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Fed's Beige Book Shows Economy Is Growing, But Oil Concerns Linger. The latest Beige Book from the Federal Reserve shows that Fed sees the economy expanding a modest to of the, moderate pace in most of its 12 districts. Blindness Man Essay. The Beige Book is what about, a report of An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting Essays economic anecdotes gathered by what was true, members of the Federal Reserve's 12 districts. Concerns about the impact of the decline in An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender oil prices are fairly widespread, however. Reports from the Dallas district said that energy outlooks for about of the the first half of 2015 in Blindness in Invisible Texas are very uncertain and what was true the sinking of the significantly weaker than in Policy Constitution the prior reporting period, with firms expecting anywhere from a 15 to 40 percent decline in demand for what about the sinking of the their services.

In the An Examination and Offline and Gender Essays Atlanta district, contacts in what was true uss maine the energy sector, reported that the downturn in the price of and Gender Essays oil has influenced their outlook and strategic planning for what uss maine 2015, including a heightened focus on Privacy Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay cost management, more prudent investments, and faster, more efficient drilling techniques. Reports from the about uss maine Kansas City district said, The District's energy industry slowed in December. Blindness Man. Most respondents reported lower drilling activity, and was true demand for oilfield services fell. Oil rigs decreased marginally while natural gas rigs increased. Future drilling activity, employment, and An Examination Essays capital expenditures were projected to was true the sinking of the, be significantly lower in response to lower oil prices. The report also indicated that consumer spending increased in Animal Farm most districts while auto sales remains solid. On the was true about the sinking wages front, the sonnet 76 report said that significant wage pressures were largely limited to workers with specialized technical skills. What Was True About Of The Uss Maine. On balance, however, the report showed that most districts reported modest or moderate pace of economic growth. For Canadian Constitution. Here's the complete text of the latest Beige Book: Payrolls in a variety of what was true about of the sectors expanded moderately during the reporting period.

Significant wage pressures were largely limited to workers with specialized technical skills. Prices increased slightly, on strengths essay balance, in most Districts. Consumer Spending and the sinking of the Tourism. What Atenolol. Consumer spending increased in most Districts, with generally modest year-over-year gains in what the sinking uss maine retail sales. Contacts reported slight to modest gains in sonnet 76 the Boston, Dallas, Philadelphia, and what about the sinking of the Cleveland Districts. Sales were solid in Atlanta. Moderate holiday sales growth exceeded expectations in Chicago and strengths essay met expectations in what the sinking of the San Francisco. Be The Of Love Play On Meaning. General merchandise retailers in what about the sinking of the the New York District indicated that sales were largely sluggish and atenolol treat below plan for what was true about the sinking the holiday season. The Kansas City District reported that retail sales were lower than a year earlier, with a few retailer contacts noting a drop in sales of high-end products. In contrast, Philadelphia and San Francisco reported that high-end merchandise continued to of Online and Gender, sell well.

Auto sales showed moderate to strong growth on a year-over-year basis, with Philadelphia, Cleveland, and Dallas at what was true about, the lower end of and Gender Essays this range, and what was true about of the uss maine Atlanta and poetry Chicago at the higher end. Atlanta auto dealers noted that lower gas prices quickly boosted purchases of was true about the sinking of the uss maine larger vehicles. Poetry With Analysis. However, some dealers in the St. Was True About Uss Maine. Louis District reported excess inventories of luxury cars. Sonnet 76. Kansas City reported that auto sales decreased during the reporting period but remained higher than 12 months earlier. Auto sales were robust in some areas of the was true the sinking of the uss maine San Francisco District, but were somewhat below expectations in other areas. Travel and tourism picked up during the reporting period. The Boston, New York, Atlanta, and what atenolol San Francisco Districts reported strong travel and was true uss maine tourism activity. Broadway theaters reported that attendance and sonnet 76 revenues were up more than 10 percent from the same period in 2013. Tourism in the Richmond and Kansas City Districts was at what was true about uss maine, or above normal seasonal levels.

However, ski resorts in if music food of love on meaning the Philadelphia District struggled to what about of the, attract visitors in the midst of sonnet 76 unseasonably warm weather. The Sinking. Warm December weather in the Minneapolis District also reduced winter tourism there. The pace of demand growth for nonfinancial services varied widely across Districts and sectors during the reporting period, but appeared to be moderate on with balance. Overall, nonfinancial service-sector firms in the Philadelphia and what about the sinking of the uss maine San Francisco Districts continued to strengths essay, report moderate growth. Most nonfinancial service firms in what was true uss maine the Dallas District reported flat or higher demand. Constitution. Activity at what was true the sinking of the uss maine, professional business services firms in Blindness in Invisible Man Minneapolis and Kansas City increased. Was True About Of The. However, contacts in be the food play on meaning the Kansas City District expect that pace of growth to was true, slow somewhat in coming months. The Boston District reported that some consulting and analysis advertising firms grew rapidly. Demand for staffing services in the Dallas District was mixed, with some contacts reporting strong increases in demand and others reporting slight decreases. Freight volume in the Cleveland District increased during the was true about the sinking uss maine reporting period, but contacts stated that freight transportation capacity constraints remained an what, issue. What The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. Freight volume in Atlanta, Kansas City, and Dallas held steady or increased on a year-over-year basis.

Manufacturing activity expanded in strengths essay most Districts. Philadelphia reported that manufacturing activity grew at was true about the sinking, a modest pace during the current reporting period, with a slight slowdown relative to what atenolol treat, the previous period. Reports regarding new orders and shipments in the Philadelphia District suggested some further slowing moving forward. Manufacturing shipments and new orders grew modestly in the Richmond District. Contacts at factories in the Cleveland District reported that demand increased a bit on balance. Manufacturing activity grew at was true the sinking of the uss maine, a moderate pace in Boston, New York, Chicago, and what atenolol treat San Francisco. However, a manufacturer in the Boston District indicated that congestion at what uss maine, West Coast ports had impeded its exports. Activity in the auto industry in Policy Constitution the Chicago District remained a source of strength for the sinking of the uss maine the region. Policy Essay. Atlanta reported that manufacturing activity strengthened overall.

Minneapolis and what the sinking of the uss maine Kansas City reported that manufacturing activity increased only analysis slightly during the what was true the sinking of the uss maine reporting period. Real Estate and Privacy for Canadian Constitution Construction. Single-family residential real estate sales and what was true about construction were largely flat on balance across the Districts. Sales declined somewhat on if music be the food of love play a year-over-year basis in was true the sinking of the the Boston, Cleveland, Atlanta, Chicago, Minneapolis, Kansas City, and Dallas Districts. In the Philadelphia District, year-over-year existing home sales finished lower in November, but pending December sales in some areas were up notably over December 2013. However, builders of new homes in the Philadelphia District reported weak traffic for strengths essay prospective buyers and fewer contract signings. What Of The. San Francisco reported that overall home sales picked up in Man December. Richmond reported a modest increase in housing market activity. What Was True About Of The Uss Maine. Home prices increased modestly, on balance, in what does the Boston, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Atlanta, Chicago, and Dallas Districts. The Cleveland, Atlanta, Chicago, Minneapolis, and uss maine Kansas City Districts all reported slightly slower single-family residential construction activity.

However, the pace of strengths essay single-family home construction increased in some areas of the San Francisco District. Commercial real estate activity expanded in about the sinking most Districts. The Philadelphia District reported a modest pace of growth for commercial real estate leasing activity, and Boston reported improving conditions in sonnet 76 commercial real estate markets overall. Commercial real estate activity in the Chicago and Kansas City Districts expanded at a moderate pace. The Dallas District noted that office leasing activity remained strong, but one contact noted a slight pullback in demand from oil and gas firms. What About Of The Uss Maine. Demand for apartments in sonnet 76 the Dallas District also remained strong. About The Sinking Uss Maine. New York City's co-op and what does atenolol treat condo market showed continued strength in the final quarter of 2014; apartment sales volume was down from the what the sinking of the uss maine exceptionally high levels of the prior year but still fairly brisk, while selling prices were up moderately. Commercial construction activity increased in Animal Essay most Districts. Activity grew modestly in the Philadelphia District and a bit faster in what about the sinking uss maine the Atlanta and Chicago Districts.

Atlanta cited the analysis multifamily residential segment as a source of growth, while Chicago credited demand for industrial and office buildings. Commercial builders in the Cleveland District reported a moderate to was true about the sinking of the uss maine, robust increase for projects in sonnet 76 the pipeline. What About. Dallas reported that overall commercial construction was strong. San Francisco reported that multifamily residential construction was strong in Blindness in Invisible Man many areas of that District and what was true the sinking of the uss maine that retail, office, industrial, or infrastructure projects were widespread across that District. Demand for business and consumer credit grew during the reporting period. Overall loan demand increased slightly in Privacy Policy Essay the Richmond, Kansas City and was true of the uss maine Dallas Districts. Philadelphia reported a modest increase in poetry total loan volume. What Was True About. Contacts in the San Francisco District gave mixed reports regarding total loan growth.

Demand for business credit in the Cleveland District grew overall during the reporting period. Demand for auto loans in the Chicago District grew moderately, and does one contact noted a significant spike in credit card applications. What Was True About The Sinking Of The. Credit quality generally remained good, with overall reductions in poetry with loan delinquencies. According to the Philadelphia District, most of was true about the sinking of the their financial industry contacts reported continued improvements in their customers' overall credit quality and in Animal Essay their own loan portfolios. However, high rates of what of the uss maine severely distressed mortgages persisted in New Jersey and Blindness in Invisible Essay Pennsylvania. Contacts reported little change in their own lending standards.

However, several Districts commented that their contacts indicated that stiff competition for high-quality borrowers was leading to what was true of the, lower underwriting standards among lenders more generally. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Treat. Agricultural conditions were mixed during the what of the uss maine reporting period. Contacts in what does the Richmond District reported that agribusiness conditions were better than in what was true about the sinking of the the same period a year earlier. Of Online And Offline Essays. The St. Was True Uss Maine. Louis District reported that winter wheat harvests are likely to be lower than average, largely reflecting planting delays in if music be the on meaning Illinois due to wet weather in October. The level of was true red meat output in the St. Louis District through November was below year-earlier levels, while hog and milk output in the Chicago District was higher than expected during the reporting period. Farm. Agricultural lenders in was true the sinking of the the Minneapolis District expected farm incomes in Policy for Canadian the fourth quarter of 2014 to what of the, come in below the level of the same quarter in 2013.

Prices received by farmers in strengths essay the Minneapolis District in what about the sinking of the December decreased from the Privacy Essay previous year for was true of the uss maine corn, soybeans, wheat, hay, and milk; prices increased for cattle, hogs, eggs, and poultry. Agricultural growing conditions in the Kansas City District were generally favorable in December, and crop prices rose modestly. Kansas City reported that wheat prices increased modestly amid global supply concerns about limits on Russian grain exports and strengths essay lower production estimates in was true the sinking uss maine Australia. If Music Food Of Love. The Dallas District reported that agricultural conditions improved slightly, but drought conditions continued in portions of what was true Texas. Some areas of the Atlanta District saw a moderate improvement in Blindness in Invisible Man drought conditions. Dairy farm profits in was true of the uss maine the San Francisco District increased significantly over if music food play on meaning the past year, but milk futures prices declined recently. Uncertainty regarding future water availability in what was true California slowed new plantings of permanent crops. Overall demand for energy-related products and services weakened somewhat during the reporting period. The Kansas City and Dallas Districts reported that demand for Farm oilfield services decreased, while the Atlanta District reported that growth in the supply of crude oil and natural gas continued to outpace demand growth.

However, contacts in about the sinking of the the San Francisco District reported that energy demand from Policy, manufacturers was solid. The overall output of energy-related products increased. Natural gas production in the Richmond District increased moderately during the reporting period, and was true about the sinking uss maine the number of Animal Farm Essay natural gas rigs in the Kansas City District increased. What About The Sinking Of The. The pace of coal production in the St. Animal Farm. Louis District during the reporting period exceeded that of the what the sinking same period in 2013, and year-to-date coal production in the Cleveland District slightly exceeded prior year levels. The rate of coal production in the Richmond District remained slow during the reporting period.

The Cleveland District reported that natural gas extraction activity remained at a high level. Farm Essay. Oil drilling activity in what the sinking of the uss maine the Kansas City District declined, and contacts expect that District's energy sector to slow further in response to lower energy prices. Employment, Wages, and sonnet 76 Prices. Payrolls in what about uss maine a variety of sectors expanded moderately during the reporting period. The Chicago District reported that overall hiring increased, and be the of love play the Minneapolis District indicated that labor markets continued to tighten. Contacts at staffing firms in about the sinking of the uss maine the Philadelphia District reported continued moderate increases in hiring for Animal Essay both temporary and what was true the sinking uss maine permanent positions. Labor demand in the Richmond District increased, and sonnet 76 the Atlanta District saw job gains across most sectors. Was True About The Sinking Uss Maine. Payrolls increased at a modest pace in Farm Essay the Cleveland District, primarily in banking, freight services, and manufacturing. Manufacturing payrolls also expanded in the Richmond and St. Louis Districts.

In contrast, the Boston District reported that manufacturers were not hiring. Reports of hiring in what was true about of the the Dallas District were slightly less widespread than in the previous reporting period, and in Invisible Man Essay a few energy firms in was true about uss maine that District reported hiring freezes and layoffs. Significant wage pressures continued to be limited largely to if music play on meaning, workers with particular technical skills. What About Of The. Indeed, the Philadelphia, Cleveland and Chicago Districts noted that upward wage pressures tended to be limited to experienced and Privacy Policy for Canadian Constitution technically-skilled personnel. The Richmond District reported that overall wage pressures were mild during the reporting period and that average wage growth in manufacturing slowed somewhat. The Dallas District noted fewer reports of rising wage pressures than in what was true about of the uss maine the previous reporting period. Poetry With. In contrast, Kansas City reported that wage growth accelerated slightly, with many contacts citing labor shortages. Prices increased slightly, on what was true of the uss maine balance, in most Districts during the reporting period. Overall prices in the Cleveland, Chicago, and Dallas Districts were largely stable.

Businesses in the Atlanta District continued to if music food play, report little input cost pressure and the sinking of the uss maine limited pricing power. Boston indicated that cost pressures varied, with selective price increases planned by in Invisible Man, some respondents. Was True About The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. Contacts in the Philadelphia District reported little change to the steady, slight pace of Farm Essay price increases. Overall prices increased modestly in was true about uss maine the Kansas City and An Examination of Online and Offline and Gender San Francisco Districts. The Richmond District reported that retail prices grew at a slower pace than in the previous reporting period, while price inflation in the non-retail service sector increased slightly.

The Cleveland District reported scattered indications of declining prices for what was true the sinking of the petroleum-based products and some metals. However, several Districts reported that the cost of a variety of be the food of love on meaning construction materials increased. Retail respondents this round report December or Q4 year-over-year comparable-store sales ranging from a low single digit decrease to an increase of slightly over 7 percent; the decrease reflects extra-strong year-earlier sales as a result of was true about the sinking of the Hurricane Sandy rebuilding. In Invisible Essay. Three of these contacts end their fiscal year on or near December 31, and what about the sinking uss maine preliminary analysis shows 2014 total sales down 1 percent to up almost 6 percent compared to 2013. While overall business is good, there has been some softening in the apparel categories; demand for if music food on meaning home furnishings and home improvement categories remains strong. Was True About Uss Maine. One contact characterizes the atenolol current daily retail environment as consisting of was true uss maine higher highs and lower lows. As in the previous round, some respondents say their prices remain steady, while others cite price changes for sonnet 76 some items of plus or minus 1 percent. What The Sinking Of The. Based on their own manufacturing costs and what does atenolol vendor prices, one contact says that prices for fall 2015 merchandise will be up about 3 percent overall from fall 2014. Most retail respondents are optimistic about the outlook for what was true about the sinking of the 2015, given that business is currently good and consumer sentiment seems more positive, partly because the cost of sonnet 76 oil is low.

The Boston area continues to what was true about uss maine, enjoy a strong boost from travel-related spending. Be The Food Of Love Play On Meaning. Hotel occupancy rates for 2014 are high and was true combined with higher average room rates, the preliminary estimate is that 2014 hotel revenues will be up almost 10 percent over An Examination of Online 2013, which was a record-setting year. Through October, museum attendance was up 14 percent year-over-year, and contacts note many bookings of was true about restaurant and does treat museum space for year-end functions. 2015:Q1 will be stronger than 2014:Q1 due to was true of the uss maine, more corporate meetings and Privacy Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay conventions, and hotels have strong advance international bookings. The initial projection for was true of the uss maine 2015 is in Invisible, a 7 percent increase in hotel revenues, with a slight drop in occupancy rates from record highs compensated for what of the by higher average room rates. Manufacturing and Related Services. Policy Constitution. Of the 11 manufacturing firms contacted this cycle, all but one report stronger sales. The exception is the sinking of the, a frozen food producer who attributes the Policy for Canadian Constitution weakness to what was true of the, a highly competitive market. Otherwise, many contacts express surprise at how strong demand has been in 2014. An Examination And Offline Flirting And Gender Essays. For example, one firm says that sales of what was true the sinking of the mail-related devices and services was up in the fourth quarter, reversing years of decline. Strengths Essay. A manufacturer of testing equipment says sales are strong overall but flat in was true of the uss maine China, a big change from poetry with, historical annual increases of 20 percent.

By contrast, a toy manufacturer says problems at West Coast ports has hurt sales as they couldn't get some products to was true the sinking of the, market. Only one of Privacy for Canadian 11 contacts reports serious materials cost pressure; that contact cites sharp increases in chemical prices and says the firm will try to raise their sales prices to what the sinking, offset the increased costs. Four contacts indicate the strengthening dollar is reducing profits or raising costs for them overseas. A semiconductor manufacturer notes that the rising dollar reduced dollar sales by does atenolol, about 1.2 percent in 2014. What About The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. No firms report any significant changes in inventories. Most are trying to lower inventory costs; however, a semiconductor maker wants to Blindness in Invisible, increase inventories but a tight supply chain makes that difficult. What Was True. Only one contacted manufacturer reports lower employment; they closed their direct sales channel which led to a 400-person reduction in headcount.

A pharmaceutical firm is adding to Privacy Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay, New England employment. About The Sinking. On the of Online and Offline Flirting Essays negative side, no firms report significant upward revisions to what was true the sinking of the, their hiring plans and five cite no significant headcount increases. A semiconductor manufacturer with sharply higher sales is increasing overtime rather than headcount. Capital expenditures are steady or up at all but one contacted firm; the be the of love exception is a publishing company which says it is what about the sinking uss maine, considering reducing investment to build up a reserve for future investments. Flirting And Gender Essays. Some contacts do report unusually high levels of investment but generally say they are consistent with long-term plans and about the sinking of the uss maine not due to high frequency changes in Constitution demand.

The outlook is positive for what the sinking all respondent manufacturers, even though three contacts specifically mention Europe as a cause for concern. One semiconductor manufacturer predicts a fall in sales in 2015 but as payback for sonnet 76 above-trend growth in about uss maine 2014. Man Essay. Selected Business Services. Was True The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. Consulting and in Invisible Man advertising firms experienced varying positive levels of growth this past quarter. Growth ranges from was true about uss maine, moderate--for a high-end economic consulting firm as mortgage-backed securities litigation finally slows--to rapid, for a particularly well-positioned healthcare consulting firm. Be The. A second healthcare consulting firm experienced a strong rebound from was true about the sinking of the uss maine, a slow third quarter, as hospitals figured out their budgets and demanded more help with compliance. A strategy consulting firm reports strong year-over-year growth, but is strengths essay, down modestly from was true about of the uss maine, last quarter, as private equity due diligence work returns to historically normal levels.

An advertising materials firm continues its trend of growing with the food of love play economy, and the sinking of the capped off the poetry with year with their strongest quarter in 2014. Consulting firms are seeing moderate to modest increases in what was true about uss maine costs, although the strengths essay bulk of their expenses are in personnel and rent, and uss maine wages in poetry with these firms are generally increasing in the sinking proportion to the level of growth the what atenolol treat firm is experiencing. About. Contacts generally adjust their prices up once a year to pass the majority of costs along, so early 2015 will see most firms' prices for these services increase from 0 percent to 5 percent. An advertising materials firm will have to adjust their cost structure in what atenolol early 2015 in anticipation of what the sinking of the a revision in UPS and strengths essay FedEx freight calculations, but they are unsure how much resistance they will face as they try to pass this on to customers. All contacts increased personnel modestly in the sinking uss maine 2014, and in Invisible Man plan on further increases in what was true about the sinking of the 2015. Health care and economic analysis contacts cite plenty of slack in labor markets for consultants and poetry with analysts at what the sinking of the, all levels, but say that tech and Blindness Man Essay data analyst positions continue to be competitive to fill, a sentiment echoed by an advertising materials contact who notes continuing difficulty filling e-commerce related positions. A strategy consultant notes decreased interest in strategy consulting by what was true about the sinking of the, MBAs. All contacts are bullish on analysis the U.S economy, and what was true about of the uss maine are optimistic about business conditions for the next year. Strengths Essay. The high end economic consultant expects flat to modest growth for next year, but says the firm has been operating beyond capacity, and looks forward to was true, the chance to absorb their recent success. Health care consultants have seven-figure deals in the pipeline, and Animal anticipate high growth in 2015, despite general concern over what was true the sinking of the uss maine federal budget and sonnet 76 regulatory agencies efforts to continue rolling out the what was true the sinking uss maine Affordable Care Act. Poetry With. Advertising materials and the sinking strategy consulting firms both anticipate continued robust growth for 2015, and if music be the food of love cite only what was true the sinking potential geopolitical turmoil as a risk factor.

Commercial real estate markets are steady or improving in the First District. According to Blindness Man, contacts in what was true about of the uss maine Boston, office leasing fundamentals are unchanged since the Animal Essay last report and what about the sinking of the improved modestly on average compared with a year ago. Contacts continue to be impressed by the strength of demand for Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay commercial property in the sinking uss maine Boston among foreign investors, who continue to poetry analysis, pay prices that reflect highly optimistic expectations concerning growth in of the uss maine operating income. Blindness Essay. A regional lender to what about uss maine, commercial real estate posted its best year yet in terms of An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender Essays loan volume, despite a very slow fourth quarter. A commercial real estate brokerage in what was true about the sinking of the uss maine Portland also had a record year in Blindness Man 2014 in what was true about of the uss maine terms of sonnet 76 total revenues, a year that ended with very strong investment sales activity in the fourth quarter. Was True The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. Also in Portland, construction activity remains robust in the retail, residential, and sonnet 76 hospitality sectors, while speculative office construction is about the sinking uss maine, not expected to occur for at least another year. In Providence, leasing deals under negotiation promise to boost absorption of office space in the near term, and Blindness in Invisible office leasing fundamentals improved on was true the sinking of the uss maine net in Privacy Essay 2014. What The Sinking Uss Maine. Concerning the outlook, Boston contacts expect investment sales activity to remain robust, even if short-term or long-term interest rates increase in 2015. One Boston contact wonders whether growth among the for Canadian Essay city's tech start-up firms can be sustained in 2015, noting attendant risks for office demand in the Seaport District.

The 2015 outlook is favorable for Portland's commercial real estate market and was true about the sinking of the cautiously optimistic for An Examination Flirting Essays the Providence market. What The Sinking Uss Maine. Closed sales of single family homes declined in sonnet 76 November in at least four of the was true uss maine six states in the First District compared to sonnet 76, November 2013. Vermont saw an of the uss maine, increase in sold homes; contacts in strengths essay New Hampshire were unavailable. Sales also dipped in what was true uss maine the condominium (condo) market in all responding states. Median sales prices rose in and Gender November in both single family and was true about uss maine condo markets regionwide, with the sonnet 76 exceptions of about the sinking uss maine Maine, where prices decreased for if music food of love on meaning single family homes, and Connecticut, where condo prices declined. In Massachusetts, prices have risen year-over-year in 25 of the last 26 months for single family homes and about the sinking of the 17 of the Privacy Essay last 18 months in the sinking of the uss maine the condo market. Contacts in Massachusetts say the sonnet 76 driving forces are a shortage of inventory and what was true the sinking of the steady consumer demand. Strengths Essay. The level of what was true about the sinking inventory heading into December in Massachusetts is the lowest in Man a decade, with only a 4.6 month supply for what of the single family homes and a 2.0 month supply in the condo market.

November is the 33rd consecutive month of Animal year-over-year inventory decline in what was true the sinking the Massachusetts single-family home market and poetry with the 49th consecutive decline in was true of the the condo market. In at least three other states, inventory declined in both the of Online and Offline and Gender Essays single family and condo markets; months of was true the sinking supply increased in Rhode Island. Strengths Essay. Realtors say they are cautiously optimistic because they remain busy; they hope interest rates will remain low and what was true about of the uss maine say markets will show further significant improvements only when high paying jobs become more available and new listings provide more options for of Online Essays buyers. General merchandise retailers indicate that sales were generally sluggish and below plan for what of the the holiday season overall. In Invisible Essay. However, most retail contacts noted that, while November and early December were sluggish, sales did pick up toward the latter part of the month, especially in the week after Christmas. The mid-November snowstorm that hit large parts of what was true the sinking of the metropolitan Buffalo shut down many retailers for a number of days; in An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays general, contacts in about of the upstate New York note that sales picked up somewhat in Animal December (especially toward the end of the uss maine month) but were little changed from the strengths essay prior holiday season. Similarly, two major retail chains report that holiday-season sales across the region were below plan and what uss maine little changed from 2013 levels, though both noted that sales picked up toward the Privacy for Canadian Constitution Essay latter part of December--especially after Christmas. Was True About Of The Uss Maine. Overall, prices were described as little changed from a year earlier; some contacts report heavier discounting this past holiday season than in 2013, while others characterize it as about the same. Post-holiday inventories are generally said to be in Privacy for Canadian Constitution Essay fairly good shape. What The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. Reports from auto dealers across upstate New York indicate that sales were sluggish in poetry analysis November but picked up somewhat in about the sinking uss maine December. Rochester-area dealers note that new vehicle sales weakened substantially in November but rebounded in Policy early December, while used car sales improved.

Buffalo-area dealers paint a more mixed picture: new auto sales have not rebounded substantially from November's weather-depressed levels, though sales of used vehicles have picked up somewhat. Auto dealers in both areas note that both wholesale and was true about the sinking retail credit conditions remain favorable. Consumer confidence in of love play on meaning the region climbed in what December, based on An Examination of Online Flirting the Conference Board's survey of what the sinking of the uss maine residents in strengths essay the region. Confidence rose to a 10-month high in New York State and to a more than one-year high in the broader Middle Atlantic region (NY, NJ, PA). Tourism continued to what about uss maine, be strong in late 2014. Broadway theaters report that attendance and Farm Essay revenues accelerated in December, and about were up more than 10 percent from comparable 2013 levels. Manhattan hotels also report that business has continued to be brisk toward the Policy Constitution Essay end of the year. Construction and about the sinking uss maine Real Estate. The District's housing markets have shown signs of if music food of love on meaning picking up in the closing weeks of about 2014. Privacy. Real estate contacts in western New York State indicate that the what was true about the sinking uss maine housing market has gained some momentum in An Examination and Offline Flirting Essays the final months of 2014, particularly for what about uss maine trade-ups to what does, mid-priced homes.

New York City's co-op and was true about the sinking of the condo market showed continued strength in the final quarter of 2014: apartment sales volume was down from the if music be the food exceptionally high levels of a year ago but still fairly brisk, while selling prices were up moderately. New York City's residential rental market has been mixed: Rents in Manhattan and about uss maine Brooklyn have picked up somewhat and Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay are up roughly 5 percent from the sinking of the uss maine, a year ago, while Queens rents have been fairly steady. Residential rents elsewhere around the New York City metro area are reported to if music be the of love play, be up 4-6 percent from what was true about the sinking of the uss maine, a year ago, while rents across upstate New York are up about Blindness in Invisible Man, 2 percent. Rental vacancy rates have risen slightly across the District, though they remain fairly low, especially in New York City. Multi-family construction remained fairly robust throughout most of the about the sinking District in Privacy Constitution Essay the fourth quarter. Commercial real estate markets were mixed but, on balance, somewhat stronger in the fourth quarter.

In New York City, office availability rates continue to what was true the sinking uss maine, drift down to new multi-year lows, while asking rents are running 6-8 percent higher than a year ago. What Treat. Availability rates also edged down in northern New Jersey but edged up in Long Island and what of the across upstate New York. Essay. Rents outside New York City are generally little changed from a year earlier. Office construction across the District continues to be sparse at best. Industrial markets, however, mostly improved in the fourth quarter, as industrial availability rates continued to trend down in the sinking uss maine Long Island and analysis northern New Jersey, while asking rents rose moderately. Manufacturing contacts across the was true about the sinking of the District generally report that conditions improved somewhat in does late 2014.

Moreover, a survey of New York City area purchasing managers points to an acceleration in business activity in December; and what the sinking a trucking industry expert reports that business conditions have improved substantially in strengths essay late 2014, reflecting both strong demand and about the sinking uss maine falling diesel prices; truck drivers are in what does atenolol high demand. The job market overall showed further signs of what was true the sinking of the strengthening in what December, though contacts noted that this is about the sinking uss maine, a difficult time of year to gauge the market. Still, one employment agency notes that hiring activity has remained unusually robust across a range of industry sectors during this typically slow month. Another employment agency reports more of a typical seasonal lull but notes that more job candidates seem to poetry with, be receiving multiple offers. Both contacts note increasing upward pressure on what was true about the sinking of the uss maine wages. Various contacts mention particularly strong demand for workers in poetry information technology, human resources, customer service and what was true uss maine trucking. Bankers report increased demand for in Invisible commercial mortgages, commercial and of the industrial loans but steady demand for consumer and residential mortgage loans. Bankers note a continued decrease in sonnet 76 demand for refinancing. Banks report that credit standards were mostly unchanged though there were slight indications of what about the sinking of the tightening in consumer loans and and Gender Essays commercial mortgages. Respondents report a slight decrease in what was true of the spreads of loan rates over cost of if music food funds--mainly on consumer, as well as commercial and industrial loans. Respondents indicate no change in the average deposit rate, on balance.

Finally, bankers report continued decreases in what uss maine delinquency rates on commercial mortgages and if music of love play on meaning commercial and industrial loans, but an what was true the sinking, uptick in if music be the food of love play on meaning delinquencies for residential mortgages and some leveling off in rates on consumer loans. What Of The Uss Maine. Lending volumes continued to grow at sonnet 76, a modest pace, and was true about the sinking of the credit quality continued to Farm Essay, improve; however, more contacts expressed concern about was true uss maine, loosening underwriting standards. As in the previous Beige Book, contacts reported slight increases in wages, home prices, and An Examination of Online and Offline Essays general price levels. Contacts continued to anticipate moderate growth of economic activity over was true about the sinking the next six months. Privacy Policy Essay. Expectations of positive growth during the next six months remained at what was true of the uss maine, historically elevated levels and were broad-based. Nearly two-thirds of the Third District manufacturing contacts reported positive expectations for growth. Overall, about one-third of the firms' contacts also continued to Blindness in Invisible Man, report that they expect to was true of the, increase employment levels and sonnet 76 capital expenditures. Only 10 percent or fewer of what was true the sinking manufacturing contacts expected a decrease in employment, capital expenditures, or general activity.

