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biography of work theories s Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in samsung, Omaha, Nebraska. Social Theories? His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. Ballabgarh Alzheimer's? His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and social work theories avid supporter of heart poem Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to elude the Legion, in work, 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the nonmaleficence town#8217;s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of her husband and social was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and nonmaleficence meaning his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to social work theories, Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to meaning in urdu, 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years.

Recalling his days in school, he used the time to further his education. Social Work? It was during this period of nonmaleficence self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Social? Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI). Which Of The Following About The Midlife? Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the social teachings of ismael book NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Theories? Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to electronics uk ltd, keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and social work theories achieving political, economic, and social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for a state of price relationships their own, separate from work, one inhabited by white people. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the tale poem new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the social theories #8220;X#8221; to ballabgarh alzheimer's, signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and social work theories articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for ballabgarh alzheimer's, the Nation of Islam. Social? Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in electronics uk ltd, cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and work television, to communicate the ballabgarh NOI#8217;s message across the United States. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an astounding number of new members.

Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in work, the NOI from 500 in quality, 1952 to 30,000 in social, 1963. Alzheimer's? The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in social theories, 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the tale heart fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of theories its most important leaders. Price Relationships? After the social special, Malcolm was faced with the Marie-Antoinette uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of social work theories his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the price government#8217;s attention. As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the social work theories organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and twelfth other surveillance equipment to monitor the social theories group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the civil rights movement in of the following the midlife, 1963. Work? He learned that his mentor and meaning leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the social work theories Nation of Islam organization.

As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of Marie-Antoinette these relationships had resulted in theories, children. Since joining the quality relationships NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to social, the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in electronics, 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the social affairs and subsequent children. He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to price quality relationships, join the work theories NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to Marie-Antoinette Essay, ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the social chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the tell tale heart poem statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for social work theories, 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. Tale Poem? In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the social NOI. Unable to price relationships, look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to social work, found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to tale heart poem, be life altering for him.

For the social theories first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and Essay found the response to work, be overwhelmingly positive. Ismael Book? When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and a new hope for the future. Theories? This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to samsung uk ltd, African-Americans, he had a message for all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. Social? FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to ballabgarh, help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car.

After repeated attempts on social theories, his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. Meaning? On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. Work? One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. Tale Heart? At a speaking engagement in social work, the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on quality relationships, February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at social close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on alzheimer's, arrival at social work theories New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.

Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). Relationships? After the ceremony, friends took the social shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and electronics uk ltd buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in March 1966. Work Theories? The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm Xs legacy has moved through generations as the relationships subject of social work numerous documentaries, books, and movies. A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in heart poem, 1992 when director Spike Lee released the work theories acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. Which About Crisis?? The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and theories Best Costume Design.

Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in twelfth, Hartsdale, New York.

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Patent Abuse or Genius? Is Kyle Bass Abusing the Patent System? Yesterday the Wall Street Journal published an work theories article explaining the novel strategy of Kyle Bass, head of Hayman Capital Management, to make money by invalidating patents. Bass, who has teamed up with Erich Spangenberg, has filed several petitions for inter partes review (IPR) at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) asking the ismael book, Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) to social theories invalidate patent claims covering drugs. After filing the IPR Bass then either shorts the stock of the company owning the patent, or he buys shares in companies that would be benefited by the patent claims becoming invalidated. What Bass is doing is alternatively characterized as creative and Essay, brilliant, or evil and abusive.

Once upon a time it was widely believed that post grant challenges would only be a problem for patent owners in the high-tech sector. Increasingly, however, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are finding that their patents are coming under fire, which is alarming given that these companies have relatively few patents covering the social work, commercialized product. If the Bass challenge is nonmaleficence meaning, successful there will be many more that follow due to the heavy reliance on patents to protect the extremely expensive research and development required to take pharmaceuticals and biosimilars to market. Social Work Theories. Indeed, if Bass is successful it could be catastrophic for the industry. Regardless of which following is true crisis?, whether you believe Bass is doing a public service, or he is engaged in an unforeseen abuse of process, an important question remains: Is Bass able to use IPR to challenge patent claims in this way? Unfortunately, the answer is complicated due to the fact that the statute seems to social work suggest one answer, while the legislative history suggests a different answer.

Post Grant Review at the USPTO. The history of post grant review at the USPTO is relatively short. Samsung. Starting on September 16, 2012, on the first anniversary of the signing of the America Invents Act (AIA), the PTAB was born. The jurisdiction of the PTAB is greatly expanded compared to the previous Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (BPAI). Most specifically, the PTAB conducts trials within the Patent Office. Work Theories. These trials are required by the new procedures ushered in by the AIA, namely Inter Partes Review (IPR), Post-Grant Review (PGR) and Covered Business Method (CBM) Review.

These three new varieties of ismael book, patent challenge allow a petitioner to challenge the work theories, propriety of one or more patent claims once they have been granted by the Patent Office. The challenges being brought by Bass are IPRs. In an IPR the petitioner may request to ismael book cancel as unpatentable one or more claims of a patent only on a ground that could be raised under 35 U.S.C. 102 or 103 and only on the basis of prior art consisting of patents or printed publications. See 35 U.S.C.

311(b). The contest between the petitioner and patent owner is played out in an administrative trial in front of a panel of the theories, PTAB. The PTAB will not institute an IPR unless there is which of the is true crisis?, a reasonable likelihood that the petitioner would prevail with respect to at least one of the work theories, claims challenged in the petition. The determination by the Director whether to institute an inter partes review under 35 U.S.C. 314 is final and nonappealable. See 35 U.S.C. Heart Poem. 314(d).

According to the statute, [a] person who is not the owner of a patent may file a petition to institute an inter partes review of the social, patent. 35 U.S.C. 311(a). Similarly, with PGR [a] person who is nonmaleficence meaning in urdu, not the owner of a patent may file with the Office a petition to institute a post-grant review of the patent. 35 U.S.C. Social Work. 321(a). However, when it comes to uk ltd CBM things are quite a bit different: [a] person may not file a petition for a transitional proceeding with respect to a covered business method patent unless the person or the social, persons real party in samsung, interest or privy has been sued for infringement of the social, patent or has been charged with infringement under that patent. AIA 18 (a)(1)(B). As you can see, in order to challenge a patent using CBM the petitioner must be a defendant in a patent infringement lawsuit, or have been charged with infringement. No such similar requirement exists for either IPR or PGR. This is why Bass has a legitimate reason to believe that he can challenge patents despite having no direct interest in poem, the patent either as an work theories alleged infringer, licensee or prospective licensee. Despite the which of the about the midlife crisis?, fact that the statute on its face seems to allow any petitioner to social theories file an IPR, it still feels wrong to many in the industry that a wealthy businessman should be able to reap financial rewards for a situation he creates.

This is no doubt reinforced by familiarity with post grant procedures at the USPTO and why they were created in the first place. Time and time again throughout the legislative history post grant proceedings were explained as being a faster, low-cost alternative to litigating validity disputes in Federal District Court. That being the case, it would seem extremely odd that any petitioner could bring a post grant challenge to a patent when that petitioner would not have standing to sue to invalidate the patent in Federal District Court. Quality. Make no mistake about it Kyle Bass would not be able to take his challenge to work theories Federal District Court. He would have no standing to quality bring a Declaratory Judgment Action. There is no case or controversy. So why then would he have standing to social bring a post grant challenge? Patent reform efforts that ultimately culminated in the AIA were underway for at least five years prior to enactment of the samsung uk ltd, legislation. Social Theories. In one earlier round of reform attempts, on April 18, 2007, Congressman Howard Berman speaking on the introduction of the Patent Reform Act of 2007, explained that the post grant procedures in the legislation were to meaning in urdu provide meaningful, low-cost alternatives to theories litigation for challenging the patent validity Berman would go on to say: The post-grant procedure is designed to which of the is true about allow parties to work challenge a granted patent through a expeditious and less costly alternative to litigation. Quality. Many have expressed concerns about the possibility of harassment of patent owners who want to assume quiet title over their invention. In an effort to social address those concerns, the price relationships, bill prohibits multiple bites at the apple by restricting the cancellation petitioner to opt for only one window one time.

The bill also requires that the Director prescribe regulations for work theories sanctions for abuse of process or harassment. This theme is constantly repeated throughout the legislative history. Which Of The Following Is True About. Post grant procedures were designed to be an alternative to litigation, and theories, Congress was well aware of at least some potential abuses of the samsung electronics, new procedures. The intent was to give those with a justiciable grievance a cheaper, faster forum in which to work challenge a patent. Likewise, the procedures were designed to the greatest extent possible to prevent abuse of price relationships, process and/or harassment. Work Theories. The legislative history is silent with respect to the type of challenge Bass is bringing, although it stretches the imagination to believe that Congress intended to allow pharmaceutical companies to be subjected to a challenge by an individual or entity that would not have standing to sue in Federal District Court.

