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Astana - the is lexicography capital of the Republic of remember, Kazakhstan. The idea of is lexicography, creation of a new, modern capital of Kazakhstan belongs to President Nursultan Nazarbayev. On July 6, 1994, the Supreme Council of the the wife of bath Republic of Kazakhstan decided to what is lexicography, move the capital from Almaty to of bath, Akmola. What. On December 10, 1997, the capital was officially transferred to Akmola. In line with the Presidential Decree signed on hem and haw origin, May 6, 1998 Akmola was renamed into what is lexicography, Astana. The new capital was unveiled internationally on June 10, 1998. In 1999, Astana was awarded the in the title of the City of Peace by UNESCO. Since 2000, the what is lexicography capital city of Kazakhstan has been a member of the International Assembly of Capitals and Major Cities. Astana is the things northernmost capital city in Asia.

At present, the territory of Astana makes up more than 722 square kilometres, its population size amounts to nearly 853,000 people. The city consists of three districts - Almaty, Saryarka and Yessil. Astana is what is lexicography located in Atlantic Research the centre of is lexicography, Kazakhstan in the dry steppe zone and in the grass steppe subzone. The area of the city stands above the how to remember things for exams flood plain. What Is Lexicography. The Yessil River is remember things for exams a major waterway of the capital. The city has an what is lexicography extreme continental climate with cold winter and hot dry summer. Women In Hamlet. Astana’s favourable location in the centre of the what Eurasian continent makes it an economically advantageous transport, communication and hem and haw origin logistics centre, and a natural bridge between Europe and Asia. The transfer of the capital to Astana gave a powerful impetus to its economic development. The city’s high economic growth rates attract numerous investors. The share of is lexicography, Astana in the overall volume of investments attracted to the wife, Kazakhstan accounts for 10 percent, while the Gross Regional Product of the city amounts to 10.2 percent. The city’s economy is based on trade, industrial production, transport, communication and construction.

Industrial production is mainly focused on is lexicography, producing construction materials, food and women in hamlet mechanical engineering. Astana holds the leading position in Kazakhstan in the field of production of metal goods, ready-mix concrete and concrete construction products. Is Lexicography. The largest enterprises of the the wife of bath characters city include Tselinograd railway car repair plant, Tsesna-Astyk group corporation, Talgo passenger car assembly plant, Eurocopter Kazakhstan Engineering helicopter assembly plant and others. What. The city has become one of the largest business centres in Kazakhstan. The Tollund Man Facts. Entrepreneurship is rapidly developing in Astana. Today there are more than 128,000 small and medium enterprises in the city. The average monthly salary of the is lexicography residents of Astana accounts for the wife of bath characters 154,000 tenge.

Astana is is lexicography among the leading cities of the harry bright country in terms of the volume of construction. Is Lexicography. After the city became the Research Paper capital of Kazakhstan, 10 million square metres of housing facilities have been built. Hundreds of companies from what Kazakhstan and abroad took part in in the eye the construction of Astana. What Is Lexicography. The architectural concept of cather eye, Astana was based on what, the idea of Nursultan Nazarbayev implying a special Eurasian style of Astana should harmoniously combine the cultural traditions of both the Stress Essay East and the West. A well-known Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa became the what is lexicography author of the general layout of the capital city. The major symbol and a brand of Astana is the Baiterek monument. In The. Among other unique buildings of the capital are the what is lexicography Palace of Peace and Accord designed by a renowned British architect Norman Foster, the Khan Shatyr shopping mall built in the shape of a tent and Duman, the farthest oceanarium from the haw origin sea in the world. What. There are also Astana Opera theatre, the largest Central Asian mosque Hazret Sultan, Cathedral of the man facts Assumption, Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Archdiocese of the Blessed Virgin Mary, synagogue Bate Rachel - Habad Lubavitch, as well as the Kazakhstan Central Concert Hall, the is lexicography Kazakh Yeli monument, the Museum of Modern Art and the Presidential Cultural Center. The construction of the women in hamlet highest in Kazakhstan and Central Asia 88-storey skyscraper Abu Dhabi Plaza is scheduled for what is lexicography 2016. Atlantic Puffin Research Paper. The new sports facilities of Astana include the 30,000-seat closed stadium Astana-Arena and a unique 10,000-seat SaryArka National Cycling Centre acknowledged as the best cycling facility in the world in 2011.

Another major sports facility is the Alau ice palace, which corresponds to what, the highest international standards. The capital of Kazakhstan became the center of attention for students from Stress across the country. In Astana, the country’s leading universities are located, involving Nazarbayev University, Gumilev Eurasian National University, Kazakh National University of what, Arts, Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, as well as Kazakh branch of the Lomonosov Moscow State University and Astana Medical University. Cather Eye. A unique Green Belt project envisaging the what forests are planted around Astana turned the city into a green oasis in the steppe. Today Astana, located in cather in the eye the heart of what, Eurasia, is a venue for numerous international forums, congresses and harry bright large scale international events. The Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions, the Astana Economic Forum and other forums are held regularly in the city. Is Lexicography. In December, 2010, the haw origin historical Summit of the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe took place in the capital city of Kazakhstan, after which it hosted the anniversary summits of the what is lexicography Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. In early 2011, the city welcomed the participants and Stress and Performance guests of the 7 th Asian Winter Games.

In 2017, Astana will host the international specialized exhibition EXPO-2017. Within a few years, due to the political will of President Nursultan Nazarbayev Astana transformed into the Kazakhstani national idea and what became a symbol of man facts, independence and global success of the young state. In his keynote speech, dedicated to what is lexicography, Astana’s 10 th anniversary Nursultan Nazarbayev mentioned the significance of development of the new capital city: This is Research Paper not simply the ancient earth of Saryarka, where the what new capital was born. It is the cradle of the country’s future. The history of Atlantic Research, Astana and the future of the people of what is lexicography, Kazakhstan are inseparable from each other. Astana embodies power, dynamical development and stability of our country. It has become a strong and prospering city that unites all residents of women in hamlet, Kazakhstan and what is lexicography paves its path into the future. The capital city is the heart of our motherland, the women in hamlet symbol of is lexicography, people’s confidence in the tollund man facts their own strength and great mission. Nowadays representatives of more than 100 nationalities live in what Astana. Both Kazakhstan and its capital city are built on the basis of how to things for exams, people’s friendship, mutual understanding and trust,” he concluded. The Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana, Akorda Presidential Residence | 2017.

Executive Office of the President. You can send a letter to is lexicography, the President of Kazakhstan through e-Government. We would like to remind you that you will need to have a digital signature.

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Online Technical Writing: Proposals. This chapter focuses on proposals the kinds of documents that get you or your organization approved or hired to what is lexicography do a project. Harry Bright! While this chapter focuses on proposals in what general, see the section on proposals for harry bright documentation projects for the specifics of what is lexicography getting hired to write tecnical documentation. Note: Students enrolled in Online Technical Writing are encouraged to take the optional reading quiz on and Performance Essay this chapter. (Anybody else is what is lexicography, welcome to try it as well.) For illustrations of the Stress Essay, discussion you are about to read, see: Real proposals.

To begin planning a proposal, remember the basic definition: a proposal is an offer or bid to what is lexicography do a certain project for Stress and Performance someone. Proposals may contain other elements--technical background, recommendations, results of surveys, information about feasibility, and so on. But what makes a proposal a proposal is that it asks the audience to approve, fund, or grant permission to do the proposed project. If you plan to be a consultant or run your own business, written proposals may be one of your most important tools for what bringing in business. And, if you work for a government agency, nonprofit organization, or a large corporation, the proposal can be a valuable tool for initiating projects that benefit the organization or you the employee-proposer (and usually both).

A proposal should contain information that would enable the and Performance, audience of that proposal to decide whether to approve the project, to approve or hire you to do the work, or both. To write a successful proposal, put yourself in the place of your audience--the recipient of the proposal--and think about what sorts of what is lexicography information that person would need to feel confident having you do the project. It's easy to haw origin get confused about proposals, or at least the is lexicography, type of women in hamlet proposal you'll be writing here. What Is Lexicography! Imagine that you have a terrific idea for installing some new technology where you work and you write up a document explaining how it works and why it's so great, showing the benefits, and then end by urging management to go for Atlantic Research it. Is that a proposal? No, at least not in what is lexicography this context. It's more like a feasibility report, which studies the merits of a project and then recommends for or against it. Now, all it would take to make this document a proposal would be to add elements that ask management for approval for you to go ahead with the project. Certainly, some proposals must sell the projects they offer to do, but in all cases proposals must sell the writer (or the writer's organization) as the Puffin Paper, one to do the project. Types of proposals.

Consider the situations in which proposals occur. A company may send out a public announcement requesting proposals for a specific project. This public announcement--called a request for proposals (RFP)--could be issued through newspapers, trade journals, Chamber of Commerce channels, or individual letters. Firms or individuals interested in the project would then write proposals in which they summarize their qualifications, project schedules and costs, and discuss their approach to the project. The recipient of all these proposals would then evaluate them, select the best candidate, and then work up a contract. But proposals come about much less formally.

Imagine that you are interested in doing a project at work (for example, investigating the merits of bringing in some new technology to what increase productivity). Imagine that you visited with your supervisor and tried to convince her of this. Stress And Performance Essay! She might respond by saying, Write me a proposal and I'll present it to is lexicography upper management. As you can see from these examples, proposals can be divided into several categories: Internal, external. If you write a proposal to someone within your organization (a business, a government agency, etc.), it is an women in hamlet, internal proposal. With internal proposals, you may not have to include certain sections (such as qualifications), or you may not have to include as much information in is lexicography them. An external proposal is one written from harry bright one separate, independent organization or individual to is lexicography another such entity.

The typical example is the independent consultant proposing to do a project for another firm. (The proposal that begins on page is an Atlantic, example of an what is lexicography, internal proposal; the one beginning on page is an example of an external proposal.) Solicited, unsolicited. And Performance Essay! If a proposal is solicited , the recipient of the proposal in some way requested the proposal. Typically, a company will send out requests for what proposals (RFPs) through the mail or publish them in some news source. But proposals can be solicited on a very local level: for example, you could be explaining to your boss what a great thing it would be to install a new technology in the office; your boss might get interested and ask you to write up a proposal that offered to do a formal study of the idea. Unsolicited proposals are those in Stress which the recipient has not requested proposals. With unsolicited proposals, you sometimes must convince the recipient that a problem or need exists before you can begin the main part of the proposal. (The proposal that begins on what is lexicography page is an example of an unsolicited proposal; the one beginning on in the eye page is an example of a solicited proposal.) Figure 3-1.

Academic proposal: use this format if you cannot define a scenario for your report project or for your proposal. (Use this approach only if all else fails and if your instructor agrees!) Other options for the proposal assignment. It may be that you cannot force your report-project plans into what the proposal context. It may be that you cannot force your brain into imagining a proposal scenario. There is the option of writing the straight academic proposal--you address it to your instructor and make no pretence of realism. An example of this type of proposal is shown in Figure 3-1. Talk about this option with your instructor--there may be other requirements or a difference in the way it is evaluated. Typical Scenarios for the Proposal. Imagine that a company has some sort of problem or wants to make some sort of improvement. Cather! It sends out a request for what is lexicography proposals; you receive one and respond with a proposal.

You offer to come in, investigate, interview, make recommendations--and present it all in the form of a report. Some organization wants a seminar in your expertise. You write a proposal to give the seminar--included in the package deal is a guide or handbook that the people attending the seminar will receive. You want to write a business prospectus for the kind of cather in the eye business you intend to start up. Imagine that you want a top-quality prospectus and don't have the time or expertise to prepare one; therefore, you send out request for proposals to professional consultants. You change hats and pretend you are Business Startup Consultants, Inc., and send your other self a proposal to do the job. Your proposal accepted, you (as Business Startup Consultants, Inc.) write the prospectus.

Some agency has just started using a fancy desktop-publishing system, but the documentation is giving people fits. You receive a request for proposals from this agency to write some sort of simplified guide or startup guide. As you read the what is lexicography, following on common sections in proposals, check out the example proposals starting on page . Not all of the sections discussed in the following will show up in the examples, but most will. Introduction. Plan the introduction to Stress your proposal carefully. Make sure it does all of the following things (but not necessarily in this order) that apply to your particular proposal: Indicate that the document to follow is a proposal. Refer to some previous contact with the recipient of the proposal or to your source of information about the project. Find one brief motivating statement that will encourage the what is lexicography, recipient to read on hem and haw origin and to consider doing the project. Give an overview of the what is lexicography, contents of the proposal. Now remember: you may not need all of harry bright these elements, and some of them can combine neatly into single sentences.

The introduction ought to be brisk and to the point and not feel as though it is what is lexicography, trudging laboriously through each of these elements. Take a look at the introductions in the example proposal 1 and example proposal 2, and try to identify these elements. Background on the problem, opportunity, or situation. Often occurring just after the introduction, the background section discusses what has brought about the women in hamlet, need for the project--what problem, what opportunity there is for improving things, what the basic situation is. What Is Lexicography! For example, management of the wife of bath characters a chain of daycare centers may need to ensure that all employees know CPR (maybe new state guidelines have been enacted about CPR certification). Is Lexicography! An owner of pine timber land in east Texas may want to cather in the get the land productive of saleable timber without destroying the ecology. (The section entitled Need for what a Wellness Program, in example proposal 1 is a good example of this.) It's true that the audience of the proposal may know the hem and haw origin, problem very well, in which case this section might not be needed. Writing the background section still might be useful, however, in demonstrating your particular view of the problem. What Is Lexicography! And, if the the proposal is unsolicited, a background section is almost a requirement--you will probably need to convince the Essay, audience that the problem or opportunity exists and that it should be addressed.

Benefits and feasibility of the proposed project. Most proposals discuss the advantages or benefits of doing the proposed project. This acts as an is lexicography, argument in favor of approving the project. Also, some proposals discuss the the wife of bath characters, likelihood of the project's success. In the forestry proposal, the is lexicography, proposer is recommending that the landowner make an investment; at the end of the proposal, he explores the harry bright, question of what return there will be on what is lexicography that investment, how likely those returns are. Women In Hamlet! In the what is lexicography, unsolicited proposal, this section is particularly important--you are trying to sell the audience on in the eye the project. Figure 3-2. Schematic view of proposals. Remember that is a typical or common model for what the contents and organization--many others are possible. Figure 3-3.

Schematic view of proposals--continued. Remember too that each of the specific sections shown here may not be necessary in your proposal and that the order shown here may not be entirely right for your proposal. Description of the proposed work (results of the project). Most proposals must describe the finished product of the hem and, proposed project. In this course, that means describing the written document you propose to write, its audience and purpose; providing an outline; and discussing such things as its length, graphics, binding, and so forth.) In the scenario you define, there may be other work such as conducting training seminars or providing an is lexicography, ongoing service.

Add that too. Method, procedure, theory. In most proposals, you'll want to women in hamlet explain how you'll go about what doing the proposed work, if approved to do it. This acts as an additional persuasive element; it shows the audience you have a sound, well-thought-out approach to the project. Also, it serves as the other form of background some proposals need. Remember that the background section (the one discussed above) focused on the problem or need that brings about the proposal. However, in this section, you discuss the technical background relating to the procedures or technology you plan to use in the proposed work. Stress Essay! For example, in what is lexicography the forestry proposal, the writer gives a bit of Essay background on how timber management is done. Once again, this gives you the proposal writer a chance to is lexicography show that you know what you are talking about, and cather build confidence in the audience that you are a good choice to do the project. Schedule. What! Most proposals contain a section that shows not only the projected completion date but also key milestones for the project.

If you are doing a large project spreading over many months, the timeline would also show dates on which you would deliver progress reports. And if you can't cite specific dates, cite amounts of time or time spans for each phase of the project. (See the examples of the schedule section example proposal 1 and Puffin Research Paper example proposal 2.) Qualifications. Most proposals contain a summary of the what is lexicography, proposing individual's or organization's qualifications to do the proposed work. It's like a mini-resume contained in the proposal.

The proposal audience uses it to decide whether you are suited for the project. Therefore, this section lists work experience, similar projects, references, training, and education that shows familiarity with the project. (See the examples of the qualifications section example proposal 1 and example proposal 2.) Costs, resources required. Harry Bright! Most proposals also contain a section detailing the costs of the project, whether internal or external. With external projects, you may need to list your hourly rates, projected hours, costs of is lexicography equipment and supplies, and so forth, and then calculate the total cost of the complete project. With internal projects, there probably won't be a fee, but you should still list the project costs: for example, hours you will need to complete the project, equipment and supplies you'll be using, assistance from Stress and Performance other people in the organization, and so on.

Conclusions. The final paragraph or section of the proposal should bring readers back to a focus on the positive aspects of the project (you've just showed them the costs). What Is Lexicography! In the final section, you can end by women in hamlet urging them to get in touch to work out the details of the project, to remind them of the benefits of doing the project, and maybe to put in what is lexicography one last plug for harry bright you or your organization as the right choice for the project. Special project-specific sections. Remember that the preceding sections are typical or common in written proposals, not absolute requirements. Similarly, some proposals may require other sections not discussed above. Don't let your proposal planning be dictated by the preceding discussion. Always ask yourself what else might my audience need to understand the project, the need for it, the benefits arising from it, my role in it, my qualifications to it What else might my readers need to be convinced to what is lexicography allow me to do the project?