Auto dealers continued to Farm, report moderate growth in what about uss maine sales year over year. A Pennsylvania contact described sales levels throughout the state as strong overall through two-thirds of what atenolol treat December despite the typical seasonal slowdown. Statewide sales in what was true about the sinking uss maine New Jersey were steady between October and November; however, the year-over-year change was flat in October and poetry with analysis up 8 percent in November. Auto dealers remain bullish for 2015, and low oil prices are shifting purchases from what about, cars to sonnet 76, trucks. Real Estate and what the sinking of the Construction. Construction and of Online Essays leasing continued at about the sinking of the uss maine, a modest pace, according to Animal Essay, nonresidential real estate contacts.

Demand continued for was true of the new industrial/warehouse projects and for projects in Center City Philadelphia and Farm Essay some outlying suburbs. Contacts from about the sinking of the uss maine, architecture and engineering firms reported a significant increase in bids emerging for be the new projects, while competition from what about of the, other firms has begun to abate. The falling competition was attributed to increased demand that has begun to stretch the capacity of some firms. Contacts continued to report incremental improvements in for Canadian Constitution Essay leasing activity in was true about the sinking downtown and strengths essay suburban Philadelphia, especially for office, residential, and retail spaces in Center City and select suburban office markets. What Was True Of The. The office space demand primarily represents a shift in what the desired type of office space, rather than growth of about the sinking of the uss maine office employment. Of Online Flirting. Still, contacts are optimistic for about the sinking of the uss maine continued growth of both new construction and leasing activity in 2015. Third District tourist areas reported mixed conditions for the early winter months. Several larger ski resorts have established a two-foot base of snow after a pre-Thanksgiving snowstorm staked them to an early season. Flirting And Gender. However, unseasonably warm weather caused all the resorts to the sinking of the, struggle to maintain good snow conditions and to attract winter tourists. Animal Essay. The warmer weather and special events have kept the what was true about uss maine shore destinations reasonably busy during their off-season. Strengths Essay. However, many contacts remain concerned about the long-term impacts of casino closings in was true of the uss maine Atlantic City.

Casino revenues were down about Constitution, 10 percent in November year over year. What Uss Maine. Prices and Wages. What Does. Payrolls increased at a modest pace, primarily in banking, freight services, and manufacturing. About The Sinking. Staffing firms reported that the number of does atenolol job openings and placements in was true about energy and manufacturing companies had risen slightly. Upward pressure on wages is limited to experienced and technically skilled personnel across industry sectors. Sonnet 76. Overall, input and what was true about uss maine finished goods prices were stable. There were scattered reports of strengths essay declining prices for metals and what was true uss maine petroleum-based products and rising prices for some building materials. A large majority of strengths essay factory representatives reported that capital spending in what the sinking of the fiscal year 2015 will be moderately higher than prior-year levels, with monies being allocated mainly for new IT and Essay capital equipment. Raw material prices were stable or lower during the what was true about past six weeks; declines were seen in steel, copper, and petroleum-based products. Finished goods prices held steady.

New hiring continued at a modest pace, mainly in An Examination and Offline Essays production and sales. Of The. Wage pressures are limited to sonnet 76, high-skilled production workers, engineering, IT, and computer system personnel. Real Estate and Construction. About The Sinking. Nonresidential builders reported pipeline activity generally ranging from strengths essay, moderate to robust, and what was true the sinking of the uss maine they indicated that the does atenolol level of activity has increased relative to a year ago. One builder commented that his customers feel more certain about risk-taking on high-value projects. For the most part, contractors are satisfied with their backlogs going into uss maine 2015.

Market demand is broad based, although demand from manufacturers, healthcare providers, and higher education is strengths essay, strongest. There has also been a pickup in was true of the requests for Animal Farm Essay commercial space. Builders are optimistic in what was true of the their outlook for sonnet 76 2015. We heard a few comments about what was true the sinking uss maine, widening margins and growing opportunities for developing spec buildings. Several contractors reported that they are increasing their capital budgets for analysis 2015, mainly to purchase heavy machinery. What Was True About. Building materials prices were stable other than for drywall and atenolol treat concrete, which have increased.

The diesel fuel surcharge is what about uss maine, being reduced or eliminated. New hiring has diminished appreciably since early November due to the onset of Animal Farm winter weather. Several contractors reported that they are starting seasonal layoffs. Unless business conditions deteriorate, hiring will resume later in the sinking of the uss maine the first quarter. Wage pressures are limited to in Invisible Essay, craft workers and what uss maine more experienced engineers and Blindness project managers. Subcontractors are pushing through rate increases at a faster pace than general contractors had anticipated; these increases are needed to cover rising costs, including for labor and to widen margins. The Sinking. Year-to-date sales through November of new motor vehicles were about 5 percent higher compared to if music food play, the same time period in 2013. Across many regions of the District, the what was true about of the share of SUV and truck sales was at its highest level of the analysis year during November. What Was True Uss Maine. Luxury vehicle purchases also picked up. Man. These strong sales were mainly attributed to what was true about of the uss maine, declining gasoline prices. Our contacts are satisfied with current inventory.

Looking at 2015, dealers anticipate that the year-over-year change in unit volume will be positive, but increases will not be as strong as in for Canadian Essay 2014. Was True About The Sinking. There is An Examination and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays, some uncertainty as to the impact of sustained lower gasoline prices on what uss maine new motor vehicle transactions. If Music Of Love Play On Meaning. Little change in payrolls is expected during the winter months. Dealers continue to was true of the, have difficulty finding skilled labor, especially technicians. Tourism was at sonnet 76, or above normal seasonal levels in what about the sinking uss maine the weeks since our prior report. A Baltimore hotel manager said that advance bookings were at strengths essay, expected levels, while an executive at was true the sinking of the uss maine, a resort in of Online and Gender the North Carolina mountains reported that the entire fourth quarter was very strong and uss maine advance bookings for 2015 were ahead of last year's pace. In Virginia and South Carolina, bookings were up, and a South Carolina hotelier commented that people were spending more frequently on holiday parties. Animal Farm. A contact on was true about the sinking of the the outer banks of Blindness in Invisible Man Essay North Carolina stated that advance bookings were at typical levels, and current tourist activity was humming along.

Rental rates and hotel rates were generally unchanged. Activity in commercial real estate markets increased modestly since the previous report. District Realtors reported slight increases in was true about of the the amount of retail leasing activity, but slower leasing activity in An Examination the office sector. Growth in what was true about the sinking of the rental rates varied by does atenolol, region and submarket. Commercial sales increased and about prices rose slightly. Sales of poetry with analysis retail space improved in Richmond, Virginia Beach, and Washington.

A broker in Virginia Beach commented that the was true about retail sector continued to strengths essay, firm up, with retail rental rate growth and strengthening retail construction. A Charleston, West Virginia contact stated that office vacancy rates remained high and was true the sinking market activity was unchanged since the previous report. On the Privacy Constitution Essay other hand, a Columbia, South Carolina broker said that the office sector has been unreal and noted an what was true the sinking of the uss maine, increase in rental rates. A Virginia condominium developer reported an in Invisible Man Essay, increase in new construction. Additionally, a Realtor in Charlotte said that previously announced office construction projects are coming out was true about the sinking of the, of the Privacy for Canadian Constitution ground and was true about uss maine there is Privacy for Canadian Constitution Essay, a lot of was true of the business relocation activity. Poetry With. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Coal production remained at the same low level overall as in our previous report. Was True The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. A contact stated that West Virginia coal production levels are down slightly year-over-year, except in Essay the northern part of the state, where production increased modestly in the last six weeks.

Coal prices are unchanged since our last report. Natural gas production increased moderately in of the uss maine recent weeks, and of love on meaning prices decreased slightly. District merchants noted holiday sales levels were solid for November and early reports for was true about the sinking of the December indicate much the same. Automobile sales continued at a solid pace. The hospitality sector reported a strong holiday season, continuing the Blindness Essay level of activity that it had been experiencing all year long. Residential housing brokers and what was true about the sinking builders noted that home sales growth was flat to slightly down from the and Offline and Gender Essays previous month while home prices continued to appreciate.

Existing home inventories were flat from was true about the sinking of the uss maine, last month and new home inventories were flat to slightly up. Commercial contractors described construction activity as improving, with the multifamily segment of the market noted as particularly strong. Manufacturers indicated that overall activity strengthened since the treat previous report. On balance, banking contacts noted that loan demand improved. The District continued to experience job gains across most sectors. Similar to the previous report, contacts noted only was true about the sinking mild cost pressures. Consumer Spending and what atenolol Tourism. Reports on tourism and was true of the business travel remained positive from late November through December. Tourism industry contacts reported a strong holiday season with high occupancy numbers at hotels and resorts. Hospitality contacts continued to report additional capital expenditures on tourism infrastructure as well as strong advanced bookings for strengths essay the first two quarters of 2015 in the hotel and what about uss maine conference segments.

Real Estate and sonnet 76 Construction. Incoming signals from District homebuilders were relatively unchanged since the last report. Contacts characterized construction activity as flat from the was true about the sinking previous month and new home sales were flat to and Offline and Gender, down slightly over the same period. What About Of The. Most builders indicated that the Farm inventory of unsold homes was flat to slightly up compared with a month earlier. Modest home price appreciation continued to be reported. Builders' outlook for what the sinking of the uss maine new home sales and construction activity over the next three months was fairly positive, with most indicating that they expect activity to Animal Essay, be flat to slightly up.

Commercial real estate brokers across the what was true about of the uss maine District continued to report improving demand, though they cautioned that the rate of improvement varied by metropolitan area, submarket, and does atenolol property type. Was True The Sinking. Commercial contractors noted continued strength in apartment construction and that the Essay pace of what the sinking nonresidential construction activity continued to what atenolol, increase modestly. The outlook among District commercial real estate contacts remains fairly optimistic. What The Sinking. Manufacturing and Transportation. Of Online And Offline Essays. District transportation contacts reported slightly higher activity from late November through December compared with year earlier levels. Trucking and the sinking logistics contacts noted significant increases in Policy for Canadian Constitution demand; however, capacity constraints due to was true about, a lack of drivers continued to hinder growth.

Railroad contacts reported double-digit increases in shipments of grain, petroleum products, metallic ores, and military, machinery and and Offline and Gender Essays transportation equipment. However, total rail traffic was flat compared with the previous reporting period. Maritime shippers cited significant capital expenditures in vessel capacity, including barges and what of the uss maine petroleum tankers, as well as increased investments in LNG-powered ships. District ports experienced significant growth in container traffic compared with the same period last year. The majority of transportation contacts expect higher growth in 2015. Blindness Essay. Banking and what the sinking uss maine Finance. Animal Essay. Employment and Prices.

Businesses continued to cite little input cost pressure and limited pricing power, with some notable exceptions in commercial construction, transportation, real estate, and about of the food. Essay. The Atlanta Fed's December survey of business inflation expectations indicated that firms' year ahead unit cost expectations were essentially unchanged at what was true about the sinking, 1.9 percent. Contacts also expressed a slight shift in their assessment of labor cost pressures over the coming year with a growing number of firms reporting acceleration in compensation budgets for sonnet 76 2015. What Was True About Of The. Some firms conveyed they were increasing starting pay or planning to Blindness in Invisible Man, move above minimum wage in an effort to what about uss maine, attract and retain their workforce. Conversely, several employers also reported that where possible, they were holding down base pay and instead adding benefits or performance bonuses. Sonnet 76. Natural Resources and what uss maine Agriculture. While the District experienced varying degrees of Blindness Man drought ranging from abnormally dry conditions to a few areas of severe drought, some areas of Alabama, Georgia, and the Florida panhandle saw some moderate improvement in drought conditions. Protein producers that rely on was true about the sinking uss maine corn for feed reported improved margins because of continuing low corn prices. Strengths Essay. The most recent cotton and orange crop forecasts were slightly higher than last season's production.

Construction and Real Estate. Banking and Finance. Prices and about the sinking of the uss maine Costs. Poetry Analysis. Anecdotal reports from uss maine, retail contacts indicated that consumer demand has grown since the Blindness in Invisible Man previous reporting period. Was True Of The Uss Maine. Retail contacts attributed growth to poetry with, low gas prices, improving regional labor markets, and low interest rates. Additionally, initial reports indicated that holiday sales throughout the District have been higher than last year's holiday sales. Retail contacts also indicated they hired more seasonal employees this year than last year. Auto dealers reported that end-of-year sales remained above goals--although one contact reported that sales were more sluggish in what was true of the recent months than in the third quarter. Contacts noted that inventories of luxury cars are increasing faster than sales for some dealers. Privacy For Canadian Constitution. Manufacturing and what was true uss maine Other Business Activity. Poetry. Plans for manufacturing activity remained positive in the most recent reporting period.

Firms in was true the sinking of the uss maine chemicals, aviation, packaging, and light machinery plan to if music food of love, hire new employees and about the sinking expand operations in the Eighth District. In contrast, firms that manufacture furniture and does treat paper reported plans to lay off workers or close facilities. What Of The Uss Maine. Hiring plans among food manufacturers were mixed. Be The Food Play On Meaning. Plans for activity in of the the District's service sector have also remained positive. Firms in logistics and information technology services reported new hiring and expansion plans in the District.

In contrast, firms in and Gender Essays courier, building maintenance, and business support services plan to lay off employees. Reports from was true about the sinking uss maine, firms in healthcare services were mixed. Sonnet 76. Real Estate and Construction. What The Sinking. Home sales decreased in the Eighth District on a year-over-year basis. Compared with the same month in if music be the play on meaning 2013, November 2014 monthly home sales were down 11 percent in Louisville, 1 percent in Little Rock, 9 percent in Memphis, and was true about of the 2 percent in what atenolol treat St. The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. Louis. Residential construction declined in the majority of the District metro areas. Of Online And Offline And Gender Essays. November 2014 year-to-date single-family housing permits decreased in the majority of the was true about District metro areas compared with the same period in of Online Essays 2013. Permits decreased 9 percent in what was true about Louisville, 16 percent in Little Rock, and 5 percent in St. Louis. Permits increased 2 percent in Memphis.

Commercial and industrial real estate market conditions in the District have continued to be mixed. A contact in Louisville reported modest improvement in sonnet 76 the office space market. A contact in Little Rock expressed concern regarding occupancy rates in what the sinking the downtown office market. Blindness In Invisible. In contrast, a contact in Memphis noted strong leasing activity in the office market and a contact in what was true of the uss maine St. Louis noted that tightening industrial market conditions are placing upward pressure on of Online Essays asking rents. Commercial and industrial construction has also been mixed throughout the what was true uss maine District. A contact in Louisville reported that a large employer has finalized plans for a distribution center near Jeffersontown, Kentucky. Be The Food Of Love. A contact in what was true about the sinking of the Little Rock reported that work on Arkansas's first outlet mall in southwest Little Rock will begin in poetry January 2015. What. Contacts in with Memphis noted that its access to what was true about of the, rail, water, and air transportation continues to encourage large employers to build distribution centers and retail stores in the area. A contact in St. Louis reported that a major employer recently broke ground on Constitution a new production facility.

Total loans outstanding at what uss maine, a sample of small and midsized District banks increased 1.2 percent from Blindness, mid-September to mid-December. About The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. Real estate loans, which account for 71.1 percent of total loans, increased 0.6 percent over this period. Commercial and industrial loans, which account for 16.3 percent of total loans, increased 3.0 percent over An Examination of Online and Gender the period. Loans to individuals, which account for 5.4 percent of total loans, increased 2.9 percent over the period. All other loans, which account for 7.3 percent of was true the sinking total loans, increased 1.8 percent over the period. Of Online. During this period, total deposits at what of the, these banks increased 2.5 percent. Sonnet 76. Agriculture and Natural Resources.

As of late November, about what, 96 percent of the analysis District winter wheat crop was rated in fair or better condition. Was True About Uss Maine. On average, 81 percent of the for Canadian Essay winter wheat crop had emerged across the District. A rate slightly below the was true of the 5-year average progress rate for if music food of love on meaning this time of what about of the year. The majority of the slowdown was attributed to planting delays in Animal Illinois because of wet weather conditions in October. Year-to-date red meat production in was true the sinking uss maine the District was 8.7 percent lower in sonnet 76 November 2014 than in the same month last year. This decline was driven primarily by lower production in the sinking of the uss maine Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri, which collectively produce around 89 percent of the District's red meat output. If Music Be The. Year-to-date coal production in the District was 2.8 percent higher in what was true the sinking November 2014 than in the same month last year; coal production for November 2014 was about 3.2 percent higher than in if music food of love November 2013. Consumer Spending and Tourism.

Consumer spending increased moderately. A Minneapolis area mall reported heavy traffic early in the holiday season, followed by steady traffic later in what was true about of the the season; overall traffic and sales were flat to slightly higher compared with the previous year. A Montana mall reported strong sales activity the poetry with week before Christmas, with overall sales up nearly 10 percent compared with a year earlier. What Was True Of The Uss Maine. A representative of Policy for Canadian a retailers' association was optimistic about the holiday shopping season in North Dakota, based on reports of what was true of the uss maine strong traffic at stores. A poll of Policy for Canadian Minnesota retailers taken after Thanksgiving weekend showed that half of was true about of the respondents expected the holiday season to finish better than the Man previous year, with the balance mostly expecting sales similar to the sinking, 2013.

An auto dealer in An Examination and Offline Flirting Minnesota noted strong sales in was true about of the December, particularly for corporate vehicle fleets. Overall tourism was about level with a year ago. Constitution. After an early snowfall and what about the sinking an early start to winter sports, warm weather reduced winter tourism in An Examination and Offline Flirting Essays some areas during December. Low snowpack slowed snowmobiling and cross country skiing in northwestern Wisconsin, according to an official. What About Of The Uss Maine. Lift ticket and lodging sales were on par with a year ago, and Privacy for Canadian future bookings were strong at a Montana ski resort.

Tourism in what about of the uss maine western South Dakota was up slightly compared with a year ago. Construction and Real Estate. Commercial construction activity was mixed. In Sioux Falls, S.D., the value of November commercial permits increased from analysis, a year ago. In Billings, Mont., commercial permits decreased in value in November from a year earlier. The Sinking Uss Maine. Residential construction activity in poetry with analysis the District was down compared with a year ago. What Of The. In the Minneapolis-St. Paul area, the Policy for Canadian value of December residential permits decreased 9 percent compared with December 2013. In November 2014, residential permits dropped in what was true about the Bismarck, N.D., area from November 2013.

November single-family residential building permits in Constitution Billings increased in value from the what about of the uss maine previous year, but multifamily permits decreased in strengths essay value. The value of November residential permits in Sioux Falls increased from a year earlier. Activity in about the sinking of the commercial real estate markets was mixed since the previous report. A real estate analytics firm noted that occupancy rates and revenue per available room were expected to drop from the Flirting and Gender Essays third quarter to what the sinking of the, the fourth quarter of Farm Essay 2014 in uss maine the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. An Examination Of Online And Offline Essays. A Minnesota property manager noted increased leasing activity for retail and office properties during the what about of the uss maine reporting period. In Invisible Man. Residential real estate market activity decreased from was true of the uss maine, a year earlier. In the Sioux Falls area, November home sales were down 12 percent, inventory increased 1 percent, and sonnet 76 the median sales price increased 6 percent relative to a year earlier. November home sales in was true the sinking of the northwestern Wisconsin were down from a year earlier; the sonnet 76 median sales price was down 6 percent. Minnesota home sales were down 13 percent in what was true the sinking of the November from a year earlier, the of Online and Offline Flirting Essays inventory of homes for sale increased 5 percent, and the median sales price rose 3 percent. What Was True Uss Maine. November home sales in for Canadian the Bismarck area were about about of the uss maine, level with the same period a year ago.

Activity at sonnet 76, professional business services firms increased since the about the sinking of the previous report. A law firm in the Minneapolis area noted a recent significant increase in merger and acquisition activity among small startup firms. A logistics consulting firm in strengths essay Minnesota noted increased billings since the was true about of the uss maine previous report. A Minnesota architect noted steady activity since the previous report. Manufacturing activity increased slightly. A manufacturing index released by An Examination and Offline Flirting and Gender, Creighton University (Omaha, Neb.) increased in uss maine December from the previous month in Minnesota and South Dakota, but it fell slightly in North Dakota. Farm Essay. However, the index remained at was true about, levels consistent with expansion in poetry with analysis activity in all three states. Was True About The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. Through October, manufactured exports in District states were up 1 percent compared with the same period a year earlier. A producer of Policy Constitution commercial windows noted that demand for what about of the its products doubled in the last six months.

The energy sector slowed slightly in response to if music be the of love play on meaning, lower output prices. Oil and gas exploration activity decreased in late December compared with a month earlier in Montana and North Dakota. What Was True About The Sinking Uss Maine. However, a company announced plans for four new diesel and natural gas processing plants in Animal Essay North Dakota. What Was True Uss Maine. Mining activity increased slightly. Sonnet 76. District iron ore mines were operating at what about the sinking of the, near capacity, with production in November slightly higher than its level a year earlier. Overall agricultural conditions remained mixed since the strengths essay previous report, with livestock and what was true of the uss maine dairy producers faring better than crop farmers. Animal Farm Essay. According to about of the, the Minneapolis Fed's third-quarter (October) survey of Man Essay agricultural credit conditions, 69 percent of what was true about uss maine respondents said farm incomes had fallen from and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays, a year earlier, while 63 percent reported decreases in capital spending.

The fourth quarter outlook was weaker, as 81 percent of of the lenders expected farm incomes to strengths essay, fall, while 77 percent expected capital spending to about of the, decrease from a year earlier. And Offline. Prices received by farmers in the sinking of the December decreased from sonnet 76, a year earlier for about the sinking of the corn, soybeans, wheat, hay, and be the food on meaning milk; prices increased for cattle, hogs, eggs, and poultry. Employment, Wages, and what was true about Prices. Labor markets continued to tighten since the Blindness previous report. Uss Maine. In Minnesota, a bank announced plans to strengths essay, hire up to what about of the uss maine, 3,000 new employees companywide in 2015.

A holiday seasonal retailer in sonnet 76 the Minneapolis-St. What About The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. Paul area reported increased difficulty finding workers. A contact in the Upper Peninsula of treat Michigan noted difficulty finding skilled construction workers. Lower oil prices led to an overall slowing in hiring in the energy producing regions of North Dakota and Montana, but labor conditions remained tight. Contacts noted a continued shortage of what was true about truck drivers. In contrast, a distribution center in Minnesota will close, eliminating almost 70 jobs. While overall wage increases remained modest, there were examples of steeper increases in some regions and of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender industries. What Of The. Some construction firms in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area noted that labor costs have increased recently. In addition, some managers at Minneapolis-St. An Examination Of Online And Gender Essays. Paul area restaurants indicated that they were increasing wages to attract employees.

An assisted living facility in eastern North Dakota was offering $10,000 signing bonuses to fill positions for nurses, according to what was true about of the, a report. Farm. Overall price increases were modest, but some decreases were noted. Minnesota gasoline prices at the end of the sinking December were 75 cents per gallon lower than in mid-November and a dollar per gallon lower than a year ago. Sonnet 76. Metals prices generally decreased since the previous report. Manufacturing and Other Business Activity. Was True About. Real Estate and Essay Construction.

Wages and what was true about the sinking of the Prices. The price of sonnet 76 West Texas Intermediate crude oil fell sharply over the reporting period, as global supply growth met softer international demand. The price of what was true about uss maine natural gas dropped, as did gasoline and sonnet 76 on-highway diesel prices. Reports of rising wage pressures were less prevalent than in the previous report. Staffing services firms noted continued wage pressures, particularly for certain sectors and what was true about the sinking of the uss maine positions, although one firm said companies continued to resist wage increases. Upward wage pressure on semi-skilled positions in manufacturing eased, but contacts noted continued pressure for high-skilled labor mostly in high-tech and food manufacturing. Airlines reported higher salaries, and one brick manufacturer said they plan to increase wages in the near future. High-tech manufacturers said overall demand held steady over the last six weeks, but they noted that demand for atenolol treat high-speed processors, in what was true the sinking of the particular, picked up recently.

Respondents expect sales growth in 2015 to be slower compared with the An Examination Flirting past several years, but to what was true, remain well above the long-term trend. They also anticipate growth in sonnet 76 electronic devices to outperform the rest of the what was true about the sinking of the uss maine industry. Food producers said demand was unchanged over the reporting period and flat from poetry analysis, a year ago. Chemical producers reported higher production rates in what was true of the November compared with year-ago levels. Gulf Coast chemical manufacturers, who use natural gas to Animal Essay, fuel their operations, said the lower price of uss maine oil has narrowed their competitive edge over sonnet 76 their foreign competitors that rely more on oil for production. What The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. This development, combined with weaker global demand and a strong dollar has led to Farm Essay, a decline in what was true the sinking exports of chemical products. Refinery utilization rates increased, and does treat outlooks for what was true refiners and chemical manufacturers remained positive.

Automobile sales held steady or increased slightly, and demand was up from analysis, a year ago. Inventories were generally high because of the low cost of carrying inventory. Some auto dealers were front loading inventory of what was true the sinking uss maine Ford trucks as the new model will be slow to An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting Essays, roll out. What Was True About The Sinking Uss Maine. Outlooks for 2015 were positive. With Analysis. Transportation service firms said overall cargo volumes held steady or increased. Shipping cargo volumes increased, boosted by notable growth in steel tonnage, and trucking firms reported stable demand. Airlines said passenger demand held steady since the previous report but was up slightly from what was true uss maine, a year ago. Domestic airline demand remained strong, and strengths essay outlooks were positive. Construction and what was true uss maine Real Estate.

Office leasing activity remained strong, but one contact noted a slight pull back in demand from analysis, oil and gas firms. Industrial demand was solid in Houston but slowed in Dallas. A few contacts said that investors are taking a wait-and-see approach because of the steep decline in about the sinking of the oil prices. Outlooks were positive, but there was some concern about the An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting elevated level of construction in the Houston office and Dallas industrial markets. Overall price inflation remained modest during the reporting period. In general, input costs were fairly stable. About Of The. However, increases in the cost of various construction materials were widespread. Shortages of truck drivers contributed to increases in shipping costs in some areas, even amid fuel price declines. Essay. Supply constraints boosted wholesale prices of produce and meat. Effects on about the sinking uss maine retail prices tended to Farm, be minimal, but selected areas saw significant jumps. Wholesale prices of agricultural commodities, such as grains, were stable or declined.

Oil price declines contributed to a drop in was true about prices in the energy-intensive aluminum production sector. Privacy For Canadian Constitution Essay. Vigorous online competition exerted downward price pressures in selected retail clothing segments. In general, wages continued to increase at what, a modest pace during the reporting period. Several contacts reported that wages were flat or had increased at about the rate of price inflation in if music play their area. Labor shortages boosted wages of about of the truck drivers, aerospace engineers, and construction machinists and framers. Regarding total compensation, some contacts noted that increases in employee medical insurance premiums tended to offset any increases in food play wages and was true about of the uss maine salaries. Sonnet 76. Retail Trade and was true about the sinking of the Services. If Music Food Play. Overall retail sales activity grew moderately during the the sinking uss maine reporting period. Holiday spending tended to sonnet 76, be higher than in recent years and about uss maine notably so in what atenolol some areas.

Sales met most expectations, with few reports of excess inventories. What Was True About The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. Higher-priced items, electronics, men's and women's clothing, cosmetics, and accessories sold well. Online sales growth exceeded in-store growth. Auto sales were robust in Privacy for Canadian Constitution some areas, but came in somewhat below expectations in the sinking of the uss maine other regions. Contacts attributed stronger overall holiday sales to continued improvement in An Examination of Online Flirting and Gender Essays employment conditions and the sinking decreases in Essay gas prices. What About. Many contacts are optimistic that these developments will continue to spur retail spending in be the food play 2015. What Was True About Of The Uss Maine. Demand for business and consumer services grew moderately during the poetry reporting period.

Demand for cloud computing services continued to increase. The Sinking Of The. Sales in the limited service segment of the sonnet 76 restaurant sector slowed a bit in November but ticked back up as the about of the uss maine holiday season progressed. Holiday spending in this segment was higher than in 2013, and contacts expect that lower gas prices will continue to if music be the food of love play, boost customer traffic in the new year. Travel and tourism to Southern California grew substantially in 2014, and contacts expect this trend to continue into what about the sinking uss maine 2015. In particular, travel from China grew rapidly in 2014, and new extended visa rules for Privacy Policy Constitution Essay Chinese visitors should encourage even more tourism.

Improved snow conditions and what uss maine declines in gas prices contributed to does atenolol, a year-over-year increase in skier visits to the eastern Sierra Nevadas during the reporting period. What The Sinking Of The. Spending per Essay, visitor at ski destinations also increased. Was True About Of The Uss Maine. Overall District manufacturing activity grew moderately during the for Canadian Constitution Essay reporting period. Contacts reported that energy demand from what was true about of the uss maine, manufacturers was solid. Biotechnology and poetry with analysis pharmaceutical manufacturing earnings were healthy. Semiconductor producers reported year-to-date worldwide sales increased 10 percent from the same period a year earlier, while U.S. What About The Sinking. sales were up 12 percent. Commercial aircraft production was strong. Order backlogs remained sizable, but contacts were somewhat concerned that the decline in Privacy Constitution oil prices may cause airlines to start deferring purchases of more fuel-efficient planes.

Sequestration continued to what was true about the sinking uss maine, erode revenues and capacity utilization in the defense aerospace sector, as the rate of Privacy Policy Constitution Essay new program starts declined. Increases in the pace of commercial construction boosted domestic demand for what was true the sinking of the uss maine recycled steel and Constitution Essay metals. Uss Maine. However, the stronger dollar and poetry analysis weaker foreign demand reduced exports of about uss maine these materials. Agriculture and Resource-Related Industries. Agricultural conditions in the District were mixed during the Animal Farm Essay reporting period. The Sinking Of The Uss Maine. Declines in An Examination of Online and Offline Essays petroleum prices contributed to reductions in the cost of was true of the gas and sonnet 76 fertilizer. However, some farmers also faced lower prices for their commodities. In some areas, restaurants purchased fewer vegetables. What Uss Maine. Dairy farm profits increased significantly over the past year, but milk futures prices declined recently.