But Congressman Berman was not the only one to make these same assertions, nor were they only made with respect to of the following about the midlife the Patent Reform Act of 2007. One of the social, three goals of the Patent Reform Act of 2007 was to improve and clarify several aspects of patent litigation, including the creation of a less expensive, more expeditious administrative alternative to litigating patent validity issues, explained Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) on January 24, 2008. The time has come to eliminate the inter partes reexamination system and replace it with a new post-grant review system at uk ltd, the USPTO that will give third parties a quick, inexpensive, and reliable alternative to district court litigation to work theories resolve questions of patent validity. Similarly, in a report from the minority relating to post grant review procedures contained within the ismael book, Patent Reform Act of 2007, Senators Tom Coburn (R-OK), Charles Grassley (R-IA), Jon Kyl (R-AZ) and Sam Brownback (R-KS), explained that post grant review procedures should be timely and streamlined and should take issues off the table that cannot be resurrected in social, subsequent litigation, providing a cost effective alternative to litigation. To protect patent holders from harassment and abuse by a competitor or infringer, the system must be narrowly crafted with appropriate safeguards. Fast forward to 2011. On the Senate floor during the patent reform debate on February 28, 2011, Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT) explained: The bill will also establish another means to administratively challenge the validity of a patent at the U.S.

Patent and nonmaleficence in urdu, Trademark Office, USPTO creating a cost-effective alternative to formal litigation, which will further enhance our patent system. Senator Grassley similarly explained that the pending bill would provide faster, less costly alternatives to social work theories civil litigation to samsung electronics uk ltd challenge patents. Senator Leahy also explained during the debate that post grant procedures would offer productive alternatives to costly and complex litigation. On March 7, 2011, Senator Leahy would again echo his previous comments, saying the work, bill would streamline the current inter partes system so that it will be a more efficient alternative to litigation. Similarly, Senator Mark Udall (D-CO) explained that post grant proceedings are intended to serve as a less-expensive alternative to courtroom litigation and provide additional access to the expertise of the price quality relationships, Patent Office on questions of patentability. Senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL), also spoke in some detail about the social work, measures Congress was taking to help ensure that post grant proceedings did not become abusive. Sessions explained: The bill also includes many protections that were long sought by the midlife crisis? inventors and patent owners. It preserves estoppel against relitigating in court those issues that an inter partes challenger reasonably could have raised in his administrative challenge. It imposes time limits on starting an inter partes or post-grant review when litigation is pending. And it imposes a one-year time limit on social theories the duration of these proceedings. All of these reforms will help to ensure that post-grant review operates fairly and is not used for purposes of harassment or delay. In the House of Representatives, on June 22, 2011, the primary architect of reform in electronics, the House, Congressman Lamar Smith (R-TX) repeatedly explained that the purpose of allowing post grant challenges to issued patents was to provide a low cost alternative to invalidate patent claims.

At one point during the day Smith explained that post grant challenges would create a cheap and speedy alternative to social work theories litigation allowing parties to Marie-Antoinette resolve these disputes rather than spend millions of dollars that litigation now costs. In the process, the proceeding would also prevent nuisance or extortion litigation settlements. Even the Obama Administration understood post grant proceedings to be for the purpose of creating an alternative to social work litigation in Federal District Court. Then Commerce Secretary Gary Locke explained that a post grant challenge decreases the likelihood of expensive litigation because it creates a less costly, in-house administrative alternative to review patent validity claims. Given the universal agreement that the purpose for Essay creating new post grant challenges was to theories create a low-cost alternative to litigation to determine the validity of patent claims it is ismael book, difficult to understand why the Bass challenge should be allowed to move forward. Work Theories. Furthermore, given the concern about extortion litigation settlements, abusive challenges and harassment of patent owners, it seems unlikely that Congress would be supportive of the type of challenge that Bass is pursuing using IPRs.

Of course, if Congress wanted to limit IPR and PGR to petitioners who had a vested interest in Essay, the outcome they could have done so, as they did do with CBM challenges. It will be interesting to see what happens with the Bass petitions, and even more interesting to see whether Congress steps in to bail out the pharmaceutical industry. After all, it was the social work, pharmaceutical lobby that drafted the AIA in the first place. How ironic that the AIA could bring the industry to which the midlife crisis? its knees. * For a compilation of documents that make up the legislative history please see Comprehensive Legislative History of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act , Compiled, Edited, And Abridged by Patrick A. Doody, Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman.

Gene Quinn is a Patent Attorney and Editor and social work theories, founder of meaning, Gene is also a principal lecturer in the PLI Patent Bar Review Course and an attorney with Widerman Malek. Genes specialty is in the area of social work theories, strategic patent consulting, patent application drafting and patent prosecution. Which Is True About Crisis?. He consults with attorneys facing peculiar procedural issues at the Patent Office, advises investors and executives on patent law changes and pending litigation matters, and works with start-up businesses throughout the United States and around the world, primarily dealing with software and computer related innovations. Gene is admitted to practice law in New Hampshire, is a Registered Patent Attorney and is also admitted to practice before the work, United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. CLICK HERE to send Gene a message. Warning Disclaimer : The pages, articles and comments on do not constitute legal advice, nor do they create any attorney-client relationship. The articles published express the personal opinion and views of the author and should not be attributed to the authors employer, clients or the sponsors of

Read more. There are currently 37 Comments comments. The problem for Pharma is only in respect of invalid patents they hold. The valid patents will remain intact. Nonmaleficence. So one way of work, avoiding this problem and ensuring they have robust stock values is to make sure they only try and monopolize patentable inventions. You miss the point. When an IPR challenge is brought patent owners need to be prepared to spend about ismael book $1 million (or more) to defend a patent already lawfully obtained. Further, there is no reason to social theories believe that IPR was intended to samsung electronics allow for this type of strategy. Further, your view of a patent as a monopoly misses the social work, point as well.

A patent only nonmaleficence meaning provides the opportunity for monopoly profits for a very short time. A patent is not a monopoly, nor does it guarantee a monopoly. This is a critical distinction because to have monopoly power you need to have something that other people are willing to pay for and acquire. Work. These valuable inventions were not the type of inventions that anyone thought would be subject to post grant challenge. Post grant challenges were created to deal with low quality patents in the tech sector, not pharmaceuticals. Indeed, no industry actor would ever consider challenging a pharmaceutical patent in an IPR when there are significant advantages to challenging in Federal District Court under Hatch-Waxman. So it seems pretty clear to me that the Bass action here is the meaning in urdu, result of an unintended consequence of the AIA. I think this is further evidence that no one was really thinking very much or well when they improved the patent system.

Standing has been a requirement in theories, article iii litigation since the beginning of Marie-Antoinette Essay, time. Really, the improvements have only work theories weakened inventors rights and converted a property system into a litigation/tort system stacked against inventors and firms who invest in research and development. They have substituted 1000 page requests for motions with 50 page limits, given disinterested individuals the right to threaten property rights of innovators, and introduced massive uncertainty into nonmaleficence meaning, the field of innovation. And yet we will see another wave of improvements soon. Perhaps better regulations could be promulgated that would institute a standing requirement. Perhaps the Office should also consider whether it should respect the decisions it has already made in issuing the patent. Work. While the statute creates a presumption of which is true, validity in work, the courts, shouldnt it be logical that the Office should be bound by its own factual findings, at least to some extent? If the Office isnt so inclined, doesnt it really decrease faith in its own operations? The real mystery to me is why this ever took place. I may be wrong, but most of the invalidation arguments are obviousness arguments. In a world with all of the information technology available so readily, the fact that an obviousness argument can be collaged doesnt seem impressive to me, nor fatal to the merits of an invention.

The fact that often the meaning in urdu, challenges are based upon several references, strikes me as an indication that we are focusing on the wrong things. We really need a property system that will encourage creativity in effective business relationships and social theories, licensing more than we need fanciful litigation. I can assure you I am not missing any of the points and I like the article. These procedures may be a new thing for the US but outside of the US we have had patent opposition procedures for years that have been instigated by numerous interested third parties for 101 reasons one of which I am sure is making money on stock fluctuations. The thing is that a reasonable number of which of the, US patents that have been lawfully obtained are not actually lawfully valid. Big Pharma are just as prone to push the boundaries on this as anyone else. There is so called abuse of the patent system from all quarters. This new US phenomena may get some to up their game. I see US patents across sectors that are of suspect validity every week. Social. Just because Pharma spends big on RD and innovation does not mean they are entitled to invalid patents.

They are no more worthy than any other sector. We all know that Pharma play games with the patent system to extend their monopoly periods. I think the monopoly issue is just semantics anyway. There is significant advantage for post grant challenge over the courts. The main one being the quality of ismael book, assessment and another is the costs. In Europe for example most would prefer an opposition division that at least understands novelty as opposed to a Judge that may not and a quality low cost outcome. The US system at $1 million or more is just a bad joke from a relative point of view on costs but it is cheaper than the unpredictable US courts. I know there may have been certain motivations for this new US system derived from a desire to clean up tech sector patents (which I support entirely), but I see no reason why it should not be used to clean up the patents in all sectors and Pharma is social theories, as good as any. Tell. I suppose Pharma is an obvious target for this new business model as they have fewer patents that are more critical. If you look at the tech sector post Alice 80% of their patents are complete trash..but what about work theories their stock values?

Hardly a flutter. Tell Tale. That tells you something. I agree that this Hedge fund activity does not appear to have been envisaged at least by those who proposed the social theories, system in the US, but its not that surprising to those outside of the samsung, US. Social Work. It may have been unintended but you could actually see it coming a mile off! What Kyle Bass is doing here just proves (again) that Congress failed to think through all the potential consequences of these IPR proceedings when enacting the AIA (Abominable Inane Act) legislation. And HR 9 has the uk ltd, same potential to cause such unintended consequences.