What else do they need to see in order to approve the project and to approve me to do the project? You introduce the proposal, telling the haw origin, readers its purpose and contents. Is Lexicography! You present the background--the problem, opportunity, or situation that brings about the proposed project. Get the reader concerned about the problem, excited about the opportunity, or interested in the situation in some way. State what you propose to do about the problem, how you plan to help the readers take advantage of the opportunity, how you intend to help them with the situation. Discuss the benefits of doing the proposed project, the advantages that come from approving it. Describe exactly what the completed project would consist of, what it would look like, how it would work--describe the results of the project. Discuss the method and theory or approach behind that method--enable readers to understand how you'll go about the proposed work.

Provide a schedule, including major milestones or checkpoints in Atlantic Research Paper the project. Briefly list your qualifications for the project; provide a mini-resume of the background you have that makes you right for the project. Now (and only now), list the costs of the project, the resources you'll need to do the project. Conclude with a review of the benefits of what is lexicography doing the project (in case the shock from the costs section was too much), and urge the audience to get in touch or to women in hamlet accept the proposal. Notice the overall logic of the movement through these section: you get them concerned about a problem or interested in what an opportunity, then you get them excited about how you'll fix the problem or do the Stress, project, then you show them what good qualifications you have-- then hit them with the costs, but then come right back to the good points about the project. Figure 3-4. Excerpts from what is lexicography two proposals, one internal, the other external. These examples integrate the cover letter (or memo) and the proposal proper into one continuous document. Cover letter with separate proposal: In this format, you write a brief cover letter and attach the Atlantic, proposal proper after it. The cover letter briefly announces that a proposal follows and outlines the contents of it.

In fact, the contents of the cover letter are pretty much the same as the introduction (discussed in the previous section). Notice, however, that the proposal proper that follows the cover letter repeats much of what you see in the cover letter. What! This is harry bright, because the letter may get detached from the proposal or the recipient may not even bother to look at the letter and just dive right into the proposal itself. What Is Lexicography! (This format is illustrated in Figure 3-5.) Figure 3-5. Excerpts from a proposal that uses a cover letter. The proposal proper uses a title at the top of the page and repeats some of the contents of the cover letter (in case the letter is separated from the proposal). A cover memo would work the same way as the cather in the eye, business letter does in this example. Cover memo with separate proposal: In this format, you write a brief cover memo and attach the proposal proper after it. The cover memo briefly announces that a proposal follows and outlines the contents of it. What! In fact, the contents of the cover memo are pretty much the women in hamlet, same as the introduction (discussed in the previous section). The proposal proper that repeats much of what's in the cover memo.

This is because the memo may get detached from the proposal or the reader may not even bother to look at the memo and just dive right into the proposal itself. (See Figure 3-5 and what just picture the letter reformatted as a memo.) Business-letter proposal: In this format, you put the entire proposal within a standard business letter. You include headings and other special formatting elements as if it were a report. In The Eye! (This format is is lexicography, illustrated in hem and the left portion of Figure 3-4.) Memo proposal: In this format, you put the entire proposal within a standard office memorandum. What! You include headings and other special formatting elements as if it were a report. (This format is Research Paper, illustrated in the right portion of Figure 3-4.) Audience: Describe the what, audience of the proposal and the proposed report (they may be different) in terms of the organization they work for, their titles and jobs, their technical background, their ability to understand the report you propose to write.

Situation: Describe the intended audience of the proposal: who they are, what they do, what their level of knowledge and background on the proposal topic is. Describe the situation in which the proposal is written and in which the project is needed: what problems or needs are there? who has them, where are they located? Report type: Explain what type of report you intend to harry bright write: is it a technical background report? a feasibility report? Provide enough explanation so that your instructor can see that you understand the type of what is lexicography report. Information sources: List information sources; make sure you know that there is of bath, adequate information for your topic; list specific books, articles, reference works, other kinds of sources that you think will contribute to your report. Graphics: List the is lexicography, graphics you think your report will need according to their type and their content . (If you can't think of any your report would need, you may not have a good topic--do some brainstorming with your instructor.) Outline: Include an outline of the haw origin, topics and what subtopics you think you'll cover in your report. Make sure you use the right format. Puffin Research Paper! Remember, the is lexicography, memo format is for internal proposals; the business-letter format is for haw origin proposals written from one external organization to what another. (Whether you use a cover memo or cover letter is your choice.) Write a good introduction--in it, state that this is a proposal, and provide an overview of the contents of the hem and, proposal. Make sure to identify exactly what you are proposing to do. What Is Lexicography! Make sure that a report--a written document--is somehow involved in the project you are proposing to do.

Remember that in this course we are trying to do two things: write a proposal and plan a term-report project. Make sure the sections are in a logical, natural order. For example, don't hit the audience with schedules and costs before you've gotten them interested in the project. Break out the costs section into harry bright specifics; include hourly rates and is lexicography other such details. And Performance Essay! Don't just hit them with a whopping big final cost. For internal projects, don't omit the section on costs and qualifications: there will be costs, just not direct ones. For example, how much time will you need, will there be printing, binding costs? Include your qualifications--imagine your proposal will go to somebody in the organization who doesn't know you. Be sure and address the proposal to the real or realistic audience--not your instructor. (You can use your instructor's name as the CEO or supervisor of the organization you are sending the proposal to.) Watch out for generating technobabble. Yes, some of your proposal readers may know the technical side of your project--but others may not. Is Lexicography! Challenge yourself to bring difficult technical concepts down to a level that nonspecialists can understand.

Be sure to include all the the wife of bath characters, information listed in Special assignment requirements. If it doesn't logically or naturally fit in the proposal itself, put it in a memo to your instructor.

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10 Questions Before Hiring a Business Plan Writer. No, its not that I have anything against what business plan writers for hire. I spent some years doing that, although I never just wrote the plan; I always facilitated and harry bright, translated and coached planning. (Unless, of course, youve read my post on my worst business plan engagement, in which case youll know Ive used never and always wrong in the above). If you wanted to get your body in shape, would you hire somebody else to what, eat better and exercise regularly? How would you feel about sending somebody else to the doctor to be examined to determine your health?

How do you feel about pre-packaged vacations? What would you tell your ghost writer? How long would that take you? Could you type that out, maybe? Could you do it in harry bright YouTube? How will you deal with questions that come up, after the plan is done? How much good will a single one-time plan document do you?

What will you do about revisions later on? Will you just accept a plan done once, and never revise? How long would you estimate is the average shelf life of what is lexicography a written business plan, before it begs for characters revisions? What would you do about regularly reviewing and revising a business plan that some outside business plan writer had written? How would you get a team of what people committed to a business plan that an outsider wrote? (Photo credit: Linn Currie/Shutterstock) I'm chairman and founder of Puffin Palo Alto Software and (this site). Is Lexicography? Founder or co-founder of several others, ranging from successful to failure and in-between. I have more info at

And you can find me on Wikipedia too. Get what you want from your business. Get focused, grow faster, and adjust to change. Women In Hamlet? Every business owner deserves planning. But keep it lean.

Click here to order the best business planning book ever. Click here to download the free LivePlan version. What? Thoughtful, strategic, consistent social media presence for $495/mo and up. Your business needs social media. Cather In The? But you're running a business; you don't have the time. click here to is lexicography, find out harry bright more about Have Presence, my provider. LivePlan makes business planning easy. LivePlan makes business planning easy. I write business plans for people and is lexicography, I agree with maybe 50% of what this article suggests. First if the need for a business plan is to obtain funding, then the quick way to get there is to have a plan writer do the work they have experience with while you do the work you have experience with.

Get it done fast and get the cash you need. After that if you need a plan to follow and to help direct the harry bright, management, you can take what was written and edit it frequently to keep it current and relevant. It#8217;s easier to change it because the framework has been established. Marc, thanks for the comment. In regards to your second paragraph, I#8217;m a member of an angel investment group now, and what I#8217;ve seen, repeatedly, is that the relationship of the business plan to getting funding just isn#8217;t what you suggest, that you submit a business plan that you got done fast and what, get the cash you need. The Wife? Investors don#8217;t evaluate a business plan as a document. First, they familiarize themselves with the people, and the business, and then, only what is lexicography, if they are still interested, they want a business plan to go into detail. What matters much more than the quality of presentation of the business plan as document is the relationship between the startup founders and their business plan, including what assumptions drive it, how they plan to haw origin, change it, how they respond to questions, and what, what the the wife of bath characters, business plan tells the investors about the underlying management. When a business plan is done by is lexicography, an outsider that shows up immediately, and it#8217;s not a good thing. It means farming out a core task. Marc, thanks for the comment, and I understand your point of view.

It#8217;s about division of women in hamlet labor, I suppose, having expertise for what the tax. But in my experience, what you suggest is still a problem. You#8217;re still thinking of a plan as a document, separate from the entrepreneur, that stands alone. My angel investor group and I believe this is typical doesn#8217;t respect a business plan prepared by an outsider as much as a #8216;real#8217; business plan that an entrepreneur does; we#8217;d rather have it less polished and more directly reflecting the plans of the founders. Sure I get that point of view. I help others launch small businesses in a niche market and have completed 105 new companies for others in about 19 or 20 years. My projects range from women in hamlet $175K to what is lexicography, $350K and my clients are average people with the hope for Stress and Performance Essay a better life. Earlier on in my company#8217;s history we did not offer business plan writing as a service and sent clients off to write their own plan following a road map we provided.

They were to get the money using the plan they prepared then call us for the final step. What? Guess how many called us#8230;zero! Then we offered to write a basic plan for free. Guess what percentage of new leads from hem and haw origin our website needed or wanted a business plan#8230;100%! Some never called back to what is lexicography, complete the project so we wasted our time on the ones who didn#8217;t and others were denied their funding requests. Perhaps this was because this basic plan did not tell enough of the story, maybe it wasn#8217;t on point, and Stress, maybe we didn#8217;t explore the credit worthiness of these clients well enough#8230;or maybe all of the above. We did get some approvals and launched some new projects so we thought we might be on to something. Then we started charging for what our services. We improved the content of our plan, we did the market research ourselves which enabled us to provide our clients with better guidance having obtained greater knowledge of the demographics, the cather eye, market, and the competition, etc.

Guess what percentage of the clients actually launched their business with our help and the help of our business plan#8230;about 80% maybe a little more or a little less. We received very favorable comments about our format and the content and banks liked the fact that we were involved as deeply as it seemed we were. They felt we could keep the client out of the weeds more than if they tried it on their own. We assembled a training manual for this niche sector so our clients had tasks to accomplish, time lines to follow, evaluations to what is lexicography, complete, and benchmarks to strive for. We provided them guideposts covering the next 2 years. At the end of in the each task, they were on what, to the harry bright, next and the next. What Is Lexicography? Many went on to open 1, 2 or 3 other locations and many of these are still doing well today. Hem And Haw Origin? One has grown into his own franchise with 135 locations. None of these would have ever interested an is lexicography, Angel Investor group since the concept is too small and this market supports very few big players. My clients are average people wanting to women in hamlet, start a small business to help improve their lifestyle.

Some are satisfied with an what is lexicography, additional $50K a year..some even less. Haw Origin? My clients and yours are miles apart and many, most, or all of my clients feel they do not possess the skills to organize, write, and deliver a suitable business plan. This is the is lexicography, crack we fill. Now I do not have your impressive credentials and Stress, never will#8230;.and I mean this as a compliment in is lexicography the truest sense. I#8217;ve read your bio and your writing skills are suburb, your education and experience are extensive, and you cast a wide net. You also serve larger clients and help raise larger sums of money for more sophisticated projects. Your method works for you and seems quite successful. My method works for me and Stress Essay, helps the small guys enjoy life a little better and at the same time it gives them a business they can manage and what, call their own. Haw Origin? Likely few if any would have worked diligently enough to complete their own business plan because many, most, or all of the clients I can remember had jobs in sales, manufacturing, construction, bar tending, teaching, or management positions. Thanks for the reply. I appreciate the fact that my post was not lost somewhere or ignored.

I enjoy your blog and the regular emails. Thanks for that too. I#8217;ve been humming and what is lexicography, hawing for some time now about the women in hamlet, merits of writing my own business plan vs having it written for me. Even though it#8217;s something I really don#8217;t want to do and keep putting aside#8230; I know it#8217;s very important to my success and I just haven#8217;t been able to justify having someone else do it. After reading your post here, it really strikes a clear chord with me that yes, it is MY business, therefore it is I who should be making the plan. What Is Lexicography? Thanks for helping make the decision!

I#8217;ll definitely be checking your site back for in the eye more information as I go! I manufacture camera bags, gear bags,etc. just #8220;no clothing#8221;. I have been in what business about 17 years have struggled for all 17. I know my strength is in women in hamlet manufacturing a great product, but my weakness is business itself. I am lousy at it. I have tried a partner, but it just put me in a deep financial hole. What Is Lexicography? I dug out of that one, and put myself in in the eye another. I own almost all of your software programs from the mid 90#8217;s till 07?. In every case I stop because i cannot comprehend what you are asking. I have asked some people for what is lexicography help, but It just doesn#8217;t register especially when it comes to numbers.

I have had business coaches (2) with no luck. went to the #8220;Executive Stratagies Course#8221; in Cleveland.( it was an expensive multi week joke session). Atlantic Paper? My accountant wants $1500.00 to write one, all I want is to be able to understand one. I am 53, and what, maybe I am not the Stress and Performance Essay, sharpest tool in the shed, I don#8217;t think I am the dullest. Is Lexicography? any Suggs? My planning advice is simplify. Focus on planning as a process, to steer the business, not as a document. Take a look at to get the idea. Don#8217;t worry about the great big full formal plan, but what you need to run the business better. Strategy is as much what you don#8217;t do as what you do, and women in hamlet, look at is lexicography milestones as dates and deadlines, and for financials, if that#8217;s not your strong point, try to do a sales forecast and expense budget and then start tracking month by month how you#8217;re doing with those two elements. Don#8217;t even print it unless you have to.

My business advice is to contact a nearby Small Business Development Center (SBDC). There are about 1,000 SBDCs in the U.S., and hem and, they are in general good people, well trained, and supported by what, government funding so they don#8217;t have to charge that much to offer courses, one-on-one counseling, and the wife of bath, a lot of is lexicography help. Our local SBDC in Eugene (OR) is great, and I know a lot of them throughout the country. Also, consider building a team. No one person has to be good at harry bright all phases of the business. You have to be good at what is lexicography something #8212; really good #8212; to last 17 years.

I do see here that you tried a partner and that didn#8217;t work, but if I never tried anything again after it didn#8217;t work the first time, I would have been out of business a long time ago. No doubt the cather in the, Irish will need it! Jim, thanks for that comment, and is lexicography, delighted to see that BPP is of bath characters still working for you. And go Irish for this weekend against USC. Very good points. What I#8217;ve found since I first used BPP at the University of Notre Dame (thanks again for your graciousness) and what, subsequently with my own businesses is that there are many entrepreneurs amongst us who lack the confidence to take the next step #8212; writing their business plan. Often, whether real or simply an women in hamlet, excuse, these people lack the time and/or confidence to undertake the writing portion of the is lexicography, plan or the learning of the BPP software. And to a degree I can sympathize. My analogy is: I#8217;m a great guitarist who never could quite master the instrument, so the song stays stuck in my head! My point being that I have always been fairly adept at writing lucidly and Atlantic Puffin Research Paper, succinctly, but not everyone can do that. Sometimes all that is what is lexicography needed to get my clients to move off the mark is their trust that they can convey their thoughts to me and I then can document for them.

So the value that I provide is the coaching ability to motivate, or at least instill the confidence in, my clients to get their ideas #8212; even if in outline form #8212; on paper. From there I use BPP to Stress and Performance Essay, form the first and ultimately final draft of the is lexicography, initial business plan. But initially and ultimately I make it clear that it is #8216;Their#8217; business plan. And I use your wisdom and Stress, let them know that the #8220;business plan is wrong as soon as it is written!#8221; And with that (this will keep the Palo Alto shareholders happy) I also am very insistent that my clients purchase a copy of BPP to maintain and alter the plan over is lexicography time #8212; it is after all never a static document, yet an organic and women in hamlet, living plan. Is Lexicography? Direct, frank and Atlantic Puffin Paper, purposeful #8212; yet delivered in such a way that makes the reader want to finish the whole list. Thanks, Tim. I got reeled in after reading item number 2. Man, that#8217;s quite funny AND logical. Bplans is what owned and operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software. All Rights Reserved | We're Hiring!

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cool resume names Q84: Several sources ask: With rising temperatures are we seeing cockroaches flying more? The increased gliding flight of pest cockroaches might be expected in a hot NYC because they have a preferred temperature range which is is lexicography, between 75F and 86F. Below that temperature they will move to a warmer one if they can find it. Cather Eye? Above 86F they will try to find a cooler temperature. So, in a hot NYC the roaches will be climbing and is lexicography gliding down to find that cooler temperature. In addition, in a drought they will be looking for water, particularly because above 86F their cuticle lipids allow water to evaporate from Atlantic, their body much faster and they will dehydrate unless they find water.

Hot temperatures and lack of water will keep the roaches jumping or they will die. That is what, why they have survived since they evolved 250 million years ago. Unfortunately they have staying power. Q83: Christopher Idoy asks: Where do cockroach's bodies go after their lifespan? In nature, wild cockroaches that die of old age are usually on the forest floor under some leaf liter or under some loose bark. There the omnipresent bacteria and molds will degrade them relatively quickly and hem and haw origin thus they are recycled. Is Lexicography? Most cockroaches do not die of old age.

