would go against our usual practices, and would generate many spurious causal dependences. Speeches! For example, suppose that a poison kills its victim more slowly and painfully when taken on a full stomach. Then, the victim's eating dinner before he drinks the poison would count as a cause of his death since the time and manner of the death depend on the eating of the dinner. (For discussion of the limitations of this response see Lewis 1986c, 2000.) When we turn from preemption examples involving deterministic causation to those involving chancy causation, we see that the problems for Lewis's theory multiply.

One particularly recalcitrant problem is described in darkness Menzies 1989. (See also Woodward 1990.) Suppose that two systems can produce the same effect, perhaps at the same time and in the same manner. (It does not matter whether this is an example of early or late preemption.) However, one system is much more reliable than the other. The reliable system starts and, left to itself, will very probably produce the effect. But you do not leave it to itself. You throw a switch that shuts down the and men title reliable system and turns on the unreliable one. Darkness At Noon Sparknotes! As luck would have it, the unreliable system works and evidence act 1898 brings about the effect. This kind of example presents a problem for the probabilistic generalisation of the darkness sparknotes counterfactual theory because the preempting actual cause decreases the chance of the effect while the preempted potential cause increases its chance. In addition to the problem of explaining how the what purpose of the rheostat experiment? preempting cause qualifies as a cause when the effect does not causally depend on it, the probabilistic counterfactual theory faces the problem of explaining how the preempted cause is not really a cause when the effect does causally depend on it.(Examples of this kind have been the subject of extensive discussion in the context of both counterfactual and probabilistic theories of causation. For discussions about how best to deal with them within theories admitting of indeterminism, see Barker 2004; Beebee 2004; Dowe 2000, 2004; Hitchcock 2004; Kvart 2004; Noordhof 1999, 2004; Ramachandran 1997, 2004.) In this section we shall consider some recent developments of the counterfactual approach to causation, which have been motivated by the desire to overcome the deficiencies in Lewis's 1973 theory, especially with respect to preemption. 4.1 Lewis's 2000 Theory 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

In an at noon sparknotes, attempt to patrick henry famous, deal with the darkness sparknotes various problems facing his 1973 theory, Lewis developed a new version of the counterfactual theory, which he first presented in his Whitehead Lectures at Harvard University in March 1999. (A shortened version of the lectures appeared as his (2000). The full lectures are published as his (2004a).) Counterfactuals play a central role in the new theory, as in and men title the old. But the counterfactuals it employs do not simply state dependences of whether one event occurs on whether another event occurs. The counterfactuals state dependences of whether , when , and darkness how one event occurs on whether , when , and of mice how another event occurs. A key idea in the formulation of darkness these counterfactuals is that of an criminal act 1898, alteration of an event. This is an actualised or unactualised event that occurs at a slightly different time or in a slightly different manner from the given event. An alteration is, by definition, a very fragile event that could not occur at a different time, or in a different manner without being a different event. Darkness! Lewis intends the terminology to be neutral on the issue of whether an alteration of an event is a version of the same event or a numerically different event.

The central notion of the Republic new theory is darkness at noon that of influence. Where one event influences another, there is adaptation examples a pattern of counterfactual dependence of whether, when, and how upon darkness, whether, when, and how. As before, causation is defined as an ancestral relation. One of the points Lewis advances in favour of this new theory is that it handles cases of adaptation late as well as early pre-emption. (The theory is restricted to darkness at noon sparknotes, deterministic causation and so does not address the example of probabilistic preemption described in movie section 3.4.) Reconsider, for instance, the example of late preemption involving Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle. The theory is supposed to explain why Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, is the at noon cause of the shattering of the bottle. If we take an alteration in which Suzy's throw is slightly different (the rock is adaptation lighter, or she throws sooner), while holding fixed Billy's throw, we find that the shattering is sparknotes different too. But if we make similar alterations to Billy's throw while holding Suzy's throw fixed, we find that the shattering is what is the rheostat experiment? unchanged. Another point in favour of the new theory is that it handles a type of preemption Lewis that have come to be called trumping . (Trumping was first described by at noon Jonathan Schaffer(2000).) Lewis gives an example involving a major and a sergeant who are shouting orders at the soldiers. The major and Louise and The sergeant simultaneously shout “Advance”; the soldiers hear them both and advance. Since the soldiers obey the superior officer, they advance because the major orders them to, not because the sergeant does.

So the major's command preempts or trumps the sergeant's. Where other theories have difficulty with trumping cases, Lewis's argues his new theory handles them with ease. Altering the major's command while holding fixed the sergeant's, the soldier's response would be correspondingly altered. In contrast, altering the sergeant's command, while holding fixed the major's, would make no difference at all. There is, however, some reason for scepticism about whether the new theory handles the examples of late preemption and trumping completely satisfactorily.

In the example of darkness at noon sparknotes late preemption, Billy's throw has some degree of influence on the shattering of the bottle. For if Billy had thrown his rock earlier (so that it preceded Suzy's throw) and in a different manner, the bottle would have shattered earlier and in a different manner. Likewise, the sergeant's command has some degree of influence on the soldiers' advance in that if the sergeant had shouted earlier than the major with a different command, the soldiers would have obeyed his order. Saint-Just Essay! In response to these points, Lewis must say that these alterations of the events are too-distant to darkness, be considered relevant. But some metric of distance in alterations is required, since it seems that similar alterations of Suzy's throw and the major's command are relevant to of mice, their having causal influence. It has also been argued that the new theory generates a great number of spurious instances of causation. (For discussion see Collins 2000; Kvart 2001.) The theory implies that any event that influences another event to a certain degree counts as one of its causes. But common sense is more discriminating about causes. To take an example of at noon sparknotes Jonathan Bennett (1987): rain in December delays a forest fire; if there had been no December rain, the forest would have caught fire in January rather than when it actually did in February. The rain influences the fire with respect to its timing, location, rapidity, and so forth.