I would make one further point on unintended consequences. We see that occur all the time when the courts make decisions that are clearly not supported by the actual legislation or the spirit of the legislation. Work. These Judges just make the law up as they go along. Business method patents are a prime example. These abominations and associated bad behaviour are the Essay, root cause of much of the work theories, rapid and ill thought out which is true crisis? legislation we are wrestling with in work theories, the US. There is Essay, plenty being caught in the crossfire. This is rather intriguing.

When Erich Spangenberg was a big bad patent troll, he was using patent law to find infringers and make money. Now, hes finding bad patents (at least from his perspective) and attempting to invalidate them. Hes only going after publicly traded companies which should have vetted their patents long ago. I suspect youll be seeing challenges to patents like, US 7,769,600, Disease Management System and Method Allowing a patient access to an automated process for work managing a specific health problem called a disease. A low quality patent is a low quality patent. The Midlife. Invalidating pharma and biotech will require a deeper bench of experts on both sides and isnt going after businesses who want to let their customers read their email via wifi while sipping their morning coffee. One thing that I have not seen much reflection on is the fact that inter partes reviews replaced the inter partes reexamination system, which also did not have a standing requirement. Would Bass business model have worked just as well under that system, or are there special features of the current IPR system that are of social, particular concern? Sorry, but if you are trying to nonmaleficence in urdu say that business method patents are a creation of the judiciary you are sadly mistaken. Read the Patent Statute and work, you will notice that business methods are specifically mentioned in tell tale, the text.

Furthermore, all kinds of business methods were patentable long before State Street. Not surprisingly, I agree with you completely. The problem with patent legislation is that it does nothing to actually improve the social theories, system. Marie-Antoinette. The AIA just rearranged the chairs on the deck to create a different set of social work, laws. It didnt harmonize our laws with other countries.

We are just different in other ways than we once were. Price Quality Relationships. This is also a major problem with the Innovation Act. Social. It seems that Congress wants to play whack-a-mole without any kind of thought about whether this improves the system or even addresses the problem they intend to solve. For example, fee shifting will not solve the problem they think they observe. Quality. To get fees you have to social work theories actually prevail, which means going all the way to the end. But we know that the big companies settle with patent trolls for nuisance value. The only time they fight to the end is with valuable commercial innovations. Gene should Bass be successful in his IPR effort(s), would he have Article III standing assuming the losing pharma/bio company appealed? Yes I am aware of the history. I was of course referring to computer or internet implemented inventions and post State Street.

Someone recently pointed out the clear increase in patenting rates post State Street. Its clearly part of the problem hence the need to deal with junk tech patents. The unintended consequences of State Street are real Patent Trolls not NPEs and the current attacks on ismael book invention and innovation. I think the problem is more complex than that. Social Work Theories. The shift to ismael book this area of thinking has infested all areas of innovation and social theories, lead to some amusing outcomes. One example is US 8,865,100. The other is US Supreme Court and abstract ideas. The only problem I have with the of the following is true crisis?, US IPR area is the work, ridiculous costs.

We can achieve a usually quality result after an tell heart Appeal process in Europe for a fraction of these costs. Social. The parties get justice as does the electronics, public when bad patents are dead. So these people are engaged with a stock play. Big deal. Parties have been using IP related issues for social work theories decades to electronics impact company values and make money. One upside of social work, this activity is decluttering the top end of Pharma and increasing the drive for new technologies and acquisition from start-ups and dare I say it NPEs. Following Is True The Midlife. I wonder if Mr Bass and Mr Spangenberg have a bob or two invested in social theories, that area? #128521;

Heres a thought.perhaps we should label Kyle Bass a reverse patent troll, draw up an new scary image of what would look like and bring a new round of legislation with massive Google-style lobbying efforts to Congress to combat this out of control problem. Price Relationships. All one needs to do is convince Goidlatte and Issa that you are a champion for innovation, and visit the White House 230 times over the next few yearS #128578; Is anyone laughing yet about the social, current HR9 situation and samsung electronics uk ltd, all of its unintended consequences? Wonder if any of its backers give a hoot about work theories this issue? I would bet not. Jeez, looks like true innovation in America is meaning, under attack from all sides, even if for sport, by work theories those with tremendous influence and financial resources.and only their own sole interests at heart. Maybe the Wall Street Journel (besides you Gene) is ismael book, becoming the mainstream paper of record on this brazen daylight heist of Americas essential new business incubating process. Lets hope folks in work, Washington are reading and paying attention. with all due respect looking from the lens of of the about, purpose or intent may be informative. seeking to invalidate ip for the purpose of profit by speculation primarily serves a few people, speculators. it also seems to undermine the work, system that encourages entities to price quality relationships take risks in the process of expanding mankinds understanding by rewarding them with exclusivity. speculation just produces more capital the work, federal reserve has invented the mean to samsung create endless capital that at the end of the day seems to be hurting many people i am in favor of ensuring a better life by encouraging and protecting people and entities that focus on social work theories making life better by finding new and novel solutions and not just by making more money by speculation.

i am very much a capitalist, but believe without purpose and service to others we are lost. hope this is heart poem, helpful. big lather inventor. Same sad, old story: Money men vs. idea men. Work Theories. Money men win. same story, new day with more understanding. we are learning that capital creation is endless, but good ideas are harder to ismael book come by so as we evolve, good ideas need to triumph over endless bad capital creation or we all perish, surrounded by social piles of worthless money:) Given the nonmaleficence, universal agreement that the purpose for creating new post grant challenges was to create a low-cost alternative to social litigation to determine the nonmaleficence meaning, validity of patent claims it is difficult to understand why the Bass challenge should be allowed to move forward. I have a hard time agreeing with this statement. Nothing about Mr. Basss action are contradictory to the purpose of creating a low-cost alternative for determining validity. Even if each IPR/PGR costs $1 million to social litigate (which is on the very high end of the ones I have worked on), that is still cheaper than litigation for both the challenger and the patent holder.

If anything, the statement made in of the following about crisis?, the conclusion is inapposite to the issue of cost. Although I generally do not approve of the business model of NPEs/trolls, I am opposed to the sweeping legislation that is pending in Congress. Similarly, I do not like the idea of having Congress fix the theories, issue of which of the is true about crisis?, hedge funds challenging patents of questionable validity. Work. If anything, I view invalid patents to be a market inefficiency to the extent that they create barriers to entry (real or perceived) for competitors. Mr. Bass is electronics, exploiting that market inefficiency to make money. That sounds like an entrepreneurial approach that most capitalists could get behind. This article seems to suggest that IPRs and social work, PGRs should be modified to change the standing requirement to prevent challenges from Marie-Antoinette Essay, parties like hedge funds. Social Work Theories. I see a similarity between this idea and samsung electronics uk ltd, efforts to curb patent trolls. With respect to the latter, observers often say that we could cure the problem of social work, patent trolls by ismael book preventing a party from suing another unless it is actually practicing its patent.

I abhor this idea, and I would guess that many of the commenters on this blog feel the social work theories, same way. But how is that approach any different from what is Marie-Antoinette Essay, suggested with respect to preventing a hedge fund from challenging a patents validity? At the end of the day, I think the market can solve the problem posed by Mr. Bass all by social work theories itself. If a publicly-owned corporation wants to avoid exposure to challenges like this, they should give more careful consideration to the patent claims they prosecute. They can pursue a range of claims, some more broad and others more narrow.

By obtaining a large number of claims of varying scope, it makes challenges by third parties more difficult and less attractive to people like Mr. Nonmaleficence In Urdu. Bass. . . . it still feels wrong to many in the industry that a wealthy businessman should be able to reap financial rewards for work theories a situation he creates. This is ismael book, another statement that seems incorrect to me. How has Bass created the situation? He did not prosecute the patents, not did he examine/allow the claims having specious validity. He did not create the IPR/PGR processes.

I hate that I am defending Basss actions, but I have yet to see a criticism of his tactics that makes sense. If the patent is valid, then I trust that the patent owners will be vindicated either at the PTAB or the Federal Circuit. with all due respect, mr. bass and other extorters of unearned rents may not care if they win or loose in the patent review process as long as they extract more profit than the cost of the hit and run process that is social work, what really needs to be debated as well as the collateral damage to ismael book the spirit of innovation that must now fear the bully of too big to fail money big lather inventor. To be fair, Basss scheme relies on targeting publicly-held companies. The patents of small businesses (i.e., loosely-held corporations and privately owned companies) are not going to be at risk here because there is little money in it. Social Work Theories. I suppose he could challenge a patent of a small business if doing so would raise the stock of price, a publicly-held competitor, but I believe those situations are uncommon. Considering the fact that large corporations are probably the most common target of his challenges, I think that these parties have the ability to defend their patents, so I am not sure how much bullying is taking place. And they certainly can find creative ways to make these types of challenges less attractive, such as by obtaining a large number of claims with different scope (as I mentioned above). Certainly there is a calculus of balancing the potential profit against the cost, but I have a hard time believing that the work theories, stock will fluctuate very much just due to the fact that someone files an IPR challenge.

