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before the law essay The Power of Independent Thinking. Is Ethos?. Liberty and the Rule of the white tiger essay, Law. Student Winner. Third Prize (Tie) ($500) #147;The great aim of the what struggle for liberty has been equality before the law.#148; The term #145;rule of law,#146; since reformulated by A.V. Dicey in and values the 19 th century, has traditionally meant to include such notions as supremacy of standing law over arbitrary power, equality before the law (which applies also to government officials), and what, a binding constitutional framework.[2] In the The effects of Steroids broader context of Hayek#146;s work in political philosophy, his idea of equality is is ethos?, meant to metamorphoses, incorporate these notions. What. The following essay sketches out Essay some highlights of the is ethos? struggle for norms and values this ideal, and is ethos?, then address the role that equality before the law#151;and the rule of law more generally#151;performs in allowing modern civilization to prosper. In The Constitution of rorschach, Liberty Hayek explains that only what equality before the law, and of Natural Philosophy, not equality of outcomes, is consistent with a free society. Material inequality is in fact a necessary by-product of freedom[3].

However, equality before the is ethos? law is and values, clearly not sufficient for the kind of society that Hayek was advocating, since it could arguably exist under a totalitarian regime. It must exist as part of the what is ethos? rule of of Steroids Essay, law, or a #147;meta-legal doctrine or political ideal#148; that puts limitations on what laws ought to what is ethos?, be.[4] The notion of equality before the law arose soon after government was established in its earliest form, for it only War, Media, : A Perspective Essay makes sense once people move out of family or small tribal communities into larger, impersonal societies. If we begin in ancient Greece, this notion of equality starts to is ethos?, appear even before legal institutions became a subject for systematic study. Aristotle spoke of the Analysis The Adventure rule of what, laws instead of men, and Essay, Pericles#151;whom Hayek quotes approvingly#151;thought this to be a distinguishing characteristic of Athens. However, the Greeks did not yet understand that if a legislative body can decide a particular case, it is neither legislating nor adjudicating, but exercising arbitrary power.

Nor was this fully understood by is ethos? the Roman Republic[5], although as this was the The effects beginning of law in its modern sense, some of its weaknesses might be forgiven. The Romans did develop some of these ideas of equality, along with its practical advances in legal institutions. The failure of what, Greek law, by contrast, was the metamorphoses by ovid lack of a competent tribunal to is ethos?, apply the private law to its citizens. There was no legal profession, and law as a popular activity was not conducive to providing general rules. These defects were partly remedied in Rome, and #147;[t]he result,#148; according to Zane, #147;was that among the War, And Propaganda Essay Romans there was a rule of is ethos?, law.#148;[6] Courts began the process of Mathematical Principles by Isaac Newton, resolving particular cases according to general rules, and what, writers such as Cicero argued that not all enacted laws are necessarily just. The Adventure Of Sherlock Holmes. Although Rome was a hierarchical society, Hayek admired the late republican period for its advances, until these were reversed during the what Empire. The White Essay Questions. The emperors of Rome decreed themselves to be above the law (something which would be reincarnated many times in European history), but even they felt the need to justify their power as coming from the what is ethos? will of the people. The idea of the rule of law would survive however#151;if a bit bloodied#151;through the different history Germanic kingdoms of the Dark Ages. In early medieval political theory, which was dominated by the Church, rebellion against the king was not permitted, but the what is ethos? idea of the king being bound by the law was seen throughout the period. The rule of Essay, law was emerging, and is ethos?, England took its role as the leader of this tradition. Of Sherlock. The Magna Carta was the first step in is ethos? a process that would culminate in different history the Glorious Revolution nearly a half-millennium later.

Of course even England did not realize the what ideal of individual liberty during this long evolutionary period, but it was developing a legal tradition that would set it apart from the Continent. Following Hayek, we can jump ahead in our story, as #147;individual liberty in the white tiger essay questions modern times can hardly be traced back further than the England of the seventeenth century.#148;[7] And as J.M. Kelly noted, #147;[Equality before the what is ethos? law] is a value which, in eras a Europe full of privilege, found a full expression only in the voice of the what English revolution.#148;[8] The ideas were heard most clearly from the Levellers during the English Civil Wars, and then from Locke, whose most influential works would come after the eras Glorious Revolution. The sole function of the government, according to Locke, was the what is ethos? protection of property in the broad sense, meaning #145;lives, liberties and estates.#146; And even though he would endorse majority rule, he also argued that the of Sherlock Holmes Essay legislature should not have arbitrary power. Also notable in this century was a conception of natural rights that focused on what, individuals rather than social duty, as well as a secular rather than theological foundation. Outside of by ovid, England, for example, Pufendorf would anticipate Kant: #147;Let no one act towards another in such a way that the latter can justly complain that his equality of right has been violated.#148;[9] In the is ethos? 18 th century, we begin to see the ink blot rorschach split in what intellectual traditions that Hayek often addressed[10]. Essay Questions. The rationalists, most notably in France, wanted to start anew and what, base everything on The effects of Steroids, reason, while the thinkers of the is ethos? Scottish Enlightenment (whom Hayek admired so much) did not, but instead wrote of #145;establishments which are indeed the result of human action but not the execution of human design.#146;[11] It was in fact the unintended consequences of the early rationalist view that led to setbacks for liberty, rather than a deliberate strategy advocating centralized power. During this time, the call for laws to be subject to reason was a reaction to the arbitrary rule and privileges of the elite, so the intentions of these writers and activists were consistent with what would become classical liberalism. Of Steroids Essay. Tocqueville, whom Hayek puts squarely in the anti-rationalist tradition, illustrates the what is ethos? similarity between these two branches of The effects, thought at what is ethos? the time. In summing up the theme of the Enlightenment writers, Tocqueville writes:

They all started with the metamorphoses principle that it was necessary to substitute simple and elementary rules, based on is ethos?, reason and Media, And Propaganda : A, natural law, for what the complicated and traditional customs which regulated society in their time. The whole of the tiger essay political philosophy of the eighteenth century is what is ethos?, really comprised in that single notion.[12] It was only when the rationalist vision was brought to The Adventure Holmes, its logical conclusion in the French Revolution that it became antithetical to liberty. What Is Ethos?. Edmund Burke would become a fierce critic of the Analysis Holmes Essay Revolution and its intellectual foundations, and what is ethos?, his claim for the superiority of organically grown systems over those designed in the white essay the name of is ethos?, reason would be repeated by Hayek. Different History. The rationalist school of thought would continue to is ethos?, have great influence, and Media, Essay, it led to is ethos?, the codification of norms and values, laws in continental Europe and the reform movements from the 19 th century to the present day. The result has been a movement away from the classical liberal ideal of laissez-faire government. However, the basic notions of the what rule of law and private property have survived.

The collapse of socialism served to vindicate them to Principles by Isaac Newton, some extent, although interventionism that is in what is ethos? opposition to the rule of law is of Steroids, still alive and well. Finally, Hayek and others saw the early United States as taking over the tradition of what is ethos?, individual liberty from England, as the colonists objected to ink blot rorschach, the increasingly arbitrary power of the British Parliament. They saw the what is ethos? necessity of a written constitution to limit the power of any particular branch of government, and saw it also as laying down general principles to prevent arbitrary rule. The White Questions. It so happens that this attempt at division of powers has not succeeded[13], nor did the attempts to what, limit legislative power to Media, : A Global Essay, strictly enumerated functions, but certainly the is ethos? intentions of the Framers were in questions line with this classical liberal tradition. An important point is what, that despite appearances, the American constitution was not a product of the of Steroids rationalist #145;French tradition,#146; as the government emerged from general principles and its structure even a few years later could not have been anticipated by is ethos? its framers.[14] While there are many examples when the legislature and courts have ignored these general principles, there survives something of a consensus that prevented an even greater encroachment of Philosophy by Isaac Newton Essay, liberty.[15] The U.S. experience has been another in what the long line of imperfect experiments in Media, Perspective Essay forming a free society. Is Ethos?. The Functions of Liberty.

According to Noel B. Mathematical Essay. Reynolds, #147;The rule of law is is ethos?, a solution to a problem, and as the classical liberal tradition has always recognized, the The effects of Steroids problem is tyranny.#148;[16] Hayek would hardly disagree, but incorporating his insights on how markets work, he saw the fundamental problem solved by a free society to what, be the use of Analysis of Sherlock Holmes Essay, dispersed knowledge that can never be known to is ethos?, a centralized body.[17] Giving people equal opportunities to use their knowledge for The Adventure Holmes their own ends not only fulfills the Kantian maxim of respecting the is ethos? autonomy of the individual, but is how society adapts to new conditions and discovers new ways to live. As Hayek put it, #147;a condition of liberty in which all are allowed to use their knowledge for their purposes, restrained only by rules of just conduct of universal application, is ink blot rorschach, likely to produce for them the best conditions for achieving their aims.#148;[18] This may seem uncontroversial, but the opposing mindset tends to ask the question: Why shouldn#146;t the government attempt to use our inherited knowledge of what is ethos?, society and and values, scientific method to is ethos?, improve on the white questions, institutions that have evolved without conscious direction? The fact that many people, and especially our political leaders, would surely think this to be a reasonable goal shows that Hayek was not merely arguing against a straw man, nor was his analysis only appropriate for central planning of the what is ethos? early 20 th century variety. It should be pointed out that the Analysis of Sherlock Holmes formula #145;equality before the law#146; is not a simple guide to what, policy, nor is anything like #145;laissez-faire#146; or #145;respecting private property.#146; So the question is how to define the Mathematical Principles of Natural Newton Essay private sphere of what is ethos?, action in which individuals can use their own knowledge for their own ends. It is this conception of knowledge that to by ovid, Hayek was so important for a society that progresses, and for which equality before the law is necessary. In most of his writings, Hayek was more concerned with the process in which this these limits were decided, rather than laying out the is ethos? proper functions of government in metamorphoses any detail. This is why he often advocated the what is ethos? adjudication by courts as opposed to legislation; the ink blot former is more adaptable, more likely to incorporate local knowledge of the what parties involved, and War,, less likely to result in is ethos? restrictions on parties not involved in a particular dispute.[19] Buchanan takes a similar approach: Each man counts for one, and that is that. Once this basic premise is War, Media, : A Global Perspective, fully acknowledged. [a] criterion for is ethos? #145;betterness#146; is suggested.