But common sense denies that the rain was a cause of the fire , though it allows that it is a cause of the delay in the fire . Similarly, in the example of the poison victim discussed above, the victim's ingesting poison on a full stomach influences the time and manner of his death (making it a slow and product adaptation painful death), but common sense refuses to countenance his eating dinner as a cause of his death , though it may countenance it as a cause of darkness at noon sparknotes its being a slow and painful death . Pace Lewis, common sense does not take anything that affects the time and and men manner of an event to be a cause of the event simpliciter . 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation. One way of treating preemption that has been recently discussed departs from a purely counterfactual analysis of causation. Darkness Sparknotes! It has been argued that preemption examples highlight the intuitive idea that causation is an intrinsic relation between events, which is to say it is henry speeches a local relation depending on the intrinsic properties of the events and what goes on between them, and nothing else. The proposed treatments of preemption marry this intuitive idea with a crucial deployment of darkness sparknotes counterfactuals. At one time Lewis himself resorted to this way of and men treating late preemption examples when he invoked the notion of quasi-dependence . Darkness At Noon! (See his (1986c).) To explain this notion consider a case that resembles the case of Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle.

Suzy throws a rock and criminal shatters the darkness sparknotes bottle in exactly the same way in which she does in the original case. But in this case Billy and his rock are entirely absent. And The! Lewis argued that since the process in the original case and the process in the comparison case are intrinsically alike (and also obey the same laws), both or neither must be causal. Sparknotes! However, the comparison process is surely a causal process since, thanks to Billy's absence, it exhibits a causal dependence. Accordingly, the process in Republic the original case must be a causal process too, even though it does not exhibit a causal dependence. In such examples Lewis has said that the at noon sparknotes actual process that does not exhibit causal dependence is, nonetheless, causal by courtesy: it exhibits quasi-dependence in virtue of its intrinsic resemblance to the causal process in the comparison case.

A related idea is pursued in purpose rheostat in this Menzies (1996; 1999). Menzies argues that there is an darkness sparknotes, element in our concept of causation that resists capture in purely counterfactual terms. This element consists in the idea that causation is crash movie characters a structural relation that underlies and supports causal dependences. This idea can be captured by treating the concept of at noon sparknotes causation as the concept of a theoretical entity. Applying a standard treatment of theoretical concepts, he argues that causation should be defined as the unique occupant of a certain characteristic role given by adaptation examples the platitudes of the folk theory of causation. One platitude is that causation is an intrinsic relation between events. Another platitude is that it is typically , but not invariably, accompanied by sparknotes causal dependence.

Accordingly, causation is defined in the following way: On this account, causation is not constituted by causal dependence. It is, in fact, a distinct relation for Republic, which causal dependence is, at best, a defeasible marker. The relation may be identified a posteriori with some physically specifiable relation such as energy-momentum transfer. Darkness! It may, indeed, be identified with different relations in different possible worlds. This definition is supposed to explain common sense intuitions about preemption examples.

For example, Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, caused the shattering of the bottle, because the intrinsic relation that typically accompanies causal dependence connects Suzy's throw, but not Billy's throw, with the shattering of the criminal evidence act 1898 bottle. Lewis later rejected the approach to preemption via quasi-dependence in favour of his 2000 theory in terms of influence. Darkness! In Lewis 2004a and famous 2004b, he claims that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation do not do justice to the full range of darkness our intuitions about causation. (For related points see Hall 2002, 2004.) He offers several reasons, but one reason will suffice for our discussion. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic matter does not apply to cases of double prevention. Suppose that billiard balls 1 and 2 collide, preventing ball 1 from continuing on its way and hitting ball 3. Of Mice And Men! If the collision of balls 1 and 3 had occurred, ball 3 would not have later collided with ball 4. So, we have double prevention: the collision of balls 1 and 2 prevented the collision of balls 1 and 3, which would have prevented the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Here it seems reasonable to at noon, say that the collision of balls 1 and 2 was a cause of the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Lewis observes that the causation in such cases of double prevention is adaptation partly an extrinsic matter. If there had been some other obstruction that would have stopped ball 1 from hitting ball 3, the collision of 3 and 4 would not have depended on the collision of darkness at noon sparknotes 1 and 2. Moreover, he notes that much of the spatiotemporal region between the collision of balls 1 and 2 and product the collision of balls 3 and 4 is at noon simply empty so that there is no chain of events to serve as a connecting process between cause and effect. The intuition that causation is an what is the of the, intrinsic relation does not apply in sparknotes this case. More generally, he argues that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation are overhasty generalisations of one specific kind of causation, and they fail to what is the purpose of the rheostat experiment?, do justice to our intuitions about darkness sparknotes, causation involving absences (as causes, effects or intermediaries). 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

A number of henry contemporary philosophers (Hitchcock 2001, 2007; Woodward 2003; Woodward and Hitchcock 2003) have explored an at noon sparknotes, alternative counterfactual approach to causation that employs the structural equations framework. This framework, which has been used in the social sciences and biomedical sciences since the 1930s and 1940s, received its state-of-the-art formulation in Judea Pearl's landmark 2000 book. Hitchcock and Woodward acknowledge their debt to Pearl's work and to the related work on causal Bayes nets by Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and characters Richard Scheines (1993). Darkness! However, while Pearl and Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines focus on issues to do with causal discovery and inference, Woodward and Hitchcock focus on issues of the meaning of causal claims. Patrick Speeches! For this reason, their formulations of the structural equations framework are better suited to the purposes of this discussion.

The exposition of this section follows that of sparknotes Hitchcock 2001, in particular. Adaptation! While philosophical work using this framework has only at noon sparknotes just begun, it would seem that this framework looks likely to rival Lewis's framework in terms of its theoretical richness and fruitfulness. The structural equations framework describes the causal structure of criminal a system in terms of a causal model of the system, which is identified as an ordered pair V , E , where V is a set of variables and E a set of structural equations stating deterministic relations among the variables. (We shall confine our attention in this section to deterministic systems.) The variables in V describe the different possible states of the system in question. While they can take any number of values, in the simple examples to be considered here the variables are typically binary variables that take the value 1 if some event occurs and the value 0 if the event does not occur. For example, let us formulate a causal model to describe the system exemplified in the example of late preemption to do with Billy and Suzy's rock throwing. We might describe the system using the darkness sparknotes following set of variables: BT = 1 if Billy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; ST = 1 if Suzy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; BH = 1 if Billy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; SH = 1 if Suzy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; BS = 1 if the bottle shatters, 0 otherwise. Here the variables are binary. But a different model might have used many-valued variables to represent the different ways in which Billy and Suzy threw their rocks, their rocks hit the bottle, or the bottle shattered.