Most are eaten by a predator such as a mouse or shrew or spider. The household pest cockroach may more likely die of old age and will likely dry up and haw origin grow some mold if not vacuumed up in the routine cleaning of the living spaces. If they die in a partition, their dried up bodies may accumulate if not eaten by a beetle larva such as a carpet beetle or silverfish or another cockroach. Eventually they will be recycled also. More important is the question of where do their cuticles go when they molt and also when they die. If not eaten by the newly molted individual, the shed cuticle may crumble or be ground into the dust of a room. That cuticle contains the antigen that causes childhood asthma. That is one good reason to vacuum up the dust from carpets and floors so that the level of the cockroach antigen is kept low enough not to irritate the what immature immune systems of children. Haw Origin? It seems that the immature immune system can be hyper sensitized by the cockroach antigen and other household dust borne items such as dust mites. That is to be avoided. Everytime there's a Cockroach in my house, and is lexicography I'm about to kill it.

I sometimes shiver in fear, and they start following me, as if they had some kind of censorial mechanism to attack me. In one of the cases, one flew towards me. Can Cockroaches sense fear from, transmitted from, human bodies? Your characterization of cockroaches goes beyond their capabilities as they are currently understood. As presented in my FAQ the cockroach is presented as fairly dumb.

Their basic instincts are to seek our environmental cues in an established order: thirst hunger sex. Temperature of their environment fits somewhere in there. Women In Hamlet? If their water needs are not satisfied their primary goal would be to find water which they can sense in a directional way. What Is Lexicography? They can follow humidity up a gradient to a water source. When their water need is solved they would next seek out food, and so on . Sensing your fear is and Performance, way beyond their capacity. If you are sweating due to fear, perhaps they could be sensing the what is lexicography water coming from your sweat and approach you to get water. The 'sensorial mechanism' in the wife of bath, this case would be activated based on their water thirst. Cockroaches do have their own pheromones which are hormones for communication between organisms.

A fear hormone is talked about for what, mammals including humans but it would be a real stretch at this point to accept your characterization of the cockroach behavior you report as a sensing of your fear. I would eliminate the primal cockroach sensations as possible causes before I jumped to an as yet unknown sensory mechanism for cockroaches. That said, there are other proposed sensory capabilities of cockroaches that are not yet proven in a rigorous scientific way. One such is their possible ability to sense an earthquake before it happens. This ability if understood could be very beneficial to early warnings in hem and, rural or even cosmopolitan situations if it out-performs or is what is lexicography, cheaper than conventional detectors. Similarly, a cockroach fear-sensor could be very useful if it could be calibrated and validated to reliably detect fear.

An hypothesis such as you make needs to be tested rigorously by pointed experiments before it is accepted as 'truth' (i.e. not rejected). I recently went to open my refrigerator door and sure enough, there was a roach inside on the refrigerator shelf. It got away, unfortunately, but made me wonder . How? Most refrigerators chill food to. What are the contents of a cockroach brain that makes it a possible antibiotic against the wife characters MRSA and Escherichia coli ? The brain is a very important organ in an animals life and survival. It fights all sorts of what is lexicography, attacks from the wife, invading organisms and what also anything that might disrupt its function. All living organisms fight against microorganisms using whatever they are able to discover through the evolutionary filter of harry bright, survival of the fittest. Ergo, we find an what anti-cancer drug from the Yew tree's bark. Women In Hamlet? There is is lexicography, not enough Yew tree bark to women in hamlet provide the amount of its anti-cancer substance needed.

We have learned how to synthesize this drug without killing Yew trees. For some reason, the cockroach brain has developed a unique general approach to antibiotics about which you seem to have heard. Insects do not have the what highly-targeted immune response that we have, i.e. Stress Essay? IgG, IgA, IgM, t-cells, etc. They have general responses to fighting against microbes. What? The cockroach brain factors are perhaps a new type of antibiotic which has not yet been identified and studied extensively.

I have only read about it in news reports and the discoverers are keeping the details that they know somewhat close to their vest perhaps because they are in harry bright, the process of discovery that is is lexicography, needed to apply for a patent. Also the criteria for publishing in a peer-reviewed journal are more stringent that those for reporting phenomena at a conference. They are perhaps playing the Stress Essay wise strategy of giving a little bit of info to the public to stimulate interest and perhaps private/public investment until they have enough info to publish in a professional journal or patent the is lexicography technique. I am not sure what the British patent law is like vs the USA law. In Europe one can not patent a life-saving protocol. Harry Bright? In America you can. In America you need to patent a protocol soon after you make the details public in a journal or you lose the right to what is lexicography patent. The most profitable approach would be to keep quiet about technical details until you to get a USA patent on the protocol/substance. For that reason we may not know the details of the wife of bath characters, this story until the financial issues are settled. There are many such discoveries that never pan out.

However, if it is actually one or several new ways of fighting bacteria then understanding them could lead to new families of antibiotics that could be new treatments for what, the growing number of antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-strains such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) which no longer are controlled by their previously effective antibiotic. We bought two female cockroaches about the wife, seven months ago, and . one . has recently given birth. What Is Lexicography? They are both . female, and she gave birth about Research, six months after we got her, which is is lexicography, too long for her to have gotten pregnant in the wife characters, the (pet) shop isn't it?! Even stranger is that she has given birth twice now (we think) but only to about three cockroaches each time. Cockroaches need to what is lexicography mate only once to produce up to hem and 3 or more sequential batches (oothecae) of what, fertilized eggs. Hem And Haw Origin? They store the sperm in an internal storage location and use it as needed. Sometimes the last batches of what is lexicography, hatching embryos are small in number because the sperm was running out. Also the paired ovaries are made up of characters, ovarioles which are strings of maturing oocytes. Only the terminal oocyte of an ovariole gets ovulated and is lexicography fertilized to participates in a current ootheca.

Sometimes the ovarioles develop tumors which then inactivates that ovariole from participating in of bath, a current or future ootheca. Sometimes if the female is not well fed and what is lexicography well supplied with water an embryo will die before hatching. Several phenomena contribute to harry bright how many offspring you will have. The female hissing cockroaches you bought may have been quite old adults when you purchased them. They do not show their age externally. With fresh larvae hatched to what rear, you can control their health and growth by how well you treat them. The males usually metamorphose to the adult stage first, sometimes an instar earlier than the females.

Feed the larval males and females well with a low nitrogen diet. Harry Bright? Mix ground dog biskit with corn starch to dilute the amount of protein nitrogen, moisten it with a bit of water and bake it into your own custom roach biskits. Too much nitrogen will give the cockroaches a form of gout, excess uric acid in their waste and their fat bodies. Is Lexicography? This gout can lead to an early death of your pet cockroaches. They are healthier if you feed them something like 10-15% dog biskit with 85-90% cornstarch. Give them a banana or carrot slice occasionally. Keep their container relatively clean and Puffin Paper look at is lexicography their fecal pellets to see if they have too much uric acid in them. They will be white if they have too much uric acid.

A healthy first parturition female Gromphadorhina portentosa can have 40-60 live offspring at in the each birth as you have read. Good luck. PS: Virgin births (parthenogenesis) is known among cockroaches! I . wonder if you might help me with (a) hypothetical: Say someone had found a cockroach that had been living near water and food contaminated by runoff from a golf course. Is Lexicography? It appears normal accept that it's roughly the Puffin Paper size of a shoebox. How might you go about trying to explain such a thing? In your section on the Roach's size being regulated by its respiratory system and wondered if the is lexicography two things might be connected?` The possibility that a local phenomenon, pollution runoff at a golf course, could be the basis for the appearance of a 'hopeful monster' is an Stress and Performance unlikely outcome. The concept of what, a 'hopeful monster', your 'shoebox sized cockroach', is not new and you can read about such phenomena, which was most recently described by Puffin Research Paper, the late Stephen Jay Gould. Find out about this phenomenon by what is lexicography, googling 'hopeful monster'.

What other insects or arachnids are related to the cockroach? Are scorpions or lobsters? Cockroaches are in Atlantic Paper, the insect order Dictyoptera, which, to some, is a super order of the cockroaches, termites and preying mantids. In my mind, this is a firmly established group based on what molecular as well as morphological and physiological evidence. The Wife Of Bath? I myself have published immunological evidence that the is lexicography termites are like another family of and Performance, cockroaches with the preying mantids being more distant from both termites and cockroaches. What Is Lexicography? The termites can be considered social-cockroaches (they have a king and queen, workers and soldiers) and the preying mantids are anti-social-cockroaches (the bride eats the groom after mating!). Bjoern M. And Performance? von Reumont, Ronald A. Jenner, Matthew A. Wills, Emiliano Dell'Ampio, Gunther Pass, Ingo Ebersberger, Benjamin Meyer, Stefan Koenemann, Thomas M. What Is Lexicography? Iliffe, Alexandros Stamatakis, Oliver Niehuis, Karen Meusemann, and Bernhard Misof. The Wife Characters? (2012). Pancrustacean Phylogeny in the Light of New Phylogenomic Data: Support for Remipedia as the Possible Sister Group of is lexicography, Hexapoda. Mol. Biol. Evol.

29(3):1031-1045. . In one of (your) FAQs, someone asked about roaches making sounds, and harry bright you replied that to the best of your knowledge the (pest species) didn't communicate through sounds. However, one thing I noted at what one point when my home was suffering a rather bad infestation of the wife of bath characters, American roaches is that at night I would hear a clicking sound, very similar to the sound made when a person snaps a fingernail and thumbnail together. If I made this snapping noise with my fingernails, I'd get a chorus of is lexicography, replies. When I eliminated the roaches, the clicking noises also were eliminated. So although the evidence is a bit circumstantial, I believe that the American roach actually communicates via this clicking sound, perhaps a mating call? Good observation! That sound might fall within the realm of harry bright, stridulation which I mentioned about some species of cockroach.

One might ask how stridulation developed evolutionarily and what it might have started with a few clicks of the roach wings or limbs against one another. Your experiment with inducing them to Atlantic Research Paper click is particularly telling. I would think that rather than mating, which has been studied fairly thoroughly, that the clicking might be a warning that is transmitted through the what is lexicography roach world. Atlantic? In certain species of the closely related termites the large headed soldiers do head-knocking behavior in their wooden galleries, banging their little heads against the wooden walls which sends an alarm signal to the rest of the colony. Alarm-signal evidence in cockroaches would be an what is lexicography important finding. It would be further evidence of harry bright, a social structure beyond mating much as white-tailed deer flash their tails or turkeys gobble a warning to fellow turkeys when danger arises. You may not be willing to recreate the environment in which the is lexicography roaches were clicking and could respond to in the eye your nail-snaps but that would be necessary in order to is lexicography design experiments to test your 'communication hypothesis'. Someone may read this in my FAQ and do just that. In fact, we may need my readership to do the experiment you just described since once a person rids their home of cockroaches there is no desire to go back. Before you readers decimate the roach population in your home, please do the interesting experiment described above!

We are the producers of a commonly used household item. My question is women in hamlet, this, we distribute product to what off sight clearing houses (shipping consolidators). Recently we delivered a job to such a facility and they in turn got the product to the ultimate customer the next day. When the customer started opening the cather in the 20 some boxes he started finding cockroaches. What Is Lexicography? By the cather in the time he had emptied the boxes he had found and is lexicography killed ten roaches. We use common cardboard boxes as packing material, comparable to a sealed box of canned goods you would find in a grocery store.

If we delivered to an infested site how long would it take the little buggers to harry bright get in the boxes? I know this particular job did not sit on their dock for more than 12 hours. Cockroaches are active for what is lexicography, the four hours after the normal 'lights out' in Atlantic Puffin, a building. Your shipment was presumably packed in the evening and sat in the dark, perhaps still somewhat open, at the end of business. What Is Lexicography? The cockroaches became active and then after their four hours of activity they sought a hiding place for the coming day. Some hid in your packages and haw origin then were found upon eventual delivery the next day. Growing up, my room was the only room in my parents house that cockroaches completely infested. I was and still AM a very clean person so I don't attribute their infesting to food or uncleanliness. Is Lexicography? I've had cockroaches drop on me in the middle of the night countless times, fly directly at me, fall on me in the shower, crawl underneath my pillow/couch cushion sit on my purse strap or inside my purse, crawl in and Performance Essay, my shoes/clothes, crawl in my drawers, etc. What Is Lexicography? . (Are) cockroaches . attracted to my scent, is that possible? In 2005 scientists at Cornell and NC State, including my good colleague Coby Schal, identified the elusive hormone that attracts the male of Blattella germanica to Stress and Performance Essay the female.

A news release of that discovery can be viewed at URL: Q73: Liz Jeavans asks: I would like to is lexicography know how cockroaches walk up walls. I heard that they have statically charged feet, but is this true? Liz, The feet of insects including cockroaches are made up of a brush like pile which reacts with a surface like myriad weak suction cups. The weak forces involve adding together thousands of such individual adhering pillus ends and result in a strong enough force to suspend the body of a fly, a roach or even larger non-insectal critters such as lizards. To step the cockroach must remove the pilli individually in a wave, like ripping off some cellophane or an adhesive bandage. If you tried ripping off a bandage whole at one time it would not come off but if you rip it off from one edge it comes of easily. So the insects and lizards had invented reusable tape long before humans.

Here is the wife of bath characters, a detailed URL on what the topic: Q72: Arlette Koiiman asks: I saw one cockroach with an ootheca when I caught it to throw it out. My question is, where are the and Performance cockroaches most likely to place the ootheca?? Would they chose a specific location, or would they just loose the ootheca whenever the time is right? Is it likely they would choose a spot in a frequently used airconditioned room?

Would they climb into the drawers or closet and chose to place it between your clothes. Blattella germanica the German cockroach is the commonest small pest roach and carries its egg case until it hatches in about 18 days at 30C. What Is Lexicography? At hatching the ootheca is on the female or dropped at random wherever she is at the time. Periplaneta americana or Blatta orientalis are the commonest large pest roaches. They carry their egg case for a few days and then deposit it in a corner or crevice, cementing it there with local debris and Research Paper saliva. A favorite place is in what, the corrugations of corrugated cardboard. They chew a hole into the cardboard and use the harry bright chewings to paste together over the ootheca that they have placed into the hole they have made in the cardboard. They would not typically burrow into what clothing in a drawer to do it. Stress Essay? They might chose the corner of the drawer and use some of the lint available to glue together over the deposited ootheca. Cockroaches prefer warm temperatures and what is lexicography it depends what temperature of air conditioning is imposed on the room they find themselves.

Cockroaches prefer temperatures between 25 and 30C. They will move from a cooler spot to the warmer spot as long as it satisfies their basic drives: thirst, hunger and sex. Does Cockroach like to be touched on all its sides? What is the word for it? Thigmotropic. [Greek thigma , touch; as in thigmotaxis + -tropism.] This is a word used often in the plant world where a plant entwines itself about another object such as a vine climbing another vine or a tree or a string. Cockroaches are thigmotropic in the sense that they like to conform to a hiding place during the day, conforming to Puffin Research a curve or having something touching them on top and bottom such as in what, a crevice.

Q70: Merilliza Chan asks: Is it true that a cockroach can lay eggs without mating. how is that possible? o_o. There are three issues here, egg laying, fertile egg laying and virgin birth: 1) Cockroaches and many other animals can lay eggs (infertile) without mating. Eye? A cockroach and what most other organisms must begin maturing their eggs (oocytes) in their ovary considerably before mating (humans too). The egg is ovulated on Stress and Performance a schedule that is determined by whether it has developed in is lexicography, the ovary to a point when it is women in hamlet, ready for ovulation. 2) After ovulation, there may or may not be sperm to fertilize the egg that is ovulated. In cockroaches, if there are no sperm to fertilize the egg, the ootheca that covers the eggs is is lexicography, often thinner.

The cockroach's physiology knows not to waste the protein on Essay producing a thick oothecal covering and very often the female will eat the what infertile eggs regaining the harry bright stored yolk protein lest it be wasted from the cockroach's nutritional economy. 3) Parthenogenesis is the is lexicography process of producing fertile eggs without male participation. Some species of cockroach use parthenogenesis as a rule (there are no males, or very rare males in such species). The American cockroach is said to be able to harry bright produce parthenogenetic offspring under severe conditions when no males are available. Why is there not a single photo of cockroach eggs on the net? Well ok I saw 2 photos on google image but they were drawn or cr___y! Cockroach eggs do not occur in nature singly, they come in batches called oothecae. I have several images of cockroach eggs in what, an ootheca often extruding from the and Performance Essay rear end of the female. Try the following links. Two families of cockroaches (Blattinae and Blattellidae) extrude the is lexicography ootheca and hold onto it for a few day until they deposit it in a safe place to hatch about a month later.

One genus of Essay, Blattellinae, Blattella , including our favorite Blattella germanica , the German cockroach, holds onto the ootheca extruding from its rear end until it hatches: The entire Blaberidae family of tropical cockroaches incubate their ootheca covered eggs internally and you never see their ootheca unless you are someone like me who rears them and you see the what is lexicography ootheca during the extrusion phase after which they take it back into the uterus and incubate it until hatching/birth. Probably more than you ever wanted to know about the visibility of cockroach eggs. Finally, you would have seen more cockroach egg pictures on the internet if you had searched Google Image for 'ootheca' rather than 'cockroach egg' What color are cockroaches most atrackted to? Cockroaches (and most other insects) have two light receptors, one sensitive in hem and haw origin, the ultraviolet range and one in the green range. What? Many insects also have a third light receptor peaking in the blue.

Most pest cockroaches are not attracted to light. They are active at night and women in hamlet if anything they might avoid light. However, if you have a patio that is lit you might be asking what type of is lexicography, light should you have in harry bright, your patio lighting scheme. The yellow 'bug' lights would be least visible to any of the is lexicography wild cockroaches that can see light and of bath characters fly and often are attracted to what porch and patio lights. A fluorescent light has ultraviolet in its spectrum and thus could attract insects. A normal incandescent light will have the usual blue and green light in its spectrum and thus attracts insects that see that light.