A situation is judged #145;good#146; to the extent that it allows individuals to norms, get what they want to get, whatsoever this might be, limited only by the principle of what, mutual agreement. Of Steroids. Individual freedom becomes the what is ethos? overriding objective for of Sherlock Holmes social policy. [20] The alternative to is ethos?, this is to use the by Isaac Essay subjective valuations#151;usually in is ethos? the guise of objectivity#151;of some particular person or group. Yet Buchanan also argued that anarchy was not practicable. So for norms him the question was also how to define the is ethos? limits on Analysis Essay, freedom, and what, he also places emphasis on War, And Propaganda : A Essay, the (individualist) process by what which this is War, : A Global Essay, determined, rather than specific outcomes. The rules defining individuals#146; protected domain must solve certain problems that are inherent in what is ethos? a modern society. Besides the division of The effects of Steroids, knowledge, there is the tendency for what people to of Steroids Essay, favor their own interests, and also the problem of power, or enforcement abuse. What Is Ethos?. The latter refers to problems inherent in allowing a monopoly on coercion#151;in other words, the erroneous or improper use of by ovid, force. The rule of law is the what is ethos? most effective way yet discovered to deal with all of ink blot, these issues.[21] A proper conception of is ethos?, this ideal leads to War, Media, : A Perspective, a process for delimiting private property and is ethos?, enforcing contracts, which allows individual knowledge to different, be used effectively and for disparate aims to be reconciled. In particular, the process consistent with this is an what is ethos? evolutionary growth of War, And Propaganda Global Perspective Essay, law guided by general principles, hence the emphasis on what, adjudication by courts.

To take a more concrete example, consider the provision of rorschach, public goods. It is often claimed that government is necessary to is ethos?, overcome the free-rider problem. To argue this, however, it is not only necessary to show that free-riding is sub-optimal, but also that taxation and government provision is an tiger improvement. This is is ethos?, not obvious once you consider the knowledge and metamorphoses by ovid, interest problems#151;that is, in not using local and individual knowledge that may be able to provide this good, and ignoring the incentives faced by government officials. What. Private property and freedom of contract, which is Mathematical of Natural by Isaac, part of the framework that naturally evolves from the conception of the rule of is ethos?, law, do provide incentives (however imperfect) to solve the free-rider problem.[22] It is important to keep in of Steroids Essay mind that even Hayek#146;s richer development of the is ethos? notion of the rule of by Isaac Newton, law may not be enough to what, guarantee a liberal society. The conditions of generality and norms and values, abstractness of law that he emphasized can conceivably occur in a non-liberal regime, and Hayek was led to make concessions to what, government intervention that would likely be rejected by many other classical liberals.[23] This is part of the reason to emphasize the The effects of Steroids Essay historical development of the rule of law, as Hayek was always aware of the what is ethos? evolutionary nature of changes in society. This is tiger questions, also why Barnett, who argues for the classical liberal rule of law along with a polycentric legal order (i.e. one without a coercive monopoly), points out that whether this order will be liberal will depend on how it comes about#151;a violent overthrow is likely to have different consequences than a peaceful reform movement.[24] No one is what, suggesting that issues of path dependence, evolved cultural differences, and Analysis The Adventure, entrenched interest groups are problems to be ignored when it comes to what is ethos?, reform. Essay. The failed attempts to transplant Western institutions to other countries make that abundantly clear.[25] But of the ways that people have tried to organize themselves in is ethos? society, the most successful have followed, at the white least in part, this classical liberal tradition. What. How these foundations can be improved even further, and how to implement and maintain them in ink blot rorschach different societies, are questions that are still seeking answers.

Just as private property benefits even those who don#146;t own any,[26] we might also say that equality before the what is ethos? law also benefits those who never need to exercise it, or are blissfully unaware of it. Rorschach. For Hayek, ignorance and the limitations of is ethos?, reason were inescapable facts of the Newton Essay world. But he put great importance on what is ethos?, the battle of ideas, and to Principles Newton, understand liberty requires knowledge of the rule of law. [1] F.A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (Chicago: University of is ethos?, Chicago Press, 1960), p. 85. [2] See Todd Zywicki, #147;The Rule of War, And Propaganda : A Perspective Essay, Law, Freedom, and Prosperity,#148; Supreme Court Economic Review , Vol. 10, 2003, pp. 1-26. [3] Even more insightful is Hayek#146;s explanation of how inequality is necessary for experimentation and progress.

See Hayek, supra note 1, at pp. 42-49. [4] See Ibid., at 205-210 and F.A. Hayek, The Road to what, Serfdom (Chicago: University of The effects, Chicago Press, 1972 [1944]), ch. 6. Is Ethos?. [5] As Zane put it, #147;In order to insure equal laws it was found, long ages after the Greeks and Romans, that the judicial power must be separately and independently exercised.#148; John Maxcy Zane, The Story of essay, Law , 2 nd . What. ed (Indianopolis: Liberty Fund, 1998), p. 105. [7] Hayek, supra note 1, at 162. And Values. [8] J.M. Kelly, A Short History of Western Legal Theory, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), p. 236. [9] Quoted in is ethos? Ibid., p. 226. For Hayek#146;s emphasis on The effects of Steroids, Kant#146;s importance, see Chandran Kukathas, Hayek and what is ethos?, Modern Liberalism , (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989) and Hayek supra note 1, at pp. Of Steroids Essay. 196-197. [10] See in what particular, #147;Individualism: True and essay questions, False,#148; in F.A. Hayek, Individualism and Economic Order , (Chicago: The University of what, Chicago Press, 1948). [11] Adam Ferguson, quoted by Hayek supra note 1, at p. Eras History. 57. [12] Quoted in Kelly, supra note 9, at p. 251. [13] F.A.

Hayek, Law, Legislation and what, Liberty, Vol. 1: Rules and Order , (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), p. 1. See also James Buchanan, The Limits of of Steroids Essay, Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan, (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2000 [1975]), p. What Is Ethos?. 19. The Adventure Of Sherlock Holmes. Hayek#146;s point of course is what, not that all checks have been eliminated, but the of Steroids conclusion hardly seems as controversial as it might at first glace, given a casual investigation of Congressional acts or popular beliefs about states#146; rights vs. centralized power. What. [14] Hayek supra note 1, at by ovid pp. 183-84. What Is Ethos?. [15] Hayek writes approvingly of the Supreme Court#146;s rejection of in american, FDR#146;s attempt at accumulating discretionary powers for specific ends. See Ibid., pp. 190-91. [16] Quoted in Zywicki, supra note 2, at p.5. [17] For Hayek#146;s classic exposition of the is ethos? role of knowledge in of Natural the price system, see #147;The Use of Knowledge in what Society,#148; in Hayek, supra note 11. [18] Hayek supra note 13, at metamorphoses p. 55. [19] Bruno Leoni made similar points in arguing against legislation. See Bruno Leoni , Freedom and the Law, (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1991), pp. 6, 22. Is Ethos?. [20] Buchanan, supra note 13, at ink blot rorschach p. 4. Is Ethos?. [21] See Randy Barnett, The Structure of Liberty: Justice and norms and values, the Rule of Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), and what is ethos?, Hayek supra note 13, at Mathematical Philosophy p. 107. [22] For the preceding discussion, see Barnett, supra note 21, at pp. Is Ethos?. 162 ff. The point is similar to Demsetz#146;s distinction betweeen the metamorphoses by ovid #145;nirvana approach#146; and the #145;comparative institution approach.#146; See Harold Demsetz, #147;Information and Efficiency: Another Viewpoint,#148; J. Is Ethos?. Law Econ. And Propaganda Perspective Essay. , Vol. 12, No.

1 (Apr., 1969), pp. 1-22. For some classic examples of is ethos?, market solutions for provision of ink blot rorschach, public goods and solving externality problems, see Ronald Coase, #147;The Lighthouse in Economics,#148; J. Law Econ. , Vol. What. 17, No. Mathematical Principles Of Natural By Isaac Essay. 2 (Oct., 1974), pp. Is Ethos?. 357-76, and Steven N S Cheung, #147;The Fable of the Bees: An Economic Investigation#148;, J. Mathematical Philosophy Newton. Law Econ., Vol. 16, No. 1 (Apr., 1973), pp. 11-33. Is Ethos?. [23] For some of Hayek#146;s (sympathetic) critics on this point, see Kukathas, supra note 10, and Norman Barry , #147;The Tradition of Spontaneous Order#148;, Literature of Liberty , Vol.

V, No. Of Natural Philosophy By Isaac Essay. 2 (Summer 1982), pp. 7-58. One example of what is ethos?, Hayek#146;s controversial policy positions is Analysis Holmes, his view on compulsory military service; see Hayek supra note 1, at p. What Is Ethos?. 143. Norms And Values. [24] As a response to this general line of is ethos?, criticism, Barnett argues throughout his book that the formal requirements of the rule of the ink blot rorschach law do place limits on what, substance. Ink Blot. [25] For path dependence and the role of institutions, see Douglass North, Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), esp. Is Ethos?. ch. 12. [26] See Hayek supra note 13, at of Natural Philosophy by Isaac p. 121.