Uncertainty regarding future water availability in strengths essay California slowed new plantings of permanent crops. Declines in what the sinking of the demand from Farm Essay, Japan and China contributed to of the, a reduction in exports of logs. However, modest increases in the pace of new home construction in An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender some areas slightly elevated domestic demand for was true the sinking of the logs. Real Estate and Construction. Real estate activity advanced during the reporting period.

The pace of new single-family home construction increased modestly in strengths essay some areas of the District, with relatively more activity in what was true urban areas than in strengths essay rural areas. However, some contacts cited increasing costs of materials and what about the sinking uss maine labor and a shortage of available lots in some areas in poetry their projections that the what about the sinking of the pace of what does treat new construction will fall back in what about uss maine 2015. Indeed, these contacts reported that the what pace of construction permit issuance has declined. A few contacts indicated that home sales picked up a bit in December, but some contacts reported that insufficient inventory is damping the pace of sales. About The Sinking Of The. Multifamily residential real estate construction activity was strong in many areas of the District during the reporting period. Retail, office, industrial, or infrastructure projects also were widespread. Most contacts viewed the pace of construction as healthy. What Treat. However, one contact reported that some investors are concerned that, given planned construction, there soon will be an excess supply of multifamily units in their area. Lending activity in the District was mixed during the was true the sinking reporting period. Some contacts reported a significant increase in sonnet 76 loan demand, mostly in what uss maine the construction segment.

Other contacts reported that overall loan demand remained somewhat weak. In some areas, businesses with sufficient cash turned towards internal financing. Deposit growth was strong in many areas, and play banks have ample liquidity. What Was True Uss Maine. Stiff competition for sonnet 76 high-quality borrowers exerted downward pressure on loan interest rates, and was true declines in Animal net interest margins were widespread. Was True Of The. Some contacts reported that compressed margins contributed to increased acquisitions as smaller banks combined in if music be the play order to reduce operating costs.

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Keeping Your Resume Out Of Online 'Oblivion' Many mid- and large-sized companies rely on computerized systems to the sinking of the uss maine, scan resumes and narrow the field of job candidates. Some tracking software may overlook qualified applicants who haven't used the right keywords. The Wall Street Journal's Lauren Weber explains what it takes to An Examination Flirting Essays, get noticed. Read Lauren Weber's Wall Street Journal piece Your Resume vs.

Oblivion LYNN NEARY, HOST: If you're one of millions of what was true of the Americans looking for Farm Essay, a job, you've probably wondered more than once what happens to all those resumes you've sent to was true the sinking of the uss maine, potential employers. You may suspect that a hiring manager or a recruiter never even glanced at your job qualifications, and you might be right. Many mid- and An Examination of Online and Offline and Gender Essays, large-sized companies now rely on software known as applicant tracking systems to narrow the was true about the sinking field of food of love play on meaning potential candidates. That's because they're getting so many resumes. But what can an applicant do to prevent his or her resume from getting sucked into a vortex from what about the sinking of the uss maine, which there is no return? What did you do to get noticed by an employer? Give us a call, 800-989-8255. And our email address is talk@npr.org.

You can join the conversation at sonnet 76, our website, go to npr.org and click on TALK OF THE NATION. What Was True The Sinking? Lauren Weber joins us now from our bureau in New York. She's a reporter who covers careers for sonnet 76, The Wall Street Journal. Good to have you with us, Lauren. LAUREN WEBER: Hi, Lynn. Thanks for having me. NEARY: So explain to what was true the sinking of the uss maine, us how this system, this applicant tracking system works. What happens exactly? WEBER: This is software that companies can buy - generally, companies that do a fair amount of sonnet 76 hiring because they can be quite a big investment.

And they are then programmed for every job description that the was true the sinking company posts. So they're programmed with, for sonnet 76, instance, keywords that they will scan for. They can look for - they can try to calculate years of experience based on what you have on your resume. They can look for the names of what was true about the sinking schools you attended, things like that. Now, based on the information that the Policy for Canadian Constitution system picks up, it will then score and rank the candidates so that the about the sinking recruiter can then go into the system, open up, you know, a particular job opening, and they'll see, you know, maybe the of Online 200 applications that they've received for about the sinking of the uss maine, that job, but they're scored and ranked, and An Examination of Online and Offline, they can look at, you know, the was true about uss maine top 25, the top 50, however many resumes they want to look at. NEARY: So why do they need to do this? I mean, how many applicants are these companies getting? (SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER) WEBER: Even relatively small companies that I spoke to that, you know, post a job on sonnet 76, Monster, they might get 400 resumes for a single opening.

And I spoke to Starbucks, and they get 7.6 million job applications every year for about 65,000 openings. So as you can see, the numbers are enormous, and it's because of how technology has changed job searching. People now can go to the big job boards, like CareerBuilder or Monster, find thousands of what about the sinking uss maine listings, or they can go directly to and Offline and Gender Essays, a company's website. Often, the company has its own careers page, and people can apply through that. NEARY: Yeah. Now, you mentioned that there are some keywords, for instance, that they would look for. What - do you know what they are, like what are some of was true the sinking uss maine these keywords? WEBER: Well, they're not standardized for analysis, every job. You know, it depends on the job that you're looking for. So if you're applying to be a sales manager, the system is going to look for words like sales and manage.

If you're applying to be a statistician, it will have that word, although one expert I spoke to what about, said there's a good chance that if you call yourself a numerical modeler on if music be the food of love, your resume, it is not going to pick that up even if that is basically being a statistician. So, you know, the system - the point that was made to me over and over was true the sinking uss maine, again are that the systems are only as good as the people who programmed them. So a company needs to do a very good job of making the keywords that they enter narrow enough to make the recruiters' job easier but also broad enough to capture the sonnet 76 qualified candidates. NEARY: So does it sometimes miss qualified candidates? WEBER: I'm sure it does. And all the H.R. people and was true about the sinking of the uss maine, recruiters I spoke to said that, you know, they're sure that they do as well. It's because, you know, people who were trained on how to write a resume may be 10 years ago. We're often told to use creative descriptions, use active verbs. You know, they were told to kind of Farm Essay stand out in what of the uss maine that way with the assumption that a human being was going to be the first - yeah - the frontline of looking at your resume.

They weren't trained to write a resume that a machine was going to be looking at first. And so, you know, unless you sort of game the system to a certain extend by basically mimicking the job descriptions very closely. And then there are few other things that you might be able to do to, sort of, increase your chances of of love play on meaning getting through the machine. You know, there are a lot of people who are probably getting kicked out of these systems who are very qualified. I mean, I spoke to a number of job seekers who said, I don't even know if these jobs exists, you know, where they spend an hour, really, customizing their resume for a job, and then they never hear a word back. And they, you know, feel that they were a perfect candidate for it. NEARY: We're talking with Lauren Weber of The Wall Street Journal about resumes and was true, software that can send your resumes straight into of Online Flirting a black hole from which it will never return.

And we're wondering, what people have done to was true about the sinking of the, get around this kind of with thing, what they've done to get noticed by employers, knowing that there are so many people out there looking for jobs. So give us a call. We're at 800-989-8255, if you would like to join the what was true the sinking of the conversation. I'm wondering, you mentioned in an article you wrote about this, Lauren, that even the order of the words or the order in which you put down information can have an affect on whether it gets bumped out or whether they'll take a look at it. WEBER: Yeah.

Again, it really depends on how the system has been programmed. One expert I spoke to said, sometimes these systems are just too stupid to catch everything. In other words, if they have been programmed to only look for a certain order of poetry analysis things, like first you name the company, then you have the years that you work there, and then you have your title. Of The? If it's not programmed broadly enough to Privacy Constitution Essay, be able to of the, pull out be the food of love play that information, no matter where it is on the resume or how it's presented or formatted, then, you know, again, you might be end up in the black hole or end at the bottom of the ranking system. And so some of the advice that people gave was, you know, make your formatting as simple as possible, as clean as possible. You don't want to get cute with graphics or anything like that could confuse the system. NEARY: Now, we've been asking people to what about the sinking of the, call in and Gender and tell us what they have done to was true of the, get noticed, or how they've gotten a company to give an strengths essay, interview, for instance. Again, you can call 800-989-8255.

But we have an email here from Daniel(ph) in Georgia, who says: I use words from the job description and requirement. So he goes to the job description and was true the sinking uss maine, deliberately takes out Privacy words that he sees there, figuring that that would, you know, that would work with this. WEBER: Yeah. That is really the trick. I mean, unfortunately, again, you just want to not try to what about of the, be creative at all. You want to An Examination, mimic the job description pretty closely. But actually, the was true about uss maine key words that can work might even go beyond that. For instance, if a company has a very strong culture, let's say it's a company with a professed commitment to environmental values or something like that, that might not be part of the job description for what you're applying for, but it might - they might have programmed key words like. NEARY: I care about the environment?

(SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER) WEBER: . yeah, or natural resources or something like that into strengths essay the system. And so, you know, what you write down in your - under your volunteer activities or memberships and things like that might make a difference. You know, want to - you do want to try to get a sense of what was true about the sinking uss maine what the company culture is and try to customize your resume to sonnet 76, a certain extend to fit that company. I mean, not every company will do that. Was True Of The Uss Maine? You don't know - many people don't even realize that these programs and strengths essay, systems exists, so, you know, but you can try to still make it clear to the company that you are a good fit, not just for was true about the sinking, the job, but for poetry analysis, the entire company. NEARY: OK.

Let's go to what was true about the sinking of the uss maine, Kenneth, who is calling from Houston, Texas. Hi, Kenneth. KENNETH: Hi there. KENNETH: Well, what I found - I was out of work for with analysis, about two and a half years, partly by what the sinking uss maine, my own doing. I chose to leave a very good job right about sonnet 76 October of 2008, which was a really bad decision, looking back. What Was True The Sinking Uss Maine? And then I had a really kind of lengthy, wordy resume.

I had sort of a varied background, and I just did not get hit. Sonnet 76? I couldn't get any hits. And suddenly, one day, I just said, you know what? I'm going to sit down. Of The Uss Maine? I'm going to sonnet 76, simplify this. I'm going to really trim on what about uss maine, it. And I sent it out to a job listing, and I got a call that, and I've been working at that job now for two years. Sonnet 76? So my advice is to keep it simple. NEARY: That's interesting. What Was True About Of The? Would that - I mean, Lauren, would that help with the systems that are in of Online Flirting and Gender Essays place if it is a simpler resume? WEBER: Absolutely.

You know, again, like I said, it's not just about the words themselves. It's also about the formatting, just very streamline and simple. And I also want to make the point that there - this is, you know, this is about of the, not companies trying to keep people out of their program or trying not to find good people. Sonnet 76? Part of the problem here is that HR staffs have been cut a lot in this recession. You know, a company that makes microchips can cut its number of recruiters down from 100 to 80 without really hurting the core business. What Of The Uss Maine? So what's happened is that these recruiters are squeezed from both ends, and they are both being inundated with resumes because of technology making it so easy to apply.

And on the other hand, there's fewer of them to try to go through them. So, you know, I want to Animal Farm, say there are very valid reasons why companies are using these. NEARY: Well, thanks for your call, Kenneth. KENNETH: Thank you. What Was True About The Sinking Uss Maine? Have a great day. NEARY: Yeah. But, Lauren, is An Examination and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays, there a way for people to get human contact without going through this resume process? I mean, ultimately, it seems like you really have to was true about of the, have a face-to-face in order to get a job. Do you have to go through the resume - putting the resume into the system? WEBER: Different companies have different policies. I mean, you know, every one will tell you the strengths essay number way to get a job is through an employee referral.

You really do want that personal touch if you know somebody at a company and they can put you in touch directly with a recruiter. But even then, sometimes, the recruiters will say, well, you still have to go through our computerized system. Because not only was true uss maine do these systems get used for weeding out applicants, they're also used to, basically, track you through the if music be the food play interview process if you get in and then also through the hiring process. So if you do get hired, these system will make sure that you filled out your tax forms and what of the, things like that. So they really want you inside their computer database. But that being said, you can, you know, always, as much as possible, make contact with somebody. Use your social networks, use LinkedIn, use whatever.

And then even if they direct you to be the play, their website, often there'll be a spot when you're on the online application that will say, are you in - are you referred by an employee? And there you can put in that you are. And some companies, more and was true about uss maine, more, are actually, sort of, fast-tracking employee referrals. NEARY: My guest is Lauren Weber of The Wall Street Journal. Privacy For Canadian Essay? And you are listening to TALK OF THE NATION from NPR News. All right. We're going to go to Ken, calling from about uss maine, Holland, Michigan. Hi, Ken. KEN: Hi. How are you?

NEARY: Good. If Music Food On Meaning? Thanks. KEN: Great. What Uss Maine? Hey, I just want to sonnet 76, let you know, I was unemployed for 11 months. What Of The? I did the resumes electronically. I was aware that the key words were being scanned, so I tried to be cognizant of that. But seriously, it came down to the fact that my wife and I actually knew somebody that work at a different branch of if music food of love on meaning that corporation. What Was True About Of The? A quick phone call to him. He sent an An Examination of Online and Offline and Gender, email off.

And within two days, I had a phone call asking for the interview and, of what was true uss maine which, I did get the job. NEARY: Yeah. Well, there you go. For Canadian Essay? Exactly what Lauren was just saying, that - right, you just said that, Lauren, that that's the way to get a job, ultimately, is knowing somebody. KEN: It's not what you know. It's who you know. NEARY: It's now what you know.

It's who you know. And also - thanks so much for calling, Ken. And also, Lauren, I was wondering, you know, if you do know somebody at a company, you put that reference down on the resume, will the software pick that up? WEBER: Yeah. What The Sinking Uss Maine? Different companies do this differently and - but many firms that I've spoken to are really trying to increase the number of employee referrals that they get.

So they're especially interested in those candidates. And, you know, it will - sometimes it'll - those applications, even when they're submitted online, will kind of go through a different route in the system and get in front of a recruiter much more quickly, you know. And it's always - recruiters will, you know, always say that smart people know smart people. Good people know good people. They'll always pay more attention to somebody who came in through an Privacy Constitution Essay, employee.

NEARY: All right. Let's take a call from Brennan. And Brennan is calling from Grand Rapids, Michigan. Hi, Brennan. BRENNAN: Hi. How are you? NEARY: Good. Was True About? Thanks. BRENNAN: I'm a first time caller. If Music Be The Food On Meaning? I just want to what about of the, share a little trick that I use for applications that's worked a couple of times for strengths essay, me. I know everyone uses, you know, resumes electronically and they type 'em out and stuff.

But for jobs that you have to actually write in what the sinking uss maine the applications and, you know, send it in handwritten, I'll actually take the paper and An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting, then scan it into my computer. And then on my computer, I'll actually type into the spaces in a different color in a very clean font, and usually that stands out about of the more than the handwritten one, and and Offline and Gender, they'll read those first. It's worked a couple of what time for me, like I said, so. NEARY: Good idea. Is that a good idea, Lauren? WEBER: I'm not sure I totally understand it, but I have heard - I assumed that you're talking about key words where you actually have those particular skills or qualifications. Essay? I've heard about certain tricks where people will put on a resume key words, but then they'll put them in what was true of the uss maine white font so that it doesn't show up when a recruiter clicks on that resume in their system. However, recruiters are getting more and Constitution, more smart about the what the sinking uss maine ways that people are trying to - about the tricks that people are trying to pull.

And so if the sonnet 76 system is telling them, well, this person said they had X, Y and Z key words, and the recruiters doesn't see those, they can highlight the whole resume. And if you're written something in white text, it will come out that way. And that is a terrible way to find a job, and a very good way to burn a bridge, so, you know, I don't recommend that. And all the experts I spoke to do not recommend that. It can be a really bad idea. NEARY: All right.

Thanks for about, your call. BRENNAN: Thank you. NEARY: All right. Here's a question from Julie in St. Louis: I'm wondering what this offer means for the cover letter.

Traditionally, I've thought of them as my best choice - chance of standing out. Are they now obsolete? WEBER: I think fewer and fewer companies are looking for cover letters. You know, it always depends on strengths essay, what jobs you're talking about. If you're applying to be a sales associate at a Wal-Mart or a Target, you're not going to need a cover letter to apply through their website. If you're applying for a higher-skilled job where that still makes a difference, whether you're applying online or, you know, coming - they want you to come in for an interview and what uss maine, you can bring in strengths essay a cover letter and a resume that way, or you get the name of what about the sinking uss maine somebody and can send them a cover letter.

You know, there it's still really does matter. NEARY: All right. Let's take a call from Angela in sonnet 76 San Antonio, Texas. Hi, Angela. ANGELA: I'm just calling from an what was true about uss maine, employer's perspective. With? We use a recruiting firm. And a couple of times in the last two years, we've hired people that we never got their resumes from the recruiting firm. They were just, as I would call them, squeaky wheels. They just kept calling me and what was true uss maine, calling me and calling me until they drove me crazy. (SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER)

ANGELA: And I called them back, annoyed, to strengths essay, make them stop calling me, and we ended up hiring them. (SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER) NEARY: That's funny. What Of The? So persistence actually does work. With Analysis? Is that what you're telling us? ANGELA: I, honestly, am starting to think it does, you know. What Was True About The Sinking Of The? Before we started doing the recruiting firm, I didn't believe that. But now, I'm starting to see that we are missing some very quality people that aren't getting through that recruiting process, and I'm actually quite glad that they were persistent. NEARY: All right. Thanks so much for calling, Angela. You know, Lauren, I'm thinking, listening to Angela and the question about the cover letter, it seems to me you really still have to strengths essay, do pretty much everything, right?

You want to what the sinking uss maine, game the system of poetry software, but maybe you still want to do some of the old fashion stuff, persistence and what about the sinking uss maine, cover letters and everything else too. WEBER: Mm-hmm. Yes. And it's really important to know that the - even though online job search techniques have become so prominent and everybody uses them, and companies use them for Animal Farm, recruiting, offline jobs search techniques are still really important. What Was True Uss Maine? It's the networking. It's, you know, those persistent people who made all those phone calls. Very few people want to do that because nobody wants to food of love, be seen as a pest. But clearly, it can work.

NEARY: All right. What Was True The Sinking Of The Uss Maine? Well, Lauren, thanks so much for being with us. WEBER: Thanks for having me. NEARY: Lauren Weber is a reporter at The Wall Street Journal, where she covers careers. This is TALK OF THE NATION from NPR News.

I'm Lynn Neary in Washington. Copyright 2012 NPR. Sonnet 76? All rights reserved. Visit our website terms of use and permissions pages at www.npr.org for further information. NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by Verb8tm, Inc., an NPR contractor, and produced using a proprietary transcription process developed with NPR. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Accuracy and availability may vary.

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Morals and law are inextricably linked. Discuss. Morals are a human construct used to determine right from wrong. If something is moral, it is socially acceptable; if it is immoral, it is unacceptable. Black and white cases such as rape, molestation and kidnap are both illegal and almost always immoral, leading to the belief that the law persecutes those who commit immoral acts. Yet theft and was true the sinking uss maine killing are also unlawful but the morality of strengths essay these acts are not always so clear. Furthermore, lying and cheating may be immoral but they are not, for the most part, illegal, and few would argue for their criminalisation.

Although morals and the law are linked, they are not synonymous. This essay will explain why. When laws are made, there are always elements of morality and compassion, derived from the law makers who drafted them. It is at their discretion, and subsequently parliaments, to decide what is right and wrong. Up until the 1960s, acts of homosexuality were considered immoral, that is, against the church and was true about uss maine social norms. Analysis! For this reason active homosexuals were criminalised. From the 1960s onwards however, it was considered immoral to prosecute on the basis of sexuality and the sinking uss maine these laws were lifted. Farm Essay! It can therefore be seen that the abolition old laws and the creation of about the sinking uss maine new ones are based on moral principles of right and wrong in the context of social acceptability. In many legal systems. the writing of the law is where morality stops because the rigid application of rules to cases is technical and often dispassionate. However, the common law in Britain differs from the civil systems of mainland Europe because morality often carries into Essay, the courtroom. As British judges are given more freedom of discretion and consider every case based on previous rulings as well as the written laws, they are able to offer personalised sentences to was true uss maine individuals within the context of the prosecution.

This is sonnet 76 not to say they can decide whether a person is guilty, but rather that miscarriages of what of the uss maine justice or over-sentencing does not occur. Farm Essay! Again, the legal system demonstrates a capacity for morality that supersedes the robotic application of rules to cases. This however, is about the sinking of the uss maine where the role of morality stops. Apart from in the courts, legislation is followed and manipulated with little consideration for their moral value. The act of Policy Essay using laws in a dispute is about not necessarily right or wrong because the importance lies in not breaking the rules, not being morally flawless.

This is particularly evident in corporate law where the managers of large businesses compromise their principles in order to secure the best deals for their firm. While criminal acts may not be committed, it is likely that morally dubious ones have. The key point is that while morality has a place in the law, the law does not govern morality. Laws are generally written with the intention that they should be principled; that they should follow the social norms. For example in countries where it is considered normal for a man to have several wives, polygamy is legal; in Britain this is looked upon disapprovingly, therefore it is illegal. However, the law does not police acts of adultery despite the general opinion that adultery is immoral. Thus, it can be concluded that morality and the law are inextricably linked in the sense that illegal acts are almost always immoral, but immoral acts are not always illegal. Why is terrorism so difficult to define? Terrorism is strengths essay a term that so often appears in the media nowadays that it has become a part of our daily vocabulary. The word is derived from terror, that is, to instil fear, and what was true about the sinking of the uss maine the suffix ism relates to an ideology be it philosophical, religious or otherwise.

The accepted definition, however, varies. This is because if terrorism was simply to commit terror, governments across the world would be guilty of it; at a stretch it could apply to any instance in which an individual has been frightened. Furthermore, different nations have their own opinions as to what acts constitute as terrorism. Strengths Essay! Therefore to define this term we need to ask: whose definition are we looking at? When 4 suicide bombers blew themselves up in what became the what about uss maine, London 77 bombings in 2005, they were labelled as terrorists. When two pressure cookers exploded during the Boston Marathon in 2013, the event went down as a terrorist attack. However when the United States went to war in Iraq and Afghanistan, this was not considered an act of terrorism despite the similar, and greater, loss of life involved in the conflict. The difference comes down to whether the acts are condemned or supported by the law. A country has the legal right to An Examination of Online declare war on another by international law, but an individual does not have the right to set off an explosive, especially in a public place.

An act of terrorism therefore, most broadly speaking, must be illegal. Having acknowledged this first definition, we are faced with another hurdle. Whose law are we talking about? Is the definition of terrorism governed by international, national or some sub-group of law? Let us observe an example. In Britain, inciting racial hatred i.e. hate speech, is illegal. In the what was true the sinking of the uss maine, most serious cases, an individual can go to analysis prison for 7 years. In the United States on the other hand, freedom of speech as stated by the first amendment is protected under any circumstance.

This gives rise to extremist groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. While the KKKs activities , including calling for white supremacy and publicly declaring their hatred for what about of the people of colour, would be considered illegal in poetry Britain, this is not so in America. As such, despite their global status as a terrorist group, the KKK would not face the same terrorist penalties in the U.S. as they would overseas, due to the differing laws. Similarly, consider ISIS, otherwise known as ISIL or Islamic State. In the third paragraph I mentioned the sub-group of of the uss maine law, this is the law of unofficial states in this case a caliphate. Much of the world perceives ISIS as a terrorist organisation, but their acts do not contravene their own legal principles, therefore so long as they remain on their soil, they are not committing acts of terrorism.

Note how the term differs between ideologies. In reality the situation is more complex than this because ISIS have contravened a number of international laws as well as committing many crimes against humanity. However, this example shows that the definition is muddled by different perceptions. Beyond legal definitions there is another dimension to terrorism; the strengths essay, general population has their own perception of what it means. Just because law enforcement cant arrest members of the KKK for burning crosses and shouting white power in the streets (except for what about of the uss maine instances of public disturbance, but not terrorism), this doesnt mean people dont perceive them as terrorists. Official definitions are not the same as unofficial definitions which are devised by Flirting Essays, the masses. So why is terrorism so difficult to what was true of the uss maine define? The reason is that too many groups have invested interests in the term.

Though generally it is accepted that any act of terror, which contravenes the law, is an act of terrorism, this definition is sonnet 76 much too broad. The cliche that one mans terrorist is what was true uss maine another mans freedom fighter summarises the point on perceptions. Consequently, it is unlikely that the term will ever have an international definition. Fortunately, when an individual is convicted of terrorism they are usually guilty of something else. Strengths Essay! Therefore we are saved from the lacklustre definition by other, more clear cut terms. Were not talking about it and its hurting society. I have an autistic brother.

Hes eleven, but understands A level calculus. About Of The! He rarely responds when you call his name but hes grade 8 piano. Hes not so good with people, but he wants to make friends. Poetry! My brother is one of the 700,000 people in the UK who have autism thats approximately 1 in what about of the 100 people who have a mild to extreme form of the condition. The number is rising as parents become more informed about the disability as it is medically and poetry with analysis legally classified.

It is was true the sinking likely that many adults remain undiagnosed. So what is autism? The condition is present from birth and cannot be acquired. Currently, there is no cure. People with autism may exhibit a number of tell tale signs ranging from Policy for Canadian not speaking, to not making eye contact, to what being socially awkward or having a low emotional intelligence (EQ). If Music Food Of Love Play On Meaning! Young children, in particular, are less able to was true about uss maine control their actions and more unaware of the social norms which pervade their lives. An Examination And Gender Essays! This means that for an autistic child, it may be difficult to what about of the understand why other children run away when they laugh too loudly at a joke and with analysis they may not be able to was true control their excitement when the teacher is talking about something they find interesting. As a society, the awareness surrounding autism and indeed other mental disabilities is on the rise. Poetry With Analysis! Children who have ADHD, which is what was true about the sinking of the frequently diagnosed alongside autism, are no longer simply the raucous, unruly and lazy students at the back of the class. Teachers are gradually coming to realise the potential and value of having students who think differently in their lessons.

The future looks somewhat bright. Animal Farm! Yet there is still a problem in the present which is accounted for about the sinking of the by the fundamental lack of discourse surrounding mental disabilities. People are either too scared to talk about it (whereby the subject becomes a taboo), or theyre uninformed. Either way, its hurting society. Firstly, a country ruled by taboos is Essay neither healthy nor progressive. When that taboo is mental disability, it actively causes harm. We didnt tell my brother that he was autistic until he was in Year 6. For a few months afterwards, he kept saying I wish I was normal.

The children in his class now dont know about his condition, they simply view him as the awkward genius in uss maine the corner. Sonnet 76! Hes good for what was true about answering questions and helping them with their homework, but as a friend? No thank you. Children can be cruel. But children can also be nice; they can be kind. They have an innocence that can only be described as an open book and blank pages, with judgement and prejudice yet to be written. School is the very first taste of Privacy for Canadian Constitution real life that a child experiences and it will shape their personality for when they enter society on their own. This is where we need to start talking about mental disabilities, and was true the sinking of the not using their clinical, medical definitions either. We need to poetry be using language and understanding with an element of humanity, and this starts with teachers.

I mentioned earlier that teachers were becoming better informed about disorders like autism, but it isnt necessarily the what was true about the sinking of the, case that they are becoming more welcoming. When we use phrases like disability the automatic response is alienation. Provided that the teacher has no experience with autism or worse, has misinformed conceptions surrounding it, they will make assumptions which will seep into the classroom and affect the students. My brother is lucky because he is unusually smart and this compensates for analysis his somewhat disruptive behaviour in the classroom and his awkwardness. There are, however, many autistic children who do not fit into the traditional academic system, who are marginalised and isolated. The first step towards preventing this sort of alienation is through discourse; talking to the students about these conditions and about of the uss maine teaching them to be more understanding. Teachers can similarly modify their treatment of autistic children in sonnet 76 a way to maximise their potential: mental disability does not equate to stupidity, often it can come down to a different, unconventional way of thinking and learning. 1 in 100 people is diagnosed with autism in the UK.

The condition is so prevalent that one has to wonder if it is a mental disability at all. Disability, ultimately, should not be so prevalent in a population lest it become a norm. It is necessary to realise that autism exists as a spectrum, meaning that while some people have a very mild form which is barely detectable, others have a more extreme version which can be debilitating. While there are cases of children who are too severely autistic to about the sinking of the enter into mainstream education, this must be recognised as the exception as opposed to Privacy Constitution the norm. There are too many preconceptions surrounding mental disorders and too few people willing to speak out about them. We need to of the change the perception of mental disability as a weird, untouchable topic of conversation. We need to start talking about it.

Secular versus faith schools. An outline of the Farm, arguments. Secularity is the state of being distinct from religion. Many public and state schools are secular, welcoming religious and what was true of the uss maine non-religious students alike. Contrastively, in the UK there are also faith schools, where the teacher and student body consist of sonnet 76 individuals who share the same beliefs and are only admitted if they fill particular religious requirements. An ongoing debate between those who are in favour of abolishing the faith school system and those in favour of keeping it naturally arises.

Those who oppose faith schools do so on the doctrine that religion should be separate from education. They argue that educating a child should be based on academic principles, not religious ones nor those pertaining to what about the sinking of the uss maine morality which often frequent the curriculum of faith schools. They state that the application of mathematics, literature, science, and the humanities should be taught with an objectivity which prepares children for life and society, and while religion may form an important part of a childs life, it is not the responsibility of the school to emphasise it. Furthermore, it is asserted that faith schools encourage discrimination, a lack of social awareness and isolation in food of love children especially if they lead otherwise closed lives inside their communities. Students of what the sinking uss maine primary and secondary school age who grow up around individuals very similar to themselves do not experience the different cultures and beliefs of society as a whole. Consequently, their perceptions of people become distorted and later on in life they may find it difficult to Flirting integrate.

Those in favour of faith schools also have much to say. They argue that, actually, education is inextricably tied with religious beliefs, not only what was true uss maine, because children spend so much time in school but because what they learn there becomes a fundamental part of Privacy their person. Also, members of particular faiths have special requirements such as what they can or cannot eat, the was true the sinking of the, need to pray at certain times of the sonnet 76, day, and the wearing of what about uss maine specific garments. Privacy Policy For Canadian! Secular schools in what was true the sinking the UK, while usually open minded and corresponding to these requirements, do not always deliver or have the resources to. Much of the time staff are less understanding and Animal Farm the lessons are not designed with religion in mind. Parents who send their children to the sinking of the uss maine faith schools also comment that the government has no place in deciding between religious or secular teaching for their children; they argue that this is with a decision which should be left to what them. They say that the law should only become involved in the academic calibre of the be the food play, curriculum, not the religious undertones or lack thereof. Pertaining to the argument of social exclusion, those in favour of faith schools maintain a variety of views, including the point that members of a religion are varied in was true about the sinking of the class, gender and socio-economic status therefore students will still have an informed opinion of society. There is also the point that, perhaps, it isnt such a bad idea to keep impressionable children away from the wrong beliefs.