The actual question of whether they are attracted to the light is another issue. Cather In The? Insects attracted to porch lights are often exhibiting the moth to a flame attraction phenomenon. Insects flying at night are often orienting to a light they interpret as the what moon. If you are trying to fly in a straight line you might chose to keep the moon at a constant angle in your front line of sight. Since the moon is so far away, that keeps you going in a straight line.

However if you mistake a porch light for the moon and keep a constant angle to it, you are likely to spiral into the light - like a moth into Stress Essay a flame. What Is Lexicography? Insects, in that instance, are not attracted to harry bright the light but are using it for what is lexicography, navigation. Q67: Mike Delozier asks: We wanted to determine just how big a cockroach could get. Would the physiology and structure of the insect allow it to be as big as a dog or cat?

We had heard if a spider got that big they would suffocate because the physiological structure couldn't support it. Is there any similar restrictions with the roach? That is a classic question in insect physiology. Insects are usually thought to be limited by the free diffusion in air of cather eye, oxygen into what their innermost tissues and free diffusion of CO 2 out. Insects supply their tissues with oxygen using their segmental spiracular openings and the tracheal tubes that divide and subdivide until they reach the size of tracheoles which are small tubes that directly tangent the cell surface and Atlantic Puffin Paper gases exchange. What Is Lexicography? This subdivision is haw origin, such that the cross sectional area of the tube does not change at each subdivision.

If the cross-sectional area of each tracheole at the cellular level does not change, it necessarily follows that as the insect volume increases, the size of the outermost tracheal trunk will needs be get larger in proportion to tissue volume. Given the properties of surface to volume, there is an upper limit to the size of an insect if the principles outlined are held constant. Extrapolated, the cross- sectional area of the spiracular openings would need to be larger than the available insect outer surface. These limits might be overcome if in the larger insects a tidal lung function was developed. In some of the larger cockroaches there is a sort of is lexicography, tidal rhythm that occurs through the action of body wall muscles contracting and relaxing. This might extend the size of a cockroach by compensating for the need to maintain a constant crossectional area from the smallest to the biggest tracheae. A tidal 'lung' function would get more air into the large tracheal trunks, but would not solve the basic problem of the size of the general tracheal system. I doubt that a single level of tidal 'lung' would allow the in the cockroach to what get much larger than the current tropical cockroaches like Blaberus giganteus but it would be nice for someone to put a firmer theoretical basis on that limit. Good luck!

Q66: Wallace Anderson asks: . I was kinda worried because it (the leaf roach) seemed to have been injured a little when I swiped it from my hair where it had landed unexpectedly. . Will it heal? Good question! Actually I did my Ph.D. dissertation on that very topic. The Wife Characters? Cockroach regeneration of limbs. What Is Lexicography? I wrote a chapter in a book on cather in the eye cockroaches on the topic: Q65: Mariele Pellecer ask: I . wanted to know how do you sex them ( Blattella germanica ) before they molt to adults? Since this is an what is lexicography important issue for cockroach biologists I constructed a page to explain it as I understand it from Mary Ross and Don Cochran, and have used this technique for decades. It is almost fool-proof:

Q64: Karna and Izzy and Sarah ask: . we are moving. Cather In The Eye? And we have a problem with big huge roaches in what is lexicography, our house, mainly kitchen and bathroom. I am VERY worried that during packing and moving the roaches will jump into my suitcases and nest in my clothes. What can I tell you? Cockroach larvae will hide anywhere they can.

Moving with migrating human populations is exactly how pest roaches have gotten around the world. I have no magic solution. Kill the roaches any way you can before you reach your new home. If you have roaches you can see, you need to do a general extermination to get them all, visible and invisible. Fumigate the Stress Essay moving van? I am not an exterminator and is lexicography have no special expertise in hem and, that respect.

After cooking pizza in my microwave, I opened the microwave . and discovered a small roach . still alive. . is it possible that it was in the microwave . and . survived? This experiment has been done often. The microwave oven is amazingly non-uniform in its heating. What? That is why most of them have carousels to keep the women in hamlet food moving through the focus of the power. The roach you found was clearly not at the focus of the microwaves, otherwise it would have exploded under the heating regime at the focus. I wonder if you know of any roaches that have spiny protrusions extending from a slightly elongated abdomen that they upend and essentially point at each other when fighting. The cockroach species, Diploptera punctata , is found in Hawaii. It has cerci protruding from the tip of what, its abdomen and it will spray an acrid fluid from its upturned abdomen at attackers, usually not at each other but some small rodent intent on eating them. Here is harry bright, a picture of a Diploptera family, (counter-clockwise) 2 adults, 3 larval stages, a late embryo and packet of eggs. Of course, your description sounds like a scorpion, which is not a cockroach but is a household pest in the US southwest. It also sounds like an earwig which has pincer like protrusions from the tip of their abdomen with teeth that are reared up in the air when they are disturbed.

You may be mistaken about the what is lexicography fighting. Mating male cockroaches extend their abdomen and point it at of bath characters the female offering her a taste of a secretion on what his abdomen. In The? If the female feeds on what this gland it stimulates the women in hamlet male to continue the mating process, eventually copulating and transferring a package of sperm to what is lexicography the female which then uses it for the next month or two fertilizing eggs. What is the little brown sac that falls out of some roaches when they are dying? That is a sac of eggs, called an ootheca. See the pictures at URLs: The females carry the ootheca protruding from their bursa which is at their tail end until, depending on the species, it hatches, they hide it somewhere or until they retract it into their uterus to incubate it until the women in hamlet eggs hatch. The German cockroach carries it around until it hatches and might be the is lexicography culprit you are specifically asking about. The American cockroach carries it around for a day or two until it hardens and darkens and the wife of bath characters then hides it in a crevasse covered with some camouflage they glue in place with saliva. What? The ootheca is only gently held in the bursa and could easily fall off when the roach is roughly handled or dying.

Q60: Elizabeth Palmer asks: How much weight can a cockroach carry? For instance, an ant can carry it's own weight. That saying about the ant sounds just as offhand as what I might give for the cockroach, but for cather, an important difference: The ant is a forager which is what, designed to find and carry objects back to its colony nest. Carrying things has a meaning for ants based on hem and haw origin their innate behavior.

The cockroach does not move things more than a few millimeters when it lifts things that it is what is lexicography, nibbling while eating or tasting. Cather In The? Therefore the carrying question is meaningless in most situations. Cockroaches were not designed to carry foreign objects around. The ant can probably carry things twice its weight. What Is Lexicography? . This is hem and, a perfect question for an undergraduate lab, but not particularly interesting to is lexicography an insect physiologist. It would engage the student in trying to get the cockroach and ant to carry something. The student would hopefully learn that the ant instinctively carries things off and the cockroach does not. Women In Hamlet? This exercise would teach that the posing of a logical experimental question is an important step in doing research. A close relative of the cockroach is the preying mantis which catches and is lexicography lifts other insects to eat them. The females will even catch and eat the male after she mates with him.

The male in women in hamlet, mating with the is lexicography female, jumps on its back and is carried around during the mating process. The male weighs a bit less than the female but you could say that the female mantis can lift its own weight (or that of a mate). In this case the female does carry the male on her back while mating, then she grabs him and eats him on the spot, usually without carrying him any further. Similarly the other close relative of the cockroach, the termite, is cather in the eye, a social insect which lives in a nest but it does not go foraging and bring back large objects the way that an ant does. The termite can forage for bits of wood and does lift bits of wet saliva soaked wood in is lexicography, order to extend its nest, often building huge structures in Essay, Africa, or, more close to home, tunnels from house siding across foundation to is lexicography ground. Carrying of this building material is the wife characters, essential to survival for these termites. The cockroach female does not carry the male on her back during the mating process as the mantid and many other insects do, they mate tail to what is lexicography tail with no carrying involved. The Wife Characters? So, you need to create a question about cockroaches that has meaning. A carrying question about a cockroach is what is lexicography, not meaningful, unless you could create a situation in which it needs to carry something.

When a group of cockroaches is very hungry I have observed them competing for food. Occasionally I have seen a cockroach drag a piece of food off to haw origin nibble on it without being harassed by close neighbors. This is the only situation I have observed in which a cockroach does anything close to carry an object. Then a good question might be: When a group of cockroaches has been starved, how much food could an individual cockroach lift and carry off in that situation? I do not know the answer. Reader Janis Innis (july 11, 2009) notes: I observed a roach running with a large chunk of dog food. It was running across the kitchen, but when I entered the room, it turned and is lexicography ran back towards the other side of the Puffin Research Paper room. I would estimate it covered six feet while I was watching it. I would guess the dry dog food chunk weighed much more than the roach. What Is Lexicography? . Q59: Jennifer Manley asks:

I have an insect that I believe to be a Blaberus colloseus , just judging by the one picture I could find on the internet. Can you tell me where to find out anything about this guy? I'm not having any luck on the internet. Ans: Jennifer, My experience with Blaberus species is Atlantic Puffin Research Paper, limited to is lexicography B. giganteus, B. discoidalis , and B. cranifer . Now that other species of Blaberus are becoming attractive as pets and feeder cultures worldwide, our poor understanding and literature about the diversity of species in this and most other cockroach genera is becoming obvious. The three species I mentioned were the first to Atlantic Paper be cultured in what, research labs and by hobbyists. There is a reasonable scientific literature on their use as lab animals. We actually know little about Research Paper, their natural ecology and behavior except where experimentalists and hobbyists have taken the what is lexicography time to Paper describe it. I have no information and what could find no information at PubMed or Web-of-Science on Blaberus colloseus the Ecuador roach or Blaberus colossus , the more likely spelling. It is also possible that this name is a synonym or a mistake that you have run across on the internet on the many hobbyist pages dealing with cockroaches.

One note of caution, many Blaberus species look alike and if you have collected your Blaberus species in the wilds of the southern USA, it is most likely B. discoidalis or B. giganteus which can be found in the wild on cather in the our southern USA coast. I'm a freelance editor on deadline trying to edit a story on roaches for a reading textbook . (T)here is so much conflicting information on the web. . (C)ould you clear up the following . What? questions for me? Ans: That number is not the women in hamlet usual number quoted and is ( 40 x 5-6) = 200-240. Is Lexicography? In my substantial experience using B. germanica in my lab, a single female can produce at max about 5-6 egg cases during her lifetime, each about a month apart after her own approximate 35 day juvenile phase. The timing depends on temperature and they develop most quickly at Puffin Research Paper 30C. Each egg case has approximately 40 eggs so that means a single female will only what is lexicography, produce 240 primary offspring. However most people like to in the eye scare you with the calculation of total progeny. That means understanding that only half the 240 primary offspring are females who could each also have 240 offspring half of which are females. What? Depending on the temperature one needs to calculate the larger number of offspring that a female can produce in a year, which is the usual number that is quoted.

Ans: The American cockroach produces 1 ootheca per 2.5-3 days with each ootheca bearing about cather in the, 12 offspring. The number of ootheca in the adult life of an American roach is what, probably somewhere in the literature. The egg cases start being less frequent as the female gets older and some of the ovarioles become inactive such that an ootheca might only contain 6-8 eggs in later life. I presume an adult female might continue the output for 6 months (although that is a guess) so resulting in haw origin, 60 ootheca x 12 = 720 offspring. The variance about this average might be quite high so I would not be surprised by actual counts of females producing 500-1400 offspring in her lifetime. I see that you've mentioned that cockroaches are connected to asthma in kids. Please could you explain this to me? Why do they cause atshma? A: Rochelle, You ask a good question. Why do we develop asthma from interaction with some object we might experience particularly as a child (i.e. childhood asthma)?

Asthma is an over-reaction of our body to a foreign antigen we find in our environment. We have special antibodies in our serum, immunoglobulin E, that are associated with allergic reactions. Is Lexicography? When we develop an allergy to something in the wife characters, our environment that allergic reaction sometimes takes directions that are dangerous to the individual. What Is Lexicography? A severe reaction is Stress, anaphylactic shock which can kill you. A milder reaction includes various levels of asthma. Why do children develop asthma by what, growing up in a cockroach infested home? Young children crawl around on the floors and the wife characters carpets which may have the parts and proteins of cockroaches imbedded in them. Is Lexicography? The same goes for Atlantic Puffin, pet dander and allergies to dogs and cat dander. When an allergy test is given to what those asthmatic individuals they find the children react perhaps to cockroach antigen and perhaps to dog or cat dander antigen. Only certain children develop the allergies and the asthmatic reaction to those conditions.

This seems to be partly an inherited tendency, so, allergic parents may pass on the tendency to become allergic to haw origin their children. Here is an authoritative link to discussions of the is lexicography relation between allergies and Atlantic Puffin asthma. How fast are cockroaches? A: Glesne, Cockroaches are fast enough. They have giant fibers in their ventral nerve cord that transmit the sensory info from their cerci, which sense air currents, directly to their thoracic ganglia which control their leg muscles. This is a reflex circuit which does not need any decision by the cockroach brain. It is fast enough to what detect the air wave in front of a predator and harry bright allows the cockroach to is lexicography scuttle away, avoiding capture. If you want to know how fast in cm/sec you will have to do your own experiment. Each species would have its own behavioral and mechanical limits of speed. Atlantic Puffin Research Paper? You might make your measurement of speed in terms of body lengths per second which might allow you to compare species of what, cockroaches. What would be your measuring conditions?

Starting from a full stop and measure speed after 0.1 or 0.2 seconds? You have some thinking to do before you can decide how to measure the cockroach speed. How long can a cockroach maintain its top speed? How long does it take to cather in the eye accelerate to its top speed? Q55: Justin Winstead asks: I had a debate with my brother and is lexicography his wife over whether or not cockroaches live in organized groups. I said that they do live in Stress Essay, organized groups and they acted like I was crazy. Can you set us straight please?

A: Justin, Social structure in is lexicography, the cockroach pest species is next to invisible. Puffin Paper? However there are a few indications of group organization. Most such behavior would not be considered social: 1) Many cockroaches care for their eggs until they hatch, including the is lexicography German cockroach which carries the eggs externally until they hatch. Cather Eye? A whole Family of cockroaches, the Blaberidae with subfamilies Blaberinae, Zetoborinae, Epilamprinae Diplopterinae and Pycnoscelinae among others, carry the eggs internally until they hatch. One Blaberid species, Diploptera sp. What? , provides nutrition to the embryos which actually molt in utero several times such that they need only molt three times after they are born to become adults, URL: D_punctata-devel-2864.JPG.

2) There is a so-called group-effect among the harry bright young of German cockroaches. Is Lexicography? If they are alone they develop very slowly. If there are at least two larvae in a defined space they accelerate their development to become adults. This later behavior is a mechanism that increases the of bath characters probability that two adults will be present by the time adulthood is reached. Unfortunately, this effect is what, sex-neutral so the two adults could be both males or both females with a probability of 50%. 3) The termites are a group of insects that have approximately the women in hamlet same level evolutionary relationship as Families of what, cockroaches. This group is highly social and could be considered the social branch of the cockroach evolutionary tree. Any suspected social organization of Stress, your pest species is more likely a misunderstanding when one finds them all hiding together during their quiet period which is during our daytime. Hiding spaces are at a premium and a good hiding space will be used by is lexicography, many cockroaches. Is sleeping-together living in organized groups?

Do they aggregate during their quiet phase to activate the group effect, which may insure they are able to reproduce effectively? Q54: Laurie Betts asks: Are there Australian cockroaches in the USA? A: Laurie, There is a pest cockroach, Periplaneta australasiae , which is common outdoors in the southern USA. It is eye, commonly called the Australian cockroach. It is found worldwide as a pest and also called the greenhouse cockroach because of its predilection for establishing itself as a pest in the warmth of greenhouses at all latitudes. It is also found in western Australia.

I am not sure of the etymology of the common name, 'Australian cockroach'. The actual geographic origin of is lexicography, pest species is women in hamlet, not easy to determine. North Africa seems to be the what major focus of the wild species of the genus Periplaneta , thus Periplaneta americana is thought to eye originate in North Africa despite its common name, the is lexicography American cockroach. It is women in hamlet, thought that the pest species of cockroaches have dispersed around the what world with the, relatively recent, early human migrations, explorations and trading activity. Harry Bright? The 1400's - 1600's would be considered relatively recent relative to the 250 myr history of cockroach evolution. The scientific name is P. australasiae , which translates to is lexicography Periplaneta of southern ( austral -) asia. The 'austral' of the scientific name does not necessarily indicate that it is from Australia but more correctly from southern Asia. The '-asiae' is the Latin genitive of possession, suggesting 'this Periplaneta belongs to southern Asia'. 'Australia' is generally thought of as the 'southern continent' not 'southern Asia'. The scientific, Latin names of Stress, insects and their common names, if common names exist, are often applied for local or mistaken reasons.

Somehow, the common name 'Australian' was applied at some point in time to P. australasiae . See URL: There is another answer to your question. Is Lexicography? The cockroach Family group, Polyzosterinae, is almost entirely found in Australia, thus it could be thought of Stress and Performance Essay, as a group of Australian cockroaches. It has hundreds of described species, most if not all wingless as adults. There is what, one species of of bath characters, this Family in the USA, Eurycotis floridana . It is thought that E. floridana reached the USA prehistorically when Australia was part of the plates that made up the super-continent Pangaea. During the separation of Australia from is lexicography, South America, about 50 myr ago, it is thought that the then nuclear Family of which Eurycotis was a member split, sending one or a few representatives up into Atlantic Paper South American landmass and the remainder in the future Australian landmass.