The structural equations in a model describe the dynamical evolution of the system being modelled. There is a structural equation for each variable. The form taken by a structural equation for a variable depends on which kind of variable it is. The structural equation for an exogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors outside of the model) takes the form of Y = y , which simply states the actual value of the variable. The structural equation for adaptation, an endogenous variable (the values of which are determined by darkness factors within the model) states how the value of the variable is determined by the values of the criminal evidence other variables.

It takes the form: What does this structural equation mean? There are in fact competing interpretations. Pearl (2000) regards the structural equations as the conceptual primitives of his framework, describing them as representing the basic mechanisms of the system under investigation. However, for the purposes of exposition, it is more convenient to follow the interpretation of Woodward (2003) and Hitchcock (2001), who think of the sparknotes structural equations as expressing certain basic counterfactuals of the following form:

As this form of counterfactual suggests, the structural equations are to be read from right to left: the antecedent of the counterfactual states possible values of the variables X 1 through to movie characters, X n and darkness the consequent states the corresponding value of the endogenous variable Y . There is evidence act 1898 a counterfactual of this kind for every combination of possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n . It is important to note that a structural equation of this kind is not, strictly speaking, an identity since there is a right-to-left asymmetry built into it. This asymmetry corresponds to the asymmetry of non-backtracking counterfactuals. For example, supposing that the actual situation is one in which neither Suzy nor Billy throws a rock so the bottle does not shatter, the non-backtracking counterfactual “If either Suzy or Billy had thrown a rock, the bottle would have shattered” is true. But the counterfactual “If the bottle had shattered, either Suzy or Billy would have thrown a rock” is false. As an darkness sparknotes, illustration, consider the criminal act 1898 set of structural equations that might be used to model the at noon late preemption example of Billy and Suzy. Given the variables listed above, the structural equations might be stated as follows: In these equations logical symbols are used to represent mathematical functions on of mice and men binary variables: X = 1 − X ; X v Y = max X , Y ; X Y = min X , Y . The first two equations simply state the actual values of the exogenous variables ST and BT . The third equation encodes two counterfactuals, one for each possible value of ST . It states that if Suzy threw a rock, her rock hit the at noon sparknotes bottle; and if she didn't throw a rock, her rock didn't hit the bottle. The fourth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for adaptation, BT and. SH . It states that if Billy threw a rock and sparknotes Suzy's rock didn't hit the bottle, Billy's rock hit the bottle; but didn't do so if one or more of these conditions was not met.

The fifth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for SH and BH . It states that if one or other (or possibly both) of act 1898 Suzy's rock or Billy's rock hit the bottle, the bottle shattered; but if neither rock hit the bottle, the bottle didn't shatter. The structural equations above can be represented in terms of a directed graph . The variables in the set V are represented as nodes in the graph. An arrow directed from one node X to darkness sparknotes, another Y represents the fact that the variable X appears on the right-hand side of the structural equation for Y . In this case, X is said to be a parent of Y . Exogenous variables are represented by nodes that have no arrows directed towards them. A directed path from X to Y in a graph is a sequence of and men title arrows that connect X with Y . The directed graph of the darkness at noon model described above of Billy and Suzy example is Louise Saint-Just and The depicted in darkness at noon Figure 1 below: The arrows in this figure tell us that the bottle's shattering is a function of Suzy's rock hitting the bottle and Billy's rock hitting the bottle; that Billy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of Billy's throwing a rock and Suzy's rock hitting the bottle; and that Suzy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of her throwing the rock. As we have seen, the structural equations directly encode some counterfactuals. However, some counterfactuals that are not directly encoded can be derived from them. Consider, for example, the counterfactual “If Suzy's rock had not hit the bottle, it would still have shattered”.

As a matter of fact, Suzy's rock did hit the bottle. Product Examples! But we can determine what would have happened if it hadn't done so, by replacing the structural equation for the endogenous variable SH with the equation SH = 0, keeping all the other equations unchanged. At Noon Sparknotes! So, instead of having its value determined in the ordinary way by the variable ST , the value of SH is of mice and men title set “miraculously”. Pearl describes this as a “surgical intervention” that changes the value of the variable. At Noon Sparknotes! In terms of its graphical representation,this amounts to wiping out the arrow from the variable ST to the variable SH and treating SH as if it were an exogenous variable. After this operation, the value of the patrick henry famous speeches variable BS can be computed and shown to be equal to darkness, 1: given that Billy had thrown his rock, his rock would have hit the bottle and shattered it. So this particular counterfactual is true. Crash Movie! This procedure for evaluating counterfactuals has direct affinities with Lewis's non-backtracking interpretation of counterfactuals: the surgical intervention that sets the variable SH at its hypothetical value but keeps all other equations unchanged is darkness similar in its effects to Lewis's small miracle that realises the counterfactual antecedent but preserves the past. In general, to evaluate a counterfactual, say “If it were the product examples case that X 1 ,,X n , then ”, one replaces the original equation for each variable X i with a new equation stipulating its hypothetical value,while keeping the sparknotes other equations unchanged; then one computes the Louise Saint-Just Republic Essay values for darkness at noon sparknotes, the remaining variables to see whether they make the consequent true. This technique of replacing an equation with a hypothetical value set by a “surgical intervention” enables us to capture the notion of counterfactual dependence between variables:

How does the structural equations framework deal with examples of late pre-emption that pose such problems for of mice and men, Lewis's counterfactual theory? Can this framework deliver the darkness sparknotes intuitively correct verdicts in the example about Suzy and of mice title Billy? Halpern and Pearl (2001,2005), Hitchcock (2001),and Woodward (2003a) all give roughly the same treatment of examples of late preemption. The key to their treatment is the employment of a certain procedure for testing the existence of a causal relation. At Noon! The procedure is to look for an intrinsic process connecting the putative cause and effect; suppress the influence of their non-intrinsic surroundings by “freezing” those surroundings as they actually are; and then subject the putative cause to famous, a counterfactual test. So, for example, to test whether the variable Suzy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter, we should examine the process running from at noon sparknotes ST through SH to BS ; hold fix at its actual value the variable BH which is extrinsic to this process; and then wiggle the henry famous variable ST to see if it changes the value of BS . The last steps involve evaluating the darkness at noon counterfactual “If Suzy hadn't thrown a rock and Billy's rock hadn't hit the bottle, the bottle would not have shattered”. It is easy to see that this counterfactual is true. In contrast, when we carry out a similar procedure to test whether Billy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter,we are required to consider the counterfactual “If Billy hadn't thrown his rock and Suzy's rock had hit the bottle, the bottle would not shattered”. This counterfactual is false. It is the difference in the truth-value of these two counterfactuals that explains the fact that it was Suzy's rock throwing, and not Billy's, that caused the bottle to shatter. (A similar theory is developed in product Yablo 2002 and 2004 though not in the structural equations framework.) Hitchcock (2001) presents a useful regimentation of this reasoning.

He defines a route between two variables X and Z in the set V to at noon sparknotes, be an ordered sequence of characters variables X , Y 1 ,, Y n , Z such each variable in at noon the sequence is in V and is a parent of its successor in the sequence. Louise Essay! A variable Y is intermediate between X and Z if and only if it belongs to darkness at noon, some route between X and Z . Then he introduces the new concept of an active causal route: This definition generalises the informal idea sketched in criminal evidence act 1898 the example of Suzy and Billy. There is an active causal route going from Suzy's throwing her rock through her rock hitting the sparknotes bottle to the bottle shattering: when we hold fixed Billy's rock not hitting the speeches bottle, which is the actual value of the only intermediate variable BH that is not on this route, we see that the at noon bottle's shattering counterfactually depends on Suzy's throwing her rock. There is, however, no active causal route between Billy's throwing his rock and crash movie characters the bottle shattering. In terms of the notion of an active causal route, Hitchcock defines actual or token causation in the following terms: A crucial notion in darkness sparknotes this definition is that of “an appropriate” model. It would be undesirable to have multiple structures of Saint-Just Republic Essay causal relations being posited by darkness sparknotes different models willy-nilly. What Purpose Rheostat! So Hitchcock insists causal relations are revealed only by “appropriate models”.

He mentions a number of criteria for appraising whether a model is appropriate, the most important one being that the structural equations posited by the model must not imply any false counterfactual. In order to deal with examples of darkness symmetric overdetermination, Hitchcock (2001) defines a notion of a weakly active route , the essential idea being that there is a weakly active route between X and Y just when Y counterfactually depends on X under the freezing of some possible, not necessarily actual, values of the what is the purpose rheostat in this variables that are not on the route from X to Y . As we shall not be considering any examples of oversymmetric overdetermination, we shall focus on the stronger notion of an active causal route. This account of darkness at noon causation differs from examples Lewis's accounts in a number of respects. One difference is that the account does not appeal to the transitivity of causation to deal with preemption examples, in contrast to Lewis's accounts, both early and late. Darkness At Noon! Hitchcock (2001) is at pains to stress that the structural equations framework described above allows for failures of transitivity. Another difference between the accounts is that the structural equations account appeals to special counterfactuals with complex antecedents in order to of the, handle preemption examples. These counterfactuals describe what would happen if a causal variable were changed when certain other variables are held fixed at their actual values. (Hitchcock calls these “explicitly nonforetracking counterfactuals”.) Lewis's accounts does not make use of such counterfactuals, relying as it does on counterfactuals with simple antecedents that describe single changes in the causal variables. The differences between the accounts should not, however, overshadow the similarities that also exist. Both accounts make central use of non-backtracking counterfactuals and they interpret these counterfactuals in roughly the same fashion. Darkness At Noon Sparknotes! Setting aside complications to do with backwards causation, Lewis's account and the structural equations account have us evaluate a non-backtracking counterfactual in much the same way: we are to product adaptation, hold fixed the past history of the system, imagine that the antecedent is realised “miraculously” by at noon a surgical intervention from examples outside the system, and then consider how the new state of the system would evolve in conformity with the structural equations or laws of the system without any further interventions. How plausible is this new counterfactual approach to sparknotes, causation?

It is too early to say with any confidence, as the approach is still being developed. Nonetheless, some early problems have emerged. And Men! (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Pearl 2005; Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock 2007; Menzies 2004b; Weslake forthcoming.) Consider, for at noon, instance, the following example, which is a variant of one described by Hitchcock (2007). An assassin puts poison in the king's coffee. The bodyguard responds by pouring an antidote in the king's coffee. What Of The Experiment?! If the bodyguard had not poured the antidote in the coffee, the king would have died. On the other hand, the at noon antidote is fatal when taken by itself; and if the poison had not been poured in first, it would have killed the king. The poison and the antidote are both lethal when taken singly but neutralise each other when taken together. Of Mice Title! In fact, the king drinks the coffee and survives. Suppose we model this scenario using the following variables: A = 1 if the assassin pours poison into the king's coffee, 0 otherwise; G = 1 if the bodyguard responds by pouring antidote into the coffee, 0 otherwise; S = 1 if the king survives, 0 otherwise. And also suppose that we employ these structural equations:

The directed graph for this model is depicted in Figure 2. Testing for active causal processes, we can see that the process that goes directly from the assassin's pouring the poison in the coffee to the king's survival is active. Holding fixed the fact that the bodyguard poured the lethal antidote into the coffee, we note that the king would not have survived if the darkness at noon sparknotes assassin had not put the poison in the coffee first. So the theory licenses the verdict that the assassin's pouring in the poison caused the king to survive. Saint-Just! However, many regard this as a mistaken causal verdict: putting poison in the king's coffee is exactly the kind of at noon thing that is likely to kill the king. It might be argued that the Louise Republic causal verdict is justified in view of the fact that the assassin's action caused the bodyguard's action, which in darkness at noon turn caused the king's survival. But this appeal to the transitivity of movie characters causation is not open to darkness, the defenders of of mice and men this theory, who deny the validity of transitivity.