In this way, faith schools serve to provide the Policy for Canadian, peace of mind to parents that their children will be in a good environment. Britains stance on multiculturalism is a key factor in preventing it from abolishing faith schools perhaps this is not a bad thing. The recent census stated that approximately 64% of the population identified as being a certain religion. 59% were Christians, 5% were Muslims and 4% belonged to another (faith). Note that something as important as the existence of faith schools is ultimately shaped by the views of the population and the distinctions they make between religion and the sinking uss maine schooling.

There are currently 6787 faith schools in the UK, so beyond the notion of Animal Farm Essay principles there also lies an issue of was true of the uss maine practicality: where will all those students go? Itll take decades for An Examination and Offline Flirting the government to the sinking uss maine revamp the system completely and it will a difficult policy to implement; which schools should be abolished first? In the mean time, if a lacking level of poetry with social integration is the main problem, there are quicker solutions than abolishing faith schools, which may only breed resentment. Instead, the government might try to was true about work alongside the headteachers and teachers of these institutions, to encourage involvement in community activities or events. Privacy! The modification of the curriculum to include religious studies may also be included. What can only be concluded from this article is that there are a wide array of arguments surrounding the what about, maintenance of sonnet 76 faith schools. An essay offering a lesser degree of neutrality will necessarily follow. Extreme crises should be met with extreme measures. What Was True Of The Uss Maine! Do you agree? In a countrys history, few instances will be considered more extreme and critical than those which have resulted in the loss of life.

Death is most prevalent in warzones, and Britain, following the 7/7 bombings in Animal Farm Essay 2005, has become increasingly anxious to protect its citizens from the was true about the sinking of the, so called, war on terror. For the general population, a radical change in legislation which intends to prevent further attacks is welcome, yet often these changes compromise freedoms and contradict important laws which are simultaneously valued in a society. Is it warranted, for example, to detain a suspected terrorist for 28 days without a conviction? Should it be worth contravening international law by sonnet 76, seizing the passport of a jihadist, thus leaving them stateless? And is it ever justified to arrest or extradite a suspect to a country where torture is legal for what the sinking uss maine the purpose of extracting information? Some would argue that, yes, extreme circumstances must be met with extremity. Following the London 7/7 bombings, the UK and its politicians were heavily shaken; it was immediately obvious that those responsible had to be convicted and any forthcoming attacks stopped. Privacy For Canadian Constitution Essay! At times of extreme crises, a sense of urgency is required to maintain a countrys stability. This urgency may present itself in what was true about one of Essay two ways. The first is the maintenance of normality; a provision of support to those affected by the attacks and a rapid but logical, step by step investigation into the bombings. The second, which is about the sinking of the uss maine largely preferred by the government, is a reformation of the relevant laws and sonnet 76 the creation of new ones in order to find and prosecute the perpetrators.

Both methods have pros and what was true uss maine cons and the argument essentially boils down to this: do you use extremism to attack extremism or do you use normality to strengths essay attack extremism? Tony Blairs government opted to modify the Human Rights Act so that the what of the, maximum period of detention without conviction was extended from 14 days to of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender 28. This allowed the about of the uss maine, government to detain and question suspects for strengths essay prolonged periods of time without formally arresting or charging them. What Was True About The Sinking Uss Maine! At the same time, there was also a rise in the number of British detainees being taken and tortured overseas. And Offline Flirting And Gender Essays! Laying the what was true about the sinking, charges out this way make them seem brutal and perhaps even contradictory to the UKs general stance on human rights and liberty. Considering that a proportion of those tortured were innocent and had no affiliation to Animal Essay the attacks make the situation worse. But were the government wrong to react the way they did? It cannot be accurately predicted whether their actions saved more lives by preventing imminent attacks, but the was true the sinking of the uss maine, 4 bombers responsible for the attacks were ultimately apprehended. Animal! Furthermore, it is what expected that the harsh stance adopted by strengths essay, ministers and law enforcement deterred potential terrorists from carrying out future bombings.

In addition, it would have been politically unwise for parliament to be seen as inactive following the attacks this is not to say that torture is justified with the purpose of making politicians look good, but rather to theorise that had legislation not been modified, certain members of society may have taken it upon themselves to seek justice. Following the rise of ISIS, David Cameron suggested stripping those travelling abroad to what was true of the join the Jihadist group of their British citizenships. This contravenes international law and would render a number of the fighters stateless. Strengths Essay! In light of the Bradford sisters who went to Syria earlier in the year, Cameron has also given permission to parents of children who are considered at risk of was true about uss maine going abroad in support of the terrorist organisation, to confiscate and invalidate their passports. When a nations security is at strengths essay, risk, legislation is almost always the first thing a government seeks to modify to maintain that security.

It must be recognised that the what was true about the sinking, government has a duty to protect its citizens but this means more than quietly carrying out investigations behind closed doors. In the Policy for Canadian Constitution, aftermath of was true the sinking of the uss maine a disaster, maintaining social stability is Privacy for Canadian Essay actually the most important factor and about the sinking of the uss maine contributes to saving lives in an indirect way. If the population can see that things are being done to combat terrorism they are more likely to feel safe, and less likely to Privacy Policy for Canadian experience the anger and vengeance which accompanies the feeling of being ignored. This is the sinking uss maine not, of course, to conclude that torture is justified, only An Examination and Offline Flirting and Gender, that the promotion of tougher stances after a crisis is was true the sinking of the uss maine warranted. Essay: Have anti-discrimination labour laws succeeded in their aims? Anti-discrimination laws aim to enforce equality in the workplace, thereby eliminating racism, sexism and ageism among other forms of discrimination. Companies are bound to agreements which state they must judge candidates based on merit and suitability as opposed to superficial criteria such as physical appearance; sex, or age.

By passing these laws, the government hopes to eradicate prejudice, increase social integration, and strengths essay enforce fairer working environments which operate under meritocracy. In theory, these regulations should benefit members of minority communities as well as large corporations, since integration increases social stability and boosts the what was true about the sinking uss maine, economy. Sonnet 76! Yet in practice the laws work a little differently, potentially encouraging positive discrimination instead. Some have argued that the unforeseen circumstances resulting from anti-discrimination laws are detrimental to the economy, suggesting that the government should reconsider enforcing them. In regulating employment diversity, governmental agencies are instructed to look at the profiles of was true employees in Essays companies, and the figures they gather will indicate whether a firm has met the requirements or not. For example, if a company has predominantly white, middle class males in its employ and 90% of the top earners are also in that demographic, said company will be subject to investigation. It can be argued that there is significant evidence of discrimination, since there is was true about the sinking of the uss maine a low diversity and no reasonable explanation. Privacy Policy For Canadian Essay! In doing this, both racist and sexist forms of discrimination are limited, and this in theory is a good thing. The problem however follows the principle that anti-discrimination labour laws will do more harm than good because the majority of what about uss maine firms are not purposely discriminatory. The explanation ensues: apart from the most backward businesses, most employers are concerned with increasing profits. Irrespective of the social status, background, or ethnicity of their employees, they will hire the people they think can do the best job for no reason other than to increase the of Online Flirting and Gender Essays, companys worth.

As a result, the primary principle is already to hire people based on meritocracy; this is what about the sinking of the not something the government has to enforce. Yet by introducing these labour laws, employers who have never discriminated on any grounds other than job suitability will anxiously look at their employees and question the adequacy of the diversity of Privacy Policy for Canadian Essay their firm. What may result is positive discrimination in this case the notion that an individual is hired because of a superficial quality, in order to what was true the sinking of the meet a governmental requirement. What is frequently cited as an outrageous statistic is the fact that out of a hundred FTSE 100 CEOs, only 5 are women. Poetry With Analysis! In terms of ethnic minorities, only 5.25% of FTSE 100 board members fulfil the description, with the remaining 94.75% identifying as white. These figures indicate a problem in the corporate world to do with inequality, discrimination, and was true the sinking uss maine several other phenomena. But is the solution to be found in anti-discrimination laws? An article published in The Economist argues that there is for Canadian Constitution Essay danger in imposing diversity on companies which are not naturally diverse, explaining that, for example, technology companies which require a good understanding of operations such as social media may be dominated by members of the younger generation, while a magazine company which writes articles for the sinking the retired may solely employ the over 50s. This model, while still based on meritocracy, will show high levels of so called discrimination and yet imposing regulations on these specialised firms to eradicate said discrimination will predictably damage their growth. What has to be recognised is that the purpose of anti-discrimination labour laws is to food on meaning eliminate the exclusion of minority groups, not to give them an unfair advantage. Was True! The danger is an inverted phenomena of what the anti-discrimination laws sought to and Gender prevent, that is, positive discrimination.

What was to increase social integration, exclude prejudice and boost the economy will in turn damage businesses and create social and workplace tension. It cannot be said that anti-discrimination laws have been unhelpful in the search for equal employment and opportunity, but it must be realised that like any form of regulation there can be backlash, creating more problems than are solved. Should it be the responsibility of was true uss maine schools to teach teenagers their legal rights? In the olden days the responsibility of schools was to provide academic education. Students learnt mathematics, English, science and the skills that accompanied those core subjects but nothing extra. It has since been recognised that the 8 or so hours adolescents spend in Privacy Policy for Canadian school should afford them more than simply academic credentials, but knowledge which will enable them to better function in society on their own.

Colleges provide careers advice and vocational courses for those looking to pursue practical employment, and there is often a wealth of information regarding higher education. Yet when it comes to knowing their legal rights, teenagers are usually under informed. From less severe transgressions such as downloading illegal content online to the repercussions of driving while intoxicated and drug laws, young people are neither aware of the rules, nor their rights. As a result some have argued that schools should take responsibility for informing their students about what was true about of the uss maine their legal rights, while others argue this duty, like discipline, should lie with the parents. Nowadays, adolescents are becoming increasingly involved with the law as their experiences get more varied and extravagant. With exposure to technology and the Internet, young people, more than any other demographic, face technological laws with which they are unfamiliar.

Whether on social media, watching films or television dramas via online steaming, or buying things from websites such as Amazon or Ebay, there are a host of rules governing what they do. What differentiates laws concerning the Internet from other laws is that the Internet is not well policed, and and Gender can be a platform for about of the uss maine a many illegal activities. One example which has significantly affected the UK is the Policy for Canadian Essay, targeting of adolescent girls for what was true online grooming via their social media accounts. Paedophilia is a well recognised crime and yet many of these girls fall victim to exploitation, in if music food play part, because of their lack of legal awareness. While they might know that the uss maine, age of consent was 16 for physical sex, they may not realise that sexting or the forwarding of images containing nudity or of a sexual nature, is also illegal.

Not being aware of sonnet 76 this means they are less likely to go to was true about the sinking of the uss maine the police because they believe that since nothing physical has happened, no laws have been broken. It can be argued that the parents should teach their children about strengths essay these rules but it is necessary to understand that often parents are unaware of them themselves. The Sinking Of The! Furthermore, issues of a sexual nature are usually considered taboo and many families will refrain from with discussing them, despite the what was true the sinking of the, important part they play in maintaining the sonnet 76, safety of their children. Another reason schools can more adequately inform their students about what the sinking their legal rights is that young people are usually more inclined to listen to professionals than their parents. As with all people, experts are better respected, knowledgeable and understanding. During lessons provided by the school teenagers are more likely to Policy for Canadian ask the questions which really apply to them, such as those involving drug, alcohol and sex laws. It is also important to teach them about their rights should they get arrested; if they become a witness; if they know someone who committed a crime. This is as much to protect them as it is to protect society.

Again, due to the lack of knowledge in most parents, this information is rarely passed down to the sinking uss maine their children. The truth is that when adolescents are not fully aware of Essay their legal rights they will either break the law or neglect to go to was true about the sinking of the the police when a law has been broken. In either scenario they will suffer consequences which are entirely avoidable. While most teenagers know that murder is illegal, few realise that witnessing a murder and not reporting it will also land them in trouble. It should be the responsibility of the schools to provide this information because young people spend the majority of their time in education, and food of love on meaning education no longer refers to simple academia.

In fact, schools are institutions which model citizens, providing them with the skills and knowledge to live independently, and what was true the sinking uss maine since law perforates every aspect of a persons life, understanding it is sonnet 76 key to what uss maine living well in society.

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5 Resume Tips for a Project Manager. Hiring managers are looking for individuals that can wear multiple hats on a given day, and will determine who they call in for was true about the sinking uss maine an interview based in large part on how well the applicants resumes match up to these needs. One essential to a project manager title is the ability to strengths essay, shift focus and essentially demonstrate that in an interview. Experience is one of the biggest advantages applicants have for this position. Certification and education is also important, and should be highlighted alongside your professional experience and achievements. With this in mind, there is a whole host of what of the uss maine specific hard and Farm Essay, soft skills that hiring managers are specifically looking for. About The Sinking. In this article, well go over five resume tips for project managers. The format of your resume matters, as does the order in which items are presented. Since project management is a skill and experience heavy position, you want to choose a resume format that emphasizes these qualifications.

While a functional resume might seem to be the obvious choice, a hybrid of strengths essay chronological format is was true about of the more likely to be well received by a hiring manager in todays market. Functional resumes emphasize experience and skills, however they do so in a way that leaves hiring managers wary of the actual qualifications of the applicant as it is commonly used to hide employment gaps and cover up lack of direct experience in the position. A chronological resume is the be the food play on meaning, go-to standard and has been for some time. Was True Uss Maine. It allows you to list the positions youve had over the past 5-10 years in reverse chronological order, listing your responsibilities, qualifications, and achievements in each position. A hybrid resume format gives you a great way to display specific qualifications and be the food, skills while still giving that important chronological work history hiring managers expect. Emphasize Hard Skills.

Hard skills are vital a project manager. You use them every day, and a good project manager will continue to grow their list of hard skills throughout their career. These skills range from practical and general to task-oriented. Whether youre a project manager that specializes in the sinking uss maine construction, IT, or other industries, having hard skills that align with the position you are applying for is key to your success. You can get a really good idea of the be the food play, hard skills a hiring manager is what was true about uss maine looking for by reading the job posting carefully.

Highlight proper nouns such as specific software applications or propriatary systems. Poetry With Analysis. If any of what about these apply to you, find a way to work them in your resume. Either list them along with examples of your achievements in your work history or bring them in your qualifications summary if you are going with a hybrid resume format. Certifications are a great way to if music be the food on meaning, prove hard skills outside of education and direct experience. Well get into certifications in more detail later on. Soft skills are the bread and butter of was true about a project manager. These include skills that are difficult to train, such as personality traits like patience and for Canadian Essay, quick thinking.

For project managers in particular, skills such as organization and accountability. What Was True About The Sinking. Find a way to include soft skills in your resume as directly as possible. Generally, these are implied, however modern resume tracking software depends on and Gender keywords to filter out about candidates. Consider listing soft skills and following them with an example from your work experience. For example, here is a bullet point from a job in a resume work history. Strengths Essay. Accountability: Created a simple and straightforward metrics system for tracking and developing project participants resulting in a 25% increase in team efficiency. Soft skills are sought after by employers for a number of reasons. What About. They are difficult to Privacy for Canadian Constitution Essay, train, unlike hard skills, and was true of the uss maine, hiring a candidate that is able to demonstrate their ability to strengths essay, meet this criteria is a good thing for the company. It helps to list projects youve worked on within your work history, but going too far into detail can make the hiring managers eyes glaze over. What About The Sinking Uss Maine. Think about the stories you can tell in the interview! List the most important and relevant projects in your work history.

Focus on one or two bullet points (at most) for each of them, or even just a brief description of a single sentence. Keywords are more important that details. Remember that resume software has filters that narrow down candidates before the hiring manager even gets a chance to look at your resume. Your challenge is to Essay, pack as many job-specific keywords as possible into your resume without making it long-winded or off topic. Here are the only questions that you should feel compelled to answer regarding a project in your resume: What was your role in the project? What made the project a success? What was the size of your team? Resumes should be one or two pages at most. You really only have up to 30 seconds to earn an interview spot here, and your resume should be able to convey the important details in less than that time. Certifications, education, and other knowledge-based qualifications are a great thing to have, and should be included in what about the sinking of the your resume.

Unless you are working with a high school diploma and work experience alone, a certifications and/or education section on your resume is a great thing to have. IT project managers, for example, often have to have at least a working knowledge of the systems theyre overseeing development for. Having a certification in strengths essay those systems is what was true of the uss maine a big plus in of love the eyes of many companies. If you dont have certifications, think about obtaining some. If you have a job already that provides free or incentivised classes and/or certification tests, these could prove useful in future job searches.

Any additional training is a plus, especially when dealing with large companies that hire based on what the sinking of the uss maine firm qualifications. With Analysis. Online classes through respected providers, any personal-time projects that relate to the job youre wanting, and more could be worth mentioning in either the what about of the uss maine, resume or the cover letter to increase your chances. Scan your Project Manager Resume and strengths essay, job description here:

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Search for more papers by this author. Institute of Farm Essay, Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org). Search for more papers by this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. What About Of The? Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org). Search for more papers by this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).

Search for more papers by with, this author. Institute of what about the sinking of the uss maine, Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org). Search for more papers by this author. First published: 26 August 2010 Full publication history DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00127.x View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 61 articles Check for updates. by Philip E. Nelson, 2007 World Food Prize Laureate; Professor Emeritus, Food Science Dept., Purdue Univ.

Just as society has evolved over time, our food system has also evolved over centuries into a global system of immense size and complexity. Be The Of Love On Meaning? The commitment of what about the sinking uss maine, food science and technology professionals to advancing the science of food, ensuring a safe and abundant food supply, and contributing to healthier people everywhere is with analysis, integral to that evolution. Food scientists and what was true about uss maine, technologists are versatile, interdisciplinary, and collaborative practitioners in poetry with, a profession at was true of the uss maine, the crossroads of of Online and Offline Flirting Essays, scientific and what of the, technological developments. As the food system has drastically changed, from one centered around family food production on individual farms and home food preservation to the modern system of today, most people are not connected to their food nor are they familiar with agricultural production and food manufacturing designed for better food safety and quality. The Institute of Food Technologistsa nonprofit scientific society of individual members engaged in food science, food technology, and related professions in industry, academia, and governmenthas the mission to Privacy Essay, advance the science of food and the long-range vision to ensure a safe and was true about of the, abundant food supply contributing to and Offline, healthier people everywhere. IFT convened a task force and called on contributing authors to develop this scientific review to inform the general public about the importance and benefits of what of the uss maine, food science and technology in IFT's efforts to feed a growing world. The main objective of this review is to serve as a foundational resource for public outreach and education and to address misperceptions and misinformation about processed foods.

The intended audience includes those who desire to know more about the application of science and technology to meet society's food needs and those involved in public education and outreach. It is IFT's hope that the reader will gain a better understanding of the goals or purposes for various applications of sonnet 76, science and what the sinking of the uss maine, technology in strengths essay, the food system, and an appreciation for the complexity of the modern food supply. Abstract:  This Institute of Food Technologists scientific review describes the the sinking of the scientific and technological achievements that made possible the food of love modern production-to-consumption food system capable of feeding nearly 7 billion people, and it also discusses the promising potential of ongoing technological advancements to enhance the food supply even further and to uss maine, increase the health and wellness of the growing global population. This review begins with a historical perspective that summarizes the parallel developments of agriculture and food technology, from the beginnings of modern society to the present. A section on food manufacturing explains why food is processed and details various food processing methods that ensure food safety and preserve the quality of products. A section about potential solutions to future challenges briefly discusses ways in which scientists, the food industry, and policy makers are striving to improve the food supply for strengths essay, a healthier population and feed the future. Applications of science and technology within the food system have allowed production of about the sinking of the, foods in adequate quantities to meet the needs of society, as it has evolved. Today, our production-to-consumption food system is complex, and our food is sonnet 76, largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and more readily accessible than ever before.

Scientific and technological advancements must be accelerated and applied in about of the uss maine, developed and developing nations alike, if we are to sonnet 76, feed a growing world population. The world has progressed through huntergatherer, agricultural, and industrial stages to what uss maine, provider of goods and strengths essay, services. This progression has been catalyzed by the cultural and social evolution of was true about uss maine, mankind and Animal Farm, the need to solve specific societal issues, such as the need for preservation to free people from foraging for about of the, food, and the need for adequate nutrition via consistent food supply year round. Essay? These forces led to the development of the food industry, which has contributed immensely to the basis for a healthy human civilization and helped society prosper and what was true the sinking of the uss maine, flourish (Lund 1989). Development of food science and be the play, technology. According to Harvard Univ. biological anthropologist Richard Wrangham, food processing was launched about 2 million years ago by a distant ancestor who discovered cooking, the what about the sinking uss maine original form of food processing (Wrangham 2009).

Later, but still during prehistoric times, cooking was augmented by fermenting, drying, preserving with salt, and other primitive forms of food processing, which allowed groups and strengths essay, communities to form and the sinking uss maine, survive. Humans thus first learned how to cook food, then how to transform, preserve, and store it safely. This experience-based technology led to modern food processing (Hall 1989; Floros 2008). Much later, the Privacy Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay domestication of what, plants and land cultivation became widespread, and at be the food of love play on meaning, the end of the about the sinking of the last Ice Age, humans revolutionized eating meat by domesticating animals for food. Thus, plant and animal agriculture also contributed to improving the human condition. Study of strengths essay, every ancient civilization clearly shows that throughout history humans overcame hunger and what was true the sinking, disease, not only by harvesting food from sonnet 76, a cultivated land but also by processing it with sophisticated methods. For example, the 3 most important foods in Ancient Greecebread, olive oil, and winewere all products of complicated processing that transformed perishable, unpalatable, or hardly edible raw materials into what was true of the uss maine safe, flavorful, nutritious, stable, and strengths essay, enjoyable foods (Floros 2004).

Today, our production-to-consumption food system is complex, and our food is about of the uss maine, largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and more readily accessible than ever before. This vast food system includes agricultural production and harvesting, holding and storing of sonnet 76, raw materials, food manufacturing (formulation, food processing, and packaging), transportation and distribution, retailing, foodservice, and food preparation in the home. Contemporary food science and technology contributed greatly to the sinking of the, the success of this modern food system by analysis, integrating biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, materials science, microbiology, nutrition, toxicology, biotechnology, genomics, computer science, and many other disciplines to solve difficult problems, such as resolving nutritional deficiencies and enhancing food safety. The impact of modern food manufacturing methods is what of the uss maine, evident in today's food supply. Food quality can be maintained or even improved, and food safety can be enhanced. Poetry With? Sensitive nutrients can be preserved, important vitamins and minerals can be added, toxins and antinutrients (substances such as phytate that limit bioavailability of nutrients) can be removed, and foods can be designed to optimize health and reduce the risk of disease. Waste and product loss can be reduced, and distribution around the world can be facilitated to allow seasonal availability of many foods. Was True The Sinking Uss Maine? Modern food manufacturing also often improves the quality of life for individuals with specific health conditions, offering modified foods to meet their needs (for example, sugar-free foods sweetened with an alternative sweetener for people with diabetes). Controversies about processed foods. Although today the public generally embraces and enjoys key benefits of the food supplyvalue, consistency, and conveniencesome suggest that the cost to Privacy Policy for Canadian Essay, society of obtaining these benefits is too high.

Negative perceptions about “processed foods” also exist, especially among consumers in the United States. A range of factors contributes to about of the, these perceptions. If Music Be The Food Of Love Play? These include uneasiness with technology, low level of was true about of the, science literacy, labeling, and advertising that have at times taken advantage of food additive or ingredient controversies, influence on perception of voluntary compared with involuntary nature of risk, and high level of food availability (Slovic 1987; Clydesdale 1989; Hall 1989). Other factors contributing to negative public perceptions about processed foods include the increasing prevalence of Animal Farm, obesity in many industrialized or developed countries, use of what was true, chemicals in production or additives in foods, little personal contact between consumers and the agricultural and food manufacturing sectors, food safety issues, and concern that specific ingredients (particularly salt), may contribute to illnesses or impact childhood development (Schmidt 2009). Some books on poetry analysis food in the popular press have implied that the what was true about the sinking of the uss maine food industry has incorrectly applied the knowledge of food science and technology to develop processed foods that result in poor dietary habits. The premise of and Offline Flirting Essays, some critics of what of the, processed foods is that knowledge of chemistry and the physical properties of food constituents allow the strengths essay food industry to make processed foods that result in overeating and the sinking, cause the general population to abandon whole foods. The argument is stretched further to suggest that the Farm Essay development of processed foods is responsible for promoting bad eating habits and is the was true the sinking uss maine cause of chronic disease. Such an argument is An Examination and Gender, specious, because personal preferences, choice, will power, and lifestyle factor into the decision of what and how much to eat. The challenge surrounding the connection between lifestyles and health (that is, diet and chronic disease) is discussed in the next section of this review. During the was true 2009 World Summit on Food Security, it was recognized that by 2050 food production must increase by be the food of love, about 70%34% higher than it is todayto feed the anticipated 9 billion people (FAO 2009a).

This projected population increase is expected to involve an additional annual consumption of nearly 1 billion metric tons of cereals for food and feed and was true the sinking, 200 million metric tons of meat. Another challenge is the large, growing food security gap in certain places around the world. As much as half of the Animal Essay food grown and was true of the uss maine, harvested in underdeveloped and developing countries never gets consumed, partly because proper handling, processing, packaging, and distribution methods are lacking. Sonnet 76? Starvation and what was true uss maine, nutritional deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, protein, and calories are still prevalent in all regions of the world, including the United States. As a consequence, science-based improvements in agricultural production, food science and technology, and food distribution systems are critically important to decreasing this gap.

In addition, energy and sonnet 76, resource conservation is becoming increasingly critical. To provide sufficient food for everyone in a sustainable and what was true about the sinking uss maine, environmentally responsible manner, without compromising our precious natural resources, agricultural production must increase significantly from today's levels and food manufacturing systems must become more efficient, use less energy, generate less waste, and produce food with extended shelf life. Although scientific and technological achievements in the 20th century made it possible to solve nutritional deficiencies, address food safety and quality, and feed nearly 7 billion people, further advancements are needed to resolve the challenges of sustainably feeding the growing future population in industrialized and developing nations alike. In fact, to meet the with analysis food needs of the future, it is critically important that scientific and was true about uss maine, technological advancements be accelerated and applied in both the agricultural and the food manufacturing sectors. The next section of An Examination and Offline Flirting Essays, this review, “Evolution of the Production-to-Consumption Food System,” summarizes the parallel developments of agriculture and food manufacturing from the beginnings of modern society (the Neolithic revolution) to the present; it also addresses the current diet and was true about, chronic disease challenge. Flirting? The subsequent section, “Food Processing: A Critical Element,” explains why food is processed and what the sinking, details the various types of food processing operations that are important for of Online, different food manufacturing purposes. Then the following section, “Looking to the Future,” outlines suggestions to improve our food supply for a healthier population, and briefly discusses the various roles that researchers, consumers, the food industry, and policy makers play in improving the food supply for better health; it also addresses the promises that further advancements and application of what of the uss maine, technologies in the food system hold for the future. Evolution of the Production-to-Consumption Food System. The life of the huntergatherer was generally uncertain, dangerous, and hardscrabble. Thomas Hobbes, in his  Leviathan  (I561), described life in those times as “the life of man in a state of nature, that is, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Agriculture transformed that existence by making available a far larger and generally more reliable source of food, in large part through domestication and improvement of plants and animals. Domestication leads to civilization.

Domestication is the process of bringing a species under the control of humans and strengths essay, gradually changing it through careful selection, mating, and handling so that it is more useful to people. Domesticated species are renewable sources that provide humans with food and other benefits. At the end of the last Ice Age, humans domesticated plants and animals, permitting the was true about the sinking uss maine development of Privacy Policy Essay, agriculture, producing food more efficiently than in hunter-gatherer societies, and improving the what the sinking human condition. Domestication did not appear all at once, but rather over a substantial period of if music food on meaning, time, perhaps hundreds of was true uss maine, years. For some species, domestication occurred independently in more than one location.

For animals, the process may have begun almost accidentally, as by raising a captured young animal after its mother had been killed and observing its behavior and analysis, response to various treatments. Domesticated plants and animals spread from their sites of origin through trade and war. The domestication of about the sinking of the uss maine, plants and animals occurred primarily on the Eurasian continent (Smith 1998). A prominent early site was in sonnet 76, the Middle East, the so-called Fertile Crescent, stretching from Palestine to southern Turkey, and what was true the sinking uss maine, down the valleys of the Tigris and poetry with, Euphrates Rivers, where barley, wheat, and of the uss maine, lentils were domesticated as early as 10000 y ago and sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs were domesticated around 8000 y ago. Rice, millet, and soy were domesticated in East Asia; millet, sorghum, and African rice in sub-Saharan Africa; potato, sweet potato, corn (maize), squash, and beans in strengths essay, the Americas; Asiatic (water) buffaloes, chickens, ducks, cattle, and of the uss maine, pigs in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia; pigs, rabbits, and geese in sonnet 76, Europe; and llamas, alpacas, guinea pigs, and was true, turkeys in the Americas. The introduction of herding and of Online Flirting, farming was followed by uss maine, attempts to An Examination and Gender Essays, improve the wild varieties of plants and what the sinking uss maine, animals that had just been domesticated. The Indian corn found by the first European colonists was a far cry from its ancestor, the grass teosinte. While few successful new domestications have occurred in the past 1000 y, various aquaculture species, such as tilapia, catfish, salmon, and shrimp, are currently on Policy for Canadian Constitution their way to being domesticated. Although the primary goal of domestication (ensuring a more stable, reliable source of animal and about of the uss maine, plant foods) has not fundamentally changed, the specific goals have become highly specialized over time. For example, we now breed cattle for either beef or dairy production, and if music of love play on meaning, cattle and hogs for leaner meat.

We breed chickens as either egg layers or broilers. In addition, selection for increased efficiency of producing meat, milk, and eggs is what was true of the uss maine, prominent in be the food play, today's agriculture, as discussed later in what was true about of the, this section. Agriculture, built on An Examination Flirting Essays the domestication of plants and animals, freed people from the all-consuming task of finding food and led to the establishment of permanent settlements. What we know as civilizationcities, governments, written languages, an expanding base of knowledge, improved health and life span, the artswas only possible because of agriculture. Along with domestication of plants and animals, people began the journey of discovery of methods to extend the useful life of what was true about of the uss maine, plant and animal food items so that nourishment could be sustained throughout the with analysis year. With a fixed (nonnomadic) population also came primitive food storage and, with that, improvements in was true uss maine, food safety and quality. In July 2009, an important discovery and conjecture was made about the sonnet 76 recognition that food security was of paramount importance. Kuijt and Finlayson (2009) reported that they believe they have discovered several granaries in what about the sinking of the uss maine, Jordan dating to about 11000 y ago. This would suggest that populations knew the importance of having a dependable food supply before the domestication of plants. The authors further suggested that “Evidence for PPNA (Pre-Pottery Neolithic Age) food storage illustrates a major transition in the economic and social organization of poetry, human communities.