The Eurycotis genus is thought to have reached the USA across the Central American land-bridge. Eurycotis floridana is the only surviving species of the Polyzosterinae in is lexicography, the USA while the Puffin Polyzosterinae blossomed in what is lexicography, Australia. So you can say that there is at in the least one Australian cockroach in the USA, E. floridana . . Is Lexicography? or two if you include P. Women In Hamlet? australasiae . Q53: Kian Hwee (Singapore) asks: . can you share with me a few examples of cockroaches that evolved some kind of symbiotic relationship with other living organisms? Thank you. A: Kian Hwee, Cockroaches in general have one very important symbiotic relationship with bacteroids living in is lexicography, special cells, mycetocytes, in haw origin, their fat body tissue. Is Lexicography? The bacteroids are passed from Stress and Performance Essay, generation to generation as a thin coating on their eggs, between the chorion and the oocyte cell membrane. During embryology these bacteroids invest in the female future ovary and the developing fat body tissue. The bacteroids produce all the vitamins needed by the cockroach with the exception of choline and cholesterol which remain as the only essential vitamins of the cockroach. The close relatives, termites and is lexicography preying mantids have lost or never gained this type of symbiont. They must get their vitamins, like Vit A and D, in eye, their food. This is a true symbiotic relationship since the cockroaches have protected the bacteroids over the millions of years of their association and what probably these bacteria-like organisms have been protected from changes forced on cather in the eye their strains by mating with other bacterial strains and have remained true to their type since they accepted the cloistered life they enjoy in the cockroach fat body.

As long as the cockroach survives, these bacteroids will survive. They have hung their survival on a pretty sure bet. How is that for a symbiotic benefit? The cockroach makes out pretty well also since due to the vitamins supplied by the bacteroids, the cockroach can eat almost anything organic without thinking of whether it has vitamins and essential amino acids, which we all need to get via our diet or a vitamin pill! How would we know a cockroach was still alive if it does not move? My son would like to is lexicography perform the experiment of cutting off a roaches head. I looked through the questions already posted, but did not see how we would know it was still alive if it doesn't move.

A: Mendriks, The headless cockroach will move if stimulated with a feather or a toothpick. The cockroach will sense an irritation on its leg or back and move to avoid it if it is still alive. The way to do the experiment with the harry bright greatest chance of what is lexicography, success is to Stress and Performance take some old-fashion dental floss, the type made up of very fine filaments and what is lexicography make a simple loop knot that is put over the cockroaches head and drawn tight around its neck. You can also use a fine silk thread or hair from Research, your head and similarly make a loop knot that can be tightened. At that point you can cut the head off on the head-side of the knot. This prevents the cockroach from what, losing any blood. The roach without its heads will survive for several days at least and, if kept from developing any mold, it can last for a month.

Without the knot the experiment will work but if you disturb it too early, before a blood clot is formed on the wound, the cockroach will expel its innards through its neck and die thereof. I read here that the cockroach can live for about a month without its head. Is it possible for a female to be headless and get pregnant by a male and give birth before it dies? A: Robert, your question requires explaining several scenarios: (1) A female carrying fertilized eggs could be headless and the eggs she carries could hatch. (2) Females also store sperm and can fertilize several subsequent egg packages (oothecae) before they need to mate with a male again. However, a cockroach female needs the head associated gland, corpora allata , to harry bright produce the reproductive hormone, JH, to produce a batch of eggs and produce the pheromone that attracts a male to what is lexicography mate. Women In Hamlet? Therefore a headless unmated female would not mate and produce fertilized eggs. (3) Whether a mated female with ripe eggs who loses her head could ovulate the now mature eggs and what is lexicography hold onto them until they hatched is questionable. I am not sure if we know the Stress Essay answer to that question. What? I do know that I did take the ovaries out from of a female German cockroach that was half-way through her ovulation of Atlantic Research, eggs.

The eggs continued to be ovulated in the physiological saline that I was observing them in. What? I do not know if the other organs that put the oothecal covering over the eggs would have functioned properly. This would be a simple experiment to hem and confirm using the what synchronized batches of mated females that I have used previously in my experiments, URL: (4) In Blattella germanica , the the wife German cockroach, the ootheca is held by the female for about 18 days before it hatches. The female provides moisture to the ootheca which the female carries protruding from her bursa. It is precisely the moisture that she provides the ootheca that is in short supply when her head is severed. What? I doubt that a female which has lost her head and just ovulated her eggs could bring those eggs to cather term and what is lexicography hatching given the inability to provide water. In The Eye? In a moist atmosphere perhaps it would be possible.

(5) Periplaneta americana , the American cockroach, lays its eggs, one ootheca every 3 days, carrying the ootheca for about one day before depositing it somewhere safe. Is Lexicography? If such a female lost her head prior to dropping the ootheca then I am not sure whether the ootheca would be dropped but it is entirely provisioned with enough water to last until it hatches. So, your question's answer has several stages of possibility. If get pregnant means to mate with a male then losing a head would prevent mating. If a female has already gotten to the stage when she has released her sex pheromone to cather attract the male then a male would be attracted but the female must exhibit some requisite behavior, requiring the what head, when a male presents himself to mate with her. Without its head it would not accept the harry bright male's mating overtures. But if a female was already mated before her head was lost and get pregnant means the ovulation and fertilization of the eggs by the already acquired sperm, then the above discussion does not absolutely preclude her producing and hatching some eggs. Carried eggs might well hatch, unovulated eggs might ovulate and be fertilized but whether they would acquire the requisite oothecal covering to reach hatching is experimentally unknown at the moment.

That is a good question. My 9 year old son came home today telling me that his science teacher told him that cockroaches were being used in large farms to produce methane gas. What Is Lexicography? I had never heard of this. Any truth to it? Your son may have access to some information of which I am not aware. The practicality of harry bright, methane production by cockroaches is not established as far as I know.

In 1991 some researchers in Tanzania did discover that there are methanogenic bacteria in the gut of Periplaneta americana , the American cockroach. Is Lexicography? Also in 1991 some Michigan State researchers discovered that the American cockroach will produce methane gas preferentially when they are fed a high fiber diet. These publications were part of a flurry of publications about methane production by cockroaches in cather eye, the early 1990's. You can find these publications by using Google/Scholar: . and searching on: methane cockroach. I have not found that these facts have been commercialized into is lexicography farms for the production of methane. Some scientific discoveries are interesting but are dead ends commercially. Harry Bright? Small businesses however often go bankrupt because of what, poor planning and Research management; and perhaps the underlying ideas are still sound.

There could be an industrious farmer out there in Tanzania or Canada or Michigan who dreams of what, making it big in the alternative energy and perhaps fertilizer byproduct market. Q49: Timothy Ampi asks: Does cockroach have emotion (fear, anger, happy)? Emotion is not usually associated with insect or cockroach behavior. The cold and unmoving surfaces of the insect exoskeleton do not allow for movement of surface muscles and skin that one can interpret as a smile or other facial emotion. Insects react to environmental cues with reflexes that we usually do not interpret as emotion. Have you ever seen the waggle communication of the worker honeybee? It is used to communicate the hem and haw origin direction and richness of is lexicography, a nectar source. That is interpreted by insect behaviorists to hem and haw origin be a reflex behavioral response released by finding the what is lexicography nectar source.

The public might interpret it as an indication that the worker is happy at finding the of bath sweet nectar. What Is Lexicography? Go figure? Is there any evidence that the bee is happy? What would that evidence be? Is a bee worker angry when it stings an and Performance intruder to the hive? We subjectively use the terminology angry worker bee. Now, is there any behavior that you might ascribe to what something you see a cockroach do? Is their escape behavior based on hem and haw origin fear?

Or is it a 'simple' reflex? Science would suggest it is a simple reflex in all the above cases of insect behavior. Our emotions (e.g. happiness) are associated with the release of certain chemicals in what, the brain (endorphins) which also have been discovered in the insect brain. Does that mean that insects feel happiness? Does that mean that what we call happiness, endorphin release, in humans (or mice) is a reflex? These are difficult subjective questions that science rarely deals with but are fun for us to harry bright think about. If you conclude that insects and cockroaches feel emotions would you treat them differently? Read the poem St.

Roach by Muriel Rukeyser. Q48: Martha Johnson asks: I am interested in is lexicography, some type of harry bright, roach control that is safe and non-toxic for myself, an invalid, and is lexicography my companion dog. We live in coastal Texas with high humidity and a leaky roof. The problem is moving me anywhere away from my setup for any length of time is harry bright, impossible. and my dog loves (to eat) cockroaches. I used the Bengal product which worked for a while and also spread borax. I was involved as a consultant in the development of the Bengal product which uses a bait station dispensing a mold that is lethal to cockroaches (but non-toxic to what is lexicography vertebrate animals and humans), rather than a chemical poison. I highly recommend it but I would defer to the advice of professional control people because I have only a theoretical perspective on the matter.

The Bengal bait stations might have to harry bright be applied periodically if the mold dies out what due to a lack of critters to pass it on. The boric acid, not borax (a different compound), should not be dangerous to your dog if used in harry bright, small quantities as a dusting in isolated corners where your dog would not reach to sniff it into its lungs. Chemical safety bulletins are typically alarmist (e.g. Baker) and warn of respiratory damage and what is lexicography irritation if inhaled. A large amount (grams) needs to cather eye be ingested to be lethal. What Is Lexicography? It is commonly used in eye drops to cather in the eye wash your eyes if that is what is lexicography, any help in calming your fears of poisoning.

Some concern is haw origin, voiced about constant exposure. What? It is not a poison in small quantities and should not be spread in large quantities. People often feel that if a small amount is good, a lot will work better. In this case a small amount is good but a large amount could be dangerous. Also boric acid is said to Essay act in its dry form to abrade the cuticle of the cockroach so that it dies of water loss.

This might not be very effective in your situation where there is what is lexicography, abundant moisture that could dissolve the women in hamlet applied boric acid and thus make it ineffective as well as your leaky roof providing plenty of water to the roaches which would also save them from desiccating. These two solutions to roaches should not require that you or doggie companion to be moved out of your setup during their application as they are both non-toxic to vertebrates if applied in moderation. In my experience, 75% of what is lexicography, your problem is the excess moisture. Securing your roof in some way would make your roach control problems easier to solve with the methods you have already chosen. Q47: Alexandra Manou asks: What is the cockroach reproduction cycle? . Was told by Essay, pesticide company that it is 40days, including winter. According to them, unless treated on a monthly basis, they cannot be exterminated.

Is this true or an excuse for frequent visits? The reproductive cycle like the life cycle depends on what the temperature. It is maximum for most pest species at 30C which is about 86F. At that temperature an egg case is produced by _Blattella germanica_ adults in about 6 days but it is held by the female for 18 days before they hatch. The other common pest species, _Periplaneta americana_, deposits an egg case every 3 days at 30C and each egg case will hatch in about 30 days. Perhaps that is the magic number 30 that corresponds to the lunar monthly cycle that your exterminator has suggested is critical for cather in the eye, visits. The rates of egg production and development are temperature sensitive so at what 25C all the above times are approximately doubled, slowed down by the reduced temperature. Another 5C reduction again doubles the times and women in hamlet thus the German cockroach egg laying and hatching cycle would be quadrupled from 24 days to is lexicography 96 days. Most homes are cooler in the winter than the summer so roaches are probably growing and women in hamlet reproducing slower in the winter than the is lexicography summer. And Performance Essay? However the numbers involved may be determined by the exterminators practical experience for your area.

What works best in your community is probably not best determined by a professor of biology. Is Lexicography? For instance, the outdoor cockroach refuges that provide the reservoir of pests that would enter your home may be the determinant. Harry Bright? In cities, the sewer system may be the major reservoir of cockroaches and it is the is lexicography temperature there that possibly drives the infestation rate. Harry Bright? The sewer environment may maintain a more even tropical temperature year round. Q46: Thomas Coxey asks: Where did the cockroach get its name? Pest cockroaches have lived with people of many cultures perhaps before language developed. Here is a link to the common names given to cockroaches in different cultures:

Some common names have some suggestive associations. (1) Water Bug. (2) The German cockroach, Polish cockroach, Russian cockroach, Crotton bug all refer to the same species Blattella germanica because one community wanted to is lexicography name it after something they despised. (3) Some dominant societies have named their local pest cockroach after their oppressed native population. This practice is and Performance, a sad reflection of how far prejudice has driven our common language. Our common name 'cockroach' shares sounds with Dutch 'kakkerlak' and Spanish 'cucaracha' and is lexicography the Spanish song 'La Cucaracha' brings to mind vigorous stamping of the Research Paper flamenco dancers feet which could refer to the canons of war . or the stamping feet of a homeowner on is lexicography the pests. I am told by a reader that the song has multiple potential meanings. The origins of the names are entwined in early cultural history and only careful etymological and sociological study might discover the harry bright origins of our word 'cockroach'. I am not aware that such research has been successful in what, this case. Q45: Frank Melchior asks: I have a question. . Would a male and a female cockroach that weigh the same have the same hemolymph volume? Larval males and females of the same size have the same hemolymph volume.

Last instar females are bigger than last instar males, anticipating the larger abdominal format of the females and tend to have more hemolymph. Adult females are generally more robust than males particularly in the abdomen where the hem and haw origin ovaries of the female take up substantially more volume than the adult male gonads. What? In addition the fat body of the adult female is much more developed due to its involvement in vitellogenin synthesis in support of egg development. Atlantic Puffin Research Paper? Coincident with this greater abdominal tissue development there is more hemolymph in the reproductive adult female. Finding an adult female the same weight as an adult male might be difficult. The largest adult males and the smallest females might be the same weight and perhaps they might have the same blood volume but I doubt it. What? The females more extensive abdominal tissues are all laminar and would require more volume of blood to suspend them. I hypothesize that if you measure male and female blood volumes the cather in the adult females would have a larger blood volume when regressed against what is lexicography weight due to their greater tissue surface needs.

Q44: Katherine McGlothlin asks: What was the reason for this cockroach behavior? On Sept.29 around 9:00 pm in my front yard . I observed a large number of cockroaches (maybe 100-200) pouring out of a manhole. They seemed to flap around briefly, and then form a line 2-3 cockroach wide heading . towards a large tree. Half way to the tree they grouped into a large mass and continued to flap about. Harry Bright? It almost seemed to be a mating frenzy. This sight, . What Is Lexicography? was observed by harry bright, the light of a full moon, was . interesting and also creepy. I am not particularly a behavioral expert but I have seen such a frenzy in the lab on what is lexicography a smaller scale when I added a bunch of mature adult males to Atlantic Research Paper a bowl of what, virgin adult females who were all ready to mate. What you observed in the wild does sound like a mating frenzy. The population pressure in the utility/sewer was probably pretty high. Women In Hamlet? One or more females were probably sending out sex pheromone signaling that they were ready to mate and what they were being mobbed by males who were ready to mate.

The flapping of wings is the males' signal to the female that they are ready and the males would pursue the females and occasionally bunch together around what they sense was the source of the pheromone. The females would respond by palpating the abdomen of the Puffin Research Paper male she chose to have sex with and if she was really ready she would copulate with the most 'attractive' male. I do not know how common the mobbing phenomenon is but I expect it often happens down in the sewer as long as the population pressure is not high. I also would assume that it was only adult cockroaches that participated. The larval stages, without wings would have been unaffected by the behavioral cues being offered and would have stayed back in the sewer.

This behavior might have the purpose of what, getting the adults in a crowded population to Atlantic Puffin disperse before they mate and produce eggs. A close relative, the what termite, exhibits this adult mating flight swarming quite frequently. It is interesting that you may have stumbled on observing one of the traits that link the two groups (termites and cockroaches) from a behavioral point of view. Q43: Cressida Mahung asks: How can I tell if a cockroach is breathing? How do I measure the breathing rate? I would like to women in hamlet do project on this for my science fair, but I am stuck! The cockroach's breathing rate, like that of most insects, is what, controlled by Stress and Performance Essay, accumulation of carbon dioxide, not lack of oxygen. Is Lexicography? In order to conserve water the average insect closes its spiracles, which are the openings of the insect tracheal system that supplies oxygen to all tissues and removes the the wife carbon dioxide. Is Lexicography? When the carbon dioxide in the animals system rises to a critical level, the spiracles open and then CO 2 leaves the system and Stress and Performance oxygen enters.

In most small insects this opening and closing of the spiracles (breathing?) is not perceived from the general insect movement and thus we see insects as rather rigid. We see no obvious breathing. If you however look at breathing as the uptake of what is lexicography, oxygen from the available volume of air you could measure this disappearance of oxygen as volume of gas. I have done this in a student laboratory using an apparatus similar to the diagram below, a small vial with a stopper in its end through which a breathing tube is inserted: You could also restrain the insect under a microscope so that you could watch the hem and haw origin spiracles and watch them open and close. However, a restrained insect often struggles and its use of oxygen will go up abnormally. Some minimal restraint might be designed such as gluing the pronotum to a wand and giving the insect a small light ball to walk on. The wand can be maneuvered to allow the what abdominal spiracles to be observed by a dissecting microscope, allowing the spiracular opening rate to be counted. Q42: Joe Rowell asks:

I am a illustrator going to Savannah College of Art and Design and I am trying to illustrate a image from harry bright, a roaches point of is lexicography, view. What would that look like? You would be looking out of a crack at the wife the world during the early morning or during the day in a half stupor because you would be hiding there sleepy or asleep from 2AM to 10PM. At 10 PM when the human household turns off the lights you would come to life and be looking at the world from what is lexicography, weird angles since you would be scuttling on women in hamlet the floor or viewing the room in dim light from standing on the wall or the ceiling. Q41: Alejandro from the Phillipines asks: . I have observed that cockroaches in my house get wild before any earthquake occurs. They start running and getting out from their niches. . I have the what impression that cockroaches can feel some of the very early vibrations of an earthquake, small or big, and harry bright can be a very good help to give early warnings of earthquakes. Can you confirm this?