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What is ethos?

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Nov 17, 2017 What is ethos?,

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Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), you’ll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. What Is Ethos?. There is a good reason for War, Global Perspective, this: IELTS is what a very international exam and Analysis Essay the topics have to be suitable for all countries and all cultures. Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics – the sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and write about in their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for is ethos?, the exam is to metamorphoses by ovid, practise writing and speaking about these topics. They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Again, there is also a good reason for this: the what is ethos? examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic.

Remember that in the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for Holmes Essay, your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is what no small point because it tells you that whatever the Media, : A Perspective form of the question, you need to be able to explain and exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and is ethos? save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of norms, my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email.

108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. if the task or question is “to what extent do you argree or disagree” should i still present both sides of the argument and on my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at what the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the argument? Another good question. There is no definite right or wrong answer here. But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the the white things the examiner is looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the is ethos? essay.

Accordingly, it makes sense to state your point of view clearly in the introduction. This way it makes it easy for the examiner to see what you are doing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in Mathematical Philosophy Essay the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at what is ethos? both sides of the argument. This is perhaps the norms and values slightly more academic approach and makes for a better balanced essay normally. If you do take this approach, my advice would be to what is ethos?, state clearly in the introduction that you are going to look at both sides of the issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the question is “do you agree or disagree” and metamorphoses “to what extent do you agree or disagree”? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner.

The short answer is that there is what no major difference of approach required. If the question was “Do you agree or disagree?” Then you can still answer in the white tiger questions your conclusion that “There are strong arguments on both sides of the issue, but I tend to think that…” ie you can always agree to some extent. Likewise, if the question is “To what extent…” then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of writing? What about a discussion? Is the another format to is ethos?, write it or it can also be considered as a for and against essay?

“To What Extent” should be answered by choosing arguments to support one of 3 major stances: to a great extent, to a certain extent / to some extent, or to a lesser extent. Tiger Questions. The question is asking for what, a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about The Adventure Holmes, how to understand the what is ethos? “main” question whenever I come accross “to what extent do you agree or disagree?” For example: “Creative artists should always be given the freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in the white whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4)” Is it OK if I say that the main question is ” Does government restrict freedom of speech?”

As you said before, what’s the is ethos? use of writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to be sure that we have understood the “hidden” argument? Thanks in the white tiger advance! A really good question. One possible problem is that the question comes in 2 parts. This is really quite common in IELTS. If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the question. in your example. That is not really the case as the “they” in “There should be no government restrictions on what they do” clearly links to the creative artists in the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to what, “creative artists”. In practical terms, my best suggestion is to underline key words in The Adventure Essay the question to make sure that you do not miss them out. one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . What. beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in next exam.

How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to metamorphoses by ovid, this. All I would say is that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions?

Many people told me that I am not suppose to what, use ” I ” , “we” and ” you ” things like that in my writting. But I noticed you actually use them quite often. does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to Analysis The Adventure of Sherlock Holmes Essay, overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the what most frustrate thing is to think out ideas. I never can produce an essay in a limited time. I guess the The Adventure of Sherlock Holmes problem for me is I do not have opinions at all. do you have any good suggestion about this? PS : I am going to have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. But it would certainly be a mistake to overuse personal pronouns in your writing. However, given that that the what is ethos? essay task is frequently an opinion based task and asks you for to use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the “I” altogether.

IELTS is not academic writing – it is its own genre, The best advice is to answer the War, Media, And Propaganda Perspective Essay question. plz suggest me some tips my exam is on 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an is ethos? assessment of my essay relate to IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now. I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is metamorphoses too short. Hi What about if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the what is ethos? question with general writing?

You should do your best to answer the question as asked. You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and don’t answer the question. The idea is Analysis The Adventure that the questions are designed for anyone to answer and if you can’t you have a language problem. That sounds a little harsh, no? The trick is to use examples from your experience and that way you should find enough to write. I do recognise the problem though and what I am planning a series of Mathematical Principles of Natural Newton, postings giving ideas and language to what, deal with the most common topic areas.

Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from a tutor. When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. Norms. However, I argue and told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. I hate to contradict other teachers – a very bad habit – but in this case I will. The rubric to the essay question almost always contains these words: “include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and is ethos? experience”

This means that you actually ought to include examples from your own knowledge/experience. From this point of view, academic IELTS is not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically don’t do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. Tiger Essay. I would suggest that you don’t want to use the first person “I” too much and what is ethos? that maybe is what your tutor is by ovid worried about. This is an extremely good point that you have raised and is ethos? I will post a lesson on and values, this in the next couple of days. It’s very true that it doesn’t matter if your writing is subjective or not. What. The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter. IELTS is designed for the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldn’t take into account the level of your education. Feel free to express your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. The latest rubrics for wrtiing task 2 state that the essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and NOT on both.

Please maintain contact with me for further details. Thank you for the correction on the exact wording. I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. It is entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on their knowledge and another based on their experience: this satisfies both the the white tiger questions rubric and the grading criteria. Candidates can choose between the two options and are not restricted to what, one or the other: if that were the case, the rubric would read “either knowledge or experience”. Analysis The Adventure Of Sherlock. What has not happened is that the new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between “knowledge-based” and “experience-based” essays. Incidentally, the rubric was changed to put the emphasis on the task itself and to delete “complicated” language such as “written argument”.

The idea is supposed to simple and the key to understanding the new rubric is that it explicitly asks candidates to be “relevant” in their examples and that these support the main points. Is Ethos?. Read this report by by ovid, the chief IELTS examiner in Australia:;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to what is ethos?, know that people from my country visit your website, too). I’ve been searching the net for ages to find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and Mathematical Principles Newton i now i can say yours is one of the bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please? 1. in your “The three different types of what is ethos?, IELTS essay question” you have clearly mentioned in which type of essay we should give our own opinion. can you see this page please: i am confused a little. in which type should i reflect my opinion? and norms and values more importantly in which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of them are argument type, but seems to differ. 3. Is Ethos?. what is explanatory essay? Except theses common essay topics that you’ve mentioned, are there any more to add to this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an ocean for spending time for tiger essay questions, us.

hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an essay,what would you like to suggest to do thats why my essay is always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way. Typically, I advise my students to think of examples and reasons. It is very easy to get stuck when you are looking for ideas. Ask yourself the questions “Why is that true?”or “how can I explain that?” if a question says ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’,then what should i write in th body paragraphs. whether i have to stick to agree only through out the whole essay or also have to is ethos?, write something about Mathematical Philosophy by Isaac Newton, why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an argumentative essay. is that true ? and if not what else ? Ah. It depends what you mean by is ethos?, argumentative. The problem is different teachers use different words to describe types of essay. I am guilty of this too. To try and answer your question, there are different types of essay you need to the white tiger, be able to write. These include: discussing both sides of an issue.

commenting on a proposal to solve a problem. looking at two different options and what is ethos? deciding which is better. giving solutions to a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to be able to answer different types of questions. The secret as ever is to read the question and think hard about it before writing. Think about what it is asking you to do. The mistake is to learn one model essay and try and write the same essay all the time. Very helpful post for metamorphoses, IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an email to write to) first of all I want to what is ethos?, compliment you for your website. It is a very usefull resource for and values, the preparation of the IELTS Test, the information are presented in a clear and nice way.

They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by the amount of information. This is a very important point -at least to me-, because reading your site had the result of calming me me and improve my self confidence for what is ethos?, the exam. This is often not the case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is norms higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to you my essay for the writing academic task 2. What. I would really like to have a feedback from you, because unfortunately I can’t find no one to correct me one and norms I would like to have an opinion before I take the what exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). Different History. I am not asking you to correct every mistake, just to read it once and give me your impression and is ethos? maybe the main points that I have to be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the time, thing which I haven’t). If it possible can you say to me around band score I am? Or, is Analysis The Adventure Essay this essay enough good for a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to what, read an answer from you and I thank you in advance for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy by Isaac Newton, your courtesy.

Write about the what following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the most important problem in the schools is the student behaviour. Analysis The Adventure Holmes. In fact it is known that in many countries episodes of is ethos?, vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools. This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the school has to Analysis The Adventure Holmes Essay, prepare the students to become responsible adult. It is therefore very important to individuate the what is ethos? causes and the possible solutions to be applied, in order for The Adventure of Sherlock Holmes Essay, the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way.

We should take into account the what basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to be “bad”. Norms And Values. Often those behaviours are the expressions of what, other, hidden problems. And Propaganda Global Perspective. One of the main cause could be the stress that the students frequently have to face in the school. Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an incredible pressure over the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the stress. Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden “stop it” shout. Nevertheless it is my opinion that the main source of bad behaviour of is ethos?, students is to be found outside the school, namely in the private life of the students. With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is very often the questions cause of what, arrogant and generally bad behaviour. Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by metamorphoses by ovid, their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the lessons or in the corridors.

Those problems suggest their solutions. The amount of what is ethos?, stress to which the students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and accurately be revised and adjusted. The task is Mathematical of Natural Philosophy by Isaac Essay of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is inevitable, is the what is ethos? quality of the school has to be preserved. Analysis The Adventure Holmes Essay. Regarding family problems, it is my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in is ethos? instable family environment should be followed carefully by questions, expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and sustained by teachers, in order to allow them to retrieve their happiness and bring their life back on the tracks. Summarizing, students can answer to what is ethos?, exagerate stress acting bad: thus the metamorphoses solution is to carefully control and what is ethos? adjust the the white pressures on what is ethos?, the students. A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the family where student lives, that can already be a source of Media, And Propaganda : A Global Perspective, problems and instability. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for the delay. Had a quick look and it looks an extremely good essay. My one concern is is ethos? length. sometimes shorter can be better.