One counterexample by itself is not enough to darkness at noon, disprove the whole structural equations framework. Evidence Act 1898! Strictly speaking, it only casts doubt on the theory of causation that defines causation in terms of the presence of an active causal route. There are alternative definitions within the structural equations framework that might fare better. (See Halpern and darkness sparknotes Pearl 2005; Weslake forthcoming.) One possibility explored by what is the purpose of the several philosophers is to appeal to a distinction between what Hitchcock has called “default” and “deviant” values of variables.(See Hitchcock 2007.) The default value of some variable represents a normal or to-be-expected state of the system, whereas a deviant value represents an abnormal or unusual state of the system. The correlative notion of the darkness sparknotes default course of evolution for a system can be characterised as a temporally-ordered sequence of values that the evidence variables in a model take when the default values of the exogenous variables are plugged into the structural equations of the model. Thus, if we set the value of the sparknotes exogenous variable A in the example above at its default value 0 instead of its actual value 1, we can see that the scenario described above will evolve in the following way: the Saint-Just and The Republic Essay assassin doesn't put the poison in the coffee, the bodyguard doesn't put the antidote into the coffee, and the king survives. Now if we evaluate counterfactual dependences with counterfactuals centred on the default course of evolution rather than the actual course of darkness at noon sparknotes evolution, we can see that the bodyguard's action counterfactually depends on the assassin's action and the king's survival depends on the bodyguard's action, but the king's survival doesn't depend on the assassin's action. If counterfactual dependences centred on the default course of adaptation evolution are taken to indicate causal relations, these counterfactual dependences more accurately reflect our intuitive causal judgements. (For further discussion of this idea, see Hall 2007 and Menzies 2004b, 2007.) It remains to be seen whether the various attempts to augment the structural equations framework with a distinction between default and deviant values are successful or not. (For other attempts see Hitchcock 2007; and Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009. For a critical discussion of these attempts see Schaffer 2013. For general discussion of the role of the default/deviant distinction in causal judgements see Maudlin 2004.)

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3957. Beebee, H., Hitchcock, C. and Menzies, P., 2009. The Oxford Handbook of Causation , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bennett, J., 1987. “Event Causation: the Counterfactual Analysis”, Philosophical Perspectives , 1: 36786. Blaauw, M., 2013. Contrastivism in Philosophy , London: Routledge. Collins, J., 2000. “Preemptive Preemption”, Journal of Philosophy , 97: 22334. Collins, J., Hall, E., and Paul, L., 2004. Of Mice Title! Causation and Counterfactuals , Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Dowe, P., 2000. Physical Causation , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. At Noon! , 2004. “Chance-lowering Causes”, in Dowe and Noordhof (2004), pp.2838.

Dowe, P and Louise Essay P. Noordhof, 2004. Cause and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World , London: Routledge. Elga, A., 2000. Darkness At Noon Sparknotes! “Statistical Mechanics and the Asymmetry of Counterfactual Dependence”, Philosophy of criminal act 1898 Science , 68 (Supplement): 313324. Ehring, D., 1987. “Causal Relata”, Synthese , 73: 319328. Fine, K., 1975. “Review of Lewis (1973a)”, Mind , 84: 4518. Darkness At Noon! Frisch, M., 2005.

Inconsistency, Asymmetry and Non-Locality: Philosophical Issues in Classical Electrodynamics , New York: Oxford University Press. , 2007. “Causation, Counterfactuals and Entropy”, in Price and Corry (2007). Garfinkel, A., 1981. Forms of Explanation , New Haven: Yale University Press. Goodman, N., 1947. “The Problem of patrick speeches Counterfactual Conditionals”, Journal of Philosophy , 44: 113128. Reprinted in Goodman (1983). , 1983. Fact, Fiction, and Forecast , Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Hall, N., 2000. Darkness At Noon! “Causation and the Price of Transitivity”, Journal of Philosophy , 97: 198222. , 2002. “Non-locality on the Cheap?”, Noûs ,36, pp.276294. , 2004. “Two Concepts of speeches Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp. 22576. At Noon! , 2007. “Structural Equations and Causation”, Philosophical Studies , 132(1): 109136. Halpern, J. and Pearl, J., 2001. Title! “Causes and at noon Explanations: A Structural-model Approach Part I: Causes”, Proceedings of the Seventeenth Conference on evidence Uncertainty in Artifical Intelligence , San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman, pp. 194202. , 2005. “Causes and Rxplanations: A Structural-model Approach Part I: Causes”,(expanded version), British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 56: 843887.

Halpern, J. and Hitchcock, C., forthcoming. Darkness! “Graded Causation and Defaults”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science . Hart, H. What Rheostat In This Experiment?! L. and at noon Honore, A., 1965. Causation in the Law , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Second edition 1985. Hausman, D., 1998. Causal Asymmetries , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hitchcock, C. and Knobe, J., 2009. “Cause and Norm”, Journal of Philosophy , 106: 587612. Hitchcock, C., 1996a. “The Role of patrick Contrast in Causal and at noon sparknotes Explanatory Claims”, Synthese , 107: 395419. , 1996b. “Farewell to Binary Causation”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy , 26: 335364. , 2001. “The Intransitivity of Causation Revealed in Equations and Graphs”, Journal of Philosophy , 98: 27399. , 2004. “Do All and Only Causes Raise the Probabilities of evidence Effects?”, in Collins, Hall and Paul (2004), pp. 403418. , 2007. “Prevention, Preemption, and darkness sparknotes the Principle of Sufficient Reason”, Philosophical Review , 116(4): 495532. Horwich, P., 1987.

Asymmetries in Time , Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Hume, D., 1748. An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding . Kim, J., 1973. What Is The Rheostat! “Causes and Counterfactuals”, Journal of Philosophy , 70: 57072. Kutach, D., 2013. Causation and at noon sparknotes its Basis in Fundamental Physics , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kvart, I., 2001. “Counterexamples to Lewis' ‘Causation as Influence’”, Australasian Journal of Philosophy , 79: 41123. , 2004. “Causation:Probabilistic and Counterfactual Analyses”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp. And The Republic! 359386.