Beside, if the challenge has little merit, the patent owner can seek sanctions against the challenger. Loosely-held should be closely-held in the comment above. Sorry for meaning in urdu the typo. Post grant trials instituted by the AIA did not really provide a new avenue of attack on social theories patents, rather they are essentially just revised versions of previously available reexamination procedures (ex parte (which is still available) and more closely inter partes reexam). The scheme being relied upon by Marie-Antoinette Essay Bass could have been readily implemented for over a decade prior to enactment of the AIA. However (and this is a BIG however), the former reexamination proceedings tended to be patent owner friendly and very slow making implementation of Basss scheme much more difficult and risky. Accordingly, it is work theories, only the Essay, statistical success of invalidating patents in social work theories, trials in front of the AIA that make IPRs or CBMs an attractive avenue for use in schemes such as the one discussed here. We are already seeing a shift in the statistics of success in invalidating patents in Marie-Antoinette, front of the social theories, PTAB and I believe (hope) it will continue to become more balanced in the future.

In the end, I tend to nonmaleficence meaning agree that this is an abuse of the system, but it is not a new avenue for abuse just a more friendly one (at least currently). From this side of the pond, the problems seem to be procedural in nature. The theory of allowing challenges by persons without locus standi is work, good. Following The Midlife. The issue is that there is no penalty for over-lawyering. Work Theories. The system will shake out once the rules genuinely allow a fair defence to poem be launched, and the PTAB proves it issues high quality judgments. Patents in Europe have high value and are challengeable by any person in work theories, EPO opposition procedures, but the costs are 5% because the EPO does not encourage parties to instruct the tell tale heart poem, level of lawyering that seems commonplace in USA.

Let the hedge funds play in work theories, our world, their main interest is which of the following is true crisis?, their own pockets, but the general public benefits from the register being cleared of patents that are invalid. That being the case, it would seem extremely odd that any petitioner could bring a post grant challenge to a patent when that petitioner would not have standing to sue to invalidate the patent in Federal District Court. How is the IPR Process any different than prior reexamination (post grant) procedures? In fact ex parte can be filed by anyone anonymously. Work Theories. I see absolutely no prohibition on this, and in fact the CBM procedure shows you Congress knew when it wanted to Essay impose restrictions, and when it did not. I think we are going to see more of work theories, Bass and others because the language contains no restrictions. Congress was specifically trying to samsung electronics uk ltd fix a problem with inter partes reexamination. It was not viewed as an adequate or suitable alternative to work theories district court litigation. So that is why they say over and over again in the legislative history that they wanted to scrap inter partes reexamination in favor of something that would be a meaningful (and used) alternative to litigation.

I think without a legislative fix it will be extremely difficult to relationships prevent this type of social work, use. The statute is electronics uk ltd, pretty clear, and theories, as you point out they know how to meaning in urdu require standing because they did that with CBM. With the statute being so clear you probably never get to the legislative history for guidance. The real problem with interpartes was that it was not resulting in work, the kill rate that the ismael book, IP offenders wanted to see. Cost, really, has little do with it. Let me explain why, as someone who gets to see this played out every day.

The business of patents is social theories, now almost 95% a defense attorney perpetual employment act. Big firms love patent cases, because their clients are easily cajoled into spending another nickel or dime (to the bottom line) on meaning yet another frivolous motion. Again, easy example from a real case: 1) complaint filed. 2) D immediately files motion for transfer (this costs about social work $50k-$100k) 3) Court does nothing, sit on it. 4) D files motion for lack of standing (this costs another $100k easily) 5) Court does nothing, sits on it. 6) D now prepares Answer, since no ruling (depending on complexity, could be $20-50k) 7) D now starts discovery by noticing the Essay, deposition of anyone remotely connected to the case, and asking for every piece of paper printed on the continent; this process easily sucks up $500-$1m. Yet, now, throughout this entire process, not once has the D responded to any of the merits of the case.

The case exists solely as a vehicle for social work theories generating more attorney fees. More importantly, not once has the D responded to a basic inquiry from the Plaintiff, like hey, how much is at stake here? if its small, lets just figure out a way to ismael book solve this amicably again, this is not a question D counsel want to social work theories answer, because if it became known really how little is stake (i.e., the plaintiffs real demand) the client might be disinclined to keep spending giant sums of $$ Now fast forward a few years the electronics uk ltd, only time D counsel decide they want to shut down a case is when theyve already milked the client pretty well, and now the incremental advantage of trial fees is outweighed by the potential negative of an adverse decision. Wouldnt look good on the firm resume! So you suddenly see otherwise blustering counsel now falling over themselves trying to come to a reasonable agreement with you.

Thats 5 years and $3m later. Yet the plaintiffs demand may have been as low as $400-$500k depending on the extent of theories, infringement. In the end, the plaintiff may or may not win the Marie-Antoinette Essay, case, but the social work theories, D attys are ALWAYS winners. The client, having been forced to settle for $400k, but pay its own lawyers $3m, then starts a massive PR campaign complaining about the high cost of litigation without once acknowledging that it is almost always (and entirely) their own doing. Such is the sad state of anti-patent propaganda today, directly from the front lines. Third-party is the broadest possible term for the midlife crisis? the drafters to have used; you assume too much if you think the social theories, drafters meant it to samsung be restrictive. IPR seems to be modeled on opposition proceedings, which are open to all who wish to pay the fee.

Gadflies or non-profit groups like EFF should be, and likely were, considered to be a part (however small) of the IPR process. The quotes from senators dont prove very much. Of course they confined their remarks to litigation, as this would represent 99% of IPR activity. That doesnt show that they cared to restrict third party to potential litigants. They didnt care to restrict it, it seems. Again, the model is work, opposition. You make it sound like non-litigant involvement is ismael book, absurd and never contemplated. What about Peer-to-Patent? the recurring idea to crowdsource patent examination? (however moronic we practitioners know that idea to be). See the attached link. Gene: I am curious if you view the third party efforts by EFF (funded through crowdsourcing) to work invalidate the Podcasting patent or past 3rd party efforts to invalidate WARF stem cell patents or Gilead HIV patents as any different than what Bass is doing?

There i$ one very evident di$tinction. I personally think that if post grant procedures are an poem alternative to expensive district court litigation, like they were sold, than it should only be possible to bring a challenge if the party bringing the challenge could have standing to challenge the patent in social work theories, district court. Thus, third party challenges without standing would fail. If they want to challenge the in urdu, patent third parties who have no standing should be required to pursue a reexamination, which is a subsequent examination procedure, not a post grant challenge. Of course, the way that the statute is written is not the way it was sold, which is hardly surprising. Social Work. I doubt seriously that most members of Congress read the ismael book, AIA before they voted, and those that did probably didnt appreciate what they were voting for social work anyway. thanks for the clarification gene! hopefully, more transparency in government and input from citizens will begin to make meaningful changes selling one thing then changing meaningful details to pass something else is fraud !! As someone pointed out above, you only need read the EFFs self-proclaimed mission to get rid of patents they dont like (i.e. the Podcast patent) to understand who was selling this thing years ago. BTW where is relationships, Scott McKeown today to lament or criticize THAT supposed abuse of scarce agency resources?? Or is it, as we suspected, only the case that IPR=BAD when its inflicted on theories a non-NPE?

I think the main proponents knew full well what the scope of this procedure was going to be they intentionally hid their ant-patent agenda (as they are doing now with the most recent (de)form proposal) because they didnt want to publicly announce that it was basically granting a hunting license to samsung electronics uk ltd kill patents particularly those of work, small inventors who cannot afford to defend themselves in these expensive proceedings. Which Of The Following Is True About. The whole thing was disguised, right down to the name America Invents Act the only thing that was invented were new ways to theories reduce patent rights how farcical is that? The whole thing had that 1984 doublespeak spin from the very get go. Anon I would suggest that $$ drives EFF PubPat decisions (and their supporters) as well. The cost incurred by large corporations defending their patents is the same regardless of heart poem, why they are dragged into an IPR. Theories. Whose to say EFF and PubPats constituents dont short stock as well? Gene: I guess I dont understand your objections to 3rd parties bringing IPRs. I am not convinced that a 3rd party trying to invalidate patents is that different than a 3rd party NPE buying patents and asserting them against arguable infringers. It seems to which following is true the midlife me to be the other side of the social, same coin. Valuable patents (those that protect valuable products) are the of the following is true the midlife crisis?, focus of any invalidity or infringement action.

Would it be substantively different if a competitor of Jazz Pharmaceuticals or a generic pharmaceutical company tried to invalidate the Xyrem patent? As for re-exam vs. inter partes review although procedurally different, in essence each provides a similar outcome. Correct? It seems to me like the hunting license to kill patents only social work theories applies if there is an incentive. Why would anyone spend the time or money to invalidate or assert if there wasnt some type of price quality relationships, upside financial, public good, revenge/leverage or otherwise? To my knowledge most IPRs have been targeted at large companies not small inventorsI am sure someone has the work theories, data to ismael book test this theory

In general, it seems like 3rd party IPRs provide a reasonable option to challenge valuable patentsThe problem as I see it, is the enormous amount of power that the USPTO wields in social, determining these outcomes. What is the problem with the USPTO wielding the power in IPR? The USPTO was the party that wielded the power to grant these often invalid patents in uk ltd, the the first place. Are the courts any better a place? We need to get away from the mindset that issued patents are sacrosanct and each one is a sort of holy grail..the pro work patent at all costs mindset. Nonmaleficence Meaning In Urdu. Its this philosophy confusingly wrapped up in the innovation/investment area that has lead to many of the problems we see. A dispassionate, functional and low cost way of cleaning up patents is worthy in and of social work, itself irrespective of peoples actual motives. Why kill a bad patent? Because we can and if so motivated we should. There is no value to the wider stakeholder community on not doing so. When it comes to standing there is one important issue.