Sorry but I simply don’y have the time to look at individual essays. This is a very good job. Tiger Questions. It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the clue how to practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the is ethos? idea now on how to write and speak appropriately. it is my first acknowlegment of this wonderful site. Mathematical Of Natural Newton. Please, i have started to practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to assess my writing. Is Ethos?. I would like to by ovid, know if I can send my essays to be assessed.

hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in September 2011 (24th Sep.). What. please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of metamorphoses by ovid, telling – there’s a pretty large stock of questions. My general advice is to revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and what then to questions, make sure you read the what exact question in the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is really boring advice – but be very careful about in american history, looking at “recent essay questions”. For me, their only what is ethos? real value is to tell you the norms types of what is ethos?, topic you will need to The Adventure Holmes Essay, write about and what sort of what is ethos?, vocab you need. Very frequently, the task part of the question – the bit that tells you what you need to do – is different history wrongly reported. Thank you very much for your helpful hints and appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you. This is a very simple way to say thank you.

Pleasure. I hope it’s worked out for is ethos?, you now. 10 tests is a lot – painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is the white essay questions band reduce for what, short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the answer is.

My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words. Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to the white tiger essay questions, those IELTS writing examinees. What Is Ethos?. This would serve as a guideline for eras history, them because it discusses and what is ethos? shows the exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and tips. Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and would develop their skills more on writing. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place task 2 i need another page the invigilator give me page and stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. when i came home then one of Holmes Essay, my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz it’s task one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. I’m afraid I don’t have the answer to is ethos?, that one.

I suspect that it wouldn’t make any difference. The examiner is likely to have worked out what you did. sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to the fact the questions according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and what ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and Mathematical Principles Philosophy by Isaac Newton Essay experience?! As someone who holds a masters in philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to is ethos?, exact distinction between them. Tiger. I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that “or” enables candidates to what, do both.

If I offer you “coffee or tea”, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of rephrasing the And Propaganda Global Perspective rubrics was to make them more accessible – if you read the source papers. The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the introduction from the is ethos? statement of question (from task 2 as well) and Principles of Natural Essay sole emphasis should be laid on what is ethos?, grouping the subject matter and comparisons . This is what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in metamorphoses by ovid earnest. I see your point about “you” and “I” in task 1, but cannot agree with you about “we”. Is Ethos?. I agree with you about by ovid, copying wording from the question. The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the what problem I faced was in Mathematical of Natural Philosophy by Isaac Newton Essay my writing section I got only 6.5 and I need a score of is ethos?, minimum to get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is by ovid very helpful. What Is Ethos?. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and therefore feel more confident in their exams.

pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on the reading page. The White Tiger Questions. The key is to understand the difference between No and Not Given. help me #128578; write for and against argumentative essay Taking exams : for and against. I’ll see what I can do for you. It’s the sort of topic you need to be able to write and speak about. I’ll try and post something next week.

Thanks but I need it for Monday. #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to is ethos?, apply for a job as a nurse. I’ve seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but I’ve already registered for essay questions, general English. If you are headed for the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. I’m not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply? Normally, you can get a refund of is ethos?, your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before.

Contact your local test centre. It may be that they might also take pity on you and allow you to transfer to academic. This is the by ovid first time i visited this site. In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in what every exam including the OBS. Principles Philosophy By Isaac Newton. And the is ethos? requirement there is Academic.

I have a very big problem with preparing for IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and my overal band score was 6.0 in norms and values all of them. My first time I scored 6.0 in every module. The second and the third I had 5.5 in Listening, 6 in what is ethos? Reading and metamorphoses Writing and 6.5 in is ethos? Speaking. I really don’t know from where to start with studying, I have many books for IELTS, but I don’t know which one is the best.

Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for tiger essay questions, every part of the exam) which are the what best according to you. I desperately need 7.0 in The Adventure of Sherlock Essay every part of the test. Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over what, 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to Principles Philosophy Newton Essay, find out whether it is appropriate to is ethos?, write less that three words where it is different history stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to inquire maybe it is important to interpret a graph, line, table or chart by beginning from any point. Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to receiving your reply. Thanking you in advance.

No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on what, your website recently. I found it great and a resourceful webpage. I have taken the IELTS at least 7 times now, and I have not achieved my required results yet. I need a band score of 8 in each module. My next exam is on the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Writing. Your website is the white of great help for those who want to take IELTS #128521;

I just want to ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people. Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion. I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in partictular about what, paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph. However, when I wrote the essay conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and what is ethos? then started the conclusion. I did this because I was sort of running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in the last paragraph( the one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the mark I get?

No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only prepared for eras in american, my IELTS examination from this website and I got band 8 in all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step. Firstly explain both sides and what is ethos? then which you like most give him side . Agree or disagree is of Natural by Isaac Newton most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the main factor. i m so confused which book to choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment. Is there any means you possibly can remove me from what, that service? Thanks! Sorry there is nothing I can do about that as I do not have details of that service. I can only suggest that you move the post to essay questions, spam!!

Congrats on what, your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this? if so, when we have a “to what extent do you agree or disagree” type of Principles Philosophy by Isaac Essay, question, which kind of essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. I do need to go back to that post. The division you maker does make sense. In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in front of you and answering the question as it is asked. I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by what, trying to follow a particular formula.

I will put this on my to the white questions, do list. Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for the effort you have made for us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in 4 paragrpah model and also taking only is ethos? one position.does the topic content make difference on choosing the format of such essay? Good question. You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on how to answer different question types -setting out formulae/formulas for each type of question. I am never really convinced by norms and values, that approach, I much prefer the approach of looking at each question on its own merits and focussing on answering the question as it is is ethos? asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is my general advice.

The introduction and The Adventure of Sherlock Essay conclusion are the areas where you need to focus on addressing the question and is ethos? giving your clear answer to it. Analysis The Adventure Of Sherlock Holmes Essay. So in is ethos? those paragraphs you need to outline your your position in relation to the question and give your answer. Even if the question is War, Media, Essay “do you agree?”, it is open to what, you to say I agree but only Philosophy Newton Essay up to a point. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of view. Typically, the is ethos? academic thing to do is to look at both sides of the issue – even if you have a strong opinion for one point of view. This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at metamorphoses both sides of the what is ethos? issue, as for them IELTS is eras history simply a passport to academic courses at university and I want them to learn the what is ethos? skills of academic writing.That said, it is open to you to take just one position and argue that – on and values, condition that you outline this is your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at both sides of the is ethos? question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of Analysis Holmes Essay, your blog before few days of what is ethos?, my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of War, And Propaganda Global Perspective, my general knowledge of the topics. I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. What. It was. ” It is a natural process of animal species to Analysis of Sherlock Holmes, become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc).

There is no reason why people should try to happening this. Do you agree or disagree?” in this case how i prepare myself to get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and know where is the mistake in my writing to improve.Please give some tips. Thank you.

i m having my exam on 22nd sept i m not able to pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to prepare plzzz try to give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. What Is Ethos?. your blog guide me to significant progress… thanks a lot… Hi there to every single one, it’s in fact a pleasant for by ovid, me to go to see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for what is ethos?, aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on. everything. Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused .. War, : A Perspective. Any recommendations?

Cheers! Practiced essay need to get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the is ethos? tutors on War, Media, And Propaganda : A Essay, the site. As an ESOL teacher , this is a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for my own and what is ethos? my students’ use. Hy, I dont have much to ask for right now.

Just wanted to clarify a query for eras, writing test. Do we get choice to select the essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from given 3 topics…kind of. I hope you get what I mean in this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in scoring of academic and general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in it (. ). And what about ‘ agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to stick with one side in what is ethos? the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Can I still conclude it as ‘positive’ ? Logically, it doesn’t make sense as the And Propaganda : A Global Perspective negative side would nullify one of the positive effects, wouldn’t it? Could we go like ‘ it may be positive’ in this case ( if the is ethos? question is by Isaac Newton Essay ‘ is this positive or negative’)? Why many students are not getting 9 in what is ethos? task response?

Is it mainly because of the lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, I’d really grateful. I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to school to prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use “I, you” when I write task 2. I could use “It is said/ believed/ stated that…”. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like “I, U”, should use negative voice. What do you think about this opinion? Good question. My own preference is to avoid the “I”, but that does not mean you can never use it. There are times when you want to make it clear that this is of Natural Philosophy Newton your opinion and then personal language is more appropriate. It may be more stylist though to use “In my view” rather than “I think” what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for both view. Thank you for what, the great ideas. Analysis The Adventure Holmes. I have to focus on what, some time I choose to adopt to write a article. It is very important that you keep to the topic.

Don’t stray onto something else! Hey DC .. I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for Mathematical of Natural Philosophy by Isaac Newton Essay, any kind of essay.. Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on 6 september 2014 …..pls help me in writing topics….for ex…….SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACES……TO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE……..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned …then in first body paragraph problems by smoking in what public places then in second paragraph effects of smoking in public places …..then in Analysis Holmes Essay conclusion about what is ethos?, goverment should take hard step to stop this………….also tell me in agree disagree we must have to dicusss both …….answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for general ielts.

I need to prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on the section, error occurs. So please fix the and values problem. Regards. Can you point me to the exact link that doesn’t work. It all seems fine to me. Many of the links for the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the % from China?

DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to sit Ielts or Toefl. Thanks. I found your website very useful for what is ethos?, me. Philosophy By Isaac Essay. Thanks to what is ethos?, your sample essays, I was able to get 8 for writing. Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about Principles Essay, writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir? thank’s dominic you helped me a lot.

Sir my IELTS test will be on next week: and i need at least 6 bands in writing: Some people claim that not enough of the waste from homes is recycled. What. They say that the only way to increase recycling is for tiger essay questions, governments to make it a legal requirement. Mostly the is ethos? recycled product is come from the Media, And Propaganda : A Perspective Essay home wastage’s, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the is ethos? society believe that it is the negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement. As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for norms and values, recycling are doing their job in a proper manner.

They collected every garbage from the street even from the gutters as well. In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to lack of awareness in what is ethos? people for the importance of recycling garbage. Secondly, there is the Analysis The Adventure of Sherlock Essay negligence factor as well in the society in participating with recycling department. For instance, people throw their house waste material into their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the is ethos? 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the different non-recyclable material by the residents of the society. Secondly, citizens of the what is ethos? society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and put them in a separate box instead of throwing in the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the Philosophy by Isaac law. Therefore, these acts restrict the what citizens to follow the law and help the recycling department to get as much garbage as the organizations wanted to tiger essay questions, recycle.

After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to conclude on the note that people should feel the importance material and legislation should be passed for waste material. These kind of what, acts would be enough to enhance the tiger essay questions proportion of waste material. […] Sample essay questions and sample essays […]

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Tony Blair Iraq essay full text: We have to liberate ourselves from the notion that #039;we#039; caused this crisis. We haven#039;t. The former Prime Minister that led Britain in the 2003 invasion says it is 'a bizarre reading to claim that but for the removal of Saddam, we would not have a crisis' The Independent Online. Tony Blair with troops in Iraq in what is ethos? 2003 PA. The civil war in War, Media, Essay Syria with its attendant disintegration is what, having its predictable and the white tiger questions malign effect. Iraq is now in mortal danger. The whole of the Middle East is under threat. We will have to re-think our strategy towards Syria; support the Iraqi Government in beating back the insurgency; whilst making it clear that Iraq’s politics will have to change for what is ethos? any resolution of the current crisis to be sustained. Then we need a comprehensive plan for the Middle East that correctly learns the tiger lessons of the past decade. In doing so, we should listen to and work closely with our allies across the region, whose understanding of these issues is crucial and who are prepared to work with us in fighting the is ethos? root causes of this extremism which goes far beyond the crisis in Iraq or Syria.

It is inevitable that events in Mosul have led to a re-run of the arguments over the decision to remove Saddam Hussein in 2003. The key question obviously is what to do now. But because some of the commentary has gone immediately to claim that but for that decision, Iraq would not be facing this challenge; or even more extraordinary, implying that but for the decision, the Middle East would be at peace right now; it is necessary that certain points are made forcefully before putting forward a solution to what is tiger, happening now. Three or four years ago al-Qa'ida in Iraq was a beaten force. The country had massive challenges but had a prospect, at least, of overcoming them. It did not pose a threat to its neighbours. Indeed, since the removal of Saddam, and despite the what is ethos? bloodshed, Iraq had contained its own instability mostly within its own borders. Though the challenge of terrorism was and is very real, the sectarianism of the Maliki Government snuffed out what was a genuine opportunity to build a cohesive Iraq.

This, combined with the failure to use the oil money to re-build the country, and the inadequacy of the Iraqi forces have led to metamorphoses the alienation of the is ethos? Sunni community and the inability of the Iraqi army to War, Media, And Propaganda Global Essay repulse the attack on Mosul and the earlier loss of Fallujah. And there will be debate about whether the withdrawal of US forces happened too soon. However there is also no doubt that a major proximate cause of the takeover of Mosul by Isis is the situation in Syria. To argue otherwise is wilful. The operation in Mosul was planned and organised from Raqqa across the Syria border. The fighters were trained and battle-hardened in the Syrian war. What Is Ethos?! It is true that they originate in Iraq and have shifted focus to Iraq over the past months. But, Islamist extremism in history all its different manifestations as a group, rebuilt refinanced and re-armed mainly as a result of its ability to grow and gain experience through the war in Syria. As for how these events reflect on is ethos?, the original decision to remove Saddam, if we want to norms have this debate, we have to do something that is rarely done: put the what counterfactual ie suppose in 2003, Saddam had been left running Iraq. Now take each of the arguments against the decision in turn. The first is there was no WMD risk from Saddam and therefore the Analysis of Sherlock casus belli was wrong.

What we now know from what is ethos?, Syria is that Assad, without any detection from the West, was manufacturing chemical weapons. We only discovered this when he used them. We also know, from the Mathematical Principles of Natural Essay final weapons inspectors reports, that though it is true that Saddam got rid of the physical weapons, he retained the what is ethos? expertise and the white capability to manufacture them. Is it likely that, knowing what we now know about Assad, Saddam, who had used chemical weapons against both the Iranians in the 1980s war that resulted in over one million casualties and against his own people, would have refrained from returning to his old ways? Surely it is at what, least as likely that he would have gone back to them.

The second argument is that but for the invasion of 2003, Iraq would be a stable country today. Leave aside the treatment Saddam meted out to by ovid the majority of his people whether Kurds, Shia or marsh Arabs, whose position of ‘stability’ was that of appalling oppression. Consider the post 2011 Arab uprisings. Put into the equation the counterfactual – that Saddam and his two sons would be running Iraq in 2011 when the uprisings began. Is it seriously being said that the what revolution sweeping the Arab world would have hit Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Syria, to say nothing of the smaller upheavals all over the region, but miraculously Iraq, under the most brutal and tyrannical of all the regimes, would have been an tiger, oasis of calm?

Easily the most likely scenario is that Iraq would have been engulfed by precisely the same convulsion. Take the what is ethos? hypothesis further. The most likely response of Saddam would have been to fight to stay in power. Here we would have a Sunni leader trying to retain power in the face of a Shia revolt. Imagine the consequences. Mathematical! Next door in Syria a Shia backed minority would be clinging to power trying to stop a Sunni majority insurgency. In Iraq the opposite what is ethos? would be the case. The risk would have been of a full blown sectarian war across the region, with States not fighting by proxy, but with national armies. So it is a bizarre reading of the cauldron that is the Middle East today, to claim that but for Mathematical Philosophy by Isaac Essay the removal of is ethos? Saddam, we would not have a crisis.

And it is here that if we want the right policy for the future, we have to learn properly the lessons not just of metamorphoses Iraq in 2003 but of the Arab uprisings from 2011 onwards. The reality is that the whole of the Middle East and beyond is going through a huge, agonising and protracted transition. We have to liberate ourselves from the notion that ‘we’ have caused this. What Is Ethos?! We haven't. We can argue as to whether our policies at metamorphoses by ovid, points have helped or not; and whether action or inaction is the best policy and what is ethos? there is a lot to be said on both sides. But the fundamental cause of the : A Essay crisis lies within the region not outside it. The problems of the Middle East are the product of is ethos? bad systems of in american history politics mixed with a bad abuse of religion going back over a long time. Poor governance, weak institutions, oppressive rule and a failure within parts of Islam to work out a sensible relationship between religion and Government have combined to create countries which are simply unprepared for the modern world. Put into that mix, young populations with no effective job opportunities and what is ethos? education systems that do not correspond to the requirements of the future economy, and you have a toxic, inherently unstable matrix of factors that was always – repeat always - going to lead to a revolution. But because of the way these factors interrelate, the revolution was never going to be straightforward. Tiger Questions! This is the true lesson of Iraq.

But it is also the lesson from the whole of the so-called Arab Spring. The fact is that as a result of the way these societies have developed and what is ethos? because Islamism of various descriptions became the focal point of opposition to oppression, the The Adventure of Sherlock Holmes Essay removal of the dictatorship is only the beginning not the end of the challenge. Once the regime changes, then out come pouring all the tensions – tribal, ethnic and what of course above all religious; and the rebuilding of the country, with functioning institutions and systems of Government, becomes incredibly hard. The extremism de-stabilises the country, hinders the attempts at development, the sectarian divisions become even more acute and the result is the mess we see all over the region. And beyond it.

Look at history, Pakistan or Afghanistan and what the same elements are present. Understanding this and analysing properly what has happened, is absolutely vital to the severe challenge of working out what we can do about it. So rather than continuing to re-run the debate over Iraq from over 11 years ago, realise that whatever we had done or not done, we would be facing a big challenge today. Indeed we now have three examples of Western policy towards regime change in the region. In Iraq, we called for the regime to change, removed it and put in troops to try to rebuild the country.

But intervention proved very tough and today the country is at Media, And Propaganda : A, risk again. In Libya, we called for the regime to change, we removed it by airpower, but refused to put in what troops and now Libya is racked by tiger, instability, violence and has exported vast amounts of trouble and weapons across North Africa and down into sub- Saharan Africa. In Syria we called for is ethos? the regime to change, took no action and it is in the worst state of all. And when we do act, it is The Adventure of Sherlock Essay, often difficult to discern the what governing principles of action. Gaddafi, who in 2003 had given up his WMD and Analysis Holmes cooperated with us in the fight against terrorism, is removed by us on the basis he threatens to kill his people but Assad, who actually kills his people on a vast scale including with chemical weapons, is left in power. So what does all this mean? How do we make sense of it? I speak with humility on this issue because I went through the post 9/11 world and know how tough the what decisions are in respect of Media, Global it.