If you have done a careful experiment to demonstrate the phenomenon you should publish it. There have been newspaper articles professing to demonstrate that point (perhaps 20 years old) but I have never seen confirmation of earthquake prediction by cockroaches in the scientific journal literature. The type of proof that would be needed is a type of what, automated or regular observational record of the cockroaches and Atlantic Paper the demonstration of how that record changes and predicts future seismic activity. A scientific journal will not accept anecdotal observations but would require a careful experimental design with controls from periods with no following seismic activity. What Is Lexicography? Reliability would be another issue. Do the cockroaches predict every earthquake? Are there times they produce a false positive, i.e. their activity predicts a quake that does not happen? A better approach would be to build a small chamber that would act as an activity meter which would automatically record the women in hamlet cockroach activity. There are several designs for a cockroach activity meter. One that might be useful is a small light plastic pie plate with lid.

It would sit on a metal base that would conduct electricity. The plate would sit on a pin at its center that keeps the pie plate off the metal base except at one point on its rim. A large cockroach such as Periplaneta during its normal activity cycle would make the pie plate rotate on the metal plate as it walks around the plate. What? A wire at one or more places on the rim would make a circuit and that circuit closure could be recorded with its time of occurrence. In The? This activity rhythm (because cockroaches are normally active for 4 hours after lights go out in the evening) recording gives one a record of the normal activity something like the following: Then your seismic event might look like: . which predicts a seismic event at X, about 13:00 or 1PM.

While that is the general design of the experimental setup it can be adapted to several other specific hardware designs. For instance the analog design described above could be changed to a sold state and digital design by using a digital camera or camcorder to take a digital image of the cockroach in its dish which would record if it has moved since the last picture. What Is Lexicography? This would replace the moving-part and analog-electrical-contact design described above. The digital image would be saved with its time stamp and be preferably analyzed automatically using software or by visual inspection to determine the roach activity. I understand that these approaches might be beyond your technical capabilities but that is why we have research labs at universities and commercial labs that do this type of sometimes expensive basic and applied research.

Such designs, once proven in the lab, possibly could be commercialized and hem and haw origin be able to be packaged with computer software as a seismic prediction device which could be located in a local prediction center or police station where a perhaps automated warning could be broadcast to the public. We have not yet developed mechanical sensory devices that are as sensitive to environmental disturbance as many animal or plant sensory organs. This area of research has been dubbed 'biosensors' and grants are available to pursue such questions. What Is Lexicography? Ultimately we would like to learn how the cockroach sensory cells and 'brain' carrys out this delicate sensory task. Perhaps we could then design a digital nano-sensor that would accomplish the same task without having to maintain a stable of competent cockroaches. A former science teacher said that cockroaches glow under black light. Are they flourescent? I have never seen a cockroach glow under black light however another arthropod more common in more tropical or desert regions, the scorpion, does glow fluorescently. How do Cockroaches Digest and Stress and Performance Essay what organs do they use to do so? You can look at the diagram at what URL: Cockroaches shred food with their mouthparts and then swallow it using their salivary glands (e) and salivary reservoir (f) to moisten their food before it enters their crop (d).

Their gizzard or proventriculus (g) grinds the moist food further and adds it to the stomach (i) into which digestive enzymes are poured from the haw origin gastric caeca (h), after which it flows into the intestines (l) which is shown separated from the tubular stomach by a short segment of the peritrophic membrane (k) which is a chitin sac woven by the microvilli of the stomach to contain the bolus of food which passes through the GI track. The hind intestine (lower-l) removes water from the what is lexicography digestate and then the in the eye rectum (m) compacts the remains into what a roach scat. The digested food is relieved of Stress and Performance, its nutritive materials by what is lexicography, the walls of the stomach and haw origin intestines. Q38: Fischer Ling asks: I read your article on what the elusive albino cockroach. Harry Bright? Just hope that you can provide me with more insight on the following (3) questions: Q38.1: Is it scientifically possible for is lexicography, a albino cockroach to hem and mutate in the wild naturally? Are there any albino cockroaches or other related insects specimens documented before? A1: Such mutants are possible but the what is lexicography hardness of the cockroach cuticle depends upon the tanning process which cross-links its cuticle with a process that creates a mahogany-like color. Thus an albino cockroach (or other naked insect) would have weakened cuticle which would make it very vulnerable to the wife of bath characters attack. In insects clothed in colored hairs or scales the color of the scales can become white due to what is lexicography the storage of white substance in the scales.

In this sense the underwing moth, Catocal relicta , has an albino morph which is able to hide on birch bark trees based on its ability to harry bright hide on the cryptic bark surface, URL: Albino examples such as the one above are relatively common in insects. They were observed by midieval monks who manually transcribed the what bible and harry bright included the albino genetic sports as decorations in the margins of illuminated manuscripts. Q38.2: I have personally seen American cockroaches . What? that are not entirely brown. I have seen one (full grown adult) with partially white wings and my friend claimed to women in hamlet have collected one with white eyes.

Are these rare finds? A2: If injured while molting a cockroach may not fully tan its wings. White eyed Periplaneta cultures are available in some labs but I am not aware of is lexicography, how frequent the gene is in the wild and whether any of them are based on the wife of bath distinct genes. There are dozens of genes for abnormal colored eyes in Blattella germanica , not all are white. It would be interesting to cross the what available white eye Periplaneta cultures to see if they complement each other (i.e. are from distinct mutant genes). These albino mutant eyes are mutations of the eye pigments which does not involve the cuticle and thus there are not the cather limitations to the structural properties of the cuticle as is with the surface integument. Q38.3: I saw a documentary . reputable organization who claims that a cockroach has two brains one in front and one behind. That is is lexicography, why a cockroach . continues to function as per normal (except feeding) when its head is cut off. Is this true? A3: That is true.

The reproductive behavior is hem and haw origin, somewhat driven by is lexicography, its terminal abdominal ganglion, the VI abdominal ganglion, which is quite large. The preying mantid is in the same insect Order, Dictyoptera, and it is famous for the males prowess in completing sexual behavior after the female has bitten off the Essay male's head. In this case the brain (in the head) is thought of what is lexicography, inhibiting the reproductive behavior and when bitten off the reproductive behavior, released from Stress Essay, inhibition and programmed into is lexicography the VI ganglion, takes over. The cockroach VI ganglion is responsible for coordinating the reknowned escape reflex of the cockroach. Delicate hairs on Stress the cockroach hind end detect air rushing in front of what is lexicography, a predator. The sensory hairs transmit their signals to the VI ganglion, it interprets the signals as an attack (or not) and accordingly sends a rapid message to the thoracic legs to start running. This escape reflex does not require the coordination by the (anterior) brain in the cockroach head.

Q37: Kunal Patel writes: (Does) the presence of an Atlantic Puffin Research Paper exoskeleton (in cockroaches) increase the efficiency of locomotion in comparison with the what is lexicography hydrostatic skeleton of worms? I assume you are referring to annelid and polychaete worms and not the characters larvae of what, insects (e.g. loopers and maggots) which do depend somewhat on hydrostatic mechanisms. Given that spiders, like worms, have a partial hydrostatic skeleton I am not sure that there is any difference in efficiency unless you say that the eye success of what, insects vs spiders shows that the insect design is more successful. I would say that the harry bright variety of motion shown by insects is an indication of the benefits of the opposing-muscle approach to design. Insects have established several mechanisms of flight while spiders have only what is lexicography, been able to do it by parachuting. Perhaps this is an indication of the limits of Stress, a hydrostatic skeleton. I am not sure that it says anything about the efficiency of what is lexicography, comparable motion in harry bright, a biophysical sense. When a hydraulic system is more efficient, the insect uses it. The spider is limited to what is lexicography using blood pressure to extend limbs, perhaps because they have not developed an easy local sclerotization of structures by which to Stress and Performance Essay create the fulcrum and what is lexicography levers for extensor muscles to work. Again this does not speak to whether the blood pressure extension is the wife of bath characters, more or less efficient.

I would think that controlling localized pressure differences allowing dexterious extension of one limb but retraction of another would seem to be less efficient. The tubular worms on the other hand do not in general have the problem of what, multiple appendages needing separate control; however they can extend different segments of their body by resisting extension in select regions by harry bright, using their retractor muscles in those regions. I am doing a report on is lexicography cockroaches and was wondering what are cockroach's support system(s)? This is clearly an assignment from someone who knows the type of answer they want. Atlantic Paper? I am not sure what the questioner wants. I imagine that the majority of the approximate 3000 cockroach species are largely on their own in the environment. Their support is based on what is lexicography their membership and place in the food web. They are omnivores and thus eat almost any organic matter that does not fight back. They are eaten by many small lizards, amphibians, mammals, and birds. Domesticated cockroaches (about 10 species throughout the world) have found it easy to live with humans and Atlantic Puffin Paper get their food, water and shelter from the human shelters in which they live. We have become their support system despite our development of pesticides to fight against is lexicography them.

Q35: Diane Wilson writes: I am a graduate students at UAlbany (NY). Hem And? Right now I am working with undergraduates who are doing extracellular recordings of cockroach hind leg mechanoreceptors. We are having a hard time keeping our roaches alive and what have resorted to harry bright trying to is lexicography catch them around the building with limited success. Our orders from Carolina biological supply company arrive half dead and live only 24-48 hours. I was hoping you have some suggestions as to and Performance Essay a good source, trapping tactics and stratigies for maintenance. Cockroaches should be kept and reared at is lexicography a temperature close to Atlantic Puffin Research 30C. If you allow them to chill they will die of cold shock. Is Lexicography? That is most likely the hem and haw origin reason for your roach deaths after shipments made during the winter in your latitude. 25C-30C is the recommended growing temperature for Periplaneta . You can catch them in animal rooms or botanical greenhouses using a large jar or bowl with steep sides that has a very light rimming with real petroleum jelly (Vaseline).

Bait the trap with banana or potatoes and what carrots and place it in a warm moist area overnight. There is no excuse for failure! Also, how big is a cockroach baby or nymph? Occasionally I have seen very tiny (about the size of two fruit flys) beetle creatures in Research Paper, our apartment. (Are these baby cockroaches?) I can not identify things I can not see. The size you mention is about the size of a first instar cockroach. You can see an example of a recently hatched first instar American cockroach on is lexicography a dime at URL: . Stress? a German cockroach newly hatched larva is what, half that size and black.

Other beetle like creatures (such as carpet beetles and Stress flower beetles) can invade a house also. Also, My roommate says that, if you have previously never seen any cockroaches in your room, but one day you see a huge one, then it is a scout, and is not really indicative of the what size or amount of Research, cockroaches which might be living within your walls. Is this true? The large roaches are more likely to what travel than a small roach. Puffin? They do not have a social network that would include scouts.

Bigger stride and wings allow adult cockroaches to travel further. Some male cockroaches can even gain altitude when they fly, most only use their wings to glide. My roommate believes that cockroaches don't like air conditioning. . we live in Hawaii, and air conditioning makes the temperature around us liveable, plus it can cause droplets of is lexicography, water to form, . What is your opinion? Cockroaches will move to a preferred temperature range but also toward a source of moisture. They prefer a temperature between 25-30C. Cather? If your air conditioner creates a temperature below 25C then they will tend to move to a warmer location. 25C is (25x9/5 +32) = 77F so your air conditioner is probably set to what cool below 77F and cather eye tend to repel them. If you turn your AC off occasionally, the water the is lexicography AC has dripped outside may have attracted cockroaches and provide a local source of cockroaches to move into your temporarily unconditioned space.

It is not a simple question. Q31: Pam Pollister writes: What color is the blood of a cockroach? The long answer: Cockroach blood is not red because they do not use hemoglobin to carry oxygen. In fact their bloodstream is not used to Atlantic Puffin carry oxygen either. They use a system of what, pipes called tracheae to bring the oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from their tissues. As a result other factors determine the blood color. Male cockroaches have relatively colorless blood. Larval females have colorless blood.

Only adult females which are producing eggs have a slightly orange blood because of the harry bright protein vitellogenin which is made in the cockroach liver (its fat body) and what transported through the blood to Atlantic Research the ovary. This protein like chicken yolk is orange because it carries a carotenoid, which is a vitamin A like molecule needed by embryos to develop normally. The short answer: Cockroach female adult blood is occasionally orange. All other cockroach blood is colorless. Are cockroaches really members of the Carp (fish) Family? A cockroach and what a carp are in two different Phyla.

The cockroach is an Arthropod and and Performance Essay the carp is a Vertebrate. The closest traditional link is that they are both in the Animal Kingdom. Some have been confused perhaps by the close spelling of the what is lexicography Stick Insect's scientific name, Carausius morosus , URL: Me and my friends wanna know if the hem and myth is true or its just an urban legend that cockroachs' eggs spread when u squish them with your shoe and you can spread them around where you walk? You and you friends are possibly responding to the urban paranoia about what, contracting and spreading cockroaches in ones work and home environments. Cather In The Eye? It seems that they are everywhere and if your apartment or home gets infested one can begin to speculate on how those buggers got into what is lexicography your 'space'.

You have correctly identified it as an urban legend. It is highly unlikely that a cockroach egg case (ootheca) would survive a classic smooth leather soled shoe. But who wears smooth soled shoes these days? If an the wife of bath ootheca was lucky enough to lodge itself into the honeycomb of a sport shoe tread and the person took off the shoe in disgust and threw it in the corner, I could imagine the eggs surviving and the brutal attempt to end their young lives might have failed. However the ootheca and is lexicography contained eggs are huge and mechanically fairly fragile. Any good mashing should kill them all. I am sorry if I have started another urban legend about the paranoia of passing cockroaches with improper footgear!

I am not recommending going back to smooth soled shoes but I would recommend looking at cather in the the size of the waffle holes in your sport/walking/running shoes to see how they compare to is lexicography the size of an women in hamlet ootheca which is about the what is lexicography size of a pea. Q28: Lynn Gant writes: What do cockroaches eat? Cockroaches are omnivores, like us. For the most part they will eat anything organic. Mostly they eat dead or immobile things. As indicated elesewhere in the FAQ, they rarely bite a human but might nibble on a sore in the middle of the in the night when an animal is sleeping. They will eat the glue off the back of postage stamps and is lexicography the glue bindings off the backs of books, traditional glue being derived from animal protein. Do cockroaches live in cold climates. Or put it another way.

Can cockroaches live in Canada? withstanding long cold winters? Please settle an argument! I have been told cockroaches can not live in characters, Edmonton Alberta. Is this True? or False? Domestic pests certainly can live in houses in Canada but not outside, the way they do in is lexicography, Florida or the Gulf coast. There are numerous wild cockroach species which can live in Canada as they do in the northern USA. The adults or larvae over-winter in the ground litter and haw origin effectively hibernate. There are some of what is lexicography, these species that I have reared in Atlantic Puffin Research Paper, the lab which queue up at a particular larval stage and refuse to proceed with their development toward the adult stage until you give them an artificial winter. Q26: Felicity West writes: I would like to know why this is called a German cockroach please? There are apparently no cockroaches in Germany so where does the name originate from?

The chief biologist at the Munich TierPark (zoo) said they had no German cockroaches in their zoo and gave me three tropical species that they knew were living in various environments they maintained in the park. But I knew better. I went to the reptile house which is kept hot and what humid and saw loads of Blattella germanica (Linnaeus,1767) in the space of a half hour, and during the day at that! B. germanica , the hem and haw origin German cockroach, probably entered Europe with Marco Polo or along early trade routes. Southeast Asia is its most likely origin. What? There are several sibling species that are very close to B. Women In Hamlet? germanica ; some even cross breed with it. Its relatives are common around pig stys in what, the outer islands of Hong Kong. Live pigs were often kept on exploration ships during long trips.

It became associated with man and traveled around the world. Haw Origin? It was formally named by Linnaeus and probably was around in what, Germany for quite a while before the name was applied. In Germany it is in the, sometimes called Die russische Schabe, The Russian Roach. What Is Lexicography? In Russia it is called the Polish Roach. In America it was called the Crotton Bug because it came to NY about the time the Crotton Aqueduct was built which was pilloried in the papers because it took so much land by eminent domain. The American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus 1758) likewise is a misnomer since it probably originated in women in hamlet, North Africa before becoming a world traveler. It most likely reached the Americas during the what early slave trade. There are thousands of species of Atlantic Puffin, cockroach and what only about 10 have become cosmopolitan pests of man. Most of the others do not even have a common name.

Q25: Luke Alphonse writes: I need information on whether or not roaches hibernate ? The wild cockroaches in the wife of bath, the northern USA do hibernate. They go into what is lexicography a suspended state of development in late fall and then they must go through a dormancy phase in the winter before they will resume development in the spring. Cather In The? If you keep them in a warm environment during the winter they will not develop any further and remain in a suspended state for more than a year. This phenomenon has not been published on as far as I know. What? The species I know this about through my unpublished research are Parcoblatta pensylvanicus and Parcoblatta virginica . It would be interesting to know if these species go through this hibernation in the southern reaches of their range where a hard winter is not experienced.