The transition from economic systems based on collecting and foraging of wild food resources before this point to cultivation and foraging of mixed wild and managed resources in the PPNA illustrates a major intensification of human-plant relationships.” Today, the survival of civilization depends on a handful of domesticated crops. What Was True About? Of the Privacy Policy for Canadian Constitution roughly 400000 plant species existing today (Pitman and Jorgensen 2002), fewer than 500 are considered to be domesticated. Selecting for desirable crop traits. The primary force in crop domestication and subsequent breeding is what about of the uss maine, selection, both artificial and natural, described below. Charles Darwin, in developing the theory of natural selection, relied heavily on the knowledge and experiences of if music be the food play, plant and animal breeders (Darwin 1859). Crops were domesticated from wild ancestors’ gene pools that had been altered by selection imposed by what was true about, early agriculturalists and by natural selection imposed by biotic and abiotic environmental factors (Harlan and Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay, others 1973; Purugganan and Fuller 2010). Selection changes gene pools by what the sinking, increasing the frequency of alleles (genes encoded by a place in the genome and that may vary between individuals and mutant/parent strains) that cause desirable traits and decreasing the frequency of alleles that cause undesirable traits. Modern crop varieties are still shaped by Policy Essay, the same forces. The causes of the bursts of domestication activity have been the subject of much speculation (Smith 1998), but the changes symptomatic of domestication are well established for many species (Harlan and others 1973; Doebley and others 2006).

Legumes and the large-seeded grasses collectively known as cereals (for example, maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum) contribute most of the calories and plant protein in the human diet. For these and other annual crops such as sunflower and squash, the initial changes during domestication involved ease of harvesting and the ability to compete with weeds. Initially, selection for was true about the sinking uss maine, these traits was most likely not planned but serendipitous and more a matter of chance by random mutations. The most significant problem confronting most agriculturalists, both early and modern, is weed competition. Early agriculturalists scattered seeds on ground that had been prepared, most likely by burning or some other disruption of the soil surface. Those seeds that passed their genes onto the next generation (natural selection) were those that best competed with weeds. Selection pressure due to weed competition results in a number of changes, including the reduction or elimination of and Offline, seed dormancy and larger seeds (Harlan and what was true of the, others 1973; Smith 1998). Dormancy is very undesirable in annual crops, and most domesticated species germinate rapidly upon planting. Selection against if music be the food of love dormancy has been so extreme, however, that under certain weather conditions, seeds of about, modern wheat varieties ( Triticum aestivum ) and Animal Essay, barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) sprout while still in the seed head, destroying the about the sinking of the uss maine value of the grain crop. Larger seeds generally give rise to larger and more vigorous seedlings that compete better with weeds (Purugganan and Fuller 2010). In the grasses, selection for sonnet 76, larger seed size is associated with increased starch and decreased protein in the endosperm.

For example, the protein content of teosinte ( Zea mays parviglumis )the wild ancestor of maize ( Zea mays mays ), which is what was true about uss maine, referred to as corn in North Americais approximately 30%, while the protein content of Constitution Essay, modern maize is 11% (Flint-Garcia and others 2009). While the goal of selection is to alter the targeted trait (appearance and/or performance) and the genetic variation underlying the selected trait will be reduced over time, unselected traits will also often change, and these changes may be negative (for example, reduced endosperm protein in grasses that have been selected for larger seeds). For example, in the United States, the major selection criterion for maize is increased grain yield (Tracy and others 2004), and what about of the, strong selection pressure for increased grain yield leads to increased starch content and decreased protein content (Dudley and others 2007). Animal Essay? Critics focus on such changes as evidence that the quality of our food supply has been “damaged” by modern plant breeding and agricultural practices. What About The Sinking Of The? But has it? In United States agriculture, maize is strengths essay, grown for its prodigious ability to convert the sun's energy into chemical energy (carbohydrates), while we have abundant sources of plant and animal protein. In other parts of the world, maize is a staple crop, and diets of many people are deficient in protein.

To improve the what was true about nutrition of the poor whose staple is maize, plant breeders at the Intl. Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement ( Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo , CIMMYT) developed quality protein maize (QPM) that has an improved protein content and amino acid profile (Prasanna and others 2001). It is the selection of the breeding objective that determines the outcome. Privacy Policy For Canadian Essay? Clearly, different populations and cultures have differing food needs and require different breeding objectives. But, to be sustainable, all cultures need a nutritionally well-balanced diet. Changes in food animal agriculture and what was true about uss maine, fisheries. Animal food products are good sources of high-quality protein, minerals (for example, iron), and vitamins, particularly vitamin B12, which is not available in plant materials. Livestock production is a dynamic and integral part of the food system today, contributing 40% of the global value of agricultural output, 15% of total food energy, and 25% of dietary protein and supporting the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people (FAO 2009b). Essay? Seafood, including products from about of the uss maine, a growing aquaculture segment, provides at least 15% of the average animal protein consumption to 2.9 billion people, with consumption higher in and Gender Essays, developed and island countries than in some developing countries (Smith and what about, others 2010).

Except for most of and Offline Flirting, sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South Asia, production and consumption of meat, milk, and eggs is increasing around the world, driven by population and what about the sinking of the uss maine, income growth and urbanization (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and others 2010). The rapidly increasing demand for meat and strengths essay, dairy products has led during the past 50 y to an approximately 1.5-fold increase in the global numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats; 2.5-fold increase in pigs; and 4.5-fold increase in chickens (Godfray and others 2010). The nutritional impact of animal products varies tremendously around the world (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and others 2010). The structure of the was true livestock sector is complex, differs by location and species, and is being transformed by globalization of supply chains for feed, genetic stock, and other technologies (FAO 2009b). The current livestock sector has shifted from pasture-based ruminant species (cattle, sheep, goats, and others having a multichamber stomach, one of which is the rumen) to feed-dependent monogastric species (for example, poultry) and Privacy Policy for Canadian Essay, is marked by intensification and increasing globalization (Steinfeld and was true of the uss maine, others 2010). A substantial proportion of livestock, however, is grass-fed (Godfray and others 2010) and small-holder farmers and strengths essay, herders feed 1 billion people living on less than $1 a day (Herrero and others 2010). The rates of conversion of grains to meat, milk, and eggs from food animals have improved significantly in developed and developing countries (CAST 1999).

Technological improvements have taken place most rapidly and effectively in about the sinking of the, poultry production, with broiler growth rates nearly doubled and feed conversion ratios halved since the early 1960s. In addition to these productivity gains, bird health and product quality and Policy for Canadian Essay, safety have improved through applications of breeding, feeding, disease control, housing, and processing technologies (FAO 2009b). In addition, transgenic technology is was true the sinking of the, used to produce fish with faster, more efficient growth rates. Meeting the needs of strengths essay, a growing population. As a result of improved public health measures and modern medicine, the population has mushroomed from an estimated 1 to 10 million in 10000 BC to an estimated 600 to 900 million in AD 1750 and an estimated 6.8 billion today. Thomas Malthus (1803) predicted that population growth would inevitably outpace resource production, and therefore that misery (hunger and starvation) would endure. Undoubtedly, application of science and what the sinking uss maine, technology in agriculture and food and beverage manufacturing has negated these predictions and fed population growth (Figure 1).

From Foraging and with, Farming to Food Science and what was true about the sinking of the, Engineering. Adapted from Henry (1997) Nutrition Society 1997. Animal Farm Essay? Reprinted with the permission of what was true uss maine, Cambridge University Press. The application of science to agriculture has dramatically increased productivity, but until the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, productivity was not keeping pace with population growth. Large areas of the world, including the 2 most populous nations, China and India, were experiencing severe food shortages and anticipating worse. The improved plant breeding techniques of the Green Revolution have dramatically improved that situation.

However, the Green Revolution's remarkable advances have been acquired at substantial cost. The vastly improved varieties resulting from improved plant-breeding techniques require much larger inputs of fertilizer and water. Poor farmers often cannot afford the fertilizer, and adequate water supplies are becoming an increasing problem in many areas. Thus, the Green Revolution, for strengths essay, all its enormous benefits, has primarily helped larger farmers much more than smaller, poorer ones. Was True The Sinking Uss Maine? In addition, pesticide applications in sonnet 76, the developing world are too often inappropriate or excessivein some cases because the farmer is what about of the, unable to read the labeland there is no structure (for example, a regulatory agency such as the Environmental Protection Agency) to regulate their use. Problems are not, however, confined to the developing world. Nutrient run off in the United States and sonnet 76, other countries leads to algal blooms in lakes and estuaries and to “dead zones” completely lacking in oxygen in lakes and oceans. Soil erosion by wind and water continues to be a problem in many producing areas. Was True The Sinking? Soil quality thus suffers. The world's known resources of high-grade phosphate ore are limited, and the essential plant nutrient phosphorus will consequently become more expensive (Vaccari 2009). These problems are certainly capable of solution, through a number of Policy for Canadian Constitution, practices.

Beneficial options include “no-till” agriculture (which leaves the root systems of previous crops undisturbed, thereby retaining organic matter and greatly discouraging erosion), integrated pest management, IPM (which focuses pesticide use where needed, substantially decreasing the about of the uss maine amount used), precision agriculture (which site-specifically targets production inputs such as seed, fertilizer, and pesticides where and Essay, when needed), drip irrigation (controlled trickling of water), and use of new technology for recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from processing wastewater for use as fertilizer (Bongiovanni and Lowenberg-Deboer 2004; Frog Capital 2009; Gebbers and what about, Adamchuk 2010). Measures such as those just discussed are useful primarily in the economically more developed areas. Food? Developing countries require other steps adapted to their local areas and about, focused particularly on improvements for the many millions of small, poor farmers. Improved plant varieties, produced both by conventional breeding and through biotechnology are necessary, as are improved varieties of fish and poetry, livestock. There is little doubt that improvements in plant breeding, both conventional and transgenic, can significantly improve productivity. What Was True About Uss Maine? Technological improvements, such as automated plant monitoring via robotics, are “helping plant breeders trim years off the process of developing crop varieties tailored to strengths essay, local conditions” (Pennisi 2010). The list of such needs is far too long to explore here, but it also must include public health measures. A major problem yet to be addressed is the subsidization of agricultural products in developed nations. Products from small, unsubsidized farmers in developing nations cannot compete in the world market with subsidized products from what was true the sinking of the, advanced nations.

This problem was the cause of a recent breakdown in World Trade Organization talks. Some see organic agriculture as an answer to these problems. Organic farming has some clear merits, particularly those practices, such as crop rotation and the use of green or natural biocontrol agents and animal manure, which have been used by farmers for millennia (King 1949). The use of degraded plant and animal residues increases the friability (tendency to crumble, as opposed to caking) and water-holding capacity of soil, and Essay, nutrients from decaying plants and what about the sinking of the, animal manure are more slowly available than those from most commercial fertilizers. Strengths Essay? Both of these factorsfriability and was true of the, slow nutrient availabilitydiminish nutrient runoff. While organic agriculture continues to grow in response to consumer preferences in strengths essay, the developed world, there are limitations to widespread use of organic practices. Organic agriculture requires substantially more land and labor than conventional practices to produce food, and the resulting yields are not great enough and too expensive to address the needs of the growing population. The supply of composted animal manure is limited and relatively expensive compared to commercial fertilizers.

Organic agriculture excludes the use of synthetic pesticides, and the few “natural” ones that are permitted are seldom used (Lotter 2003). Herbicides are not permitted in organic agriculture, even though some, such as glyphosate, are rapidly degraded in the soil. These exclusions require more manual labor for weed and pest control. All of these factors result in higher costs and higher prices for organic foods. Reports on productivity vary widely, but some credible sources place organic food production as low as 50% of that of conventional agriculture (Bichel Committee 1999). Yield differences may be attributable to what was true about, a number of factors such as agro-ecological zone (for example, temperate and irrigated compared with humid and perhumid), crop type, high-input compared with low-input level of comparable conventional crop, and management experience (Zundel and Kilcher 2007). In addition, current organic methods exclude the use of the products of modern biotechnologyrecombinant DNA technologyessential to Privacy Constitution, future increases in agricultural productivity. Nevertheless, the more useful practices of organic agriculture must be part of the agriculture of the future.

Although poverty and what the sinking uss maine, malnutrition exist in all countries, by far the most severe problems in achieving availability, safety, and nutritive value of food and beverages occur in the developing world (IFPRI 2009). Water shortages and contaminated water, poor soil, destruction of forest for fuel, use of animal manure for fuel, the spread of of Online and Offline Flirting Essays, plant and animal diseases, and the complete lack of a sound food safety infrastructure are among the most vexing problems. Continued food scarcity invites chaos, disease, and terrorism (Brown 2009). Was True About Of The? The gap between developing and developed nations is Animal Essay, not only in was true the sinking of the, economics but also in science, governance, and public information. And Offline And Gender? Thus, to address these issues, the food system must be considered in its totality. Eighty percent of agricultural land is used for grain fed to what about the sinking of the uss maine, meat animals and yields only 15% of our calorie intake. Many have suggested that world food shortages could be greatly alleviated by consuming less meat and using the grain supplies now consumed by animals more directly. Reduction in meat intake, particularly red meats, would confer some health benefits, but the potential effects on world food supplies are less clear and quite possibly much less than many presume. If developed nations consume much less meat, the price of meat will fall and poorer nations will consume more.

If more grain is consumed, grain prices will rise, to the detriment of strengths essay, populations that already rely heavily on grain. The global food system is extremely complex, and any single change causes many others, often in unexpected ways (Stokstad 2010). Clearly, the solution to the challenge of meeting the food demands of our future world population lies in these principal thrusts: •  Increased agricultural productivity everywhere, but particularly among poor farmers, of whom there are hundreds of millions. •  Increased economic development and about of the uss maine, education, both for poetry with analysis, their own merits and because they will promote infrastructure gains in transportation and water management. •  Much-increased efforts in environmental and was true the sinking of the uss maine, water conservation and improvement. •  Continued improvements in strengths essay, food and beverage processing and what uss maine, packaging to deliver safe, nutritious, and affordable food. •  Reduction of postharvest losses, particularly in developing countries. We must achieve all of these goals. To maintain, as some do, that we cannot have both vastly increased productivity and good environmental practices is strengths essay, a “false choice” (Gates 2009). Meeting these goals will require the effective use of scienceboth the science now within reach and about of the uss maine, that still to be the of love play, be developed. Postharvest losses occur between harvest and consumption as a result of what the sinking of the uss maine, spoilage of raw agricultural commodities, primarily during storage and transportation, before they can be stabilized for longer-term storage. The granaries mentioned earlier were the first crude efforts to attack this problem, but it still persists. And Offline And Gender Essays? Postharvest losses due to rodents, insects, and microbial spoilage in was true about uss maine, some areas amount to poetry with analysis, 30% or more of the harvested crop. This results in wasted seed, water, fertilizer, and labor.

Postharvest losses must be attacked with locally appropriate improvements in available technology (Normile 2010). It is about uss maine, not enough merely to increase and conserve the supply of raw food; it must be conserved against Animal Farm further loss by processing and be packaged, distributed to where it is needed, and guaranteed in its safety, nutritional value, and cultural relevance. That is the role of science and technology and engineering applied to the processing of foods and beverages. A widely understood and accepted definition of food processing does not exist, and perceptions of “processed foods” vary widely. From the broadest perspective, food processing may be considered to include any deliberate change in a food occurring between the point of origin and availability for consumption. The change could be as simple as rinsing and what was true about the sinking uss maine, packaging by a food manufacturer to ensure that the food is not damaged before consumer accessibility, or as complex as formulating the product with specific additives for controlling microorganisms, maintaining desired quality attributes, or providing a specific health benefit, followed by packaging that may itself play a role in microbial control or quality preservation.

Some people process their own foods in the home, by canning produce from a garden, microwave cooking, or dehydrating food, for example. Sonnet 76? Following recipes to bake cakes, cookies, and casseroles or to make chili are examples of formulating foods in the home (Shewfelt 2009). In general, food processing is applied for one or more of the following reasons: preservation, extending the harvest in a safe and stable form; safety; quality; availability; convenience; innovation; health and wellness; and sustainability. Although the private sector carries out these processes and delivers the final product to what was true about of the uss maine, the consumer, public investment in generating the science and engineering base necessary to continue the An Examination of Online Flirting Essays creativity and ultimate application of new technologies is clearly warranted. Many writings from antiquity refer to food and what about the sinking of the, its preservation and preparation. Major advances in food preservation accelerated with the Farm Essay development of canning, which proceeded from the was true about the sinking of the uss maine investigations of Nicolas Appert in and Offline and Gender Essays, France and the subsequent activities of Peter Durand in England in the early 19th century. Appert used corked glass bottles to what was true about the sinking uss maine, preserve food, and Durand introduced the concept of sonnet 76, metal cans. Was True About The Sinking Of The Uss Maine? This led to increased emphasis from scientists on the quantity and quality of food, although the reason for canning's effectiveness for food preservation was not discovered until nearly 50 y later. Louis Pasteur reported to the French Academy of Sciences in Privacy Constitution Essay, 1864 on the lethal effect of heat on microorganisms. W. Russel of the Univ. of Wisconsin and Samuel Cate Prescott and about the sinking uss maine, William Lyman Underwood of the Massachusetts Inst. of Technology described in 1895 to 1896 the need for time and temperature control (Labuza and Sloan 1981). No period of time has seen such rapid advances in food and beverage processing as the 20th century (Welch and Mitchell 2000).

Modern food science and technology has extended, expanded, and refined these traditional methods and added new ones. Simple cooking, though still the Constitution Essay most common process, evolved into canning. Dehydration, once restricted to less sanitary sun drying, now is usually a highly mechanized and sanitized process. Refrigeration has evolved from cool storage to sophisticated refrigerators and what was true the sinking of the, freezers, and the industrial techniques of blast freezing and of Online and Offline Essays, individual quick freezing (IQF) are less detrimental to what was true of the, nutritional quality and sensory quality (for example, taste, texture). All of these developments contributed to increased nutritional quality, safety, variety, acceptability, and availability of foods and beverages. Many of these techniques are now combined into more effective preservation technologies through the concept of “hurdle technology,” combining techniques to create conditions that bacteria cannot overcome, such as combining drying with chemical preservatives and packaging, or mild heat treatment followed by packaging and refrigerated storage (Leistner and analysis, Gould 2002). Still another notable evolution is the long history of the use of about the sinking of the, food additivessubstances added in small quantities to produce a desired effect.

Of the 32 “technical effects” (functional purposes) listed by the Food and Drug Administration in the  Code of Federal Regulations , 24 can be recognized in the few cookbooks and Farm, recipe compilations that have survived from more than 150 y ago. Among the additives that were once used to about the sinking of the uss maine, produce these technical effects (Hall 1978) are. •  Pearl ash (from wood ashes) and vinegar as leavening agents. •  Sodium silicate (water glass) for sonnet 76, dipping eggs to preserve them. •  Lye for hulling corn. •  Sulfur dioxide from burning sulfur as a fumigant and preservative. What Uss Maine? •  Unlined copper utensils for strengths essay, making pickles greener. •  Saltpeter and what was true the sinking of the uss maine, roach alum as curing and pickling agents. •  Grass, marigold flowers, and if music food of love on meaning, indigo stone (copper sulfate) as sources of green, yellow, and blue colors. Before the days of widespread industrial production of food and before the advent of what was true about of the, modern chemistry and toxicology, these and poetry analysis, many other crude additives were used confidently within the family without any knowledge of the risks they presented. In the 20th century, the development of the science of toxicology permitted the careful evaluation of the what was true about the sinking uss maine safety of An Examination Flirting, substances added to of the uss maine, food. The advent of modern chemistry permitted the sonnet 76 detection of intentional adulteration of foods by purveyors using deceitful practices, and led to the passage and enforcement of modern food laws. Frederick Accum's “Treatise on the Adulteration of Food,” published in 1820, marked the what the sinking of the uss maine beginning of this effort. Sonnet 76? In the United States, the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906 prohibited adulteration and misbranding of food, issues that continued to be addressed in what was true about the sinking of the uss maine, the United States via federal statutes.

Prior to 1958, the burden of proving that a substance posed an unacceptable risk rested with the government. In that year, the Food Additives Amendment to the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and sonnet 76, Cosmetic Act changed that by advancing the was true about uss maine concept of “adulteration” and imposing on food manufacturers the task of proving prior to marketing that an additive is An Examination and Offline, safe under the conditions of its intended use. The change in the use of food additives in the past 100 y has been dramatic. We have moved from the use of crude, unidentified, often hazardous substances to purified, publicly identified food ingredients that are well evaluated for safety. Now high standards and what of the, margins of An Examination of Online Flirting Essays, safety are applied to food additives (ACS 1968; NAS 1973; Hall 1977). Today, because of modern means of detection, intentional food adulteration in industrialized countries is considered uncommon, occurring more often in foods imported from countries without effective food safety infrastructure.

Except for rare cases of individual sensitivity, human harm from approved food additives in the United States is virtually unknown. Advances in food science and technology. Drying, canning, chemical preservation, refrigeration (including chilling and freezing), and nutrient conservation and fortification were the significant advances of the 19th and 20th centuries and permitted population growth in more developed countries. Such population growth could only occur if there was sufficient food. About The Sinking Of The Uss Maine? The industrial revolution could not have occurred without a food delivery system that allowed people to leave the farms, migrate to the cities, and engage in useful production of goods and services for society. Among the Animal Farm Essay important developments during the early part of the 20th century were the discovery of about the sinking of the, vitamins and the realization of the importance of other micronutrients such as iodine, iron, and poetry with analysis, calcium. Those with memories of that earlier period recall the bowed legs associated with rickets (from vitamin D deficiency) and the swollen thyroids related to goiter (from iodine deficiency). What Was True About The Sinking Uss Maine? With the introduction of the draft just before World War II, the army discovered widespread malnutrition among young American males. This led to Essay, the foundation of the Food and Nutrition Board of the what of the Inst. of Medicine of the Natl. Academies and also the development in 1941 of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for essential nutrients.

The difficulty of achieving these RDAs from available foods, especially among the Essay poor, led manufacturers to fortify common foods with vitamins and other micronutrients, beginning with iodized salt in of the uss maine, 1924. Sonnet 76? Today, fortified foods, defined by federal Standards of Identity, include such staples as pasta, milk, butter, salt, and flour. Technological innovations in food preservation were dependent on advances in the sciences, especially chemistry and microbiology. How these sciences and what uss maine, technologies are applied within each society depends on the economic, biological, cultural, and political contexts for each society. For example, vegetarian groups require certain technologies, but not others; rice-eating societies may reject, sometimes strongly, foods based on other grains; and slaughtering procedures vary with religious backgrounds. Advances in agriculture and food science and technology have led to with analysis, reduction in nutrient deficiency-related diseases; a generally safe food supply with consistent high quality available independent of seasons; food choices that do not require preparation time; a wide range of what was true about of the, delicious foods; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; convenience foods requiring much less preparation time than before, a benefit for working families; and and Gender Essays, efficient global food distribution that can be exploited in times of natural and man-made disasters. Food is central to human health, not only in terms of quantity, but also quality as well. Was True Uss Maine? The past few decades have seen alarming rates of increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, as well as autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and autism. A growing body of epidemiological, clinical, and basic research shows that food and diet are important factors involved in the etiology of these and other chronic diseases, and that dietary patterns have a profound effect on the risk for chronic diseases. If Music Be The Food Play On Meaning? Anand and others (2008), for example, describe the substantial role of what was true about of the, environment lifestyle risk factors (such as sun exposure, diet, obesity, and physical inactivity) for cancer and Animal, provide evidence that cancer could be preventable for some people but that this would require major lifestyle changes.

Hence, whether it is what was true about uss maine, food safety and security, or nutrient deficiency and disease prevention, food is An Examination Flirting, intricately connected to human health and was true the sinking of the, well-being. Dietary guidelines are produced to provide advice on good dietary habits that will promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. The 2005  Dietary Guidelines for Americans  includes recommendations to be the of love on meaning, increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat milk, and to limit consumption of  trans  fats, saturated fats, cholesterol, and about the sinking uss maine, sodium. Many food companies have responded to these recommendations. For example, more bread and cereal products are now available that are made from whole grains and have higher fiber contents. The introduction of baby carrots doubled intake of carrots. Introducing milk packaging that appeals to teens has increased milk consumption in that population group. Privacy For Canadian Constitution Essay? Product reformulation has greatly reduced the  trans  fat content of many foods, and several companies have made commitments to reduce the sodium content of food products. Convenient and innovative toddler foods made from a variety of what was true about, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and food of love, dairy are now available.

To help control portion size, limited-calorie packaging has entered the was true of the uss maine market for a variety of categories. Overweight and obesity have become the dominant health problem in the United States and many developed countries. In children, the prevalence has almost tripled in the past 3 decades (Ogden and others 2000). This is of particular concern because overweight children have a high likelihood of becoming overweight adults, with all the of Online and Offline associated diseases such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Recent research suggests that childhood obesity is determined by age 2 (Harrington and others 2010), which supports the earlier set-point theory that body weight is was true about uss maine, regulated at a predetermined or preferred level by a feedback-control mechanism (Harris 1990).

The obesity issue is a scientifically complex issue of behavior and may be economically driven; some of the lowest priced foods are the more calorie-dense and palatable products (Drewnowski 2004; MacAulay and Newsome 2004). Diabetes mellitus is expected to skyrocket to epidemic proportions in the next quarter-century (Bonow and Gheorghiade 2004). Animal Farm Essay? Lifestyle interventions are the 1st step in the management of diabetes and what was true the sinking of the, metabolic syndrome (Stone 2008). Even in the midst of an abundance of energy from food, however, many people do not meet their nutrient requirements, sometimes because of the types of foods available to them, other times because of the kinds of foods they select. The report of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC 2010) recommended focus on if music be the food play on meaning achieving energy balance through the current nutrition and about the sinking, physical activity guidelines.

Food Processing: A Critical Element. As indicated above, food processing has evolved from merely a need to preserve foods from the An Examination and Offline and Gender Essays time and location of what the sinking of the uss maine, harvest or assembly until the be the of love product reaches the was true the sinking uss maine consumer, to possibly complex activities that may include sourcing raw materials and analysis, ingredients from different parts of the was true about of the uss maine world that can improve nutritional and other desirable qualities for An Examination, better overall health and wellness of consumers. Food processing frequently serves multiple objectives. For example, freezing or cooking and freezing both preserve and provide convenience. Heating or fermentation of soy is what about the sinking of the uss maine, necessary both to achieve edibility and to remove the hemagglutinens that would be mildly toxic. Processing operations are conducted under controlled conditions to ensure that the process is completed in the most effective and efficient manner. The resulting products include ingredients delivered to food manufacturers to for Canadian Constitution, be used in producing foods for what was true uss maine, consumers, as well as ingredients (for example, flour) for consumers to use in food preparation.

The development and implementation of Animal Farm, new technologies enhances food quality and safety. New and innovative products, some with unique product attributes, have been developed through the use of new processing technologies. The formulation, processing, and packaging of a food or beverage is accomplished for was true about the sinking, several clearly definable purposes, with numerous benefits to the consumer and society: •  Preservation. This is the oldest and perhaps still the most common purpose, and the one most familiar to consumers. The purpose of preservation is to extend the shelf life of a food or beverage. •  Safety. The processing of food is designed to remove health hazards associated with microbial pathogens.

Processing operations dealing with raw food materials or ingredients carrying pathogens have significant controls and if music be the play, regulations to detect and inactivate food-borne microorganisms that can cause illness. Was True The Sinking Of The Uss Maine? Pasteurization of milk is just one of many examples of processes that eliminate a health hazard for the consumer and extend the life of the product. Managing food safety, however, goes beyond microbiological risks. Good agricultural and manufacturing practices and other principles address chemical and physical hazards as well. In addition, plant breeding has contributed to reduction of some of the toxicants that occur naturally in poetry with analysis, foods in what was true about the sinking, small amounts (ACS 1968; Hall 1977) and have been the source of common and Farm, sometimes widespread human illness and occasionally death. Processing is, however, still necessary in some instances. Was True About Of The? For example, manioc must be crushed and soakedor crushed, heated, and treated with acidto remove hydrogen cyanide from with, cyanogenic glycosides before the uss maine resulting starch (tapioca) is safe to consume. •  Quality.

Processes to ensure the delivery of foods and beverages of the sonnet 76 highest quality to the consumer continue to evolve. Quality attributes include taste, aroma, texture, color, and nutrient content. In most cases, these attributes begin to decline as soon as a raw food material or ingredient is harvested or collected. The goal of the processes is to ensure that the decline in what was true about of the uss maine, quality attributes is minimized. For example, blanching and freezing vegetables immediately after harvesting ensures that the nutrients remain at their peak level. Of Online And Offline And Gender Essays? In some cases, the quality attributes are enhanced by what about, processing. For example, processing of soybeans greatly improves their flavor.

•  Availability. Food processing helps to ensure that the consumer has access to a wide variety of foods and food ingredients at any time, including those that help to improve the retention of quality attributes for poetry with, the period of time required for delivery of the product to the consumer. For example, controlling the composition of the what was true the sinking uss maine atmosphere surrounding apples and other fruits leads to extended freshness. •  Sustainability. Food processing ensures that the resources required to produce raw food materials and ingredients for sonnet 76, food manufacturing are used most efficiently. Responding to the goals of sustainability requires the maximum utilization of all raw materials produced and integration of activities throughout all the production-to-consumption stages. To maximize the conversion of raw materials into consumer products, efforts begin at the production stage, with activities to was true about the sinking of the uss maine, reduce postharvest losses and increase use of by-products. Efforts continue, through food manufacturing and beyond, to ensure that energy, water, and other resources are used most efficiently and environmental impacts are minimized.

Refrigeration of fresh produce is an example of an action that reduces loss and increases the edible life of the product. •  Convenience. Many processed foods and beverages are developed to allow them to be consumed after limited amounts of preparation. For example, a frozen or refrigerated entree is delivered to the consumer in and Offline and Gender Essays, a form ready for microwave heating. Snack foods are ready to eat when delivered to of the uss maine, the consumer. •  Health and Wellness. At a fundamental level, food is viewed as a source of nutrition to An Examination and Offline, meet at least the minimum daily requirements for survival, but there is an ever-greater focus on the desire for health optimization from was true the sinking, food. Processing can enhance the nutritional value of foods in a number of ways.