Lewis, D., 1973a. Counterfactuals , Oxford: Blackwell. , 1973b. Darkness At Noon Sparknotes! “Causation”, Journal of Philosophy , 70: 55667. Reprinted in his (1986a). What Purpose Of The! Page references to darkness at noon, reprinted version. Criminal! , 1979. “Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow”, Noûs , 13: 45576. Reprinted in his (1986a). , 1980. “A Subjectivist's Guide to Objective Chance”, in R. Jeffrey, ed., Studies in Inductive Logic and Probability: Volume II , Reprinted in his (1986a). , 1986a. Philosophical Papers: Volume II , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 1986b. Darkness At Noon! “Events”, in his (1986a). , 1986c. “Postscripts to ‘Causation’”, in his (1986a). , 1986d. “Causal Explanation”, in patrick his (1986a). , 1986e. The Plurality of Worlds , Oxford: Blackwell. , 2000. “Causation as Influence”, Journal of Philosophy , 97: 18297; reprinted in his (2004a) (page references to reprinted version). , 2004a. “Causation as Influence”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp.

75106. , 2004b. “Void and Object”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 27790. Lipton, P., 1991. Inference to the Best Explanation , London: Routledge. Loewer, B., 2007. “Counterfactuals and the Second Law” in Price and Corry 2007, pp. 293326. Lyon, A., 1967. “Causality”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 18: 120. Maslen, C., 2004. “Causes, Contrasts, and the Nontransitivity of Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 341358.

Maudlin, T., 2004. Sparknotes! “Causation, Counterfactuals, and the Third Factor”, in Colins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. Is The Experiment?! 419443. Mill, J. S., 1843. A System of Logic . McDermott, M., 1995. “Redundant Causation”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 40: 523544. Mackie, J. Darkness Sparknotes! L., 1973. Truth, Probability, and Paradox , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 1974. The Cement of the Universe , Oxford: Oxford University Press; second edition, 1980. Mellor, D. H., 1995. The Facts of Causation , London: Routledge. , 2004. “For Facts as Causes and Effects”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp.

309324. Criminal Act 1898! Menzies, P., 1989. “Probabilistic Causation and Causal Processes: A Critique of Lewis”, Philosophy of Science , 56: 642663. , 1996. “Probabilistic Causation and darkness at noon sparknotes the Pre-emption Problem”, Mind , 105: 85117. , 1999. “Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Conceptions of Causation”, in is the of the rheostat H. Sankey (ed.), Causation and Laws of Nature , Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 31329. , 2004a. “Difference-Making in darkness Context”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 13980. , 2004b. “Causal Models, Token Causation, and Processes”, Philosophy of Science , 71 (Supplement): 820832. , 2007. “Causation in Context”, in criminal Price and at noon sparknotes Corry (2007), pp. 191223. Criminal Evidence Act 1898! , 2009. “ Platitudes and Counterexamples”, in Beebee, Hitchcock and darkness Menzies 2009, pp. 34167. Moore, M., 2009. Causation and Responsibility: An Essay In Law, Morals, and Metaphysics , Oxford: Oxford University Press. North, J., 2003. “Understanding the Time-Asymmetry of Radiation”, Philosophy of Science , 70: 10861097. Northcott, R., 2008. “Causation and Contrast Classes ”, Philosophical Studies , 139: 111123. Noordhof, P., 1999. “Probabilistic Causation, Preemption, and Counterfactuals”, Mind , 108: 95125. , 2004. “Prospects for a Counterfactual Theory”, in Dowe and Noordhof 2004, pp.

188201. Paul, L., 2004. Louise And The Republic! “Aspect Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 205224. , 2009. “Counterfactual Theories” in Beebee, Hitchcock, and Menzies 2009, pp. 15884. Paul, L. and Hall, N., 2013. Causation: A User's Guide , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pearl, J., 2000. Causality , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Popper, K., 1956. Sparknotes! “The Arrow of Time”, Nature , 1777: 538. Price, H., 1996. Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Product! Price, H and Corry, R., 2007. Causation, Physics, and the Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic Revisited , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Price, H. and Weslake, B., 2009. At Noon! “The Time-Asymmetry of Causation”, in Beebee, Hitchcock,and Menzies 2009, pp.

41443. Ramachandran, M., 1997. “A Counterfactual Analysis of Causation”, Mind , 106: 26377. Purpose Of The In This Experiment?! , 2004. “A Counterfactual Analysis of Indeterministic Causation”, in darkness at noon Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 387402. Reiss, J., 2013. “Contextualising Causation: Parts I and II”, Philosophy Compass , 8(11): 10661075. Schaffer, J., 2000. “Trumping Preemption”, Journal of Philosophy , 9: 16581. , 2005. “Contrastive Causation”, Philosophical Review , 114: 297328. , 2013. Patrick! “Causal Contextualism”, in Blaauw (2013), pp. 3563. Spirtes, P., Glymour, C, and Scheines, R., 1993. Causation, Prediction, and Search , New York: Springer. Steglich-Petersen, J., 2012. “Against the Contrastive Account of Singular Causation”, British Journal for the Philosophy of sparknotes Science , 63: 11543. van Fraassen, B., 1981.

The Scientific Image , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Weslake, B., forthcoming. “A Partial Theory of Actual Causation”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science . Movie Characters! Woodward, J., 1984. “A Theory of Singular Causal Explanation”, Erkenntnis , 21: 3162. At Noon Sparknotes! , 1990. “Supervenience and Singular Causal Statements”, in Dudley Knowles (ed.), Explanation and Louise Saint-Just and The its Limits , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 21561. , 2003. Darkness! Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Woodward, J. and and The Republic Essay Hitchcock, C., 2003. “Explanatory Generalizations. Part I: A Counterfactual Account”, Noûs , 37: 124. Yablo, S., 2002. “De Facto Dependence”, Journal of Philosophy , 99(3): 13048. , 2004. “Advertisement for a Sketch of an Outline of a Prototheory of at noon Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (eds.) 2004, pp. Adaptation Examples! 11938. [Please contact the author with suggestions.] The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the at noon sparknotes Encyclopedia Free.

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Freelance Writing Tips. All contents of this site. Bob Brooke Communications. STEP RIGHT UP! TO THE WORLD. OF CIRCUS POSTERS. Identifying and Dating Circus Posters.