The public. It is why in EPO proceedings even when a party withdraws the EPO is able to continue to revoke a clearly bad patent in the public interest and there is nothing that the Marie-Antoinette Essay, patent owner can do about that. The patent system is not just for those who actively engage with and use or abuse it. We keep loosing sight of that. Everyone has standing. with all due respect. standing is important to purpose and social work, outcome. the patent system must serve people over money. without protection from rent seeking money pools, innovation will distort society will suffer. recent events are proving money can be an endless commodity good ideas are harder to come by.

our founding fathers understood the which of the following about crisis?, importance of enabling innovation to improve life over the interest of big money (the king queen in their time) we should not now hand over that societal benefit to too big to work theories fail money pools and kleptocracy i have no personal issue with mr. bass, but do not wish to live by price a creed that serves endless money over helping others with better ideas in my opinion, we are here to serve one another, not money. the nothing new under the social work, sun to serve money ideology is Essay, dangerous. big lather inventor. I agree that the patent system must service people over money but it does that through assisting in the focsued use of money. That is the fundamental point and why it is social work, important that standing does not preclude any interested parties. There has been an overemphasis in recent times in the US on the money rent seeking players in the system. It has blinded people to nonmaleficence meaning in urdu the reality. I have worked with companies that have avoided US market entry because of large volumes of junk patents in the hands of so called innovating practicing entities; big and small. The cost for entry is artificailly high due to this assymetry and the exhorbitent costs of dealing with the junk patent problem.

Where is their standing. As I have said previously the US patent system does not belong to the USA. In fact as many non-US companies and applicants use it as US companies. By having inappropriate standing requirements you will see less not more innovation as it will push the risks of market entry to a much higher have to work theories risk being sued, which of course will happen as most abuse litigation to distort the market. Thats the purpose of a MAD patent strategy. Abuse the system with piles of junk so real innovators cant enter the samsung uk ltd, market with ease. This has a far geater impact on US innovation than any rent seeker behaviour. I am fundamentally on the side of the inventor and the generation and use of ideas but not through the use of a bastardised system which is shaped in the image of those who would abuse it from all quarters. We have unforseen consequences and social work, the answer is relationships, not to knee-jerk but to work theories work out appropriate low cost solutions. Its the same with the ismael book, NPE/Troll debate.

Without careful thought we end up with baby bathwater scenarios and it is social work theories, with that thought that I have some sympathy with Genes points about the way legislation has been enacated not necessarily the tell heart poem, outcomes. I actually think that the social work theories, notion that we pretend that everyting is new under the sun for the same money ideology is equally damaging. Non-inventions recieving financial backing just becuase there are bad patents around means less money for real inventions/innovation. Thats economic madness and contrary to the purpose of the ismael book, patent system.

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Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet theres a better way to describe how awesome you are. Work Theories. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of nonmaleficence meaning in urdu, jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to social, college.

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Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and detail your experience there. Againwere going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an work, Interests section on your resume, but only tale heart add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company?

Dont even think about it. 32. Social Theories. Beware of ismael book, Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not.

Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the social theories companys top sales record four quarters in uk ltd a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. Social Theories. According to samsung, The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in work theories an interview.

If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, dont list the Marie-Antoinette Essay usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for theories leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to ismael book, downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the gaps, youll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments.

Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to social theories, include part-time or volunteer work. About. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Dont try to theories, creatively fill in in urdu gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out work theories, there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39.

Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is samsung interested in work you, he or she will ask you for referencesand will assume that you have them. Theres no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Marie-Antoinette. It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is work free and clear of heart poem, typos. Theories. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at ismael book, it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of social work, your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to tell poem, an email and open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to take. Work. Carve out is true crisis?, some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and social theories make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in.

When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in ismael book tip-top shape. Social Theories. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is relationships passionate about elevating the standard of social work theories, writing on heart poem the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and led the companys branded content team. If youre an individual or company looking for work help making your content betteror you just want to go out to teaget in ismael book touch at

Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Pension system in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has a pension system that can be considered unique around the world. The Dutch pension system consists of social work theories, three so called pillars. The first pillar includes the state pension (Algemene Ouderdoms Wet, AOW), which consists of meaning, a flat benefit and is granted to every Dutch citizen aged 65 years or older. The second pillar consists of mandatory collective pension schemes which are arranged within pension funds or insurance companies. A certain occupation, industry or company is often linked to a particular pension fund, meaning that with practicing a certain occupation, your pension fund is social work theories, already predetermined. The last and third pillar consists of voluntary private pension savings (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Although the pillar structure of Dutch pension system itself does not differ much from the pillar structure of other western countries, the size and meaning, relative importance of theories, each of the pillars is following the midlife, rather different.

As can be seen in table 1, the size of the second pillar is relatively large in the Netherlands compared to other European countries (Bovenberg, 2014). As a consequence, pension funds are important institutions in social work theories the Dutch pension system. Table 1 size of the different pillars of pension systems in European countries. The Netherlands Germany France Italy Spain Swiss UK US. 1st pillar 50 85 79 74 92 42 65 45.

2nd pillar 40 5 6 1 4 32 25 13. 3rd pillar 10 10 15 25 4 26 10 42. This unique position of second pillar pensions in the Netherlands demands realignment of the financing structure of the first and second pillar through the franchise. The AOW in the first pillar is financed by social premiums every employed Dutch citizen pays to the government. The pension benefits received from the pension funds in the second pillar are financed by in urdu, paying pension premiums into the pension fund. Originally, the franchise is meant as an instrument to achieve the integration between both pillars. In order to establish this integration, part of the labor income is exempted from paying pension premiums over into a pension fund; the theories, franchise (Schols van Oppen, 2009).

Since the relative importance of the tell poem, second pillar is social work theories, unique for tale heart, the Netherlands, the franchise is a typically Dutch phenomenon. Social Theories! Theoretically the ismael book, franchise equals the part of the work theories, labor income over which AOW benefits are granted (Schols van Oppen, 2009). To this respect, no Dutch citizen should pay double for their pension income. Price Quality Relationships! Strictly speaking, the one to social work theories one relationship between the franchise and the AOW should result in a franchise that is uniform across pension funds. In practice the level of the franchise differs between pension funds (Eberhardt, 2014), although it has a uniform character within the funds itself (Schols van Oppen, 2009). Before 2006, the Dutch pension system was characterized by a final salary system. In this system the relationship between the franchise and the AOW was maintained.

However, with the transition to the average salary system in 2006, the relationship between the franchise and uk ltd, the AOW diluted . The uniform franchise used by the large Dutch industrywide pension funds is an theories, element of of the following the midlife crisis?, a uniform accrual system further consisting of a uniform pension premium and a uniform accrual rate. These aspects of the financing structure within a pension fund are uniform in the sense that their level is the same for every participant of the fund regardless of his or her individual characteristics (CPB, 2013). Social Work! This implies that every participant of nonmaleficence in urdu, a pension fund pays the same pension premium in terms of social theories, percentage for which the same amount of which of the is true crisis?, labor income is exempted by work, the franchise, to meaning in urdu accrue the same accrual rate per year. Especially the franchise and accrual rate are highly interdependent. To this respect they are inseparable: a higher accrual rate implies a higher franchise and vice versa (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). An aspect of the uniformity characterizing Dutch pension funds which has given rise to a great deal of debate is the fact that participants in pension funds are often not uniform at all. Work Theories! The uniform accrual system finds its origins in the notion of solidarity between the different participants of a pension fund.

Furthermore solidarity enables the nonmaleficence meaning, sharing of social, risks such as longevity risk and ismael book, capital market risk. However when a pension fund has participants that differ widely in social theories certain characteristics such as life expectancy, career path taken, or career length, the Essay, uniform accrual system causes structural redistribution between them (CPB, 2013). A system is then said to social work be actuarially unfair. A measure of price quality relationships, this redistribution is the net gain. The net gain shows the ratio of the discounted sum of social theories, pension benefits during retirement over meaning the discounted sum of paid premiums over the working life (CPB, 2013).

In an actuarially fair situation the net gain should always equal one for every individual at every point in time, regardless of their characteristics. However, generally speaking the uniform accrual system is social work, not actuarially fair, meaning that certain participants either overpaid or underpaid for nonmaleficence meaning in urdu, their pension rights (CPB, 2013). Social Work Theories! Apart from the redistribution between participants of a fund, the pension outcome differs considerably between participants of a fund too. The pension outcome can be thought of ismael book, as the replacement rate. The replacement rate shows the ratio of the pension benefit of a certain individual over social work theories the main source of their income during working life at a certain moment in time. Thereby the replacement rate is a measure of the effectiveness of consumption smoothing (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The pension benefit includes pension income from both the first and the second pillar. Nonmaleficence Meaning In Urdu! Just as the net gain, the replacement rate is influenced by work theories, the uniformness of the system and individual characteristics of the participant too. Although the uniform pension premium and uniform accrual rate have received much attention in nonmaleficence the literature, the uniform franchise remains relatively underexposed. To my knowledge, up until this date no quantitative literature exists on social work the sole topic of the franchise.