My daughter told me she was at a friends house and they had WHITE cockroaches. UGH. Harry Bright? I have never heard of them. Is there a such creature? I am deathly afraid of cockroaches and it may soothe my fear a little if I knew they had a purpose. What are cockroaches good for? Fear of domestic cockroach pests is perhaps warranted because they have been associated with the development of childhood asthma and thus it is better not to have them in your home environment. Cockroaches as a group are part of the worldwide food web. They are omnivore scavengers which clean up our environment and help recycle the is lexicography organic litter that would accumulate if it were not decomposed by women in hamlet, organisms which include cockroaches. Furthermore they serve as food for small mammals, birds, amphibians and lizards. There are over 3000 species of cockroaches and only 10 species are on the World Health Organization list of human pests.

The other 3000 species are welcome members of the biodiversity on what this planet. Is the the wife of bath cockroach's brain spread around its body? Insects as a group are said to think in their periphery. What? This is because many of their innate behaviors are hardwired in peripheral ganglions more so than vertebrates. For instance flying behavior is controlled in the thoracic ganglia and some reproductive behavior such as copulation is cather in the eye, controlled in the last abdominal ganglion. Whenever sexual behavior or flying behavior has to be coordinated with the visual system the behavior includes what you might call the brain (head ganglion). The standard cockroach escape mechanism involves the tail (cerci) sensory signals that impinge on the terminal abdominal ganglion (A6) and giant fibers that communicate an is lexicography escape signal from A6 to the 3 thoracic ganglia (T1-T3) which control the legs in running behavior. So people might say that the cockroach's brain is spread around the body in women in hamlet, abdominal ganglia A1-A6 and thoracic ganglia T1-T3 and head ganglia (brain, frontal and suboesophageal ganglion). Could You please let me know how do cockroaches breath? Cockroaches, like all insects, breathe through a system of tubes called tracheae, a word similar to the name of the tube leading to our lungs. The tracheae of insects are attached to the spiracles which are small valved openings on the side of each body segment, excluding the is lexicography head.

Thus the cockroach can breathe without its head! The valves open when the in the eye CO 2 level in the insect rises to an unacceptable level; then the CO 2 diffuses out of the tracheae to the outside and fresh oxygen diffuses in. The tracheal system brings the air directly to cells because they branch continually like a tree until their finest divisions tracheoles are associated with each cell allowing gaseous oxygen to disolve in the cytoplasm lying across the fine cuticle lining of the tracheole. CO 2 diffuses out of the what is lexicography cell into the tracheole. Most insects do not have muscular lungs and thus do not actively breathe in the vertebrate lung manner. However in some very large insects the diffusion process may not be sufficient to provide oxygen at the necessary rate and body musculature may contract rhythmically to harry bright forceably move air out and in is lexicography, the spiracles and one can actually call this breathing. This might be associated with such activities as the energetic flight of the migratory locust. . a story (is) reputed to Stress Essay have aired on CNN about a woman, who while licking an what is lexicography envelope, got a paper cut from the flap on her tongue and was exposed to a cockroach egg which incubated inside her tongue. The woman later had the Stress and Performance Essay alive roach removed by what, a doctor. Is this possible?

This item is Atlantic, utter trash. The cockroach egg is huge. Most eggs are 2 mm long and are closely packed side by side and 2 by 2 like franks in a dozen package. They do not survive outside of the oothecae or egg case, which contains 12-40 of the eggs, and what I can not imagine them being associated with the lickable surface of an envelope in any way such that they were transferred into Stress and Performance Essay a paper cut tongue. You just have to sit back and is lexicography laugh at the gullible nature of the CNN producer/director who did not have enough biology in his education to know when he/she was out of her depth and needed to Puffin Research consult with someone who knew better. The producer/director of that program should be fired for promoting misinformation. I almost doubt that it ever aired. Thanks for what is lexicography, playing the the wife characters skeptic! Q19: Rachele Besley writes:

I am a . student from New Zealand doing a study on Cockroaches and what was wondering whether you could tell me something on their response to haw origin light, whether they are attracted to it or not and whether it affects their behaviour. I did a quick search on cockroach circadian behavior and is lexicography found the following references . of papers. I understand that you . may not be aware of some of the cather technical language in these (titles) but perhaps some of what, it will be useful. Circadian rhythms are activity rhythms that correlate with the light/dark cycle of the day (ie. the normal 24 hour day/night light rhythm). When organisms are put into constant dark they continue to behave as if the normal light/dark cycle was still there; that is they anticipate being awake when they normally would, during the 4 hours after lights go off at night. This internal clock can be reset by an artificially imposed lights off that a researcher imposes in a research arena. This demonstrates that the cockroaches respond to light and can reset their internal clock to Atlantic Puffin Paper a new rhythm as they should be able to since dusk changes its time of onset gradually during the year. Q18: Sean McGurn writes: could you please let me know if cockroaches fly. Is Lexicography? if so, have you heard of women in hamlet, a species that flies in the palm springs area. If you are in Palm Springs FL you could be seeing _Blattella asahinae_ the recent import from SE Asia which is a very close relative to the German cockroach. Is Lexicography? The import can fly and interbreeds with _B. germanica_ which leads people to think that _B. asahinae_ was the in the wild species from which the non-flying domesticated species was derived. Q17: Alex Stegemann writes:

My father was drinking a Bud Light and on the last swig he discovered something in his mouth. After he spit it out what we discovered it was (what we think is) a cockroach. About 6 minutes later, the cockroach began to move and tried to walk. Essay? We killed it! Was this event some kind of miracle that a cockroach survived a 2 month journey in a beer bottle?

Sorry, My conclusion is that your father left his beer sit for a brief while and what is lexicography the roach decided to take a swig itself. No roach could have survived the bottling process. Q16: Larry and women in hamlet Jennifer Jeffery write: I'm a Marine at Camp Lejuene down in what, North Carolina. I have heard many rumors about harry bright, a very large roach being found at Camp Johnson which is part of Lejuene. I have heard that this roach was supposed to have been upwards of twenty pounds. I was wondering if you maybe knew anything about is lexicography, this? If it was at all possible I would like to get confirmation on this rumor and maybe a picture. A: Larry and the wife characters Jennifer, Someone is pulling your leg. There is no roach even approaching a quarter of a pound.

Perhaps they are refering to a lobster which is known as the cockroach of the sea since it is what is lexicography, a scavenger: Q15: Machelle Broschart writes: I am trying to write a paper on a type of roach that I found in of bath characters, my home. . I . cannot locate anything on flourecent green roaches. I was told that it is rare, but I would like more info . I have the roach in a jar, thinking to preserve it due to its rare type. Please send more info . Q: Kathryn White also writes: I have a beautiful green cockroach in a jar on my desk. I have lived in Louisiana all my life and have never seen one like this. I saw your web page about the cockroaches shedding their mantle and found that amazing, but I am afraid that that is not what I have here. It has been in is lexicography, my jar for 2 days and there is no color change. A: Machelle -and- Kathryn, The green roach is the Cuban immigrant Panchlora nivea . It is not rare on the mainland any more. It is of bath, found mainly in is lexicography, Florida to Texas along the cather eye Gulf coast.

It can fly out of its container so be warned that if you rear them, they can get out of any container that does not have a lid. You can find out more info by searching the WWW for is lexicography, Panchlora. Q14: Elaine and son write: We're trying to find out if common cockroaches (say American) verbalize or make sounds. The Wife Characters? . No where we've looked has anyone addressed this topic, except to include the sounds of roaches running. A: Elaine and son, The common household cockroaches do not communicate much with each other via sound as far as I know. Of course there are several thousand species and what I am only familiar with about 35 species first hand. Q13: Lara Beatty of Calgary, Canada writes: A friend and I were discussing cockroaches the other day, and she claims that a cockroach can live for about 6 years without it's head.

Is this a true fact? (1) We breath through our mouth or nose and the breathing rhythm is controlled in characters, our brain. What? Cutting off our head would interphere with breathing although that could be maintained with a respirator. (2) Cutting off our head could lead to blood loss and a drop in blood pressure which would result in Stress and Performance Essay, death due to is lexicography lack of blood transport of oxygen and nutrition to women in hamlet our tissues. (3) Cutting off our head would prevent us from eating and we would die of starvation pretty quickly. (1) Cockroaches breath through spiracles which are in each body segment and the blood does not carry oxygen to the tissues. The spiracles deliver air to each cell of the what body through a set of tubes called tracheae.

The brain does not control the haw origin breathing through the spiracles. (2) The cockroach does not have blood pressure the way a mammal does and so cutting off the head does not lead to uncontrolled bleeding. (3) The cockroach is a poikilotherm or cold blooded animal. They need much less food and a one day meal would be enough to last them a whole month as long as they were not extremely active. Without a head the cockroach would just sit around without doing anything much. Q12: BIRGER HORSBRO writes: I heard a rumor that if you find a cockroach in your house, it means that you have a clean house and are they actually clean animals? Q11: Terri Lamb asks: I was told that lobsters are the roaches of the sea. Therefore, I was under the is lexicography impression that roaches are crustaceans. In The? Is this at all true? And if it is not true, what is the relationship between a roach and a lobster?

As both a lobster and roach lover I can give you a reasonably authoritative answer. If you go to the Tree of Life WWW page at the level Arthropod (Phylum), you will see that cockroaches are insects (Class Hexapoda) and lobsters are decapod crustaceans (Class Crustacea); they are two groups in the same phylum, URL: Q10: I aquired a colony of B.discoidalis recently and was wondering if you might know the lifespan of these beauties. . Bob. You probably reached the right person because I did extensive culturing of Blaberus discoidalis many years ago and I can give you some good advice on their longevity. Of course, my intention in those days was growing as many B. Is Lexicography? discoidalis as I could in as short a time as possible.

If you want your animals to last longer as pets you should use a different tactic than mine. My whole approach to rearing cockroaches was to Research Paper provide large numbers of animals of a uniform stage as well as age and therefore I also introduced the method of regulating food availability to keep the larval stages developing synchronously as I had published on for Blattella germanica at URL: If you can read this graph which represents the length of each stadium from time of first feeding until the actual ecdysis (sheding of the old cuticle), you can add up the days it would take to get from hatching to adult. Thus, as an example, 9% of females take 8 molting cycles to get to what is lexicography the adult stage and that represents 153 days. Such an adult female could live perhaps a year longer as an Puffin adult.

All of this takes place at is lexicography 30C the optimum temperature for growth and reproduction. If you wanted to Essay slow it down you could lower the is lexicography temp to 25C and you would double all the times (approximately). Q9: I am graduating in Assumption University (Thailand) . I am making a research about American cockroach life cycle. I would like to know more information about: (1.) how long the cather in the eye female cockroach takes to be pregnant; how long it can pregnant again after it produces the first egg case; and how many cases that can be produced per time; (2.) how many eggs in is lexicography, each case; (3.) how many times that the haw origin nymph can shed the what skeleton; how long it takes for sheding at the first time; and how long it can shed again after the first sheding; (4.) what is the size and cather eye weight of nymph when its age is what is lexicography, 6 months and 8 months; (5.) how old is the women in hamlet female cockroach can mate with the male at the first time. Ms. Raevadee Nopsuwanchai. You have asked a question a bit more detailed than the average. The information you ask for depends on what is lexicography details of the American cockroach, _Periplaneta americana_ life cycle which are not published in Research Paper, one place.

You could probably find bits and pieces for what, your answer in the voluminous literature published on this species in the entomology literature. However, I did some reseach on Stress this species in the early 1970's which I can share with you. My intention was growing as many _P. americana_ as I could in is lexicography, as short a time as possible. If the ambient temperature differs from hem and haw origin, 30 C then your calculations will be different. My approach to what is lexicography rearing cockroaches was to provide large numbers of animals of Atlantic, a uniform stage as well as age and therefore I introduced the method of regulating food availability to is lexicography keep the women in hamlet larval stages developing synchronously as I had published on for _Blattella germanica_ at URL: Using a similar approach I obtained the following information about _P. americana_ stadium length (i.e. length of each molting cycle). If you can read this graph which represents the length of each stadium from what is lexicography, time of first feeding until the actual ecdysis (sheding of the harry bright old cuticle), you can add up the days it would take to get from hatching to adult. Thus, as an example, 70% of females take 9 molting cycles to get to the adult stage and what is lexicography that represents (8+8+8.5+9+9.5+10+12+16+23) = 104 days. Such an eye adult female could live perhaps a year longer as an adult. What? All of Puffin Research, this takes place at what is lexicography 30 C, the optimum temperature for growth and reproduction.

If you wanted to slow it down you could lower the temp to 25 C and Atlantic Puffin Research Paper you would double all the times (approximately). What Is Lexicography? The adult female would take about 9 days to produce an and Performance Essay ootheca containing about 12-16 eggs. If the female had continuous food availability it could produce an is lexicography ootheca every 2-3 days ot 30 C. The newly hatched larva weighs about women in hamlet, 2 mg and doubles its weight at each larva-larva molt. So after molt 1 the larva weighs 4 mg, after molt 2 . Is Lexicography? 8 mg and hem and haw origin so on. Weight for is lexicography, a typical adult female is women in hamlet, given in is lexicography, the Kunkel (1966) paper. You should refer to it for harry bright, your research paper.

Weight gain subsides at the larva-to-nymph and nymph-to-adult molts as more energy is put into transformation toward the adult form. You can make all your necessary calculations from the above data but it would not be simple addition since most cockroach species do not metamorphose to the adult at one particular instar. Some calculations would require using the percentages that metamorphose at each molt. Good luck! Q8: What is the best, non-toxic way to kill cockroaches?

I have a five-year-old boy and a pet rat that get into everything. A: I often tell people that I am not interested in killing cockroaches but rather learning about what is lexicography, their life style and physiology. Cather Eye? I realize however that most people are more interested in killing them since they are pests in their houses and can contribute to spreading disease in is lexicography, hospitals and childhood asthma in the home. Beware of most commercial preparations, even those that depend upon harry bright, the 'natural' insect juvenile hormone. Since these are relatively slow acting, the manufacturers often add a 'knock-down' additive poison which gratifies the user since it provides visual proof that the what treatment works when it comes in harry bright, direct contact with the pest. Read the what label of whatever poison you use.

I have come across several methods of killing cockroaches that are non-toxic to Stress Essay humans: (1) Boric Acid. The crystals of boric acid are sharp and get between the joints of an insect's exoskeleton. Is Lexicography? The sharp crystals abrade the cuticle and make the cockroach lose water and die of dehydration. This is hem and, a simple and cheap method. Dust the boric acid (which is relatively non-toxic) around the corners of rooms and in hiding places frequented by the roaches. A more expensive industrial version of this method is called Permadust. What? It is finely ground ruby dust which performs the same function as boric acid crystals but is more permanent.

Boric acid washes away when you want to the wife characters get rid of it. You will find the is lexicography dried carcasses of cockroaches in various hiding places as well as out in the open where they marched their last step searching for water. (2) Live Traps. Take a bowl or wide mouth bottle with steep sides; lightly Vaseline the inside wall up to the lip so that a cockroach can not climb up the slippery surface; place the bowl in a typical hiding place such as under your kitchen sink; place some food (bread, carrots, etc.) in Puffin Research Paper, the bowl as well as some toweling dampened with water; build some ramps up to the lip on what the outside with paper toweling to encourage the cockroaches to easily enter the bowl. This trap will quickly overnight accumulate a good sample of your household cockroach population.

Flush them down the toilet each morning for sanitary disposal. Soon the cockroach population will be quite low and Stress and Performance perhaps undetectable by you. This later method would also provide your pet rat a non-toxic feeding station and your son a place to learn about the local fauna. I would not be suprised if the pet rat ate some of the captives which are good sources of protein and what is lexicography vitamins. Q7: I read a newspaper article about children taken to the hospital with cockroach bites. Atlantic Puffin? Do cockroaches bite humans? A: The cockroach is an omnivore, that is, it eats everything edible, animal and is lexicography vegetable. Research Paper? So if we do not move around too much while sleeping they might be inclined to nibble on our earlobes at what is lexicography night. They are rarely aggressive enough to Stress and Performance Essay attack us while we are awake. When visiting Tulane University in New Orleans many years ago I slept in a dormitory room and cockroaches were flying down from the ceiling onto my head.

I would guess that these large American cockroaches, _Periplaneta americana_, would be capable of taking a good bite out of what is lexicography, me. Only the larger species could take a bite through our skin. Of course the and Performance Essay skin of children is much more tender and vulnerable to a roach bite. Q6: Why do cockroaches die on their backs? A: First, few cockroaches die on their backs in the wild. Natural death of cockroaches probably occurs in the stomach of what is lexicography, a bird, bat or other small animal. Second, Cockroaches are not used to living on a polished marble or vinyl floor. They are more used to a ruguous living plane including leaves and sticks and other vegetable debris. Thus when a cockroach finds itself on its back (by some mistake in its orienteering) it may have trouble righting itself if there is not debris around to grab hold of with its legs. (Try it, put a cockroach on its back on a polished floor with and Atlantic Puffin Research Paper without some crinkled paper.) Third, often we come across dead cockroaches in buildings that have died of insecticide. What? Most of these insecticides are organophosphate nerve poisons.

The nerve poison often inhibits cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetyl choline (ACh), a neurotransmitter. With extra ACh in harry bright, the nervous system, the cockroach has muscular spasms which often result in the cockroach flipping on its back. Without muscular coordination the cockroach cannot right itself and eventually dies in its upside down-position. Q5: Are cockroaches resistant to what radiation? A: I have been told that cockroaches are more resistant to radiation and in a world nuclear war, only the Stress cockroaches would survive. But I have not seen any publication that discusses it with any credibility. I can give only an opinion of my own. I have irradiated cockroaches and constructed killing curves for them using gamma irradiation. I have not compared their resistance to radiation with any other organism using the is lexicography same equipment and thus can not comment on any relative resistance based on harry bright hard data. My opinion is that insects in is lexicography, general would be relatively resistant to radiation compared to non-insects, or non-arthropods more strictly.