Different Posters for Different Purposes. Circus Poster Reproductions. The Market for Circus Posters. L ADEEZ AND GENTLEMEN, CHILDREN OF ALL AGES! WELCOME TO THE GREATEST SHOW ON EARTH ., shouts the ringmaster of the Ringling Brothers Barnum Bailey Circus as the performers and animals march into the tent in of mice title, the grand parade.

Americas love affair with the circus, lasting over darkness 200 years, has survived the minstrel show, the medicine show, and vaudeville. Weeks ahead of the show, an air of anticipation came to towns across America as advance men, wielding buckets of paste and long-handled brushes, pasted huge, bright circus posters over faded auction and of mice title political signs and placed cards in store windows within a 50-mile radius of the circus site. Boys and girls stood before them and gawked, as they inhaled the sparknotes, pungent smell of fresh paste. What better way to relive the Louise, nostalgia of those bygone shows than to collect bright, and often artistic, circus posters. Circuses played on the fantasies of the common man. Posters advertised stupendous acts with words like electrifying , dequitation , noble , liliputian , amazon , bravest, world famous, and exotic. They promised showgoers snarling lions from darkest Africa and elephants from the exotic East, along with aerialists performing daring acts high in the air and lady equestrians in glittering tights. P.T.

Barnum, always the master showman, knew that the circus brought joy into the humdrum, and often sad lives of darkness at noon sparknotes its patrons. And circus posters reflected that in their bright, colorful illustrations and myriad of of mice title type styles. Sparknotes. Today, these same posters are highly collectible. Early Circus History. Circuses, as theyre known today, began as equestrian exhibitions, which later added tumbling, rope-dancing and what rheostat in this juggling.

John Bill Rickets, a first-class trick rider from Britain, gave the first circus performance in 1793 at The Riding School in Philadelphia. After the War of at noon 1812, circus owners replaced the permanent equestrian type shows with rolling shows that pitched their tents on village greens. Patrick. These became the direct descendants of the tented circuses of today. The first to put on a traveling show was Hackaliah Bailey, who, in 1815, purchased Old Bet, an darkness sparknotes African elephant, from evidence a sea captain for $1,000. Darkness Sparknotes. Bailey had such success in presenting Old Bet to the local townspeople and patrick henry famous speeches farmers, he arranged to purchase additional exotic animals from other ship captains. America grew and changed as did the circus.

In 1884, five brothers from Baraboo, Wisconsin--Al, Alf, Charles, John, and Otto Ringlingwho not only had a flair for darkness at noon, showmanship but were superb businessmen, started a circus. Evidence Act 1898. When they took over darkness sparknotes the Barnum and Bailey Circus in 1908, they could stake a legitimate claim to the title Greatest Show on Earth. Since 1919 the Ringling Bros. and Barnum Bailey Circus, also known as The Big One, has traversed the country. The American circus has left a legacy of collectiblessequin-bedecked acrobatic costumes, floppy clown hats, and paper items of all kinds. But its the latter, especially posters, that have become the adaptation, hottest items sought by collectors. Referred to as bills, slang for handbills, they became an darkness at noon sparknotes important element in Louise Saint-Just and The Republic Essay, the success of any circus early on. Advertising a circus was a challenge before radio, T.V. and darkness sparknotes the Internet. To be successful, a circus owner had to market his showwhich often ran for only a dayfrom scratch just about every week. To stay ahead of the competition from patrick henry famous speeches competing shows, an owner had to create a brand name (his circus title) that would be so recognizable as to generate repeat patrons for his circus.

In addition, he had to advertise the features of his show to set it apart from others. And, finally, he had to sparknotes display the date of the show prominently so patrons could plan to attend. To create poster illustrations, early 19 th -century printers used mahogany wood blocks for wood engravings and famous pine blocks for cruder woodcuts. Darkness Sparknotes. Because the mahogany blocks were expensive and the engravings hard to make, printers used them over of mice and men title and over again for different show posters. Sparknotes. Many early posters, printed on bright white, medium- weight rag paper with oil-based inks, included the name of the show, with a date added later by the circus advance crew. The invention of the lithographic printing process in the 1798 by Aloys Senefelder, a German map inspector, drastically changed poster production. Using this process,, which depends on the mutual repulsion of water and grease, printers applied a design using a greasy crayon or liquid onto and The Essay, a 28 x 42-inch block of at noon sparknotes limestone. Then onto the wet stone they would roll oil-based ink, which would adhere to the greasy drawing or painting, and movie characters run it through a press to transfer the image onto at noon sparknotes, dampened paper. Though sparingly used for almost 50 years after it appeared, it had become an indispensable tool for printers by the 1880s.

Printers enlisted the services of the criminal evidence act 1898, finest artists to design circus posters. However, few signed their work. While some specialized in particular subjects, most worked in darkness at noon, teams to create the posters in a more or less assembly line process. Therefore, posters became known by the companies that printed them and what purpose rheostat in this experiment? not by the artists who created them. Probably the greatest image ever produced as a circus poster design was that of at noon sparknotes a leaping tiger, designed by the noted illustrator Charles Livingston Bull in 1914, said Neil C. Cockerline, circus historian. Henry. This particular image may well be the most recognizable circus image in history, and it is still utilized today, often appearing in set and costume designs in current productions of the Ringling Bros. and Barnum Bailey Circus. Printers offered stock poster designs featuring acrobats, clowns, elephants and other wild animals to which they added the darkness, show title and date. Available through catalogs, these cost much less than specially designed editions. It was not uncommon for more than one circus to use the same poster designs in adaptation examples, the same season, the only difference being the show title on the posters, added Cockerline. Darkness At Noon Sparknotes. Printed stock posters might remain in criminal evidence, storage for years until they were sold to a circus to be used. It is not uncommon to find posters used during a specific year which had actually been printed decades before.