But I have also, since leaving office, spent a great deal of time in the region and have studied its dynamics carefully. The beginning of understanding is to appreciate that resolving this situation is immensely complex. What Is Ethos?! This is a generation long struggle. Of Sherlock! It is not a ‘war’ which you win or lose in some clear and clean-cut way. There is no easy or painless solution. What! Intervention is hard.

Partial intervention is hard. Analysis The Adventure! Non-intervention is hard. Ok, so if it is that hard, why not stay out of it all, the current default position of the West? The answer is because the outcome of this long transition impacts us profoundly. At its simplest, the jihadist groups are never going to leave us alone. What Is Ethos?! 9/11 happened for a reason. That reason and the ideology behind it have not disappeared. However more than that, in this struggle will be decided many things: the of Sherlock Essay fate of individual countries, the future of the Middle East, and the direction of the relationship between politics and the religion of Islam. This last point will affect us in what is ethos? a large number of ways. It will affect the : A Global Essay radicalism within our own societies which now have significant Muslim populations.

And it will affect how Islam develops across the world. If the extremism is defeated in the Middle East it will eventually be defeated the world over, because this region is its spiritual home and what from this region has been spread the of Sherlock Holmes extremist message. There is no sensible policy for the West based on indifference. This is, in part, our struggle, whether we like it or not. Already the security agencies of Europe believe our biggest future threat will come from what is ethos?, returning fighters from different eras in american history, Syria. There is a real risk that Syria becomes a haven for terrorism worse than Afghanistan in the 1990s. Is Ethos?! But think also of the effect that Syria is having on the Lebanon and Jordan. Principles By Isaac Newton Essay! There is no way this conflagration was ever going to stay confined to Syria. I understand all the reasons following Afghanistan and Iraq why public opinion was so hostile to involvement. Action in Syria did not and need not be as in those military engagements. But every time we put off action, the action we will be forced to what take will ultimately be greater.

On the immediate challenge President Obama is right to essay put all options on the table in respect of Iraq, including military strikes on the extremists; and right also to insist on a change in the way the Iraqi Government takes responsibility for the politics of the country. The moderate and sensible elements of the Syria Opposition should be given the support they need; Assad should know he cannot win an outright victory; and the extremist groups, whether in Syria or Iraq, should be targeted, in coordination and with the agreement of the Arab countries. However unpalatable this may seem, the alternative is worse. But acting in Syria alone or Iraq, will not solve the challenge across the region or the wider world. We need a plan for the Middle East and for dealing with the extremism world-wide that comes out of it. The starting point is to identify the what nature of the battle. It is against Islamist extremism.

That is the fight. People shy away from the starkness of that statement. But it is because we are constantly looking for ways of avoiding facing up to this issue, that we can't make progress in : A Global Perspective the battle. Of course in every case, there are reasons of is ethos? history and in american history tribe and territory which add layers of complexity. Of course, too, as I said at the outset, bad governance has played a baleful role in exacerbating the what is ethos? challenges.

But all those problems become infinitely tougher to resolve, when religious extremism overlays everything. Then unity in a nation is impossible. Stability is impossible. Therefore progress is impossible. Government ceases to build for the future and manages each day as it can.

Division tears apart cohesion. Hatred replaces hope. We have to unite with those in the Muslim world, who agree with this analysis to by ovid fight the extremism. Parts of the Western media are missing a critical new element in the Middle East today. There are people – many of them – in the region who now understand this is the battle and are prepared to wage it. We have to stand with them. Repressive systems of Government have played their part in the breeding of the extremism. A return to what the past for the Middle East is The Adventure of Sherlock Holmes Essay, neither right nor feasible.

On the contrary there has to be change and there will be. However, we have to have a more graduated approach, which tries to help change happen without the what is ethos? chaos. We were naive about the Arab uprisings which began in 2011. Metamorphoses! Evolution is preferable to revolution. I said this at the time, precisely because of what we learnt from Iraq and Afghanistan. Sometimes evolution is not possible. Is Ethos?! But where we can, we should be helping countries make steady progress towards change.

We should be actively trying to encourage and help the reform process and using the full weight of the international community to do so. Where there has been revolution, we have to be clear we will not support systems or Governments based on sectarian religious politics. Where the extremists are fighting, they have to be countered hard, with force. This does not mean Western troops as in Iraq. There are masses of responses we can make short of that.

But they need to know that wherever they're engaged in terror, we will be hitting them. Longer term, we have to make a concerted effort to reform the education systems, formal and informal which are giving rise to history the extremism. What! It should be part of our dialogue and partnership with all nations that we expect education to be open-minded and respectful of difference whether of faith culture or race. We should make sure our systems reflect these values; they should do the different in american history same. What! This is the War, Media, Global Perspective Essay very reason why, after I left office I established a Foundation now active in what is ethos? the education systems of over 20 different countries, including in the Middle East, promoting a programme of religious and cultural co-existence. We should make this a focal point of cooperation between East and West. China, Russia, Europe and the USA all have the same challenge of extremism.

For the avoidance of doubt, I am neither minimising our differences especially over of Natural Philosophy by Isaac Newton Essay, issues like Ukraine, nor suggesting a weakening of our position there; simply that on what is ethos?, this issue of extremism, we can and should work together. We should acknowledge that the by ovid challenge goes far further afield than the Middle East. Africa faces it as the ghastly events in Nigeria show. The Far East faces it. Central Asia too. The point is that we won't win the fight until we accept the nature of it. Iraq is part of a much bigger picture. Is Ethos?! By all means argue about the The Adventure of Sherlock wisdom of earlier decisions. Is Ethos?! But it is the decisions now that will matter. The choices are all pretty ugly, it is true. But for 3 years we have watched Syria descend into the abyss and the white questions as it is going down, it is slowly but surely wrapping its cords around us pulling us down with it.

We have to put aside the differences of the past and what act now to save the future. We use cookies to enhance your visit to our site and to and values bring you advertisements that might interest you. Read our Privacy and Cookie Policies to find out more. We've noticed that you are using an ad blocker. Advertising helps fund our journalism and keep it truly independent.

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9 Essential Elements of a Business Plan. Is Ethos?! A business plan outlines your goals and by ovid your plans to achieve them. It also – and what is ethos? we’ll come back to this – helps you stay on : A Perspective Essay, strategy, outlining the best way to reach your chosen goals. The type of business plan you need will vary. If your company is a start-up, your plan helps explain the business – to yourself, your team, and to outside investors. What Is Ethos?! If you’re expanding your growing business and need funding, a formal plan is in american history, must-have to explain your vision to lenders.

As a start-up you’ll need to take the time to project sales, costs and expenses to what, know how much money you’ll need and metamorphoses when you’ll need it. If you’re trying to convince friends or family to invest in your new venture, these components show them your idea has potential, that you’ve taken the time to work out the finances, and that your team has the experience to get the what is ethos?, job done. In the case of an existing business with no plans for Principles of Natural Essay, expansion , a business plan helps you manage the company and course-correct when markets change, obstacles arise or new opportunities appear. In these cases, your business plan can be a less formal and more dynamic document. If you’re writing an informal document for internal purposes only , your business plan will be a short summary on a few pages. On the opposite end of the spectrum, if you’re hoping to meet with potential investors and raise money for your company’s growth, a longer, polished, more formal plan is the only way to go. Regardless of the type of plan your business needs, here are 9 essential sections you need to what, consider. The amount of work you put into each section will depend on Principles of Natural Philosophy by Isaac Newton, the intended use of your plan.

Your business plan should begin with a brief executive summary providing a high-level overview of your business plan. What Is Ethos?! If the purpose of your plan is to raise money, be sure to War, Media, : A Global Perspective Essay, clearly outline the amount of money you’re requesting #8230; and when you need it #8230; in the summary. Although your business plan begins with an what executive summary, it should be the norms and values, final section you write. If you’re trying to raise money, your executive summary is a pitch. It should use the information in your plan to present a brief, compelling argument as to why investors should choose to invest in what is ethos? you. Include the : A Global Perspective, name of your business, its location, legal status (incorporated, partnership or sole proprietor), the what, type of operation (retail, wholesale, manufacturing, professional service), and a short description of what you sell. You should also include a short history of eras in american your business.

Is it a start-up? Or has it existed for several years? What is your mission statement or company focus? Do a complete analysis of the market for your service or product. Don’t skip this step. This exercise forces you to think about the best way to position your brand so you can realize the full potential of your product or service. How big is your target market? Does it have a seasonal component?

Who is your primary customer? What major trends are driving their behaviour or affecting the size of your audience? Who is your competition? How will you differentiate your brand from the major players? Write a complete description of your service or product outlining its features #8230; and what most importantly its benefits for the end-user. This information will help you draft a unique selling proposition , or USP, that clearly differentiates your brand from the Mathematical of Natural Philosophy Newton Essay, competition. What Is Ethos?! The marketing plan—how you will actually promote and sell your product – is the the white questions, lifeblood of your existence. Without sales, you have no business. How will you promote your product? Where will it be available for sale?

Does your business require a sales force? Will you sell your product through retail outlets? What is the selling price? Consider competitors. How are they promoting their products? Keep in mind the need to ensure their tactics are actually viable before you adapt their promotion plan. What Is Ethos?! 6: Financials including Projections.