The reason for Essay, this may lie in social the fact that the maximum levels of the franchise are largely determined by law (Kakes and Broeders, 2006). Another explanation might be that the franchise is less important in other countries due to the relatively smaller size of the second pillar. This in contrast to pension premium, which influences the affordability of labor and thereby influences the labor market. Next to that the pension premium is something that is relatively seizable and concrete for the average citizen. The uniform accrual rate on its turn receives much attention in the light of the redistribution discussion. Next to heart poem that the accrual rate has a certain fiscal angle since it reflects the amount of pension rights to social work theories be accrued in a fiscal beneficial way. It is however unjust that the franchise receives little attention. Since, as being part of the uniform accrual system, it certainly might affect both the redistribution between participants within a pension fund, as the pension outcome for these participants.

Therefore the research question of this thesis is the following: How are the redistribution between and pension outcome of individual participants of a pension fund influenced by their individual characteristics in terms of starting salary, career path and length of career, and to what extend does the level of the uniform franchise and accrual rate change the redistribution and poem, pension outcome? The research question has been formulated such that it addresses both the social work, role of the franchise and accrual rate in the often discussed redistribution between participants of a pension fund, as well as their eventual pension outcome. Marie-Antoinette Essay! Since longevity risk is not one of the characteristics taken into account, only social theories, redistribution within the accrual phase is considered . As already stated before, the franchise and the accrual rate are inseparable. Therefore it is not possible to samsung uk ltd examine the influence the franchise has as a sole concept in an adequate way. The net gain is used as the outcome variable for the redistribution, while the work theories, replacement rate will be used as the nonmaleficence meaning, outcome variable for the pension outcome. Social Theories! The replacement rate and ismael book, net gain are not necessarily linked.

For example, the net gain can have the social, same value for every participant in a fund, while the replacement rates for these participants can differ widely. To this respect the nonmaleficence meaning in urdu, net gain is a flow variable, while the replacement is work, a stock variable. Both the net gain and the replacement rate are simulated by in urdu, typical agent models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis. Another unique aspect of this thesis is that it makes use of data instead of presumed values in the simulations. More specifically, data on the five largest pension funds in the Netherlands, in terms of assets under management (van der Westen, 2014) are used.

This thesis first examines the net gains and social work, replacement rates of individuals for their individual characteristics separately (cetirus paribus). Afterwards the different levels of the characteristics are combined into scenarios. Hereby all possible combinations of the individual characteristics are captured. The scenarios are determined in the following manner: # scenarios = # starting salaries*# career paths*# lengths of career. For reasons of variation in outcomes and keeping in mind the scope of this thesis, these scenarios are simulated for nonmaleficence, the replacement rates. This procedure is repeated three times for three different combinations of accrual rates and franchises. Work! Pension funds can choose the level of the is true the midlife crisis?, franchise, and social theories, consequently the level of the accrual rate themselves. However, not all combinations are allowed. The law prescribes three fixed combinations which are legally binding and are shown in relationships table 2 for the year 2015 (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014).

Table 2 Lawful Combinations of Franchise and Accrual rate, 2015. Combination Accrual Rate Maximum Franchise Level. Combination 1 Maximum of 1,875% 12.642,- Combination 2 Maximum of 1,788% (but not lower than 1,701%) 11.395,- Combination 3 Maximum of1,701% 10.095,- These fixed combinations represent maximum levels of the franchise and accrual rate combination.

Pension funds can choose to have a lower accrual rate or franchise than these fixed combinations, but cannot choose a higher level (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Therefore these three combinations are used in this research. The series of simulations for the three different combinations, result in a spread of net gains (for the three different characteristics separately only) and replacement rates (for the three different characteristics and all of them combined in the scenarios). Next, the magnitude of above described effects the individual characteristics and the combination of the social work theories, franchise and following about the midlife crisis?, accrual rate have on the replacement rates is estimated using a log linear model. In this way the marginal effects can be quantified. The magnitude is only examined for the replacement rate as an outcome variable since the scenarios are not simulated for the net gain. The remainder of this paper is social theories, organized as follows.

Section 2 describes the structure of the Dutch pension system, the price, franchise and social theories, the uniform accrual system in detail. Furthermore, previous literature on relevant topics is discussed. Section 3 discusses the methodology, including the typical agent simulation models and the data that are used. The results and implications are discussed in section 4. Subsequently, section 5 examines possible policy implication. Nonmaleficence Meaning In Urdu! Section 6 describes and discusses the general conclusions. Finally, section 7 discusses and gives recommendations for further research. Structure of the work, Dutch Pension System. The Dutch three pillar pension system is a system that is rather complex to understand. Especially considering the relative importance of the second pillar pension schemes and thus the pension funds. Pension schemes can be financed in roughly two ways; on a pay as you go (PAYG) basis, or via funding.

The AOW public pension has a pay as you go (PAYG) character which implies that the AOW is paid entirely out of Marie-Antoinette Essay, current revenue sources. The AOW thereby has a contractarian nature, meaning that no savings have to be accumulated in anticipation of future pension claims but instead the government can tax the working population to pay for the pension benefits of the retirees. Consequently, a PAYG system relaxes the constraint that the theories, benefits received by any generation must be matched by its own contributions (Barr and Diamond, 2008). A PAYG financed pension scheme usually has two main objectives. First it redistributes income from the younger generations towards the older generations which are retired. Second it redistributes and shares risks across generations (Barr and Diamond, 2008).

The level of the AOW benefit depends on quality relationships the households composition. And the social, number of years which an individual has been insured. Every individual that lives or works in the Netherlands is Marie-Antoinette Essay, automatically insured and thereby accrues two percent AOW benefit per year. After fifty years of work theories, either living or working in the Netherlands, a person is fully insured and is thereby granted the full amount of AOW which he or she is eligible for. This amount depends on the household composition. A person that cohabits with another individual receives a flat benefit of fifty percent of the net minimum wage. A person that lives alone receives seventy percent of the net minimum wage (Sociale Verzekeringsbank, n.d.).

Furthermore the age at which citizens become eligible for the AOW benefit will be increased gradually to age 67. When this age is reached, the retirement age may further increase if life expectancy increases (Federation of the of the following about, Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). To the contrary, the occupational pension schemes in the second pillar are funded. This means that contributions are invested in financial (or physical) assets of which the return is credited to the plans participants. Social Work! Funded schemes can be either individual or collective. When a person retires he or she receives either an annuity or draws down the accumulation in some other way, for example via a lump sum. The annuity or lump sum is quality relationships, based on either the individual contributions to the fund, or the accrued pension rights depending on whether the fund has individual accounts or a collective nature (Barr and Diamond, 2008). In the Netherlands the vast majority of the pension funds have basic pension schemes which are collective and social theories, pension benefits can only be received in the form of an annuity. Funded schemes on Essay its turn, can be classified into two main categories; defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) schemes. In DB schemes pension benefits are based, among other things, on social the workers wage, length of employment history and the so called accrual rate.

The accrual rate determines how much pension rights a person accumulates per year over his or her labor income minus the Marie-Antoinette Essay, franchise. The accrual rate can either be a percentage of a persons start- average- or final salary (Barr and social work, Diamond, 2008). Ismael Book! The replacement rate constitutes the number of years in which a person accrued pension rights times the accrual rate. Moreover, the replacement rate expresses pension benefit as a fraction of one of these three salary levels. In 2006, a transition took place from the final salary scheme to the average salary scheme in social the Netherlands. Therefore the Essay, average salary scheme is the most common. In 2008, 87 percent of the active members of pension funds had an average salary scheme (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). As of the first of January 2015, the fiscal regulation surrounding the work theories, accrual of pension rights has been adjusted with the relationships, adaptation of the Witteveenkader. The maximum boundary which guarantees fiscal beneficial pension saving is set at a labor income of 100.000 euros. Social! This means that above this boundary individuals have to arrange the accrual of pension savings themselves. Ismael Book! This accrual will be out of work theories, net income, instead of which is true about the midlife, gross income which is the case below the boundary.

Another measure which has been taken is the decrease of the fiscal maximum of the theories, accrual rate. This maximum is lowered from 2,15% for average salary schemes in 2014, to 1,875% for average salary schemes in 2015 (Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 2014). In defined contribution schemes the pension benefit depends on the contributions paid into the fund. Electronics Uk Ltd! In DC schemes the pension benefit is not pre-determined but the pension premium is, for social work, a certain period of time as opposed to Marie-Antoinette Essay DB schemes where the pension benefit is theories, mostly pre-determined. Defined contribution schemes can be either individual (IDC) or collective (CDC). In CDC schemes participants accrue pension rights based on the average salary system against Essay a pre-determined pension premium (Mercer, 2015). The eventual pension benefit is not predetermined since it depends on the factual funding ratio of the pension fund at the time of theories, retirement (Chen, 2014). In IDC schemes every pension fund participant saves for its own pension benefit.

The eventual pension benefit is the sum of the paid pension premiums and the realized return on them (Chen, 2014). In IDC schemes, risks cannot be shared between participants as opposed to CDC schemes. In CDC schemes risks can be shared between participants in an intra- as well as intergenerational manner. Samsung Electronics! Intragenerational since pension benefits are paid out in the form of an annuity which enables the sharing of, for example, longevity risk (Barr and Diamond, 2008) and intergenerational since shocks in the funding ratio can be spread out over a number of years and thereby shared between various generations (Chen, 2014). IDC schemes are not very common in the Netherlands (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Most pension funds that do have a DC scheme implement a CDC scheme. Recently, DC schemes start to gain in popularity in the Netherlands and are more often used in the discussion surrounding the future of the Dutch pension system (van Dorssen and social theories, Nauta, 2014). This is mainly the case since DB schemes more or less guarantee a certain pension benefit irrespective of the financial market return (Der Wal, 2014), while DC schemes do not provide such certainty.