For example, refiningseparation of the antinutritional componentsis the best means of improving the nutritional quality of many foodstuffs of vegetable origin, and processing of fresh tomatoes (for example, into catsup) improves the bioavailability of the carotenoid lycopene. Some products are specifically designed to enhance individual health and wellnessthe focus of many current trendsrequiring specific unique ingredients and strengths essay, an array of processes to ensure desired product attributes. Many products are fortified or enriched with vitamins and minerals (for example, orange juice fortified with calcium for bone health) and other nutrients (for example, margarine enriched with plant stanols and sterols for heart health) in response to defined nutritional needs of consumers. The success of these productsoften referred to as “functional foods”requires that flavor and texture also meet consumer expectations. Typical technologies, processes, and operations. The mechanical operations, processes, and technologies typically used to achieve these benefits in preparing and what the sinking of the, using raw materials in manufacturing foods and with, beverages (Potter and Hotchkiss 1995) are briefly described below: •  Mechanical Operations. There are many mechanical operations used throughout the food system, including simple conveying of what the sinking of the, raw materials from sonnet 76, one location to another, as well as more intense operations to change the physical structure of the material.

All or most of these operations are larger scale versions of operations that have been used to prepare foods for centuries. The cracking and what the sinking uss maine, grinding of cereal grains to manufacture the sonnet 76 flour used in bakery products is what about the sinking uss maine, a very visible example. Most often these operations are designed to produce one or more of the ingredients to be used in consumer food products. The extraction of oil from soybeans and other oilseeds requires a mechanical operation before efficient separation of the oil can be accomplished. In most cases, these operations are a component of series of steps needed to ensure the Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay most efficient use of the raw material, often including the what about the sinking of the manufacturing of an array of An Examination Flirting, by-products for consumers to utilize. Another typical mechanical operation is dry mixing, involving the blending of various ingredients to ensure homogeneous and uniform distribution of the various ingredients before a final stage of manufacturing. •  Heating . The use of thermal energy to increase the temperature of a raw food or ingredient is the most recognized and widely used approach to preservation of food. By increasing the temperature to appropriate levels and holding for an appropriate time that is dependent on both the what was true about nature of the food and the objective of the process, pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms are significantly decreased in number or eliminated. Thermal processes applied to foods in food manufacturing are based on the same principles as those governing traditional cooking of foods during preparation. Strengths Essay? The impact of heatingthermal processingon components of the food is the same as that during cooking and often results in the enhancement of flavors and texture, as well as some modest losses of heat-sensitive nutrients. What About Uss Maine? Many shelf-stable foods are available to consumers as a result of thermal processing.

Less-intense thermal processes, such as pasteurization, also ensure that dairy products and fruit juices are safe. Heating food to extend its shelf life probably dates back to antiquity, when people observed that food that had been cooked kept longer without spoiling. However, it was not until Appert and others investigated heating foods in containers that it was discovered that immediate recontamination of heated food from the strengths essay environment did not occur. What Was True? Since those meager beginnings, advances in Privacy Policy for Canadian, mathematics, chemistry, biology, and of the uss maine, engineering, coupled with their application to food science and technology, have resulted in sonnet 76, development of equipment and procedures to optimize the application of heat to foods for was true of the, the purpose of extending their shelf life and enhancing their edibility (texture, flavor, and visual appearance). There are basically 3 types of heat processes that are applied to food, other than cooking: blanching, pasteurization, and canning. The latter 2 are tightly regulated by federaland in some cases, stateagencies to sonnet 76, ensure proper application of the technology and prevention of food-borne illness.

Blanching  is a mild heat treatment (usually accomplished at temperatures below 212F for was true the sinking, less than 2 to 3 min) applied to foods that are to Animal, be subsequently canned, frozen, or dried. The purpose is to the sinking uss maine, eliminate or reduce activity of enzymes in the foods that catalyze changes in flavor, texture, or color. Other benefits include removal of air from the food tissue to with analysis, reduce oxidation, softening of the plant tissue to facilitate packing into packages, and what of the uss maine, inactivation of antinutritional properties (such as trypsin inhibitor in soybeans, a naturally occurring chemical that reduces dietary protein breakdown in the human gastrointestinal tract). The process is of Online Flirting Essays, usually carried out in hot water or steam, although there are processes based on hot air or microwave heating. Since the process is relatively mild, there is relatively little effect on nutrients, although when hot water is was true about of the, used as the heating medium some nutrients, especially water-soluble nutrients, are leached into the water. “ Pasteurization ” is named after Pasteur, who demonstrated that wine spoiled because of the presence of microorganisms and that a mild heat treatment could be used to inactivate the microorganisms and thereby extend the poetry analysis shelf life. Pasteurization is most well known for its application to what was true about the sinking of the, milk, which is strictly regulated through the Privacy for Canadian Constitution U.S. Public Health Service/FDA's Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Pasteurization is most generally applied to liquids, although it is also applied to about of the, semisolid and strengths essay, solid foods. What Of The? As applied to liquids, the temperature is elevated to sonnet 76, 140 to what the sinking of the, 212F for a short period of time (usually less than 1 min) to inactivate microorganisms that can cause illness (pathogens).

As originally applied, the liquid was heated after it was put into An Examination of Online and Offline and Gender the container; but by applying advances in food engineering, such as the what was true understanding of flow dynamics and heat transfer to flowing liquids, continuous processes were developed using heat exchangers, machines used to transfer heat from a hot fluid to a colder one. Modern processes are almost exclusively continuous processes, with the pasteurized liquid being deposited into Animal sterile packages. Most pasteurized foods are subsequently kept in refrigerated storage to extend the shelf life because not all spoilage organisms present have been inactivated. “ Canning ” is primarily used to inactivate microorganisms that cause food-borne disease such as botulism, but it also inactivates microorganisms that cause food spoilage. This thermal process is commonly accomplished by holding the product at temperatures well above 230F for several minutes. Canned food is not absolutely sterile (devoid of all viable microorganisms) but rather is about of the uss maine, commercially sterile (devoid of all viable microorganisms that could grow under normal storage conditions). There are 2 major methods: heating the food after it has been sealed in a container (referred to as  canning ) and sterilizing the strengths essay food, then depositing it in a sterile container within a sterile environment and sealing the container (referred to as  aseptic processing ). Of The Uss Maine? These processes can also be optimized for retention of nutrients and quality factors such as taste, flavor, and color. The success of this method of preserving foods in eliminating food-related deficiency diseases cannot be understated, with canned fruits and vegetables being a source of vitamin C independent of seasons, for example. •  Refrigeration and Freezing. Flirting Essays? The use of low temperatures to extend the shelf life of food and beverage products has a long history. What Was True Of The Uss Maine? The use of ice to analysis, reduce the temperature of foods and prevent spoilage has been recognized for centuries.

Refrigerators are now found in almost every home in industrialized countries. Although the what was true about the sinking of the uss maine reduction of temperature does not eliminate microbial populations, it reduces the rate of microbial growth enough to prevent product spoilage and extend the shelf life of Policy Essay, most food products. Most fruits and vegetables are refrigerated to extend their freshness. In addition, refrigeration also reduces the reaction rates of was true the sinking uss maine, enzymes that cause deterioration of most quality attributes of a food or beverage, making high-quality products available to the consumer for extended periods of time (Heldman and Hartel 1997). Some foods and beverages receive a mild heat treatment to inactivate enzymes and eliminate microorganisms that can cause disease but still require refrigeration to control the growth of with, surviving microorganisms that can cause spoilage. Pasteurized milk is about uss maine, probably the best example, but many other foods and sonnet 76, beverages are also pasteurized and then refrigerated.

In general, holding a food or beverage at refrigeration or freezing temperature has no negative impact on the quality attributes of the food but extends consumable product life. “ Freezing ” is a more intense use of what was true the sinking, refrigeration to strengths essay, reduce the what the sinking of the temperature of a product to levels below the An Examination of Online Flirting Essays freezing temperature of water in the product. Lower temperatures cause the what was true the sinking of the liquid water to change phase to An Examination of Online and Offline Essays, ice. At these reduced temperatures (−0.4 to −14F), the what was true of the deterioration rates for product quality attributes are reduced to poetry with analysis, below those at refrigeration temperature, and microbial growth is reduced to negligible levels. It is not unusual for of the, frozen fruits, vegetables, and analysis, some meat products to about uss maine, maintain high quality for Animal Farm Essay, as much as 1 y while frozen. Many favorite desserts, such as ice cream, have been created by the freezing process.

Most nutrients are not affected by freezing; however, it is difficult to freeze a food product without impact on what was true about uss maine the some of its more evident quality attributes. The formation of ice crystals within the structure of a plant or animal food results in a series of reactions with potential impact on texture and flavor. Poetry Analysis? Thus, careful control of the time to what was true the sinking, freeze the product and the temperature of the frozen product during distribution and storage is important to minimize such reactions and ensure the poetry with best possible quality attributes over time (Erickson and Hung 1997). The size of ice crystals created during the freezing process can be controlled, but this is not possible with all products or freezing facilities. For example, small pieces of fruits or vegetables can be frozen very rapidly, and the product structure is what was true the sinking of the, preserved with uniform distribution of small ice crystals. Poetry? In contrast, a large portion of beef or any product in was true the sinking of the uss maine, a large package will require a longer time to freeze and will result in a less-uniform distribution of larger ice crystals. The extent of the impact on product quality depends on an array of factors occurring after freezing, including control of temperature during storage and distribution and final preparation of the food. For many foods, the quality attributes of refrigerated and frozen foods compare favorably to those of the strengths essay fresh counterparts (Mallet 1993). •  Dehydration. Drying is intended to halt or slow the growth of microorganisms and about, rate of chemical reactions.

The removal of water provides food processors excellent opportunities to reduce volume and weight, extend shelf life, and convert liquids to powdery products, such as instant coffee or a vegetable soup base mix. This process is one of the oldest techniques used to preserve foods, one of the most utilized, and the most energy intensive (von Loesecke 1943; Saravacos 1965; King 1968; Thijssen 1979). Water removal is usually performed via evaporation, vaporization, or sublimation (drying while frozen) by means of a simultaneous heat, mass, and momentum transfer mechanism (Whitaker 1977). This transfer occurs within the poetry with analysis food itself and between the food and the drying medium, resulting in the reduction of moisture, a key variable in all drying operations. The Sinking Of The? In addition to water removal, chemical reactions occur, such as Maillard browning (nonenzymatic browning) of poetry, amino acids/reducing sugars such as glucose, caramelization of sugar, denaturation/degradation of about the sinking of the, cross-linking proteins, and pyrolysis (decomposition or transformation of a compound caused by strengths essay, heat) of the various organic constituents. In addition, loss of what was true the sinking of the uss maine, volatile compounds, gelatinization of starches, and modification of food material structure change the characteristics of the original product significantly (Viollaz and Alzamora 2005). Many types of dryers, dehydration methods, and if music be the food play on meaning, associated equipment are applied to a very wide range of foods.

Sun drying on trays, mats, or platforms is the traditional method and is still used today. Modern equipment includes cabinet, bed, conveyor, fluidized bed, drum, vacuum, and spray dryers. Freeze drying (lyophilization), osmotic dehydration, microwave, and innovative light-driven refractance-window dryers are also in about of the, use. With continuous technological advances in different fields, drying is constantly evolving to offer better quality and novel products. Mathematical modeling and Essay, process simulation have significantly contributed to the understanding of the intricacies of this very complex process and what was true the sinking of the, the design of new dryers and drying systems. One trend is to combine 2 or more dehydration techniquesor a dehydration method with other processing approachesfor treatments that optimize cost, food quality, and safety. Examples of these combinations include microwavevacuum drying, ultrasound-assisted air drying, and encapsulation and flavor impregnation to add value. •  Acidification. Raw foods and beverages vary significantly in levels of poetry analysis, acid they contain. What Was True About Uss Maine? Foods with lower levels of acid are more susceptible to microbial growth and are thus more perishable. Animal Essay? The intentional adjustment in the level of acid in a food has been a preservation method for centuries, in making pickles, for example.

This approach to preservation is based on the inability of many spoilage microorganisms and pathogens to grow at high levels of what was true the sinking, acid. Increasing the acidity prevents growth of many microorganisms and extends the sonnet 76 shelf life of the product, while maintaining many of its attributes. This preservation method can be accomplished by addition of acid to adjust the overall acidity level of the product, or biologically through fermentation. Since acid alone may not be sufficient to was true the sinking uss maine, fully protect the product, adjustments in acidity are frequently used in combination with other techniques such as heat, additives, or refrigeration to accomplish preservation and safety. •  Fermentation. The use of microorganisms to change a perishable food into a less-perishable product is another very old way of preservation that has been used around the world by societies without access to refrigeration to extend the edible life of a fresh food.

Many of these products, such as blue cheese, salami, sauerkraut, and yogurt, have become so popular that societies with ready access to of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays, refrigeration continue to enjoy fermented foods but still frequently use refrigeration to maintain safety and extend shelf life of these modern versions. Although some microorganisms lead to food spoilage and others cause food poisoning, specific microorganisms that can induce desirable changes in foods are used to overpower those that can lead to unappealing or unsafe foods. Fermentation microorganisms primarily work to change the chemical makeup of a product, making it less likely that undesirable microorganisms will reproduce and compromise product safety or quality. Beneficial microorganisms synthesize natural preservatives, such as lactic acid and other acids (increasing the acidity of the food), carbon dioxide (lowering the what about oxygen content), and ethanol (discouraging growth of undesirable microorganisms). Yeasts produce carbon dioxide to expand the structure, such as dough for bread baking.

They are also responsible for poetry with, the production of ethanol to produce beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages. Fermented dairy products include yogurt and a host of ripened cheeses. Fermented cucumbers are called pickles in Western countries, but pickling is another word for was true the sinking, fermenting and is used to produce pickled eggs, pig's feet, and even snakes in Animal Farm Essay, certain countries. Many countries and what about the sinking, cultures have their own favorite types of if music of love play on meaning, fermented products, such as injera from Ethiopia, kimchi (fermented cabbage) from Korea, salami and other fermented sausages from Italy and Germany, and sauerkraut from northern Europe. Harvested cacao beans are fermented before cleaning and what the sinking, roasting, making all chocolate products the result of at least one fermentation step. •  Water Activity. A very important and useful tool in the control of food quality attributes and strengths essay, food safety is was true of the, water activity (a W ). Defined as an equilibrium property (free energy) of water at a given temperature and moisture content, the concept of a W was first suggested in the 1950s when it became obvious that water content could not adequately account for microbial growth limitations. During the 1960s, researchers demonstrated that a W is strengths essay, also important in controlling the rates of chemical deterioration in foods, and then in the 1980s it was also found to relate to what was true the sinking of the uss maine, the texture of crisp dry foods and caking of powders such as instant coffee. a W is poetry with, not the same as water content, or the quantitative amount of water in about the sinking uss maine, a sample, nor is sonnet 76, it a measure of free compared with bound water in a food, an early misconception that is now abandoned. Through the research of hundreds of food scientists, a number of a W paradigms have been established and was true about the sinking of the uss maine, used by food manufacturers to create safe, tasty, and nutritious dry and semimoist foods such as crispy snacks and breakfast cereals, semimoist cookies, and strengths essay, creamy confections. About The Sinking Of The Uss Maine? For example, it is known that at a W values between about 0.3 and 0.65, changes in product texture occur (for example, loss of crispness and onset of stickiness, caking, or hardening), and that at a W values around 0.85 and greater, significant growth of microorganisms, including illness-causing bacteria, occurs.

In fact, the concept of a W is Animal Farm, used in regulation of food processing to ensure food safety. The  Code of Federal Regulations  (21 CFR 110.80 [b][14]) requires that “Foods such as but not limited to dry mixes, nuts, intermediate moisture foods, and dehydrated foods that rely on was true of the the control of a W for preventing the growth of microorganisms shall be processed to and maintained at a safe moisture level. Compliance may be accomplished by any effective means including (i) monitoring the a W of ingredients and sonnet 76, finished product, (ii) controlling the what was true about of the soluble solids-water ratio, (iii) protecting finished foods from moisture pickup so that the a W does not increase to strengths essay, an unsafe level .” In addition, a W is the key to control of enzyme activity, lipid oxidation, and many other reactions that have an impact on food quality, such as degradation of vitamins and changes in color, flavor, and aroma (Labuza and others 1970). Figure 2 depicts the water content and a W of what was true of the, a few common foods. Moisture sorption isotherm relating water activity to moisture content at a specific temperature. Specific knowledge of the sonnet 76 relationship of a W to moisture content, such as that shown in Figure 2, is useful to the sinking uss maine, food manufacturers for choosing specific ingredients, such as in making a high- or intermediate-moisture food that will maintain a safe a W level (generally below 0.85). This information is also important in predicting and controlling textural changes and ingredient stability. Foods such as dry mixes, nuts, and dehydrated foods rely on of love control of a W for preventing the growth of what was true about the sinking, microorganisms.

This can be accomplished by adding food-grade acids such as citric or lactic, by adding a microbial growth inhibitor such as sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate, or by also including a smoking step, as has been done with hams and fish. The systematic control of a W through product formulation ensures the maximum quality and shelf life for dry and intermediate-moisture foods (Labuza and others 1970), such as beef jerky, gummies, dried raisins and cranberries, or chewy granola bars. Many of strengths essay, these foods are traditional foods, but are available with improved quality attributes and convenience. Our ancestors used this method of preservation centuries ago by simply adding salt or sugar to meat or plant foods. The best examples are cured hams, semidry smoked salted fish, and sugared fruit slices. •  Smoking. The application of smoke to food products, primarily meats, is a very traditional process that was probably discovered by accident. It has been speculated that when ancient cave dwellers learned to cook food over open fires, it quickly became obvious to them that the smoke from the fire helped reduce the spoilage of perishable food products such as meat and also imparted a very distinctive, desirable flavor. Over time, the smoke process was expanded to was true about, include not only meat, fish, and poultry but also, more recently, sausage products, ham, bacon, cheeses, and many other foods for which a unique smoked flavor and increased shelf life are desired. Classic survival foods, such as meat jerky, are produced by a combination of smoking and dehydration and have now evolved into a wide variety of savory snack foods.

The smoke application process has evolved dramatically from open campfires to a highly controlled, scientific process, but the benefits have remained the same. Smoke achieves 4 different functions when applied to food, all of which contribute to safer, more palatable products: Food safety.  Smoke kills some of the bacteria that are present on the product surface and prevents or slows the growth of others. Essay? While this has been one of the most important roles of smoke for food preservation in the past, this effect is less critical today because several other antimicrobial processes are available. Nevertheless, smoke is still an important contributor to bacterial control in what was true about the sinking of the uss maine, smoked foods. The antibacterial effect of smoke is due to several components of wood smoke, specifically acids and alcohol, which are formed during combustion of An Examination Flirting and Gender Essays, wood and deposited on the product surface.

Furthermore, most smoke processes are done with application of heat at the same time, and the combination of what about of the, smoke with mild heating increases the control of both spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Smoke application usually results in some surface drying of the food product as well, and this helps to prevent bacterial growth during subsequent storage. Qualityflavor and aroma.  Smoke imparts a very pleasant and desirable aroma and flavor to smoked foods, a role that has become more important today as consumers seek a greater variety of flavors and eating experiences. Wood smoke can be derived from a variety of wood sources, including hickory, apple, mesquite, and others, to add to the variety of flavors that can be achieved. Qualityvisual appeal.  Smoke provides a highly attractive surface color, especially for smoked meats. The deep, rich mahogany color of a smoked ham is easily recognized by consumers and was true the sinking uss maine, communicates assurance that the associated aroma and Policy for Canadian Constitution, flavor expected of a smoked ham will be delivered.

Preservation.  Smoke functions as an antioxidant or flavor protector. Several of the compounds in wood smoke, most notably complex phenols, will dramatically slow the flavor deterioration that typically occurs with development of about of the uss maine, rancidity following cooking. Despite the advantages, 3 criticisms have occasionally been leveled at the use of smoke for if music be the of love play on meaning, food preservation. First is that atmospheric emissions result from combustion of wood to generate smoke. Second is that it degrades some food nutrients; this has been demonstrated to be of very minor importancesmoke has been shown to what uss maine, not significantly alter the sonnet 76 nutrient value of food under normal circumstances. Third is that combustion of wood can generate undesirable compounds (polycyclic hydrocarbons) shown to be toxic and/or carcinogenic. Of note is that this process results in smoke deposition almost exclusively on the surface of the product, with relatively little penetration below the surfacesmoke deposition is limited to the outer ¼ to ½ inch of the product. However, smoke application can also be achieved with “liquid smoke,” a concentrated extract of natural wood smoke. Liquid smoke contains all of the important functional components of was true about the sinking, natural smoke and results in the same effects on color, flavor, and bacterial control, but it is much more consistent in sonnet 76, composition than natural smoke and was true the sinking, therefore more reproducible in effect.

Other significant advantages to liquid smoke are that no atmospheric emissions are generated during smoke application, the undesirable toxic/carcinogenic components of poetry, natural smoke are not included in the extract, and the liquid smoke can be mixed into a product during manufacturing for a more uniform smoked flavor. What About Of The? Meat products with liquid smoke added can usually be identified by a term such as “smoke flavoring” in the ingredients list on the product label. Liquid smoke can also be applied by drenching or dipping, spraying or atomization, or use of smoke-impregnated sausage casings. Essay? These application methods result in surface deposition of of the uss maine, smoke components with product effects that are very similar to those produced by the surface application of sonnet 76, natural smoke. •  Irradiation.

For more than 40 y, ionizing radiation has been used commercially to destroy bacterial and insect contamination of food. Common sources of ionizing radiation today are electron beams, X-rays, and, more often, gamma rays (with the radioactive isotope cobalt-60, the same source used for radiation therapy in about of the, hospitals). Elaborate physical safeguards assure worker safety. Irradiation is particularly effective in reducing microbial contamination of hamburger meat and poultry, which can be contaminated by pathogens such as  Escherichia coli  O157:H7,  Salmonella , and  Campylobacter  and result in food-borne illness. Irradiation also may be applied to eliminate insects in a wide variety of foods, for example, flour, spices, fruits, vegetables, and grains (IFT 2004), to and Offline Flirting and Gender, prevent seeds from sprouting, and to control pathogens in what was true about of the, fresh shell eggs, seeds for sprouting, fresh or frozen molluscan shellfish (for example, oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops), and fresh iceberg lettuce and fresh spinach (Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004, FDA 2008). Low doses permit fruit to be harvested when ripe or nearly so, thus increasing nutritional and flavor quality, while still extending shelf life well beyond that of nonirradiated produce. Irradiation works by damaging the DNA of living organisms; the targets are typically bacteria and insects, but the DNA of the plant or animal food is food of love play, of course also affected. This poses no human risk, since normal digestion completely breaks down and what was true about uss maine, metabolizes the DNA, whether that damage is if music be the of love on meaning, minimal, as with irradiation, or extensive, as with cooking. Low doses of irradiation can achieve sprout inhibition and insect de-infestation; medium doses are required for reduction of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria; and high doses are required for sterilization. Irradiated foods must be labeled as such (21 CFR 179.26[c]). Irradiation is also used at high doses and in far higher volume to sterilize joint implants, bandages, sutures, drugs, cosmetics, and wine and bottle corks (Crawford and Ruff 1996; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010).

The effects of what of the, irradiation on nutritional quality vary depending on nutrient, food, and irradiation conditions (for example, dosage, temperature, and atmospheric conditions). Nutrient losses are similar to those occurring with heat and poetry with, other processes (IFT 2004). Thiamin (vitamin B1) is sensitive to irradiation, but loss can be minimized with packaging techniques (Thayer 1990; Fox and others 1995, 1997). Irradiation does not in about of the, any way replace existing procedures for safe handling of food. Instead, it is a tool to if music be the food on meaning, achieve what normal safe handling cannot (CDC 2010). Irradiation cannot make food safe that is already spoiled (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Because of the usefulness of irradiation in what about the sinking of the, dealing with microbial risks, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other public health authorities have endorsed its use (CDC 2010).

The same conclusions on food play safety and effectiveness have been reached by international agencies (WHO 1997; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004). Of The Uss Maine? Codex Alimentarius, the international food standard-setting agency, has published a  General Standard for Irradiated Foods  (CAC 2003a) and a  Recommended International Code of Practice  (CAC 2003b). Although regulations of irradiation of food vary from Farm, country to what was true of the, country, regulations in several countries have been or are being harmonized through compliance with the Codex  General Standard  (Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004). In the United States, food irradiation is strengths essay, regulated as a food additive, because in the Food Additives Amendment of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of was true about of the, 1958 Congress defined radiation sources as food additives. The safety of irradiated food, which has been tested extensively, has been clearly demonstrated (Diehl 1995; Crawford and Ruff 1996; WHO 1997; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004; CDC 2010). Foods made sterile by of Online and Offline Flirting and Gender Essays, irradiation to inactivate bacterial spores (at the highest doses) have been fed for years to patients with reduced immunity and to astronauts (CDC 2010; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Consumer concern over the safety of was true the sinking of the, irradiated food was initially high, in part because of the misconceptions that come with the introduction of any new technology. Arguments against irradiation are similar to those voiced against pasteurization of milk, when it was introduced 100 y ago (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Concern still exists but has gradually declined as information on irradiation and its advantages have become more widely known (Conley 1992; Bruhn 1995; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004; IFIC 2009). The world volume of irradiated food is estimated to exceed 400000 tons annually, with the largest increase occurring in Asia (Kume and others 2009).

The food industry has been slow to adopt food irradiation in the more developed nations because of the if music be the of love on meaning large capital investment required; there is little incentive to invest in irradiation equipment because of about of the uss maine, funds already allocated for refrigeration, canning, and other major processes. Sonnet 76? The situation is very different in what was true about the sinking of the uss maine, developing areas, where existing processes are much less extensive and postharvest losses and the risks of analysis, food-borne illness are far greater. Some argue that this is of the, where the need for Privacy for Canadian Essay, irradiation is what of the, greatest and the ability to afford it is the lowest. In the United States, irradiation could reduce  E. coli  in ground beef and  Salmonella  in poultry should products be contaminated, and could provide a needed pathogen kill step for fresh greens eaten raw. •  Extrusion. This process pushes a material through a specially engineered opening to give a desired shape and texture through increases in temperature, pressure, and shear forces. Policy For Canadian Constitution? The pushing force is applied by using either a piston or a screw. What Was True About The Sinking Of The? In food applications, screw extrusion is predominant. If Music Be The? Examples of traditional extruded foods are pasta, noodles, vermicelli, and breakfast cereals. Other extruded foods include flat bread and snack foods such as corn curls, chips, crackers, chewing gum, chocolate, and soft/chewy candy.

Extrusion is also used to create flavors and encapsulate them for heat stability in processing. Thus, this process gives a desired shape, texture, functionality, and flavor. Depending on the product, an extruder can simply be a screw press or it can be a continuous cooker. In the case of a screw press, the product is what was true the sinking, usually further processed extensively, such as by frying, baking, flaking, coating, or drying, as in the extrusion process to produce cornflakes. A continuous cooker extruder can make products that are almost ready-to-eat (for example, puffed rice), requiring very little further processing. Inside an extruder, several processes may occur, including fluid flow, heat transfer, mixing, shearing, particle size reduction, and melting. In pasta manufacturing, for example, the main objective of the extrusion process is to partially gelatinize starch, compact the dough, and give it the desired shape. In the case of of Online and Gender, chocolate manufacturing, however, the extruder is used as a reactor to generate key flavor attributes.

And, in the case of flat bread, an extruder is used to develop the what was true about desired expanded and porous structure. Food extrusion is generally considered a high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process. The food components are exposed to temperatures above 284F for a very short time, generally a few seconds. This gives a distinct advantage over conventional pressure cooking, in strengths essay, which the exposure could be several minutes at temperatures near 212 to 248F. Any cooking process causes loss of heat-sensitive nutrients, flavors, and colors. A combination of higher temperature and what the sinking of the uss maine, shorter time is desirable because it retains nutrients better than a combination of lower temperature and longer time. It has been found that vitamins A, C, E, B1, and folic acid are very sensitive to extrusion, whereas the B-complex vitamins B2, B6, B12, niacin, calcium pantothenate, and biotin are stable during extrusion. Extrusion offers a good method for reducing antinutritional factors in legumes. If Music Food Play On Meaning? For example, in peas, extrusion has been found to be more effective than germination for reducing tannins, polyphenols, and trypsin inhibitors. Extruders have been used as bioreactors for what was true about of the, pretreatment of cereal grains for subsequent ethanol fermentation, enzymatic conversion of Policy for Canadian Essay, starch to glucose and maltose, and sterilization of ground spices such as black pepper, white pepper, and paprika. Extrusion has been shown to reduce the deleterious microorganisms in spices to well below maximum allowable levels.

Extrusion is an environmentally friendly process that uses heat and power efficiently and does not produce effluents. In addition, the same equipment can be used to make a variety of products. Extruded products are safe to consume, with no known harmful effects. •  Modified/Controlled Atmosphere. What Was True Of The Uss Maine? The shelf life of many fresh foods has been extended by controlling the composition of the gas environment in direct contact with the Privacy Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay product. For products with shelf life limited by chemical or enzymatic reactions involving oxygen, reducing or eliminating the oxygen content of the what was true about of the uss maine environment provides significant extension of the product shelf life (Floros 1990). The shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables is food of love play, extended by controlling both the oxygen and was true about the sinking of the uss maine, carbon dioxide composition of the atmosphere surrounding the products, which are still actively undergoing respiration and continue to convert oxygen to carbon dioxide. Large-scale controlled-atmosphere storage of fruits and vegetables has become a standard approach to maintaining the highest product quality between the time of if music be the on meaning, harvest and delivery to the consumer.

More recently, controlled-atmosphere packaging has also become very common. Was True About The Sinking Of The Uss Maine? This approach has evolved with the development of shipping containers and packaging films that allow for selective transmission or removal of different respiratory gases or the natural fruit-ripening gas ethylene (Floros and Matsos 2005). The modification of product atmosphere must be approached with caution, because of the with analysis response of certain microbial populations. The most serious concerns are with anaerobic pathogens, such as  Clostridium botulinum , that have the about the sinking uss maine potential to grow and analysis, produce toxins in an oxygen-free environment. Several packaging systems have been developed based on these concepts, but are limited in application.

•  Additives. Food additives are adjuncts to food processing. They extend the was true the sinking uss maine range and flexibility of the relatively few food processes available, and they improve the economics of the Privacy Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay processes. For example, without stabilizers, ice cream would quickly become “grainy,” as small ice crystals grow into large ones. Without fumigants, flour and other grain products and spices would be wormy, as they once were years ago. Without fortification of milk and what was true of the, flour and Farm, the addition of iodine (in the what of the uss maine form of iodate) to salt, rickets and An Examination of Online and Offline Flirting, goiter would still occur. About Of The? Without artificial colors, many foods, such as gelatin, would be unattractive because natural colors lack the stability and coloring power of the synthetics. Without nonnutritive sweeteners, a great many sweetened beverages, desserts, and confections would have unacceptable calorie contents or contain levels of sugar that cannot be consumed by certain individuals, such as people with diabetes and many others.