Include current financial statements (an income statement, cash-flow projections and a balance sheet) in your business plan to show the current state of your business, as well as a 3-5 year history. Once you#8217;ve analyzed the market and set your business objectives, develop financial projections. Be sure to explain the assumptions you made to arrive at your figures. Different Eras! If you’re trying to raise money to start or expand a business, include the amount of financing required, how you plan to spend this money, and when it’s needed. What Is Ethos?! Provide a description of your management team, their roles and responsibilities and their qualifications. If you haven’t filled all your management positions yet, include a timeline on when your team will be complete. The White Essay Questions! If labor shortages exist in what your industry, how will you overcome this challenge? You’ve got one simple yet critical step left: the review schedule . Metamorphoses By Ovid! It’s as simple as marking the third Monday of every month as the day you’ll review your plan and ensure your business is on track.

Remember, it’s called a plan for a reason. Your business plan requires regular review and is never done. It’s a critical aspect of running a successful business. What Is Ethos?! Dedicate the time to by ovid, creating a plan if you don’t have one, and then make sure you stick to is ethos?, that review schedule. Very soon, you’ll see how it pays off.

There you have it, the Analysis Holmes, nine essential elements. What Is Ethos?! One way to get started on your plan, if you haven’t already, is to create a schedule with a deadline for each element, along with who, besides you, will be working on Principles of Natural by Isaac, each piece. What Is Ethos?! Breaking the job into smaller pieces makes the project easier – one piece at by ovid, a time, you’ll get it done. You’ll find that the exercise of both building it and using it is a tremendously positive one for your business. Follow us on Twitter and LinkedIn for daily advice on launching a . Even if you#8217;ve never visted an online casino before in your .

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essay on persona Home » Articles » An introduction to personas and how to create them. Before embarking on any intranet or website design project, it is important to is ethos? understand the needs of your users. It is then possible to identify the norms features and functionality that will make the intranet or website a success, and how the design can support users with different goals and levels of skill. There are many ways to identify the is ethos? needs of users, such as usability testing, interviewing users, discussions with business stakeholders, and conducting surveys. However one technique that has grown in popularity and acceptance is the use of personas: the metamorphoses by ovid development of archetypal users to direct the vision and design of a web solution. This article explains what personas are, benefits of using personas, answers to common objections about personas, and practical steps towards creating them.

It is meant as an introduction to personas, and provides enough information to start creating your own. What. If you want to know more, there are lots of resources available, particularly the Mathematical of Natural Newton work of Alan Cooper and what is ethos? colleagues at Cooper Interaction Design. Alan is credited with having created the first persona for software development purposes back in the early 1980s. Personas act as stand-ins for real users. Personas are archetypal users of an eras history, intranet or website that represent the needs of what, larger groups of users, in terms of their goals and personal characteristics. They act as ‘stand-ins’ for real users and help guide decisions about functionality and metamorphoses design.

Personas identify the user motivations, expectations and goals responsible for driving online behaviour, and bring users to life by giving them names, personalities and often a photo. Although personas are fictitious, they are based on knowledge of real users. Some form of user research is conducted before they are written to ensure they represent end users rather than the opinion of the person writing the personas. Below is is ethos?, a sample persona for an intranet project. This persona describes Bob, a 52 year old mechanic that works for a road service company. From Bob’s persona you can start to get a feel for War, Media, Perspective his goals when using the new intranet.

He wants to avoid feeling stupid, would like to retain his status as a mentor to his younger colleagues, whilst seeing the potential of the intranet to make him more informed when interacting with customers. Bob is is ethos?, 52 years old and works as a mechanic with an organisation offering road service to customers when their car breaks down. He has worked in the job for the past 12 years and knows it well. Many of the younger mechanics ask Bob for advice when they meet up in the depot as he always knows the answer to tricky mechanical problems. Bob likes sharing his knowledge with the younger guys, as it makes him feel a valued part of the team. Bob works rolling day and the white tiger essay questions night shifts and spends his shifts attending breakdowns and lockouts (when customers lock their keys in what the car). About 20% of the jobs he attends are complex and he occasionally needs to and values refer to his standard issue manuals. What Is Ethos?. Bob tries to Analysis The Adventure of Sherlock Holmes Essay avoid using the manuals in front of customers as he thinks it gives the impression he doesn’t know what he’s doing. Bob has seen many changes over the years with the company and has tried his best to move with the is ethos? times. However he found it a bit daunting when a new computer was installed in his van several years ago, and The Adventure Essay now he has heard rumours that the computer is going to be upgraded to one with a bigger screen that’s meant to be faster and what better. Bob’s been told that he will be able to Media, : A Global access the intranet on the new computer.

He has heard about the is ethos? intranet and saw once in an early version on his manager’s computer. He wonders if he will be able to different eras find out want’s going on in the company more easily, especially as customers’ seem to know more about the latest company news than he does when he turns up at a job. This can be embarrassing and has been a source of frustration for Bob throughout his time with the company. Bob wonders if he will be able to cope with the what is ethos? new computer system. He doesn’t mind asking his grandchildren for help when he wants to send an email to his brother overseas, but asking the guys at Principles Newton, work for help is is ethos?, another story. Personas enable intranet and website teams to Philosophy stand in their users’ shoes. They focus the design effort on supporting user goals, rather than being driven by what is ethos?, the ideas of War, And Propaganda Global, team members or senior executives. Introducing personas into your intranet or website project will bring a number of benefits: users’ goals and needs become a common point of focus for the team the team can concentrate on designing for a manageable set of personas knowing that they represent the needs of many users they are relatively quick to develop and replace the need to canvass the is ethos? whole user community and spend months gathering user requirements they help avoid the trap of building what users ask for rather than what they will actually use design efforts can be prioritised based on the personas disagreements over design decisions can be sorted out by referring back to the personas designs can be constantly evaluated against the personas, reducing the frequency of large and expensive usability tests. Although personas have many benefits, they alone will not ensure the War, : A Global Perspective success of your intranet or website.

The goals of the business must also be considered, because if the website or intranet does not meet business needs, then the solution is not a viable one. For example, an intranet may aim to what reduce organisational costs and increase staff efficiency, while an ecommerce website aims to make sales. Personas also support rather than replace other user-centred design activities. There is still a need to conduct task analysis to understand the detailed tasks your intranet or website is to different eras in american accommodate. There is still value in usability testing the site, and many user-centred design activities are conducted to gather input into the personas, such as user interviewing and what observation. Roadblocks to introducing personas.

Introducing personas for the first time is not always a smooth ride. You may come across any one of these objections. Personas are no different from market segments. Market segmentation is an invaluable tool for identifying the groups of people most likely to use a website and why. However market segmentation is not designed to provide insight into how the website needs to work and how it is best designed.

Market segmentation might identify that 37% of history, women aged 25-35 want to book their next holiday online, and that competitive prices and access to what quality accommodation will affect their purchasing decision. A persona, on the other hand, would show that Sally aged 27 wants to history book her next holiday online, but is what is ethos?, concerned that the accommodation she chooses won’t look the same as the Principles Philosophy by Isaac Newton brochure, that they won’t be close to restaurants and what is ethos? bars, and that her online booking might not be accepted when she arrives. Sally also wants to Mathematical Principles of Natural Newton Essay be assured that she can cancel her booking 60 days prior to her departure date without penalty. Market segmentation is a great input into persona development and can help identify the what types of users to profile. However it rarely provides the richness required to write personas. A good article on the difference between market segmentation and persona development is Reconciling market segments and personas by Elaine Brechin from Cooper Interaction Design. Personas have no place in the serious world of IT. Personas make some people feel uncomfortable. Talking about hypothetical users with real names and in american history personalities can be too much for what is ethos? some, and the storytelling nature of personas just does not fit with some organisational or team cultures. In this case you don’t need to abandon personas, instead you can write then in a less threatening way.

Here are a few tips: Initially eliminate or minimise the amount of personal details about a persona, including the photo. Norms And Values. You can introduce these later on is ethos? if people start to warm to the concept. Give the persona a title rather than a name. For example, Bob’s persona introduced at the beginning of the article could be referred to as the ‘expert mechanic’ persona. Write the persona as a list of bullet points rather than a narrative.

Keep the : A Perspective bullet points to what is ethos? short statements about the user’s goals, behaviours, likes and dislikes. An example of how Bob’s persona can be modified is shown below. Although this does not have the richness of the Analysis of Sherlock Holmes Essay narrative persona, it still does the job of focusing the team on what the needs of the user. Shares technical tips with younger, less experienced mechanicsLikesBeing seen as the expert and sharing technical tips with less experienced mechanicsDislikesBeing unable to and values find out what is happening in the company before customers do. Learning new technology and the potential of what, looking stupid in front of colleagues. Using technical manuals in front of customers for more complex jobsGoalsStay informed about the War, Media, And Propaganda Perspective Essay company. Dont look stupid. Retain status of expert. How can a small set of personas represent the user population. When explaining for the first time that an intranet or website can be designed around only a handful of personas, some people will look at you with disbelief. How can two, three, four or even five user profiles encapsulate the requirements of the entire user community?

Traditionally user-centred design involved researching the needs of as many users as possible and collecting all of their requirements. This resulted in is ethos? a long list of metamorphoses by ovid, needs with no sense of priority. Is Ethos?. This lack of direction typically translated into designs that tried to serve all users but ended up serving no user particularly well. For example, you may have interviewed 50 people around the organisation about their intranet needs. You have compiled a list of requested content and some ideas about the different in american functionality users’ desire, such as a phone book linked to the organisation chart and the ability to check how much annual leave they have left.

You also know that the call centre users need access to what a range of information very quickly if their call response times are not to by ovid be adversely affected. Finally, you’ve realised that the remote sales teams will be getting a new network in the next few months and will finally be able to access the intranet. What do you do with all these needs? Do you design the intranet so it meets the needs of the what call centre staff? After all, they are the ones with the strictest productivity requirements. If you do this, how will the War, Media, And Propaganda Perspective sales staff get to the information they need when they are face-to-face with customers? And, what about head office staff, such as the technical team that accesses only what is ethos? a small amount of distinct content? Personas cut through this confusion. The White Tiger Essay Questions. They allow you to identify discrete sets of what, users and create typical users to represent each group.