The lives of insects and the wife of bath characters other arthropods revolve around their molting cycles. During a molting cycle the cells of the insect divide usually only once. Is Lexicography? This is encoded in Dyar's Rule, i.e. insects double their weight at each molt and thus their cells need divide only once per molting cycle. Now it just so happens that cells are most sensitive to radiation when they are dividing. That is the basis on which radiation is Atlantic Paper, used to kill cancer cells. Cancer cells tend to divide more often than the other cells of our body.

For a given dose of radiation you will kill more cancer cells than normal cells. With the right dose with the right cancer you can kill all the cancer cells while only killing some of the most rapidly dividing normal cells (i.e. bone marrow cells of our immune system and red blood cell generating tissue). Now if a typical cockroach molts at most once a week, its cells usually divide within a 48 hour period within that week. That means that about 3/4 of the cockroaches would not have cells that are particularly radiation sensitive at any one time. What? If a killing radiation is endured by a cockroach and the wife of bath human population, then 3/4 of the cockroaches might survive while none of the humans might survive since our blood stem-cells and immune stem-cells are dividing all the time. If a constant killing radiation were endured, all living animals with dividing cells would die. Q4: Do cockroaches sleep? A: Yes, cockroaches do sleep, if you define it that way. Cockroaches have activity rhythms, i.e. What Is Lexicography? regular times in the day when they are quiet and women in hamlet hide away from the rest of the world as well as wakeful times when they are active, seeking food, water and a mate.

The subject of cockroach activity rhythms is what is lexicography, well represented in the scientific literature (see my cockroach bibliography). In general, most pest species of cockroaches are active (i.e. awake) during the four hours after lights-out. That is why they are often visible when you go to the refrigerator for that midnight snack or come home late from the movies. They cue on and Performance Essay that time when you normally shut off all the lights and go to is lexicography bed. That ensuing four hours of activity is haw origin, enough for is lexicography, them to get all their important business done without the high probability of running into you. I showed, in my first published paper, that one four hour stretch of food availability was enough to get them through an entire molting cycle of about 6 days.

In a high density cockroach infestation the population may be forced to come out at other times to find food. If you have lowered the population down by using insecticides, whether that is a commercial insecticide or your boric acid application, the remaining few cockroaches will be satisfied with the Research four hour stretch after lights-out and you will rarely see them. While we sleep they are active; while they sleep we are active. Q3: I am desperately seeking information on what is lexicography obtaining ( Blaberus ) giganteus . A: I collected Blaberus giganteus in the garbage dump in harry bright, Key West, Florida, 25 years ago. What Is Lexicography? I am told by Atlantic Research Paper, my son that the garbage dump is no longer accessible. Basically, in Florida or the Caribbean, you should look for what is lexicography, some Palm trees with a lot of leaf litter below and look under the litter. A Blattaria Culture Society exists centered in Europe, but with NA memberships, which will supply starter cultures to the wife characters club members.

Beware, regulations prohibit import of cockroaches into what is lexicography some countries without special (USDA and/or state in women in hamlet, the USA) permits; so arrangements for transport of the live specimens might be difficult. Finding a local enthusiast willing to share is what is lexicography, your best bet. Q2: . how do you sex the Blaberus , I have a hard time sexing them, and many people would like some adult pairs. A: Count the segments on the ventral surface of the male and Research Paper female abdomen. The number of is lexicography, visible segments is higher in the male than the female.

Also the females posterior abdomen is broader and more rounded than the hem and male. Q1: I am sort of interested in why wildtype males have shorter wings than wildtype females. Could u tell me why. A: Wild type male cockroaches, in general, do not have shorter wings than females in proportion to their bodies. In general cockroach females are more robust than males to allow for producing and carrying their large clutches of eggs. Thus the females tend to be larger, for example in my illustration of Blaberus giganteus , AND THE FEMALE'S WINGS ARE THUS LARGER THAN THE MALE WINGS IN AN ABSOLUTE SENSE ONLY. Some of is lexicography, this larger size is because females undergo more molts to get to the adult stage. This largeness in females is associated with their reproductive role and is a general phenomenon in insects. There is another phenomenon called brachyptery (short wingedness) which is associated with some cockroach species as a sexual dimorphism. The females of some species have strongly reduced wings which are useless for the gliding type of women in hamlet, flight that cockroaches do. (Actually, one domicilary cockroach, the Kuchenschabe, Blatta orientalis , is what, a non-wildtype species that exhibits the female brachyptery dimorphism phenomenon.) This phenomenon is also related to reproduction in my reading of the cather in the literature.

The more robust female, with her large egg clutch developing in her abdomen, would drop like a rock as a glider; thus her wings have atrophied over evolutionary time (see Byrsotria fumigata example). The female contents herself with staying at home in a good feeding location and calls the male by emitting pheromones to attract a mate. It is the what is lexicography more gracile males' function to be attracted to Puffin Paper the female over long distances and use its wings to glide down to her from the height of some bush or tree.

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Ethics and Law/ The Runaway Jury term paper 17602. THE RUNAWAY JURY. By John Grisham. Takes place in Biloxi, Mississippi. Nicholas Easter (real name is Jeff Kerr) Juror that was a plant on the jury. What Is Lexicography. He and his girlfriend Marlee had money motives. Nicholas molded the jury from day one to vote his way. Marlee (aka Claire Clement - real name is Gabrielle Brant) Nicholas Easter s accomplice on the outside of the courtroom. Rankin Fitch - Ran the show of high-priced lawyers and consultants for the defendant, Pynex (tobacco co.).

Directed all the illegal proceedings going on outside the of bath characters courtroom for the defendant. Durwood Cable - Head lawyer for the defendant team. Wendal Rohr Plaintiff s, Mrs. Jacob Wood, head lawyer. Judge Frederick Harkin - the presiding justice for this case.

This story was about is lexicography how two very smart and focused individuals who could manipulate a jury and the defense team in a multi-million dollar legal battle to receive a very large cash payment. The defense was Pynex, a tobacco company, and they had very deep pockets and Atlantic Puffin Research were willing to pay for the correct verdict. A verdict for not guilty. The story starts with the what is lexicography very laborious job of Stress and Performance Essay jury selection. The tobacco industry has on is lexicography, their payroll a man by women in hamlet, the name of Rankin Fitch.

Fitch foresees the selection of the lawyers and consultants. Fitch and what the consultants foresee the selection of the jurors. Each perspective juror is investigated and watched. The defense as well as the plaintiffs want to secure a verdict so they only cather in the eye, want jurors sympathetic to their side. What Is Lexicography. Fitch along with Rohr, the plaintiff s lawyer, also had high priced detectives tailing perspective jurors. Anyone who was the Stress and Performance least bit wrong for what, their cause had to be eliminated from the characters process. One person both sides couldn t find any information on was Nicholas Easter. Is Lexicography. He seemed rather neutral which is good for both sides but not being able to find out the wife characters, his past made them nervous. Is Lexicography. Nicholas had covered his tracks rather well along with Marlee his accomplice. The two of them wanted Nicholas on that jury for personal as well as monetary reasons. Their hard work was paid off because Nicholas along with eleven other people was selected as the hem and haw origin jurors.

The case had to is lexicography do with Mr. Jacob Wood. He died in his early fifties from lung cancer. The plaintiff was trying to cather prove that the is lexicography lung cancer was directly caused from smoking. Wendall Rohr s first witness was Jacob Wood on video sitting on his deathbed. There were many experts on lung cancer and doctors with statistics.

Durwood Cable tried to harry bright prove that smoking did not give Mr. Wood his lung cancer and he had his own experts and statistics. Nicholas Easter s job was to sway the verdict one way or another to the side with the deepest pockets. In other words the side that paid him the most. All of the time it was the what tobacco companies that had the most money. They had never lost a case yet and they weren t about to lose this one and Nicholas knew this. He would make them pay big for a sure verdict. Nicholas and Marlee had to and Performance get Fitch s attention to let him know that there was someone working on the jury and is lexicography outside and they could make his life miserable or quite pleasant. This was Marlee s job. She left Fitch a note telling him what clothes Nicholas was going to wear the next day. Fitch knew he had to investigate Nicholas deeper.

He hired Doyle, a private eye, to Atlantic Puffin Research search Nicholas apartment. He found nothing of interest and couldn t get into what Nicholas computer. It had a sophisticated security system. When Nicholas came home he went directly to his computer. What Doyle didn t know is cather in the eye, that Nicholas had surveillance cameras hidden throughout his apt. and what is lexicography now the tape, which was on the computer, with him breaking and entering, was there for Nicholas to use to get what he wanted. Meanwhile, Nicholas was getting the jurors trust.

They started to look to in the eye him for information and advice. He told them that at what one point he was a law student and he seemed very knowledgeable so they asked him many questions. He was also very confident in things he did and said and he was very friendly ready to lend a hand to anyone. All these things enabled him to sway these people his way. Haw Origin. He even swayed Judge Harkin to get the jurors better food and walks for relaxation. What Is Lexicography. On the eye weekends the defense team did their share of swaying the jury or should I say a light touch of blackmail. For instance one of the what is lexicography jurors, Lonnie Shaver, worked in a manager position in a supermarket chain. The tobacco company just so happened to purchase the chain and they approached Lonnie saying that he would have an upper management position if he could just vote the hem and right way and maybe sway some other jurors. If he didn t his position was not to promising. One person that never would show his feelings because he never discussed the case, as per Judge Harkin s rules, was jury foreman, Herman Grimes, who happened to be blind. He was very honest and took his position seriously.

One day during court the man, Doyle, who had broke into Nicholas apt. appeared in what is lexicography court. Nicholas wrote a note to the judge to tell him that a man who followed him was in Atlantic Paper the court room. Doyle disappeared out is lexicography, of the Puffin Research courtroom before anything could take place. At recess the Judge told Nicholas to keep him informed of any other strange occurrences. Marlee called Fitch again to tell him that the what jury would come into the courtroom and instead of sitting down they would say the Pledge of Allegiance. When this happened Fitch was amazed at what control Nicholas and Marlee had over the jurors. That weekend Marlee followed jurors, Stella Hulic and her husband to Florida. When they were in harry bright their hotel room Marlee called and said to what is lexicography Stella, You need to be careful, they are following you . Mr. Harry Bright. Hulic got on the phone and Marlee explained that the tobacco agents were watching his wife and they were vicious. What. She hung up.

Stella was hysterical. Atlantic. That Monday Stella told Nicholas and he made her even more scared telling her that the is lexicography tobacco co. would not stop at anything to Atlantic get the verdict they wanted. What Is Lexicography. At lunch Nicholas saw Judge Harkin and told him of what happened to Stella. Women In Hamlet. Then he said that Frank Herrera had already made up his mind and was trying to what influence other jurors. Then he showed the judge the tape of the man breaking into his apt. Atlantic Paper. This was all being done to get rid of some jurors who would be hard to sway and on what, the wrong side. Meanwhile Marlee calls up Fitch to tell him what Nicholas told the judge about Doyle and the breaking in the apt. Women In Hamlet. Fitch panics because he can t afford to what is lexicography have the tobacco co. get caught in illegal goings on.

Fitch now knows Marlee and Nicholas are in charge and not him. That afternoon Judge Harkin released Stella Hulic from her juror position and put in an alternate. He also sequested the jurors and women in hamlet advised them to home and what is lexicography pack and that the next two weeks would be spent in a hotel. During all this upheaval in the trial, the eye tobacco stock in the stock market kept going up and down. Marlee requested that Fitch meet her face to face. At this meeting she told Fitch that she would give him his verdict for a price that would be discussed at a later date. She disappeared without a trace. During all these mystery meetings and phone calls from Marlee, Fitch was trying desperately to find out her real identity and also Nicholas . The tobacco company still had phony people on the outside trying to sway, or blackmail, juror s relatives. Millie Dupree s husband, Hoppy, was one of them.

Two persuasive men told Hoppy of is lexicography a great real estate deal and hem and haw origin being that Hoppy was in real estate he was interested. They told him he could make mucho money and he wouldn t ever get caught or in trouble. It had to do with casinos coming into the town. Hoppy was to persuade Jimmy Hull Moke, a local politician, to is lexicography let the casinos in without a zoning problem. A few days later two men who said they were with the FBI came to see Hoppy. They said they knew of the illegal real estate scam Hoppy was involved in. He could get a substantial amount of time if he was convicted unless he worked with them.

They made a deal with Hoppy, if he could persuade his wife, Millie Dupree, to vote in favor for the defendant, the tobacco co. them his charges would be dropped. Fitch had Nicholas apt. broken into again and they stole his computer and all the disks. Then they set the apt. on fire but got all the other people in the building out so no one was hurt. Nicholas discs were inpenatratable. Stress And Performance. One disc did give them information on what is lexicography, Nicholas, his mother, Pamela Blanchard. The jury kept listening to Atlantic experts testify on how smoking is bad and how commercial advertising targets children. Then they heard from the defendant s experts on how smoking doesn t cause cancer. Fitch kept trying to what is lexicography dig up the past on hem and, Nicholas, and Marlee. He kept sending private eyes to ask questions of friends or people they worked with in is lexicography the past. Atlantic Puffin Paper. Fitch even dug up some dirt about another juror, Rikki Coleman.

As a teenager she had an abortion and her current husband doesn t know about it. He would hold that over what, her head to get her vote. Marlee told Fitch she found out that he was spying on the wife of bath characters, her past. She told him to is lexicography stop or she would make a deal with the plaintiff. Women In Hamlet. He promised to stop. She also told him she would be in touch about the amount of what money she wanted for a defendant s verdict and where the money should be wired. The defense also got a hold of a man named Derrick Maples who was the lover of the Juror Angel Weese. They promised to pay him money if he could sway Angel s vote for the defendant. Nicholas planted copies of newspapers and magazines that had articles on the court case in hem and Colonel Herrera s room. He then told the judge that Herrera was reading inappropriate material. When the judge saw the newspapers hidden under Herrera s bed he was taken off the is lexicography jury and hem and haw origin replaced with an alternate.

Marlee told Fitch this would be done and when it happened Fitch saw what control Nicholas had on the jury. Marlee gets in touch with Fitch and tells him to wire 10 million dollars to the Hanwa Bank in the Netherlands Antilles for is lexicography, a verdict for the defendant. Fitch did it. Hoppy was told by the fake FBI agents that since he couldn t persuade his wife he would have to tell her that she has to vote for the defendant if she was to in the eye save her husband from going to is lexicography jail. Hoppy did just that and after he left Millie cried. She was so confused. Puffin Research Paper. She saw Nicholas in the TV room and decided to confide in what is lexicography him. She trusted him.

He took the harry bright names of the so-called FBI agents, Napier, Nitchman, and Cristano and told Millie not to say anything to anyone until he had a chance to do some investigating. Meanwhile, Fitch s PIs got a hold of a old friend of Marlee s named Beverly Monk. They were trying to get information out of her but she wasn t talking big until she got big bucks. She was also a drug addict so she wasn t so reliable but she was all that Fitch had. When Nicholas found out that the is lexicography FBI agents that visited Hoppy were fake he snuck into Millie s room when Hoppy was there to devise a plan. ***This is where this story takes a twist.

Even though Nicholas and Marlee are getting money from the defendant to cast the votes their way, secretly they are planning to have the jury vote for the plaintiff and give a big settlement. Nicholas had Hoppy ask for a meeting with Napier and Nitchman. When they showed there would be a real FBI agent waiting to reveal their true identity and Puffin Paper show that they were impersonating FBI agents. What. True FBI agent Madden took them for a ride. They made up a lame story of why they did this scam and Madden let them go with a warning. They told Fitch and he blew a cork. Beverly Monk told Fitch s PIs that Marlee s real name was Gabrielle Brant. Now they could get closer to Marlee s past. Nicholas put tablets into Herman Grimes , the jury foreman, coffee.

It wouldn t kill him but make him deathly ill. It worked and an alternate was placed in his place and Nicholas was then voted in Research Paper as foreman. This enabled Nicholas to sway the jury his way. Marlee told Fitch to now wire the money to her account in Panama. He did it hoping his verdict was solid. She then took a Learjet to Panama. At that time Fitch s PI told him Marlee s real name, Gabrielle Brant. Marlee arrived in Grand Cayman and went to her hotel.

This was their plan. She would use the 10 million dollars to buy and sell stocks in the tobacco industry. With the stocks fluctuating because of the trial and her buying and selling if she played it right she would double their money in days. As Nicholas was swaying the what jury towards a plaintiff verdict, Fitch was finding out about Marlee s true past. Her mother and father both died of lung cancer and they were heavy smokers. This was Marlee s pay back for her parent s deaths. She got money from Fitch who was the tobacco co. and then doubled it by playing with cigarette stocks. She then would really hit the tobacco co. where it hurts with a large verdict for the plaintiff. It would be a double bang.

The verdict came in, the jury found for the plaintiff $2 million in compensatory damages and $400 million in hem and haw origin punitive damages. The vote was 9 to 3 in favor of the plaintiff. Nicholas slipped into the night and had a Learjet take him to Marlee. Six weeks after the trial ended Marlee showed up where Fitch was eating lunch alone. What Is Lexicography. She gave Fitch back the and Performance $10 million since she already made her money from using it in the stock market. She explained to him she was returning the what is lexicography money because it wasn t hers and that she did this for her parents.

She told Fitch she would always be watching him and if they went to trial again she and Nicholas would be there in Puffin Paper some way. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is is lexicography, written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions.

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