Anticaking agents, enzymes, preservatives, emulsifiers (which allow immiscible liquids such as oil and water to form a stable mixture), humectants (which affect moisture retention through their affinity to water and stabilizing action on for Canadian Essay water content), and many other additives add significantly to the safety, nutritive value, attractiveness, convenience, and economy of our modern food supply. The practical definition of a food additivenot the far longer, involved legal definitionis “Any substance added to uss maine, food in small amounts to Farm Essay, achieve a particular technical effect.” The  Code of what about the sinking uss maine, Federal Regulations  (21.170) recognizes 32 categories of be the food of love on meaning, additives allowed for their technical or functional effects. Among them are acidifiers, antioxidants, emulsifiers, leavening agents, micronutrients, and nonnutritive sweeteners. There is no formal distinction between “food ingredient” and “food additive.” Common usage would suggest that an ingredient used at less than perhaps 1% of a food would be an “additive.” In a hard candy, for example, sugar is the food itself; color and flavor are the additives. In a lightly sweetened beverage, however, sugar could be an what about, “additive.” There are more than 2200 additives in use, the sonnet 76 majority of which are flavoring ingredients. Figure 3 displays the distribution of what was true the sinking of the, additives in use during the recent decade, ranked by per capita annual consumption in the United States food supply. Strengths Essay? The figure identifies only a few examples in the different ingredient categories.

The graph shows  use , the amount that disappears into the food supply. Actual  consumption  is significantly lower because of about the sinking, plate waste and, in the case of volatile additives such as flavors, volatilization. Thus, the amounts in a similar graph of actual consumption would be lower than those shown here. The median additive, with half of the total used in larger amount and Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay, half in what the sinking, lesser amount, is slightly more than 1 mg/person/y. The per capita consumption of a heavily used substance, such as a nutritive sweetener, frequently exceeds the per capita consumption of an ingredient in sonnet 76, a much less used category. For example, a flavoring ingredient that because of its potency is used at what was true about the sinking, very low levels will have a per capita consumption much lower than almost all other ingredients added to food. Substances intentionally added to food in decreasing order of per capita annual use.

•  Packaging. Many different types of sonnet 76, food packages are used for several different reasons. Food is packaged primarily to contain the product, protect the product from contamination, enable convenience, and provide information (Paine 1991; Robertson 1993; Yam and others 2005; IFT 2008). Most food products are delivered to the consumer in some type of package. Foods that have received some type of preservation process are placed in a package to ensure that the product attributes enhanced by about the sinking of the uss maine, the process are maintained. Even fresh produce is packaged after receiving a washing and cleaning process. Packaging offers a critical component of food safety by preventing contamination from pathogens. In addition, packaging extends the shelf life of the product by providing a physical barrier to or protection from atmospheric oxygen and strengths essay, moisture, light, and other agents that would accelerate deterioration of the product. Finally, packaging is the was true about the sinking vehicle by which legally required information is presented to sonnet 76, the consumer in the form of the label bearing information about the product identity, quantity, ingredients, nutrient content, expiration date, and commercial source. Packaging has advanced from glass bottles, paperboard cartons, tin-plated soldered side-seam steel cans, and aluminum foil to 2-piece aluminum cans with “pop tops;” plastic, flexible, rigid, semirigid, and multilayer containers; microwave safe packages; and active and intelligent packaging (Floros and others 1997, 1998; Suppakul and others 2003; Ozdemir and was true the sinking, Floros 2004; Yam and others 2005; Han and Floros 2007; IFT 2008). Innovations were driven by a number of sonnet 76, forces, including convenience, consumer desire for what about uss maine, minimally processed foods, changes in retail and distribution practices; foodservice needs; trend toward more sustainable packaging; and sonnet 76, demands for global and fast transport of food (Suppakul and others 2003; IFT 2008).

Aseptic packaging is a major area of food packaging that has significantly increased the safety, quality, availability, and convenience of certain foods around the world, while reducing the amount of energy needed to what was true, preserve and store such foods. The major difference between aseptic packaging and traditional methods of food packaging is that in aseptic packaging the product and the packaging material are continuously sterilized separately. Then, under aseptic conditions that prevent recontamination of the product, the sterile package is Privacy Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay, filled with the cooled sterile product and hermetically sealed to what was true about the sinking uss maine, produce a shelf-stable final product with extended shelf life and no need for strengths essay, refrigerated storage. This technique has allowed for substantial improvements in the quality of the final product, mainly due to the much milder heat treatment that the product undergoes compared to the traditional thermal process (Floros 1993). Large-scale aseptic bulk processing and what of the, packaging, combined with aseptic storage and transportation, contributes significantly to be the, reduction of was true about of the, postharvest fruit and vegetable losses and greater availability of these food products around the world. Many advances in the packaging of food took place in the past 20 to 30 y, producing a wide variety of new materials and processing technologies. The steady accumulation of research developments indicates that food packaging will continue to Policy for Canadian, evolve and was true about the sinking uss maine, respond to the changing needs of the food system and the increased demands of consumers. To meet consumers’ growing demands for fresh-like and highly nutritious foods with guaranteed safety, several alternative preservation technologies have been developed during the past 15 to 25 y for An Examination Flirting, application to food products. These technologies include both (1) novel thermal processes such as microwave and ohmic heating, which are much faster than the currently widespread canning method to produce shelf-stable foods and (2) other physical methods that do not use heat as a primary mode of inactivating microorganisms in foods, such as ultra-high pressure (UHP), pulsed electric fields, ultrasonic waves, high-intensity pulsed light, and others. Each of these alternative technologies has unique characteristics and potential for was true about the sinking uss maine, expanded applications in different categories of food products.

The goal of all the new processes is to reduce the Animal Farm Essay overall time and temperature exposures of the foods so that they are safe and what about the sinking of the, more like fresh or freshly cooked items. The nonthermal methods are primarily being used to replace traditional thermal pasteurization of foods. •  Microwave Heating. This method of poetry, heating prepared foods and beverages and cooking raw foods is well known and accepted by consumers, but applications for food preservation are still evolving. Some microwave-processed foods are marketed in Europe and Japan. About The Sinking Of The Uss Maine? In the past year, FDA accepted applications under the low-acid canned food regulations for microwave sterilization, both in a continuous mode for a sweet potato puree that is aseptically packaged in sterile flexible pouches, and for a semicontinuous process for prepackaged food in limited batches. •  Ohmic Heating. This process, also called electrical resistance heating, Joule heating, or electroheating, involves passing electricity through the food via contact with charged electrodes. Strengths Essay? The electrical energy results in rapid, uniform heating, in contrast to the slow conduction and what about the sinking, convection heating of conventional thermal processing, thereby allowing for greater quality than canned counterparts.

It is particularly useful for heat-sensitive proteinaceous foods (Ramaswamy and others 2005). Ohmic heating has been applied in limited situations to strengths essay, such foods as cut and was true, whole fruit and liquid eggs, but applications may expand to soups and similar items in the future. •  High-Pressure Processing. This process, also known as high-hydrostatic-pressure processing and UHP processing, seems to have a promising future for food preservation, since reductions in microbial populations can be accomplished without significant elevation of product temperature. The use of pressures approaching 100000 pounds per square inch for holding times of a few minutes produces a processed food with the taste, color, and texture similar to fresh. Following the successful introduction of Privacy Policy Constitution, a pressure-treated guacamole product in 1997, a growing number of ready-to-eat meats and other refrigerated items, including raw oysters, have been treated by high pressure to meet food safety standards for such products and have increased their high-quality shelf life. When elevated temperatures are used in combination with UHP, the microbial spores in the food can be inactivated. In 2009, a pressure-assisted thermal sterilization process developed by was true about of the, a consortium of if music be the food on meaning, Army and industrial researchers at the Natl. Center for Food Safety and what of the uss maine, Technology was accepted under the low-acid canned food regulations by FDA (NCFST 2009). Of Online Flirting? This process is more rapid and less damaging to several food quality attributes than traditional thermal sterilization because application of pressure rapidly and uniformly heats packaged food in the pressure vessel to the desired end temperature, and then, when pressure is released after a few minutes the product returns to about of the uss maine, the original temperature.

•  Pulsed Electric Fields. Use of very high voltage (20 kV) and very short, microsecond, electric pulses has potential as a nonthermal method for strengths essay, pasteurization of fruit juices and other fluid or pumpable products. The process is being optimized, but more information needs to be evaluated on the impact of the about the sinking uss maine process on food components, first to assure microbiological safety and then to determine the impact on sensory quality as well as content of key nutrients (Sanchez-Moreno and if music be the food on meaning, others 2009). Recent research has shown not only that some of these alternative novel processes allow production of very high quality items, but also that those items may have a higher nutritive value than similar items produced by what was true the sinking of the, traditional thermal processes because the Farm novel processes result in less chemical damage of key micronutrients. To achieve acceptance first by the regulatory authorities and then by consumers will require an overall evaluation of each of these novel processes. Approximately 30 to 40% of raw food materials and ingredients are lost between the points of production and what about the sinking of the uss maine, consumption. The magnitude of with, these losses, and the contributing factors, are different in developing countries compared to industrialized countries (Godfray and others 2010). For example, food losses in the developing world are primarily due to the lack of an infrastructure, as well as lack of knowledge of or investment in the means to protect from about, losses arising from damage and spoilage attributable to rodents, insects, molds, and other microorganisms. Significant losses occur during production, harvesting, and on-farm storage. In contrast, in industrialized countries, food losses are more significant in retail and be the food on meaning, foodservice establishments and in the home. The losses in developed countries are attributable to several factors, including the relatively low costs of food and was true about uss maine, the lack of strengths essay, incentives to avoid wastes (Godfray and others 2010).

Commercial food manufacturing operations are more efficient in the conversion of raw materials into consumer products than home processing and preparation. Moreover, there are significant economic incentives for food manufacturing operations to minimize waste streams, resulting in the use of new or modified processing methods, in-plant treatment, and was true the sinking uss maine, reuse (Hang 2004). If Music Be The On Meaning? Many food processing waste streams are used for animal feed (Hudson 1971), and processes have been developed for converting waste materials into biofuels, food ingredients, and what was true uss maine, other edible, valuable bioproducts (Hang 2004). These waste-management practices are being refined as part of the Farm trends in what was true uss maine, life-cycle assessment of the environmental impact of the entire food chain (Ohlsson 2004). Through such assessments, the food industry is identifying the with steps in the food chain that have the was true the sinking greatest environmental impact. The assessments become the basis for selection of alternative raw materials, packaging materials, and other inputs, and an overall improvement in waste-management strategies (Ohlsson 2004). Life-cycle assessments provide a much more accurate understanding of energy consumption and waste production than popular concepts such as food miles (Mattsson and Sonesson 2003). An example of life-cycle assessments is the strengths essay comparison of high value added products, such as pork, with a highly productive crop, such as potatoes. The analysis indicates that for the high value added product, the largest energy consumption and what about the sinking of the, production of emissions and other wastes is in the agricultural sector (that is, on the farm). Sonnet 76? In contrast, the major part of energy use for a highly productive crop is by the sinking of the, the consumer (in the home) (Ohlsson 2004).

Thus, to reduce energy contributions to global warming and generation of pollutants, it would be appropriate to target reductions where they would have the greatest effect (for example, on the farm for items such as pork and in the home for items such as potatoes) rather than simply focusing on strengths essay food miles or food processing. In summary, the about uss maine processing of a food or beverage includes an array of technologies and processes to transform raw food materials and ingredients into consumer food products. The primary purpose of these processes is for preservation (for example, transforming perishable fruits and vegetables with the highest quality outcome possible into products available throughout the year around the world) and to ensure food safety. The processing of a food does create some changes in the quality attributes of the product. An Examination Flirting Essays? In some cases, these changes are intentional and provide improvements in the nutritive quality, texture, appearance, and flavor of the product. In other cases, the changes may simply make the product different, without improving or changing its quality. Processed foods and beverages can have positive nutrient benefits beyond those of the raw or home-prepared product. Nutrient retention is highly variable, depending on commodity, cultivar, timing of what the sinking, harvesting, storage conditions, nutrient type (for example, sensitivity to heat or oxygen, and strengths essay, water solubility), and processing method. What About The Sinking Of The? Depending on these variables, processed foods may have more nutritional value (due to greater bioavailability of beta-carotene or lycopene, for Privacy Policy Essay, example) than the fresh product (Rickman and was true the sinking of the uss maine, others 2007a, 2007b). In addition, some processed products (for example, canned and sonnet 76, frozen fruits and vegetables) are often a better value for the consumer than the about the sinking “fresh” or raw product. Food expenditures, as a percentage of household expenditures, in the United States are the lowest in the world: 5.6% compared to 9.1% in Canada, 11.4% in poetry, Germany, 24.1% in Mexico, and what about the sinking of the uss maine, 44.1% in An Examination and Offline and Gender Essays, Indonesia (ERS 2008).

Cost is an extremely important variable to most consumers in making food and other purchases, particularly to those with low incomes. Many of the most economical foodsprocessed meats, snack foods, caloric soft drinkshave high-calorie contents. People purchase them because they like the taste and what about, consistency, and because they are good value. They have a legitimate role in our food supply, but that role should not be excessively large. The future of the agriculture and food system will be largely determined by the trajectory of 3 major trends: the population and sonnet 76, its associated demographics; availability and type of energy resources; and climate as it influences available land, water, and what of the uss maine, air quality. Population is the Animal Farm most important by far, since it drives the about the sinking of the uss maine others (given the impact on demand for arable land, for example) through its multiplier, the standard of living (consumption rate). However, the technologies deployed will also be a matter of scientific understanding, public policy, consumer attitudes, and fiscal resources. Historical perspectives and future development. Assuming that the goal is if music food of love, a sustainable future, Warren Belasco (2006) considered in his book  Meals to Come: A History of the Future of what about the sinking of the uss maine, Food  the perspectives of 3 people living in the 1790s: Thomas Malthus, who was concerned about population growth; the enlightenment philosopher Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Condorcet; and Constitution, William Godwin, who believed that inequitable distribution was the problem. From these historical perspectives, Belasco proposed 3 possible cornucopian futures: (1) the what of the classical, based on poetry with analysis expansion into new areas (for example, expand food production and processing); (2) the modern, the belief in scientific and what was true about the sinking of the uss maine, technological solutions; and (3) the recombinant, a blend of the radical modern with the of Online Flirting Essays familiar classical (for example, share resources more efficiently). Wrangham (2009) called for increased research into food physics, or what has recently been termed “food materials science,” especially the relationships between food structure and nutritional value.

While Michael Pollan (2008), in his book  In Defense of what uss maine, Food: An Eater's Manifesto , laments modern “nutritionism,” he points to the need for more science as well. Foreshadowing today's “molecular gastronomy” (study of the physical and chemical processes occurring during cooking), Gerald Wendt, science director of the Privacy Constitution Essay 1939 World's Fair, wrote that foods “will abandon all pretense of imitating nature” (Belasco 2006). What Was True About The Sinking? In reality, this has always been the case; for example, bread, cheese, and tofu are all foods that are created from the analysis raw substances of nature but have no natural analogs. Food culture evolves, albeit slowly. In his classic dystopic 1973 novel  Make Room, Make Room , on which the the sinking movie  Soylent Green  was based, Harry Harrison envisioned a meager and unappetizing diet of soybean and lentil steaks, tilapia, soymilk, seaweed, and energy drinks (Harrison 1973). Today, however, some people seek out Policy for Canadian, these products (quite a change in 2 generations). Harrison mentioned chlorella (algae) oil as the lowest of food ingredients, but chlorella is now taken by some as a supplement or added to what was true, foods or animal feeds to boost omega-3 intake. Surimi is an example of technology applied to increase both stability and if music be the of love play, distribution of a raw commodity (fish) but that also increases the value of the product, as in surimi-based imitation crab. In the future, many other new products from what, fish may be seen, just as has been the case with numerous meat sausages.

Not only Privacy Constitution Essay, can the conversion of macronutrients (for example, proteins and carbohydrate polysaccharides) to calories be modulated by processing (such as the effect of high-pressure processing on protein conformation and hence conversion to what was true about, calories), but also micronutrients bound up in the cellular structure of foods can be made more bioavailable by appropriate novel processing methods, such as high-pressure processing and pulsed electric fields (Sanchez-Moreno and others 2009). Even if heating may result in a lower total quantity of vitamins and strengths essay, other micronutrients in the food than in their raw counterparts, making them appear less nutritious, the bioavailability of some of these micronutrients may actually be greater, making some processed foods more healthful. Novel emerging processes not totally relying on heat seem to offer the of the potential to increase bioavailability of classic micronutrients and to spare many of the labile phytochemicals (plant metabolites, some of if music be the of love play on meaning, which are known to have human health benefits) that are a major advantage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Solving the diet-and-disease challenge. The solutions to the diet-and-disease problem are complex and require a multipronged strategy from both the public and private sectors.

The report of the 2010 DGAC recognized that ensuring that all Americans consume a health-promoting dietary pattern and achieve and maintain energy balance requires far more than individual behavior change (DGAC 2010). The DGAC's report contained 4 primary recommendations: •  Reduce the incidence and prevalence of overweight and obesity of the U.S. population by reducing overall calorie intake and increasing physical activity; •  shift food intake patterns to a more plant-based diet and increase the intake of seafood and fat-free and low-fat milk and milk products and consume only about of the, moderate amounts of lean meats, poultry, and eggs; •  significantly reduce intake of foods containing added sugars and solid fats, reduce sodium intake, and lower intake of refined grains; and •  meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Animal Farm, Americans. The report expressed an urgent call to action and recommended that a strategic plan be developed that focuses on the behaviors and actions needed to successfully implement these 4 key recommendations. A healthful diet is determined in totality, not just by a choice to include or exclude one single food or beverage. Decision-making and priority setting should be made in this context. Policy makers must carefully consider promoting an environment where better and more nutritious foods are readily available, while respecting consumer choice. Recently, local governments have created bans on certain food ingredients such as  trans  fats. While we have a history of understanding the impact of food fortification, the impact of this type of regulation is was true of the uss maine, not yet clear and remains to be demonstrated.

Consider salt as an example. The typical American consumes almost 150% of the recommended daily value for An Examination Flirting Essays, sodiumalmost a tablespoon a day. A recent report by the Inst. of Medicine (IOM 2010) declares that voluntary salt reduction has not worked. The IOM recommendations include modification by FDA of the Generally Recognized as Safe status of ingredients containing sodium and national standards to what of the uss maine, lower consumption, stepwise reduction in salt content of processed foods and menu items in restaurants to allow American consumers to for Canadian, adapt their tastes to foods with lower levels of sodium, enhanced monitoring and surveillance of compliance with the of the uss maine recommended new FDA standards, increased funding for research that links salt consumption to consumer preferences at different stages in human life, and development of programs that increase consumer awareness of elevated salt consumption. The most widely understood functional property of salt in foods is enhancement of flavor. Consumers can adapt their tastes to lower levels of salt in their diet over time (Dahl 2005), but an abrupt change may lead to widespread resistance (IOM 2010). Mandated reduction in salt content of formulated foods and restaurant recipes would need to be carefully coordinated, as salt concentration provides significant economic advantage to those who do not comply. Surveillance of sonnet 76, restaurants that are not bound by strict recipes but have chef autonomy will be difficult to monitor.

Also, the freedom of consumers to add their own salt via readily available shakers makes it difficult to determine actual levels of consumption (Dahl 2005). Salt functions as a preservative by lowering a W to inhibit or halt microbial growth. The safety of of the uss maine, some formulated products would not be affected by salt reduction, but the safety of many others could be compromised (Taormina 2010). Salt-cured products such as country hams that contain as much as 1700 mg of sonnet 76, sodium (70% of the daily value) in what the sinking of the uss maine, just a 3-ounce serving (Voltz and Harvell 1999) would probably disappear from supermarket shelves and restaurant menus. Other products that could be at risk with significant reduction in sodium content include deli meats, hard and soft cheeses, baked pastries, and salad dressings. Salt is also used to control fermentations for products such as olives and pickles, which could be compromised with insufficient levels of salt (Taormina 2010). Overconsumption of total calories coupled with very low physical activity and too much sedentary time is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic, rather than the macronutrient distribution of a person's diet (DGAC 2010). Consumers must make more healthful choices of diet and exercise.

Excessively sedentary lifestyles must be modified with more physical activity. If Music Be The Food On Meaning? Clear, accurate informationnot misinformationabout the foods themselves must be provided, and was true the sinking, far more extensive education is needed about how to use that information in making healthful, economical food choices. More emphasis is needed on Privacy Policy for Canadian Essay the potential adverse consequences of poor eating habits, and the benefits of more healthful ones. Choosing foods wisely is a survival skill, one that has received far too little attention. More consumers are born every year, and those efforts must begin early in life and continue through the years.

Many resources are still being devoted to increasing the what of the uss maine availability of indulgent foods that do not contribute to strengths essay, meeting the nutrient needs of consumers. The food industry must use innovation pipelines and resources to produce foods and beverages that are more nutrient-rich rather than energy dense to assist the consumer in the quest for a healthful diet. This approach is equally as important for what was true of the, responsibly using resources and reducing waste as is the use of technologies described above. This applies both to consumers who are food secure as well as to those who are food insecure. There are some models of the food industry working in partnership to address these complex problems (Yach and others 2010). Responsible marketing is also part of the solution to a healthful diet. Reduced-energy foods and beverages may help to moderate energy, sugar, or fat intake, but only if substituted for energy-rich versions. Simply including them in the diet may fail to reduce energy balance. For example, recommending tea or coffee consumption (Popkin and others 2006) does not reduce energy intake for those who add sugar or cream and may replace nutrient-rich options such as milk. The foodservice industry must provide healthful offerings with available nutritional information and appropriate portions.

Foodservice establishments have moved steadily toward larger portion sizes, as a result of consumer purchasing patterns. Food researchers must set responsible goals for application of technologies that fill the knowledge gaps, to guide the food industry in developing better products and the policy makers in developing more effective public health messages. There is still much to Policy for Canadian, be learned about the relationship of diet composition and energy balance, the effect of reduced-energy versions of foods and beverages on signaling systems, and the connection between reduced-energy products with enhanced palatability and energy intake. Uss Maine? An important area of needed research is behavior modification for consumers to achieve a more healthful diet promoted by public health messages. It would be neither practical nor possible to return to an idyllic pastoral food system. Procuring food is hard work, and though many in Privacy Constitution Essay, the industrialized countries enjoy the rewards of a home garden, few would be willing to return to subsistence farming and home food preparation full time. In the short term, the local food movement will likely expand as a result of consumer demand, as seen in the urban farms springing up in places such as Detroit, Michigan. But the local food movement has its limits, since many consumers will continue to demand out-of-season and the sinking, exotic foods that cannot be grown locally, and climate conditions prevent the efficient growth of food year round in all regions. Sonnet 76? Furthermore, when water availability and the threat of desertification are considered, it can actually be more sustainable to ship grain longer distances, for example, from the United States to Kenya, than to grow it locally (Roberts 2008). With the world population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, it is necessary to find a means to sustainably produce about 50% more food than is currently produced.

In particular, it will be necessary to provide substantially more protein, yet with substantially lower external costs (resulting impacts) (Roberts 2008). Also, application of simple and what about of the, appropriate processing technologies (for example, drying) and packaging and shipping methods close to food production sites to counter the large percentage of waste (up to sonnet 76, 50% by some estimates) in less-developed areas must be fostered. Some people have envisioned urban farming in vertical greenhouses or in currently blighted urban landscapes, but this seems a rather large investment of what was true about the sinking of the uss maine, materials and energy with perhaps the only benefit being limited local production. Similarly, while single-cell protein from for Canadian Constitution, algae may make sense nutritionally, it faces many hurdles, both economic and what about of the, cultural. Precision farming may build on current thrusts in both organic and sustainable green agriculture to benefit both those in the developed world and those in the developing countries, where basic sustenance is a growing concern. Ronald and Adamchak (2010) stated in  Tomorrow's Table  that “the judicious incorporation of 2 important strands of agriculturegenetic engineering and of love play on meaning, organic farmingis key to helping feed the growing population in an ecologically balanced manner.” Mixed crop and livestock production systems, used to produce about half of the world's food supply, offer important synergies, such as using livestock draft power to cultivate land and manure to fertilize soil, crop residues to feed livestock, and income from livestock products to buffer against low crop yields (Herrero and was true the sinking of the, others 2010). It has been suggested that the Animal Farm Essay small-holder farmers in these systems should be the first target for policies to sustainably intensify production by carefully managed inputs of was true the sinking, fertilizer, water, and feed to minimize waste and environmental impact, supported by improved access to markets, new varieties, and sonnet 76, technologies (Herrero and others 2010). As those in industrialized countries become more aware of the beneficial phytochemical nutrients found in many crops in developing countries, such as fruits from the tropics or quinoa from South America, export markets for those foods may emerge to stabilize local economies if appropriate food processing and transport infrastructures can be upgraded. Was True About Uss Maine? Hurdle technology, using combinations of minimal technologies, has been used in developed countries for Privacy Policy, manufacturing ready-to-eat products, and may hold considerable potential for preserving certain traditional items in developing cultures. Leistner and Gould (2002) reported that much progress had been made in Latin America and India, and that interest in this technology has been seen in China, Taiwan, and what of the uss maine, Africa. There is of Online Flirting and Gender, hope for the future by embracing a “recombinant” strategy, as Belasco (2006) proposed, blending the best of the classical food sources with modern technologies.

Aquaculture, when combined with hydroponics to was true the sinking uss maine, form aquaponics, and innovations in meat production efficiency hold great promise for if music play, the efficient production of high-quality protein. Federoff and others (2010) suggested that aquaculture, integrated with agriculture, is about, part of the answer to meeting the demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel, given the implications of analysis, population growth, arable land and freshwater limits, and climate change. In addition, the judicious application of recombinant DNA biotechnology (rDNA, discussed in a subsequent section) offers the ability to more rapidly transform some of the less highly bred plants, such as quinoa. Looking at teosinte now as corn or maize's ancient ancestor, would the productivity of hybrid maize be predicted? rDNA biotechnology could be harnessed to improve the protein quality of cereal grains and could also be employed to improve crops such as sorghum and millet to of the uss maine, reduce antinutrients and build in drought tolerance. This would involve a shift in application of the biotechnology to more directly benefit consumers instead of growers and manufacturers. A new Green Revolution may include an accelerated mutation breeding program (use of chemical or radiation mutagens to introduce genetic change) to build in traits to better preserve quality and nutrient content of Animal Farm, key food commodities.

The 21st century has seen increased growth in knowledge of the what was true of the uss maine human genome, the sonnet 76 genomes of microorganisms, and about of the uss maine, the human microbiome (communities of microbial cells within the human body) (Human Microbiome Project 2010). In the future, as we learn many more of the complex interactions of the thousands of compounds in common foods with the human genome and intestinal microflora, the old adage “You are what you eat” may well evolve into food of love an optimal nutrition strategy to serve the growing human population. It is difficult to make predictions in such a rapidly changing scientific and technological atmosphere, but it is certain that the about the sinking of the “designer foods” concept (following the concept of personalized nutrition, which is enabled by knowledge of one's genome and strengths essay, biome) will take on new meaning in coming years, given the accelerating pace of both the science base and technical innovation. An  ad hoc  committee of the Natl. What Was True The Sinking Of The Uss Maine? Research Council was charged with examining the current state of biological research in play, the United States and what was true about, recommending how best to capitalize on recent scientific and technological advances to find solutions to 4 major societal needs, including sustainable food production. The committee's main recommendation was for a coordinated, interagency initiative to encourage the emergence of a “New Biology” approach to challenging problems, described in the book  New Biology for Animal Essay, the 21st Century  (NRC 2009). The essence of the New Biology is integration, described as a new level of inquiry that reintegrates the about the sinking subdisciplines of biology and integrates physicists, chemists, computer scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, purposefully organized around problem solving. With respect to the food challenge, the New Biology requires parallel application of several technologies; computational modeling of plant growth and of Online Flirting, development at the molecular and cellular levels; cell-type specific-gene expression, proteomic, and metabolomic data; high-throughput visual and chemical phenotyping; methods to characterize the dynamics and what was true the sinking uss maine, functions of microbial communities; and strengths essay, ready access to next-generation sequencing methods. With an integrated approach to these needs, predictive models of was true of the uss maine, plant growth at the cellular and molecular level detail would allow scientific plant breeding of a new type, in which genetic changes could be targeted in a manner that would predictably result in food plants that adapt and grow sustainably in if music be the of love play on meaning, changing environments (NRC 2009). Emerging areas affecting health and wellness. There are several research areas that have the potential to greatly affect the quality of food and what was true uss maine, human health and wellness.

• Personalized Nutrition. Humans have emerged from evolution with a remarkable flexibility in the range of phenotypes that they can adopt. Human adults vary in height, weight, strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, cognition, and if music of love play, other traits. Furthermore, humans apply these phenotypes to about, a remarkable range of lifestyles, varying in everything from daily activities such as endurance exercise to if music food of love on meaning, recreational pursuits ranging from music, art, and athletics to preference for foods. This basic biological truth means that as science gains more information on the interaction among genetics, environment, and phenotype, people will want to what was true about uss maine, use the sonnet 76 controllable variables of their environmentdiet and exercise, for was true the sinking of the, exampleto guide their own personal phenotype. One consequence of human diversity relates to poetry with analysis, the observable variations in disease susceptibility. Disease resistance is one aspect of what was true about the sinking of the uss maine, phenotype that everyone would like to improve.

The first priority of life science research, of course, is to Animal Farm, understand the basis of varying predisposition to, cures of, and what about uss maine, recovery from if music food, disease (Collins and others 2003). The future will see humans take charge of the variables of environment to what the sinking of the uss maine, guide their own health to lower their disease risks and if music of love on meaning, speed recovery. What Was True The Sinking Uss Maine? Personalizing diet will be essential to their success. The research investments of the 20th century have chronicled the basic biological processes, detailed the be the food of love play on meaning basic genetic sequence of organisms, and linked the complex interweaving pathways of biochemistry to variations in anatomy, metabolism, physiology, immunology, so on. What Was True Uss Maine? Scientists are already cataloguing these same processes but are now into assigning the details of individuals. The field of nutrigenomics (interaction of Policy Essay, dietary components such as essential nutrients with genes) is what the sinking of the, seeking to Privacy for Canadian, assign the variations in dietary responses of humans to specific genetic sequences (Muller and what was true the sinking, Kersten 2003). In parallel, the poetry field of metabolomics is building the tools to both diagnose individual variations in metabolism and what was true about the sinking of the uss maine, identify the solutions to improve it (German and others 2004, 2005). As science and technologies are racing to reduce disease, the relationships between basic biology and human performance are also emerging (Handschin and Spiegelman 2008). As science understands the basis of human disease and prevention, technologies will compete to bring solutions to practice. All aspects of interventiondrugs, diet, and lifestylewill be recruited to lower disease risk.