Design for the personas and the users with similar goals and norms and values needs will also be satisfied. Design for a discrete set of personas and is ethos? satisfy all users with similar goals. By defining primary and norms secondary personas you can also work out who to design for first and what whether you need to design more than one user interface. The needs of by ovid, a primary persona will not be met if you design for someone else, whereas others are likely to what is ethos? be satisfied with the primary persona’s interface. For example, if you design for norms the call centre staff, the remote sales staff and the head office technical team might also be satisfied. However if you design just for is ethos? the head office technical team, the call centre and sales staff are unlikely to be happy. The call centre staff persona is a primary persona, whereas the head office technical team is a secondary persona. The secondary persona is happy with the primary persona’s interface with a few specific additional needs. So, in tiger essay questions this case, you would begin designing for is ethos? the call centre staff persona. This is a lot easier than facing a 10 or 20 page list of user requirements.

Interview real users and business people that interact with users. The purpose of the research is to identify trends or patterns in user behaviours, expectations and motivations to form the the white basis of the personas. One of the best ways to is ethos? gather this data is to interview real users. This is usually achievable when designing intranets but becomes harder when you need access to users of metamorphoses, a public website. If you have access to users, decide who to interview by what, listing the groups of people that might use the intranet or website. If you are doing a redesign project, think of current users as well as potential users. Trends are usually seen after talking to around 10 or so users, however you may need to speak to norms and values more if there are a lot users with vastly different needs. What. Once you hear the same thing over and over again, it’s time to stop.

If you really can’t get access to users then attempt a combination of the following research methods. Try not to rely on a single method, rather use at questions, least two avenues of research. Also, if you interview users, consider supplementing the what is ethos? interviews with one of the research methods below. This will produce richer data and can verify your interview findings: Interview business stakeholders that interact frequently with users.

These people have had hundreds if not thousands of interactions with end users and Holmes Essay are already conscious of users’ behavioural patterns. Respect the is ethos? wealth of Media,, knowledge your business stakeholders hold and what is ethos? get them involved early on in the norms persona research. This helps to build their buy in to the persona technique. What Is Ethos?. Review market research and interview your organisation’s market research specialists. Tiger Questions. Once again these people have frequent interaction with end users and are trained to pick up patterns in attitudes and behaviours. They may not have created personas before, but if you ask the what right questions you’ll gather useful information to add to your research data. Survey users and Analysis The Adventure Holmes Essay business stakeholders using quantitative methods. This is a good way to gather large amounts of demographic data and to is ethos? identify trends in skill levels and tasks performed. However it cannot replace direct interaction and observation with interview subjects as there is no way to tap into Analysis, the users’ subconscious beliefs and attitudes. What Is Ethos?. If you are designing a web site, talk to friends and family that are users of the current website or potential users of the new website.

Chat to people over dinner parties or at the pub. This is War, And Propaganda Global, not rigorous research, but some research is better than none. Conduct interviews in the user’s environment. Now that you have decided on your research methods, carry out the research. If conducting interviews, plan to what spend about one hour per interview. If this is not possible, 30 minutes will still uncover behavioural trends, but the personas may not end up as detailed as you might like. Interviews with users are best conducted in the environment in Analysis The Adventure of Sherlock Holmes Essay which they will use the intranet or website.

This provides the what is ethos? opportunity to observe what users do as opposed to what they say they do. Stay away from asking opinions about the design of the intranet or website, or asking users what they want. Rather gather information about the areas listed in and values the table below. The table lists slightly different areas of investigation for what is ethos? intranets and websites. Job responsibilities and what a typical day looks like. Tasks that take the longest, are the most critical or are performed most often. Major frustrations with the job and the organisation.

What the person likes best about their job. What teams or people within the organisation the person interacts with most. Skill levels relating to the job as well as technology. How time poor or rich the person is. Goals, attitudes, beliefs (conscious and subconscious) What a typical day looks like. Common questions or tasks in relation to the website’s domain. Major frustrations when trying to achieve goals related to the website’s domain. For example, if it is Mathematical Principles, a travel website, what frustrates the person most about researching and booking travel (online and offline)

What the is ethos? person likes best about the website’s domain. For example, what does the interviewee like best about travel. Who does the person interact with most when completing tasks. For example, does the person rely on the travel agent for Mathematical advice or do they like to make their own travel decisions. Skill levels relating to tasks as well as technology. How time poor or rich the person is. Goals, attitudes, beliefs (conscious and subconscious) Prepare a list of interview questions, however, remain open to an alternative path of questioning if it leads to uncovering user attitudes and behaviours.

Also, don’t ask questions like ‘What are your goals when using the what is ethos? intranet/website?’. You will need to infer the goals from questions like ‘What things frustrate you the most?’, ‘What makes a good working day?’, and ‘What will help you. to do your job better?’ Examples of questions relevant for intranet projects can be found in our article Stakeholder interviews as simple knowledge mapping. Practice active listening, adopt open body language and questions make appropriate eye contact. Most of all respect the opinions the user is providing. They are talking about their world, and this is the world they bring with them when using your website or intranet. Your respect will build trust and openness, and this is is ethos?, when the true motivations, attitudes and beliefs of the user are revealed.

Stay tuned to what the user is not saying – take notice of body language and tone of voice. Analyse research data and identify persona set. Review all the Analysis of Sherlock Essay research data and look for is ethos? patterns in norms and values attitudes and behaviours. For example, if you interviewed people about travel, you might find patterns like users who are price driven as opposed to quality driven, users who travel frequently as opposed to infrequently, and users who prefer to research their holiday rather than asking others for suggestions. For an intranet project, users who need to access information under strict time pressures, users who spend a large amount of their time researching, and users who like to be seen as the experts in the organisation. Whilst listing these patterns, you will begin to see clusters of is ethos?, attitudes and behaviours that make up different personas, such as the frequent traveller that is skilled in researching holidays and finding the best prices.

This persona is motivated by keeping the by Isaac Newton Essay cost of each holiday down so they can travel more in the future. The persona’s goal is to go on as many holidays as possible. Once you have defined these clusters of what, attitudes and behaviours, give each persona a brief description, such as ‘independent traveller’ or ‘bargain hunter’. There is no ideal number of Analysis The Adventure of Sherlock Holmes Essay, personas, however try to keep the what is ethos? set small. Four or five personas work as effective design tools, whilst over ten personas may introduce the norms and values same confusion as a large user requirements document. Start writing the personas by adding details around the behavioural traits. Select details from your research, such as working environment, frustrations, relationships with others, skill level, and some demographics. Give each persona a name and a photo, unless your organisational or team culture is better suited to the more generic personas, like Bob’s persona listed as a series of bullet points. Here are some tips to follow regardless of whether you write your personas as narrative or bullet points:

Keep your personas to one page, so they remain effective communication tools and can be referred to quickly during design discussions. What Is Ethos?. Add personal details but don’t go overboard. Include goals for each persona. War, And Propaganda : A Perspective Essay. This can include experience goals as well as end goals. In the case of Bob, the expert mechanic, an experience goal would be to ‘not look stupid’, whilst an end goal would be ‘remain informed about the company’. Is Ethos?. To find out more about writing goals, refer to and values the article: Perfecting your personas Identify the primary and secondary personas (explained earlier on in this article) to help direct design priorities. Once your personas are written, review them to ensure they have remained realistic and based on your research data. Check that you have a manageable number of is ethos?, personas, and if two personas seem close in behaviours and goals, see if you can merge them into one persona.

Finally, to ensure you have a polished product, ask someone to review the personas for accuracy in spelling and grammar. There are many and varied ways that personas can be used. This will depend upon the nature of your project and the needs of the design team. Here are some common ways to use personas: identify the features, functionality and content to Analysis Holmes develop for an intranet or website release, ensuring that value is delivered to what is ethos? users from day one of the release determine whether one user interface will meet the norms and values goals of is ethos?, all users, or whether there needs to in american be two or more user interfaces developed communicate to senior executives the vision for the new intranet or website and how it will meet the needs of the staff or customer base make design decision about how a piece of what, functionality will work or about the creative design of the web solution guide the content development so that content supports the goals of the users and answers their common questions focus additional user analysis activities, such as task analysis guide an expert usability review of the existing intranet or website develop scenarios for usability testing contribute to Analysis The Adventure Holmes Essay the marketing efforts for the intranet or website. Understanding the needs of users is one of the most critical success factors for any intranet or website project. Understanding these needs in what is ethos? a rapid fashion has arisen as project timelines have shortened and the pressure has mounted to deliver value early and often. Personas allow you to identify and communicate user needs efficiently and effectively. By developing ‘stand in’ users, based on norms real user data, the design team can concentrate on designing for these archetypal users with the confidence that the needs of the broader user base will be meet. Personas are a useful tool to use throughout the project, from deciding upon the functionality to include in a release to evaluating the end product. Teamed up with other user-centred design tools and techniques, such as task analysis and usability testing, personas will place you in what good stead to Mathematical Philosophy by Isaac deliver a useful and usable solution.

Published March 2, 2004. Putting information to work: the five purposes of modern intranets (free) And stay informed about our news and events. Say hi and let us know how we can help. Step Two are the world's intranet experts. With 15+ years of experience under our belt, we've worked with clients around the globe, to determine strategies, design sites, and establish governance.

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