Printers based a posters dimensions on the size of the printing bed. After the introduction of lithography, the size of darkness sparknotes a litho stone, called a sheet, became the standard. So printers identified posters in units of sheets or half-sheets. Horizontal posters became known as flats and verticals, uprights. Larger posters came in multiple sheet sizes from 2 to 24. The combination of sheets determined the type of poster produced. Identifying and characters Dating Circus Posters. Circus posters can be identified by their creases since all needed to be folded for storage and darkness at noon sparknotes shipment, and and The Essay each show printer folded his posters in a slightly different way. At Noon. But they can also be dated by looking for date sheetssmaller papers pasted onto what is the in this experiment?, posters indicating the day and date of the show and only good for darkness at noon sparknotes, one day and townas well as date tags, small strips pasted along the bottoms of pictorial one and half-sheet posters by advance billing crews. These can help a collector identify the year a circus used a poster since shows kept yearly records of their routes, which are now housed in museums such as the Hertzberg Circus Museum in San Antonio, Texas. According to Cockerline, when billposters and lithographers became unionized by the 1950s, any poster put up got a Billposter's Union Stamp, which is product adaptation examples another way of dating a poster.

Different Posters for Different Purposes. Circuses used a variety of posters to advertise their shows. Printers created half-sheet and full-sheet panels featuring horizontal or vertical illustrations especially to fill narrow spaces in store windows, to allow advertising without covering too much of the darkness at noon sparknotes, window display. One-sheet panels measured 21x 54. Half-sheet panels, printed with either vertical or horizontal designs, measured 14x 42. Guttersnipe referred to circus paper several feet wide by what purpose of the in this only a few inches high that was intended to go on rain gutters over store fronts; and at noon sparknotes banners, for outdoor displays, were usually mounted on thin stiff cloth. Small one-color-on-white date sheets, printed using the letterpress printing process, displayed the circus name, date and location of the show. Advance men plastered these all over a town several weeks before a circus was to arrive. Thus, circuses were the first to use saturation advertising. Window cards or placards, consisting of an image printed on a facing sheet backed with cardboard, were another form of poster, usually in quarter-sheet dimensions or less often in examples, odd-sized dimensions between a quarter- and half-sheet size.

In the darkness at noon, mid-1970's, Ringling Brothers and movie characters Barnum Bailey adopted a policy of using only darkness at noon sparknotes, a single poster design for purpose rheostat experiment?, each edition of darkness at noon sparknotes their circus, often incorporating a variety of featured acts or attractions in the design. The poster designs also incorporated large blank spaces allowing for localized information to be printed in as needed, thus eliminating the need for date tags and date sheets. By the late 1970's, few circuses even used posters, and many shows opted to use window cards only, which could be placed indoors or simply be stapled to telephone poles outside. According to circus aficionados, the finest printer of circus posters was Strobridge Company of Cincinnati. Today, Strobridge posters are the most popular with collectors. Circus Poster Reproductions. Any printed design can at some time be reproduced. In any collectible market that warrants high prices for items, youll always run into people reprinting originals, said Brad Hopper of Track16vintage.com, of Santa Monica, CA. Patrick Famous Speeches. In some cases it hurts the sparknotes, market, especially when people don't care that its original, but in of mice title, most cases, it just shows that.

theres a high demand for the originals. Serious collectors must have the original or they don't collect the item at all. According to at noon Alan Wigton, owner of Little Journeys Bookshop of Mansfield, Ohio, there are many circus poster reproductions, usually of smaller sizes done for of mice and men, resale at circus shows. Most circus posters sold on eBay are these, he said. Darkness. Outright fakes are perhaps less of a problem than with other collecting areas. But collectors have to learn the reproductions if theyre interested in the more exotic older images. Wigton added that the broad range of post-war posters are a bit tougher to sell than some of the other circus ephemera from the period such as programs, route books, etc.

Prices are pretty affordable as a result, he said. What Is The Of The. Prices of pre-World War I and darkness at noon late 19th century posters are a different story. Theyre scarce, of course, with a few deep pocket collectors ready to pay for the best ones. In all areas theres a certain amount of market for circus posters as decoration, without respect to collecting, per henry famous speeches se. Wigton noted that most collectors of circus material go for a few posters to darkness at noon sparknotes augment a collection, but they find it tough to display more than a few and aren't as avid about them. The Market for Circus Posters. One interesting thing I found. Louise Saint-Just Republic Essay. was that there seems to never have been any sort of price guide for circus collectibles specifically, at least none that I could find, Wigton said. People who like circuses are beer and hot dog types.

There are avid collectors, but theyre pretty down to Earth, and not the biggest spenders. Generally speaking, circus posters can sell anywhere from $30 to $375. With such a broad range, collectors must take the specific circus, date, and condition into consideration. At the low end might be a mint (never hung) Famous Cole 3 Ring Circus poster with black type on 44 x 28 yellow stock, with show name and motto in type as much as 10 inches high for darkness sparknotes, $30. At the adaptation examples, high end might be a rare Cole Bros. Circus 22 x 42 poster from the Erie Litho. Ptg Co., Erie PA., with the darkness, title, Cole Bros. Circus Presents Quarter- Million Pound Act of and men Performing ElephantsThe Most Colossal Train Animals Display Ever Presented for $375 (Antique Carta, Richardson, TX) Circus placards sell for $25 to $60. Darkness At Noon. For $25, a collector might find a very good Shill Bros.

Trained Animal Circus 14x22 poster with red type on a white card, with a date but no town. This was a Here poster, often used by of the in this experiment? smaller mud or overland traveling shows with a one-man advance who booked and placed advertising the same day. At the high end might be a weathered Al G. Kelly and Miller Bros. Circus four-color, 14x22 poster by at noon sparknotes the Acme Show Print Co., featuring a face-painted clown entering the big top, from Wooster, Ohio with date for $60. All of the above items, except where noted, are listed in the catalog of the Little Journeys Bookshop, Mansfield, OH. The largest and most active collectors group for circus materials is Circus Fans of America. Product. According to Wigton, their annual convention attracts hundreds of people buying and darkness sparknotes selling circus items.

The circus is still a vital part of American culture, however, much of the crash movie characters, advertising is darkness sparknotes now handled by title the media through T.V. and radio ads. The gaudy posters once plastered on building walls have succumbed to the brightly colored advertising of the darkness at noon, 21 th Century. A ll articles and photographs on this site are available for purchase by print and speeches online publications.