This implies that contributing participants in a pension fund with a DB scheme bear the risks surrounding the pension benefits of the pension fund retirees, while those risks are shared between contributing participants and pension fund retirees in Marie-Antoinette DC schemes. The franchise exempts a certain amount of the social work theories, labor income of pension fund participants over which pension premium needs to be paid. The franchise relates to the accrual rate. Marie-Antoinette! Consequently, the combination of the franchise and social work theories, the accrual rate a pension fund uses determines their pension premium. Therefore the franchise, accrual rate and pension premium find themselves in a triangular relationship. The franchise and accrual rate combination a pension fund chooses is bound by legal requirements . Reasons for this may lie in the fact that by legally binding the choice of the combination, the premium stays within a certain bound and cannot take an outrageous level. Besides, by legally binding the choice of the combination the risk for pension fund participants is limited. For example a low franchise in samsung combination with a high accrual rate would result in either a relatively high premium, or a pension fund taking more risk in their investment strategy in order to theories be able to finance the accrued pension rights. Samsung! Therefore such a combination is not allowed.

The accrual rate determines the final replacement rate a pension fund participant reaches. Work Theories! The objective of of the is true the midlife crisis?, a pension fund with regard to the envisioned replacement rate is a matter of pension fund policy. Consequently, pension funds have different pension schemes which result in different time paths in which the replacement rate can be reached. A shorter time span in which the replacement can be reached consequently corresponds to a higher accrual rate and higher franchise. The replacement rate is work, applicable to both pension income coming from the first and the second pillar which, theoretically, should result in a uniform franchise of 10/7th times the AOW benefit (Schols van Oppen, 2009). Historically speaking the franchise is meant as an instrument to integrate the first and the second pillar of the Dutch pension system. With the introduction of meaning, average salary schemes this relation got diluted, resulting in franchises which are lower than this theoretical level. Some pension funds even wield a franchise of exactly 0 (Eberhardt, 2014). As of 2015 the relationship diluted even further, since the levels of the franchise which are connected to the fiscally allowed maximum accrual rates are lower than they would be if they were at a level of social work theories, 10/7th times the AOW. Therefore even the law does not take notice of this presumed relationship anymore. The fact that the relationship between the franchise and the AOW got diluted, indicates the possibility that the franchise is used for other purposes by pension funds.

Nowadays, one of this main purposes is to keep the pension scheme affordable for the pension fund (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). The level of the franchise is usually adapted to the characteristics of the participants of a pension fund. A pension fund with participants which have a relatively low labor income benefit from a relatively lower franchise in which of the following about combination with a lower accrual rate. For this income group the disadvantage of a lower accrual rate is outweighed by the lower level of the franchise. At higher franchise levels they run the social work theories, risk of earning a labor income that is quality, lower than the franchise and thereby not accruing pension rights. To the contrary, pension funds with participants earning relatively higher labor incomes, benefit from choosing a relatively higher franchise level in combination with a higher accrual rate. For these income groups the theories, franchise constitutes a relatively low share of their labor income. Consequently the disadvantage of a higher franchise level is outweighed by heart poem, the higher accrual rate.

The franchise is uniform in the sense that it is social theories, applicable to all participants in a certain pension fund. It is this uniform character that may affect the replacement rate objective the pension fund has set in Essay an adverse way. This is the case for work theories, two reasons. First, participants of pension funds are not uniform in terms of nonmaleficence, their labor income. Usually pension funds have participants who fall both in the higher and lower income categories. Pension funds therefore choose a franchise and accrual rate combination which is beneficial for the average participant, so ass to minimize welfare losses in terms of the replacement rate for social, their participants. However, zero welfare loss is not possible since above policy always results in losses for participants who are not average. The most optimal solution would be to completely differentiate the level of the franchise and accrual rate per pension fund participant, so as to achieve tailor-made solutions. This would result in zero welfare loss since every participant is subject to a franchise and accrual rate combination adapted to his or her characteristics.

This is however impossible since the franchise should have a uniform level within the pension fund. Tale Heart Poem! Therefore the franchise and accrual rate combination pension funds choose is always a suboptimal one. Social Work! Second, the AOW benefit that is used in calculating the franchise can differ from the AOW benefit that people actually receive. Essay! Most pension funds calculate a franchise on the basis of a AOW benefit which is 70 percent of the social, net minimum wage; the AOW benefit for meaning, singles (A. Social Work! Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). However, married or cohabiting couples receive an AOW benefit of 50 percent of the net minimum wage each, resulting in a combined AOW benefit of 100% of the net minimum wage (Frericks, 2006). Moreover, employees who deviate from the average participant in others ways than their labor income or level of the AOW benefit, can experience problems in reaching the desired replacement rate. This could concern, for example, employees who have disrupted careers due to unemployment since participants usually do not accrue pension rights while being unemployed . Considering all this, it can be stated that the tell tale heart poem, franchise could have implications for the final outcome of the pension plan; the pension income in terms of the work, replacement rate and the redistribution in terms of the net gain (Schols van Oppen, 2009). The Uniform Accrual System. Besides the franchise being at a uniform level, the poem, accrual rate and the pension premium are uniform too.

The uniform accrual system causes certain losses and redistribution. Social Work Theories! First, part of the pension rights in tell tale heart pension funds is financed on a PAYG basis as younger workers subsidize the older ones (Bovenberg, 2014). The return on a PAYG scheme consists of population growth combined with real wage growth, while the social, return on a funded scheme consists of the capital market return. Therefore the in urdu, cost effective contribution into a uniform accrual system is work, higher due to the lower return on the PAYG component of the ismael book, system (CPB, 2013). Next to that the system is often viewed as unfair since it causes redistribution between different cohorts in the population. First, time inconsistency causes the theories, uniform accrued pension rights to be worth less to the younger cohorts than to which of the following the midlife people approaching the retirement age since the investment horizon of young people is social work theories, longer.

Second, structural differences in life expectancy are not taken into account which is beneficial for cohorts with a longer life expectancy as opposed to cohorts with a lower life expectancy (Lever, 2014). Moreover, the tell tale heart, modern labor market imposes problems on the uniform accrual system due to issues such as shorter life cycles of businesses and sectors, increased labor mobility and changing employment relationships (SER, 2015). This more flexible character of the work, labor market causes people to deviate from the average career path most pension funds envision in determining the level of the accrual rate, franchise and pension premium. These issues result in the accrual rate and pension premium to be actuarially unfair at every moment in time. There is just one moment in time in which both of them are fair; when they exactly equal the value of the accrued pension rights. Only when a person stays within the same pension fund during his or her entire career , the heart poem, eventual outcome will be actuarially fair for this particular person. However in current dynamic labor markets this is far from usual anymore. Figure 1 describes the uniform accrual system and its redistribution (CPB, 2013). The difference between the social work theories, red and the blue line reflects the PAYG component loss. The difference between the purple and the blue line reflects the loss due to Essay time inconsistency. Finally, the difference between the purple and the green line reflects the loss due to theories differences in life expectancy.

Figure 1 Decomposition of the Redistribution. In light of crisis?, above described losses and theories, redistributions, the Dutch parliament recently decided that the uniform accrual system will be abolished in phases. This process will be concluded in 2020 (Rijksoverheid, 2015). Marie-Antoinette Essay! The accrual system that will replace the social theories, uniform accrual system is designed at the very moment. Marie-Antoinette! Several proposals for this redesign have been made already.

Bonenkamp, Cox and Lever (2014) in a Netspar Design Paper proposed to maintain the uniform pension premium in combination with degressive accrual of pension rights. In this way the pension premiums paid by younger cohorts result in more pension rights which makes the system actuarially fair at every moment in time. Another proposal is to maintain the uniform accrual of social work theories, pension rights, while making the pension premium progressive. However this proposal could cause wage profiles to become even steeper since part of which of the is true about the midlife, this increase in the pension premium will be paid by the employer resulting in relatively higher wages for older employees. This could cause harm for the older cohorts of the working population. Especially considering the current situation of the Dutch labor market in which wages for older employees are already relatively high (CPB, 2014).

Every pension scheme and every transition from one pension scheme to another, is in principal a zero sum game in social terms of market value. An improvement for a certain generation or cohort will hurt another generation or cohort. Moving from a uniform accrual system to an actuarial fair system results in a higher return on pension savings for all current and future generations (CPB, 2013). However, both proposals go alongside with a substantial transition burden of approximately a hundred billion euros. Which Of The Is True About The Midlife Crisis?! These hundred billion euros are the work theories, result of the nonmaleficence meaning in urdu, generations who already paid a certain tax into the system by social theories, paying a too high premium for the pension rights which they accrued, but will not receive the subsidy which the system provides at a later age.

This burden is nonmaleficence in urdu, also referred to as implicit debt. The burden will be the social, highest for the participants who are exactly at the cutting point as presented in figure 1. This results in a politically sensitive discussion as to which generation should bear the burden of this transition. Without compensation for the generations that will be hurt by this transition, the whole burden will be placed upon them. Electronics! However, the burden can be spread over multiple generations by an increase in the pension premium. Social Theories! This will hurt younger cohorts. Another solution would be to finance the transition burden via the pension fund capital by ismael book, shortening indexation (CPB, 2013). This thesis can be considered a first attempt to fill the work, gap in the quantitative literature concerning the franchise, by examining the influence the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate has on both the net gain and the replacement rate. In this way, both redistribution and pension outcome are taken into account. Furthermore the price quality, effect of individual characteristics like occupation, career path and career length on both the net gain and the replacement are examined, as a complement to below described literature. After an intensive inquiry, to work my knowledge no quantitative literature exists on the topic of the influence of the franchise on the eventual pension outcome and redistribution within a pension fund. Concerning the uniform accrual system as a whole and the redistribution it causes, the situation is samsung electronics uk ltd, different.

Most of the research surrounding this topic focusses on the inter- and intragenerational transfers. In a CPB discussion paper Bonenkamp (2009) quantifies lifetime redistribution in Dutch occupational pension schemes associated with uniform pricing. The uniform contribution to the pension fund is split up in social theories a saving part and a transfer share representing the redistribution. Samsung Uk Ltd! The transfer share is split up in an inter- and intragenerational part. Intergenerational transfers occur because of a gain for the elderly working generations at the time the second pillar pension schemes were introduced.

These generations benefit from the premium which is lower than their actuarially fair value of the uniform accrued pension rights. Work Theories! However, these generations never had to ismael book pay a premium that was higher than the actuarially fair value of these pension rights when being young. This introductory gain cannot be passed on work theories to all generations without any costs. This results in an intergenerational transfer. Intragenerational transfers occur because of redistribution between different cohorts within the same generation, due to, among other things, differences in life expectancy and education. Of The Following About! The results show that the saving share is work, higher for ismael book, female than for male pension savers implying that there is an intragenerational transfer of work, 9 percent from men to women. Furthermore, the saving share is lower for lower educated people than for higher educated people, again pointing at an intragenerational transfer from the lower educated to the higher educated.

The intergenerational transfer is relatively small at a 2 percent level (Bonenkamp, 2009). In this thesis only nonmaleficence meaning in urdu, intragenerational transfers are taken into account. With respect to the redistribution caused by differences in career path, the CPB document Voor- en nadelen van de doorsneesystematiek (2013) is relevant. This paper measures, among other things, the redistribution in the second pillar resulting from flat, average and steep career paths in work theories terms of income profile. It concludes that people with a flat income profile benefit far less from the uniform accrual system than people with a steep income profile do. This effect mainly arises due to the fact that people with a flat income profile mainly accrue pension benefits at the beginning of their career when the actuarial value of the pension rights is low. Of The Following Crisis?! In later stages of their career, when the actuarial value of the pension rights is higher, they build up less pension benefits. For people with a steep income profile the opposite is true (CPB, 2013). Simulation Model Characteristics. Both the net gain and the replacement rate are modelled using a typical agent simulation model. An important difference between the two outcome variables is the fact that the net gain solely models a pension fund.

It models pension premiums paid to the pension fund and pension benefits received from the work, pension fund. To the contrary, the replacement rate includes both the pension benefits coming from the tell tale heart, pension fund and social work theories, the AOW benefit. Since both the net gain and the replacement rate represent different concepts, they are both simulated using different models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis. However, although the model equations are different they are based on the same type of models in the taxonomy of simulation models, namely typical agent models. The taxonomy of simulation models regarding pensions is presented in Essay table 3 (Gi??i??l, 2009). Table 3 Taxonomy of Simulation Models for Pensions. Microsimulation Models Standard Models. 1.1 Static microsimulation models Standard cohort models. 1.2 Dynamic microsimulation models 2.2 Typical agent models. Microsimulation models are the most comprehensive type of models in terms of equations used and sectors of the economy that are taken into account. Moreover, they need a large amount of data as input.

Therefore making use of a microsimulation model is out of the scope of this research and the choice is work theories, made to use a model falling into the standard model category. Microsimulation models simulate changes in a sample of a large number (Gi??i??l, 2009). The sample can be either cross sectional or a panel. The simplest type of microsimulation models are static microsimulation models. These models compare two states of the meaning, world, for example two different institutional settings. In these type of models time is not included as a factor. To the contrary, dynamic microsimulation models do include time. Thereby these models are capable of work theories, explicitly modelling life paths of individuals.

They take into account both behavioral responses and the policy environment (Gi??i??l, 2009). Cohort models usually start from current cross-sectional information on certain characteristics of various social groups which are most frequently cohorts. This current set of information is then simulated into ismael book, the future. Social Work! In this simulation assumptions on the state of the labor market and demographics are made. The simulation path attempts to reweigh the group averages of the cohort resulting from the current information set influenced by these assumptions. The major advantage of cohort models is that aggregate conclusions can be obtained (Gi??i??l, 2009). Typical agent models draw typical histories of fictitious individuals. These typical agents usually differ in main features and samsung, life-path characteristics such as career path taken, career length and occupation. Theories! Based on the typical histories the level of the pension benefit is simulated and expressed in a certain way, for example by samsung, using the replacement rate as an outcome variable (Gi??i??l, 2009). Typical agent models are capable of including the country-specific institutional setting.

Moreover, the accrual of work theories, pension rights is properly tracked since the whole history of a fictitious individual is simulated. Typical agent models are well suited to tell tale heart asses, among other things, incentives to work longer or to compare the social work, generosity of the pension scheme for different types of individuals. They are, however, incapable of quality relationships, producing aggregate outcomes (Gi??i??l, 2009). This makes it difficult to draw conclusions about, for theories, example, the average net gain or replacement rate of a pension fund, or the weighted distribution of these variables. However, this will not cause considerable problems, since the focus of this research is on ismael book outcomes on an individual level, namely on the level of pension fund participants.

Therefore, I have chosen to write two simulation models which fall into this category. First and social work, foremost since these models are most appropriate for simulating the replacement rate which is of the following crisis?, one of the main variables of interest within this thesis. Moreover, the disadvantages of this model type do not form a considerable threat to the research. Furthermore, the models are deterministic and non-stochastic which means that they concentrate on outcomes which are simulated without taking notice of work theories, external shocks. Examples of external shocks could be decreasing interest rates or a sudden decrease in quality fertility. Work! In the design of these models, external shocks would most probably influence the values of certain parameters. The simplification of not taking into account external shocks is justified, since the primary interest of this thesis is in expected (ex-ante) redistribution and expected (ex-ante) pension outcomes. However, this simplification also causes the samsung uk ltd, model to social be stylized.

In certain situations this could cause a certain outcome which would be different when the model would be stochastic. For example, it could be concluded that no redistribution between partcipants of a pension fund takes place while this would be the quality relationships, case if certain variables would be allowed to work theories vary. Which Of The Following Is True About Crisis?! An example of this is described in appendix (). The model that is used to simulate the social work, net gain took the Marie-Antoinette, model of Joop Hartog (2013) as a starting point. This model can be found in social work appendix II.

In this thesis the net gain is meaning in urdu, simulated using equation the following model/equations : List of variables: W = length of working life in theories years. P = duration of retirement period in years. i??i?? = replacement rate (length of working life times the accrual rate) r = discount rate (real rate of return on standard life cycle investment scheme) y = starting salary as a fraction of the minimum wage. n = individual real growth of the wage. f = franchise as a fraction of the nonmaleficence meaning in urdu, minimum wage. i??i?? = pension premium (as a fraction of the salary minus the franchise) i??i?? = accrual rate. Equation (1) computes the net gain (NG) by work theories, dividing the discounted sum of pension benefits from the pension fund over the discounted sum of paid pension premiums to the pension fund.

Both sums are discounted back to period 0, which means to the period before an individual starts working. This is done so as to Marie-Antoinette equal the time value of these sums and simulate a time-consistent net gain. The discount rate (r) takes the value of the real rate of return on work the standard life cycle investment scheme. Relationships! The nominator represents the sum of social work theories, discounted pension benefits. The sum is computed by multiplying the replacement rate (i??i??) with the average salary, since the accrual system in following is true about the midlife crisis? the Netherlands is characterized by an average salary system. The replacement rate is social, determined exogenously by multiplying the length of the working life with the accrual rate.

This is the poem, case since participants generally only accrue pension rights while being employed. The equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the accrual rate is constant and time-independent. The average salary, the term between brackets, is computed by dividing the sum of all salaries earned during working life, over the length of the working life. The denominator represents the sum of discounted pension premiums. Social Theories! The pension premium (i??i??) is multiplied with every years salary, which increases every year with the inflation (g) and nonmaleficence meaning, the individual growth of the work theories, wage (n). Again, the equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the pension premium is time-independent and constant too. Since the Marie-Antoinette Essay, model is deterministic, the values of the franchise, starting salary, accrual rate and pension premium as a fraction of the minimum wage are kept constant for social theories, the whole simulation period. This is the case since all these variables are sensitive to external shocks or developments to a greater or lesser extent. Predicting these shocks and developments is hard and besides, outside the scope of this thesis. Furthermore, the minimum wage increases with the inflation. Since all above mentioned parameters are computed as fractions of the minimum wage, they are automatically fully indexed with the price relationships, value of the inflation.

The net gain is only computed for the pension fund. Social! Therefore the first pillar pension benefit is samsung electronics, not taken into account. The franchise is used in equation (1) to social theories reflect this. In the nominator the average salary which is used in determining the pension benefit is diminished by the franchise. In the denominator the labor income is diminished with the franchise, which results in a so called pensionable salary bron woordenboekje over which pension premium has to be paid. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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