These solutions will have to solve the 2 key dimensions of preventionindividualization and integration. Diets must be individualized, since all people are not predisposed to the same health problems. In addition, diets must be integrated, since no single ingredient, bioactive or therapeutic, can solve all issues at once. The concept of multiple ingredients solving multiple targets combined into of Online and Offline Flirting products is a logical direction for food. Foods can already be used in a personalized wayto lower cholesterol, improve blood pressure, alter intestinal microflora, and was true, guide immunity.

The food industry and all of Animal Essay, its support and regulatory systems will have to come to grips with this new reality. One of the fundamental problems of the current functional-food and health-claim system is the wildly optimistic pursuit of food ingredients that are equally effective and safe for all consumers. What Was True About Uss Maine? Personalizing will change the value system of health-promoting foods and its regulatory oversight as the benefits are targeted directly to those who respond. Parsing individual response (based on the individual's genotype) is at sonnet 76, least as complex a challenge as the task of increasing or decreasing the amount of a specific protein, fatty acid, or other component of the plant itself (Brigelius-Flohe and Joost 2006). Functional-food components are of what was true the sinking, increasing interest in reducing risk of a number of the leading causes of of love play on meaning, death: cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and what was true about, hypertension. Many food components, such as plant-derived estrogens (phytoestrogens), are known to Farm, influence the expression of both structural genes and what of the uss maine, transcription factors (a sequence-specific DNA binding factor that controls the transfer of genetic information from DNA to strengths essay, messenger RNA) in humans (Kaput and what about of the uss maine, others 2007). Genistein, coumestrol, and zearalenone, for example, bind to poetry with, the estrogen receptor and may switch on a similar set of genes, such as 17β-estradiol, the physiologic estrogen.

As personalization of health becomes increasingly important, many aspects of the agricultural enterprise will adapt to of the, capture markets. For example, the growing catalog of plant and animal genomes will broaden the commodities routinely cultivated to fuel the food supply. The food industry will move away from uniform branded products to branded platforms on poetry analysis which products are customizable. Marketing and distribution chains will also become more intimate as consumers value the personal information exchange that is critical to what, their foods and overall diets. The net results will once again be a marked improvement in the human condition, the quality of human lives, andas has always been true when humans are healthy and happythe rate at which we innovate. It is a very attractive future. • Molecular Biology. Molecular biology is strengths essay, currently being revolutionized by whole-genome sequencing of what was true of the, individual microbes, as well as entire microbial communities, a field known as metagenomics (Wooley and others 2010).

These new advances are also being complemented by our increasing understanding of gene expression and sonnet 76, metabolism at the level of of the, individual cells and if music be the of love on meaning, complex microbial communities, such as those that exist within the human gastrointestinal tract. Sophisticated gene expression arrays based on whole-genome sequences are now allowing us to what about the sinking of the uss maine, see for poetry with, the first time the complex and dynamic regulation of virulence genes (those coding for a pathogen's illness-causing potential)  in vivo  during the various stages of what was true about the sinking of the, infection (Toledo-Arana and others 2009). These recent advances will increasingly improve our understanding of how pathogenic microorganisms interact with humans and strengths essay, will lead to novel strategies for detecting and controlling those key pathogens that most affect human health. For example, using special whole-genome “tiling” microarraysconcentrated, orderly arrangements of thousands of gene probes on a glass slide, used to what was true about the sinking, detect all genes present within a microorganism or measure the level of expression of all genes within a microorganismwith overlapping nucleotides, Toledo-Arana and Animal Essay, others (2009) were able to demonstrate how expression of various virulence genes dramatically changed as the microorganism switched from being a saprophyte (an organism that lives on dead organic matter) in what, the environment to strengths essay, a pathogen in infected hosts. In the past, microbiologists focused on detecting and controlling various genera and species of pathogens in foods and humans. Was True About Uss Maine? However, with the above recent advances scientists can now identify those specific genetic determinants that actually make a specific strain of a microorganism harmful to humans. This will allow a much more targeted, efficient, and cost-effective approach to detecting and controlling those strains of strengths essay, a species that are most likely to the sinking uss maine, cause disease.

This will allow food processors and government agencies to develop much more highly focused intervention strategies that will maximize control of those strains most likely to cause disease. Also, identification of novel genetic determinants responsible for transmission and virulence will lead to rapid sequence-based approaches for determining the strengths essay molecular epidemiology of various pathogens (Chen and others 2010). Such rapid sequence-based approaches are becoming increasingly high throughput and cost effective and have numerous other advantages, including much greater specificity, reproducibility, epidemiologic relevance, and portability via the Internet. Such advances will result in a global sequence-based epidemiology network for rapidly tracking and what about of the uss maine, controlling dangerous strains of food-borne pathogens, which increasingly are capable of being quickly spread around the globe as a result of strengths essay, international trade and air travel. Metagenomics is was true about, starting to reveal the diverse, complex, and dynamic microbial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, many of whose members may be unculturable in the laboratory (Ley and others 2008; Wooley and analysis, others 2010). Microbial members of the microbiome in the human gastrointestinal tract actually outnumber their eukaryotic counterparts (organisms whose cells have a nucleus that contains their genetic material) in was true about the sinking of the uss maine, the human body and may be playing major roles in maintaining and sonnet 76, promoting human health (Neish 2009). Recent advances in metagenomics will have a major impact on our understanding of how probioticsmicrobes that have a beneficial health effect and are of increasing importance to what about the sinking uss maine, both consumers and the food industrycontribute to human health. Probiotics will continue to gain in importance as the poetry with population ages and more people become at risk for various pathogenic and chronic diseases and increasingly look for novel probiotics that can prolong health and was true the sinking of the, wellness.

Molecular methods will allow food scientists to identify those genetic determinants that are critical for probiotic effects and introduce those strains into more different kinds of foods to help consumers achieve their health and wellness goals. Whole-genome and with analysis, metagenomic approaches will also be used to better understand how probiotic microorganisms interact with both the human microbiota and human cells and of the, organs to achieve various health and wellness benefits. These same techniques will also allow researchers to sonnet 76, engineer “designer probiotics” that target specific pathogens and toxins. About The Sinking Of The? Pathogen-derived stress-response genes might be used to create more robust probiotic strains with increased host and processing-associated stress-tolerance profiles. Also, functional metagenomics may be used to identify novel genes with probiotic attributes from diverse and vastly unexplored environments, such as the human gastrointestinal tract (Culligan and others 2009). Whole-genome approaches will also be used to develop novel molecular methods for tracking and controlling specific strains of probiotics throughout the food system. If Music On Meaning? This will allow food companies to differentiate the unique probiotic products they have developed from others in the marketplace. What Was True Of The Uss Maine? These approaches will allow food companies to both promote these unique products and also protect their investment, thus increasing profitability. • Microbial Ecology. With potential impact on food quality and health and wellness, microbial ecology examines the diversity of strengths essay, microorganisms and how microorganisms interact with each other and what was true of the uss maine, their environment to generate and strengths essay, maintain such diversity. While microbial ecology is about the sinking uss maine, not a new concept, it is of increasing interest to many food microbiologists, because it explains the presence and functioning of microbes in complex and Privacy Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay, dynamic food environments, both outside and inside the gastrointestinal tract.

Another reason microbial ecology is undergoing a renaissance is the development and application of genomics tools. Culture-independent genomics tools are now allowing more accurate estimations of the total microbial ecology in foods inside and outside the gastrointestinal tract. However, genomics tools have also exposed how little we know about the vast diversity of what was true of the uss maine, microorganisms that colonize foods and the human gastrointestinal tract. Foods outside the gastrointestinal tract often harbor a complex and dynamic community of nonpathogenic spoilage flora that affect various quality attributes, such as taste, flavor, texture, appearance, and shelf life. They also often can contain pathogens and probiotic bacteria that can greatly influence the health and poetry with analysis, wellness of humans who consume them. After foods enter the gastrointestinal tract, microbial ecology becomes even more complex and dynamic, as a result of the interaction of the what about the sinking uss maine numerous biotic and abiotic factors located there. Until very recently, microbial diversity in these environments was estimated using culture-dependent approaches. However, the culture-dependent methods cannot accurately describe naturally occurring microbial communities, because they only target those we know how to culture and those that can grow in with, a specific growth medium.

In the past 20 y, the application of was true about the sinking of the, genomics and metagenomics tools has revolutionized microbial ecology studies and drastically expanded our view of the previously underappreciated microbial world, including environments on and in foods and those within the human gastrointestinal tract (Xu 2006). How can we best use microbial ecological data gained through genomic analysis to better understand and control microorganisms on foods and in the gastrointestinal tract? To answer this question, an interdisciplinary systems approach is needed. This approach will require the integration of the analyses at various levels of ecological organization, from subcellular and cellular levels to those of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Indeed, the American Society for Microbiology has issued a call to if music food of love play, create an integrated approach called systems microbiology to coordinate such efforts and to set it as a priority area for future development (ASM 2005). What? As we understand more about the complex and dynamic microbial ecology of foods, we will be in a better position to manipulate those biotic and and Offline Essays, abiotic factors that enhance food quality and/or health and wellness. A number of other new technologies are being developed, with promising and potential benefits. • Biotechnology. Was True Of The? In the analysis simplest and broadest sense, biotechnology is was true the sinking of the, a series of poetry with, technologies applied to living organisms or their subcellular components to develop useful products, processes, or services. Many of the products we eat and wear are, or can be, developed using the tools of biotechnology.

The first generation of what the sinking uss maine, products commercialized from biotechnology were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits, primarily in if music food on meaning, response to biotic stresspressure from organisms such as viruses, bacteria, and insects that can harm plantsand the vast majority of what was true the sinking of the uss maine, biotechnology crops have been in the area of pest resistance and herbicide tolerance. Biotechnology-derived papaya, squash, and sweet corn are commercially available in the United States; enzymes produced using recombinant DNA methods are used to make cheese and with, low-lactose milk, keep bread fresh, and produce fruit juices and wines; and bioengineered  E. About The Sinking Of The? coli  is used to produce human insulin (Baines 1991; Lemaux 2008; Newell-McGloughlin 2008). Two varieties of ricereferred to as Golden Ricehaving increased levels of beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, have been developed and are in use in An Examination of Online Flirting Essays, the Philippines, India, Bangladesh, China, and Vietnam (Lemaux 2008). Other products made using rDNA methods include food supplements such as vitamin B2 (riboflavin) (Lemaux 2008). Significant advances in food biotechnology applications are occurring in many areas (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). These include increasing vitamin levels in crops, such as vitamin E in soybean, maize, and the sinking, canola, and increasing bioavailable iron levels in rice, maize, and lettuce. Biotechnology is also being used to reduce food allergens, address food intolerances, and reduce naturally occurring toxins in plants. There is tremendous potential in additional opportunities, described below. The Intl. Of Online Flirting? Food Information Council's thirteenth annual survey of consumer perceptions of food biotechnology (IFIC 2008) found that concerns about what was true about of the uss maine biotech use are low and that the likelihood to purchase biotechnology-derived foods for special benefits remains high and stable.

A more recent survey (IFIC 2010) found that consumers responded most positively to benefits of strengths essay, biotechnology pertaining to the environment and sustainability. The set of technologies that constitute the biotechnology “toolbox” has introduced a new dimension to agricultural and food production innovation. Agricultural biotechnology offers efficient and cost-effective means to produce a diverse array of novel, value-added products. In addition to the applications already discussed, biotechnology has the potential to increase food production, improve food quality and was true about of the, healthfulness, reduce the sonnet 76 dependency of agriculture on chemicals, alleviate biotic and abiotic stress (for example, high salt or temperature extremes), and lower the cost of raw materials, all in an environmentally sustainable manner. While the scope of biotechnology's influence in the food industry is broad, the tools of this technology have potential for a major impact in 4 principal areas: crop and animal agriculture, bioprocessing, and diagnostics (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). It is what was true of the, possible to enhance the growing season, yield, disease and pest resistance, and Privacy Constitution, other properties of crops and of the, enhance the nutritional content, texture, color, and flavor of foods. Transgenic techniques can be applied to An Examination Flirting and Gender Essays, farmed animals to improve their health, growth, fitness, efficiency of production, and about the sinking, other qualities such as meat and if music food of love on meaning, milk. What Uss Maine? Microorganisms can also be engineered to improve the quality of our environment. In addition to the opportunities for a variety of new products, including biodegradable products, bioprocessing using engineered microbes, offers new ways to sonnet 76, treat and use waste and to use renewable resources for materials and fuel. Instead of depending on nonrenewable fossil fuels, organisms can be engineered to convert maize and cereal straw, forest products and municipal waste, and other biomass to produce fuel, plastics, and was true about the sinking of the uss maine, other useful commodities. The coming generations of crop plants developed via biotechnology can be generally grouped into 4 broad areas: continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and with analysis, tolerance to the sinking, abiotic stress, in addition to the biotic stress tolerance of the present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and if music be the of love, “bio-synthetics;” value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and was true about, food functionality; and plants as production sources for sonnet 76, therapeutics and industrial products (Newell-McGloughlin 2008).

Developing and commercializing plants with these improved traits, however, involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory, and perception challenges inherent in perceived and real challenges of complex modifications. Both the panoply of traditional plant-breeding tools and modern biotechnology-based techniques will be required to produce plants with the desired quality traits. From a health perspective, plant components of dietary interest can be broadly divided into 4 main categories, which can be further broken down into what about of the positive and negative attributions for human nutrition: macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids/oils) and fiber; micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals); antinutrients; and allergens, intolerances, and toxins (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). In some cultures, either by design or default, plant-based nutrition constitutes almost 100% of the diet. Given this situation, one can deduce that significant nutritional improvement can be achieved via modifications of staple crops (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). A growing body of evidence indicates that food components can influence physiological processes at if music be the play, all stages of life. Approximately 25000 of the 200000 or so metabolites produced by plants have known value in the human diet (Go and others 2005).

Analysis of these metabolites, specifically metabolomic analysis, is a valuable tool in better understanding what has occurred during crop domestication (lost and silenced traits) and in was true about uss maine, designing new paradigms for more targeted crop improvement that is better tailored to current needs (Hall and Policy Constitution Essay, others 2008). In addition, with modern techniques, we have the potential to seek out traits of value that were limited in previous breeding strategies. Research to improve the nutritional quality of plants has historically been limited by a lack of what was true of the uss maine, basic knowledge of plant metabolism and the challenge of resolving complex interactions of thousands of metabolic pathways. A complementarity of techniques, both traditional and novel, is needed to metabolically engineer plants to produce desired quality traits. Metabolic engineering is generally defined as the redirection of one or more reactions (enzymatic and otherwise) to improve the production of existing compounds, produce new compounds, or mediate the degradation of undesirable compounds. This involves the redirection of cellular activities by the modification of the enzymatic, transport, and/or regulatory functions of the plant cell. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the molecular dissection of many plant pathways and in the use of Privacy, cloned genes to engineer plant metabolism. With evolving “omics” tools (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics), a better understanding of the totality of effects of metabolic engineering on metabolites, enzyme activities, and metabolic fluxes (rates of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway) is beginning to be developed.

A number of new approaches are being developed to counter some of the what was true about of the uss maine complex problems in metabolic engineering. Through these new technologies, the limitation of single-gene transfers has been overcome and the attendant transfer of multiple components of metabolic pathways has been facilitated. For example, it is now possible to design “minichromosomes” that carry cassettes of genes, enhancing the analysis ability to engineer plant processes such as the was true about uss maine production of complex biochemicals. Paul Christou's laboratory at Privacy, the Univ. of Lleida in Madrid, Spain, used combinations of genes in what was true the sinking of the uss maine, a modification that introduced multicomplex metabolic pathways coding for increased beta-carotene, vitamin C, and folate, effectively creating a multivitamin maize cultivar (Naqvi and others 2009). This system has an added advantage from strengths essay, a commercial perspective in that these methods circumvent problems with traditional approaches which not only limit the amount of sequences transferred but also may disrupt native genes or lead to what the sinking of the uss maine, poor expression of the transgene, thus reducing both the Policy for Canadian Constitution numbers of was true the sinking, transgenic plants that must be screened and the subsequent breeding and other related steps required to Farm, select a suitable commercial candidate. Regulatory oversight of engineered products has been designed to what was true about the sinking of the, detect any unexpected outcomes in rDNA biotechnology-derived crops, and, as demonstrated by Chassy and strengths essay, others (ILSI 2004a, 2004b; ILSI 2008), existing analytical and regulatory systems are adequate to address novel metabolic modifications in about the sinking of the uss maine, nutritionally improved crops. • Nanotechnology. Nanoscale science, engineering, and technologyreferred to as nanotechnologyinclude the fundamental understanding and sonnet 76, technological advances arising from the understanding of new physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter at the length of scale of approximately 1 to was true about uss maine, 100 nanometers (nm). Nanotechnology has far-reaching implications for An Examination Flirting and Gender, science, engineering, and technology in was true the sinking, the 21st century, with tremendous potential for societal benefits and the potential to revolutionize agricultural production and food systems (CSREES/USDA 2003; IFT 2006; Magnuson and others 2007; IFT 2010).

Nanotechnology is rooted in the vision of An Examination and Offline and Gender Essays, Richard Feynman, 1959 Nobel Laureate in physics, who envisioned the ability to closely observe and of the uss maine, control phenomena and behaviors of matter at the nanometer scale with atomic precision. His vision became reality in the mid-1980s when instrumentation advancements (for example, scanning tunneling microscopy and if music food on meaning, atomic force microscopy) enabled seeing nanoscale structure and interactions and manipulation of individual atoms with precision. Occurring in the nanometer-length range are many naturally occurring moleculessuch as whey proteins (4 to was true of the, 6 nm) and lactose (0.5 nm) in milkand man-made biological molecules and supramolecular structures of assemblies of polymers, including proteins and polysaccharides (polymers of sugar units, such as starch) (Magnuson and others 2007). Exciting novel structures, phenomena, and processes have also been observed at poetry analysis, the nanometer scale during the past 2 decades. In the past decade, governments around the world launched initiatives and industries, and what about the sinking of the uss maine, private sectors ventured into research and development of nanotechnologies for a wide range of applications, from semiconductors, energy, chemicals, and materials to medicine, the environment, and food and agriculture. With Analysis? In the food sector, nanotechnology applications are in their infancy but are growing rapidly, estimated to reach more than $20 billion by 2010. In agriculture, nanotechnology holds promise for responding to the need for more precise management of what, resources such as water, fertilizers, and other agricultural chemicals; improving crop and An Examination of Online Essays, livestock production; controlling pests, diseases, and was true the sinking of the uss maine, weeds; monitoring plant disease and environmental stresses; supporting sustainable and precise production; and poetry, improving postharvest technology, including waste management. A nanotechnology-enabled smart-field sensor network, for example, would be advantageous in continuously monitoring environmental data to provide critical information for crop management to attain optimal production yield.

Also, superabsorbent materials with slow release rates have been investigated for improved soil water retention and temperature regulation around plant roots, to decrease irrigation needs. The potential benefits of was true uss maine, nanotechnology applied in An Examination Flirting Essays, the food system are anticipated for food safety and what, defense, food processing, food packaging, and ingredient technologies (IFT 2005, 2007, 2010). Nanoscale capsules for delivery of micronutrients and bioactives via functional foods and Policy for Canadian, ingredients have been actively studied; evidence suggests that their small size will facilitate access to the large area within cellular microvilli of the intestine, thus enhancing absorption. Clemson Univ. scientists have developed a polymer-based nanoparticle that attracts pathogenic bacteria adhering to poultry intestinal walls, thereby aiding their excretion with the bird's feces. Such nanoparticles might also be added to chicken feed to remove pathogens, minimizing the chance of postslaughter cross-contamination. Other potential food safety-related applications include use of was true about of the uss maine, nanosized bubbles that selectively attach to pathogen cells and subsequently burst, damaging the cells. Used for pathogen detection, nanotechnology could enable development of practical detection devices and systems that are more rapid, sensitive, specific, robust, economical, and easily conducted than analytical methods available today. Privacy Policy Constitution? Portable, real-time, and/or in-line detection capability is being pursued for deployment in food production, postharvest processing, distribution, foodservice, and the home. Other research has investigated nanocomposite polymers that improve food-package barrier properties against oxygen and moisture transmission, protecting oxygen-sensitive foods and reducing packaging costs for manufacturers. Nanocomposite materials have also demonstrated potential for use as antimicrobial packaging components, improved package mechanical strength, and biodegradability. Several biodegradable nano-biobarcode technologies have been researched that will aid product traceability, maintenance of product authenticity, identification of product attributes of interest to consumers, and monitoring of product changes relevant to quality and safety.

Responsible research and development of nanoscale food materials for the agricultural and food sectors will involve assessment of the adequacy of existing characterization methods and, where necessary, development of new methods to what was true the sinking of the uss maine, address critical questions for food of love play on meaning, a science-based approach to understanding the characteristics of the novel engineered substances. Characterization of nanoscale food materials will include study of their stabilities in food matrices and during processing; digestibility and biopersistence; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties; ability to translocate across cell membranes; and potential toxicity at the intended application range/exposure level through oral ingestion. Such characterization will contribute to about uss maine, the establishment of the safety of subsequently deployed new products that incorporate novel nanostructured food additives, ingredients, micronutrients, and micronutrient delivery complexes (IFT 2005, 2007). Recognizing that without consumer acceptance new technologies will not succeed in An Examination and Gender Essays, the marketplace, federal funding agencies and universities are engaged in disseminating through a variety of channelssuch as public radio and interactive displays at science centers and museumsinformation about nanotechnology developments emerging from the what was true about the sinking of the uss maine laboratory, obtaining public input, and studying consumer responses to nanotechnology food applications. An IFIC (2010) survey found that slightly more than one-third of Americans surveyed had read or heard about nanotechnology, and that when given examples of potential benefits and food applications half of those surveyed were favorable about Policy for Canadian this technology. Much of the the sinking of the uss maine advance in nanotechnology will depend on the outcome of recently proposed research on its safety, as well as real measuresand communicationof both benefits, such as increased bioavailability of with analysis, micronutrients, and risks to consumers.

Consumer attitudes will determine the acceptance of novel food items and, to some degree, the implementation of new processing technologies. The decoding of the human genome has promised an era of personalized nutrition. Its first application is already being seen with genetic tests for celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. What? The growing population makes niche markets feasiblefor example, the market has responded with gluten-free alternatives. We have barely scratched the surface of genomics and are already hearing of the influence of epigeneticschanges in gene activity without alteration of the sonnet 76 genetic codeand the potential for epigenetic changes brought about by short-term limitation in uss maine, food availability to influence obesity in future generations (Bygren and others 2001).

Consumer attitudes will be very important to the eventual adoption of technologies, but will depend in part on how the technologies are introduced. Recombinant culture, referring to Belasco's proposal mentioned above, embraces the consumer's desire for analysis, both novelty and constancy, or novelty without risk (Cardello and Wright 2010). To be accepted, new technologies must often be put into the context of the familiar. Our modern food system is very complex and changes continuously in time and space. During the past century, food processing evolved to what was true the sinking of the, make food the basis of a healthy civilization, help society overcome hunger and poetry, disease, and about of the, improve the safety, nutrition, convenience, affordability, and Farm Essay, availability of foods. Food processing also changed the perception of foods and beverages. Through food science and technology, the knowledge of many disciplines is the sinking uss maine, applied to transform raw food materials and ingredients into consumable foods available year round. Advances in agriculture and food science and technology have provided reduction in nutrient deficiency-related diseases; enhanced food safety and consistent quality; decreased home food-preparation time; a large variety of delicious food choices; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; food and meal convenience options; products specifically formulated to meet the and Offline Flirting and Gender nutritional needs of was true about the sinking of the, specific subpopulations; and efficient global food distribution, which can be exploited in times of natural and man-made disasters. Misplaced concerns about the food industry's motives in manufacturing processed foods have led to increasing negative perceptions among the general public in the United States. It is a fact that scientific and technical achievements throughout the food systemfrom agriculture and strengths essay, food manufacturing to of the, preparation in the homeallow most people in the developed world to have ready access to a diverse, abundant supply of food that is Policy for Canadian Constitution Essay, safer, tastier, more nutritious, more convenient, and what about the sinking of the, relatively less expensive than would otherwise be the case. Many people in the developing world, however, where a substantial portion of food produced is lost, are not able to make choices from such abundance.

Further advances in science and technology are critically needed to successfully meet the daunting challenges ahead in feeding the growing world population, especially in the areas of greatest need. The new tools of biotechnology hold promise for meeting the needs of our rapidly growing world population more efficiently and cost effectively through improved crop production yields, ability to grow crops in environmentally stressful conditions, and improved nutrient availability and delivery in an environmentally sustainable manner. Obesity, unfortunately, is a complex issue of concern in the developed world. With scientific and technological advancements, food manufacturers have been able to provide many more options than were available years ago for Policy Constitution, consumers who seek to manage their weight. These options include food and beverage products with reduced caloric density and what was true of the uss maine, packaging as a component of portion control. On Meaning? Technologies on the horizon also offer additional opportunities to create more weight-management options. Use of technologies to improve the food supply and what was true about of the, contribute to human health and wellness is a responsible use of Animal, resources. It is important to what was true uss maine, recognize that obesity is a complex issue of behavior.

Further developments in genomics, metabolomics, and nutrigenomics hold tremendous promise for development of individualistic solutions to Privacy Policy Essay, obesity. Through nutrigenomics and metabolomics, personalized nutrition for health and wellness will become better understood and a more practical reality for a larger number of people. Such changes will no doubt lead to changes in regulatory oversight and new approaches to of the, food marketing. Genomics will allow improved food quality and protection from pathogens, through opportunities ranging from probiotic foods to more precise pathogen interventions. Nanotechnology can be expected to have beneficial impacts throughout the food system, from agricultural production, where it may enable more precise management of resources, to Policy for Canadian Essay, personalized nutrition, which holds potential for enhancing delivery and absorption of what about the sinking of the uss maine, nutrients and bioactive substances via functional foods. With continued developments in nanotechnology, we can anticipate new mechanisms for detecting and controlling pathogens, in both the agricultural and food-manufacturing sectors. Today and in the future, the food system must be flexible and resilient, consumer driven, and sustainable, and it must secure the environment and natural resources and assure the health and wellness of an increasing number of consumers.

Food science and technology can help us advance the food system, minimize risks, maximize benefits, and deliver a safe, nutritious, and abundant food supply to all people around the world. Food science and technology professionals must work together with many othersthe food industry, and those in the regulatory and public policy communities. And society must invest in basic and applied research and strengths essay, education and outreach. With science and was true about of the uss maine, technology solutions available to address specific issues throughout the food system, our ability to feed a growing population in a sustainable way, while safeguarding both human and An Examination of Online and Offline and Gender Essays, planet health, looks not only possible, but also promising. We must, however, remain steadfast and rational about our approach, to help both humanity and was true of the uss maine, nature. IFT greatly appreciates the efforts of the contributing authors, editor, members of the be the food play on meaning task force who contributed to the concept for this document, peer reviewers, and the organization providing financial support. John D. Floros, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor and Head, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Was True About? Rosetta Newsome is Director of Science and of love, Policy Initiatives at the Inst. of Food Technologists. William Fisher is Vice President of Science and Policy Initiatives at the Institute of Food Technologists.

Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas, a Fellow of IFT, is Professor of Food Engineering at Washington State Univ. Hongda Chen is Natl. Program Leader at the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Natl. Inst. of Food and Agriculture. C. Patrick Dunne, a Fellow of IFT, is Senior Research Scientist at the U.S.

Army Natick Soldier Center. Of The Uss Maine? J. Food Play? Bruce German is Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of California, Davis. Richard L. Hall is a Fellow and Past President of IFT and a Past President of the Intl.Union of Food Science and Technology. Dennis R. What Of The Uss Maine? Heldman, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Principal of Heldman Associates. Of Online And Offline Flirting? Mukund V. Karwe is Professor, Dept. of what was true about the sinking of the, Food Science, at Rutgers Univ. Stephen J. Knabel is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Theodore P. Labuza, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor of Food Science at the Univ. of Minnesota. Daryl B. Lund, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Emeritus Professor at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.

Martina Newell-McGloughlin is Director, Systemwide Biotechnology Research and Education Program, at the Univ. of California, Davis. James L. Robinson is if music of love on meaning, Professor Emeritus at the Univ. of Illinois. Joseph G. Sebranek, a Fellow of IFT, is Professor, Dept. of Food Science and what was true uss maine, Human Nutrition, at sonnet 76, Iowa State Univ. Robert L. Was True The Sinking Of The? Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of analysis, Georgia. William F. Tracy is of the uss maine, Professor and Chair, Dept. of Agronomy, at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.

Connie M. Weaver, a Fellow of if music be the of love on meaning, IFT, is Distinguished Professor and Head, Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, at Purdue Univ. Gregory R. Ziegler is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Neil H. The Sinking Of The? Mermelstein, a Fellow of IFT, is Editor Emeritus,  Food Technology , Institute of Food Technologists. John D. Strengths Essay? Floros (chair), a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor and Head, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. The Sinking Of The Uss Maine? David M. Berube is Professor, Communication, at North Carolina State Univ. Richard T. Constitution? Crowder is Professor, Agricultural and Applied Economics, at Virginia Tech. Eric A. Decker is Professor and Head, Dept. of Food Science, at the Univ. of Massachusetts. Richard L. What About Of The Uss Maine? Hall is a Fellow and Past President of IFT and a Past President of the Intl. Union of Food Science and Technology. Animal? Gilbert A. Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Executive Director, at Wrigley Science Inst. Daryl B. Lund, a Fellow and the sinking, Past President of An Examination and Offline Essays, IFT, is Emeritus Professor at the Univ. of Wisconsin.

Robert L. What Was True Of The? Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of Georgia. Noel E. Anderson is Vice President, Technical Insights, at Pepsico Inc. Christine M. Bruhn, a Fellow of IFT, is Director, Center for Consumer Research, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of California, Davis. Fergus M. Analysis? Clydesdale, a Fellow of IFT, is Distinguished Professor and Director, Food Science Policy Alliance, at the Univ. of Massachusetts. About? William K. Hallman is sonnet 76, Professor, Dept. of Human Ecology, at Rutgers Univ. and Director at the Food Policy Inst. Gilbert A. What The Sinking Of The Uss Maine? Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is for Canadian Constitution, Executive Director at the Wrigley Science Inst. Was True? Mark R. Sonnet 76? McLellan, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Dean for Research and Director of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Univ. of Florida. IFT gratefully acknowledges a grant from the Intl. Food Information Council that helped support the production of this scientific review. 2010 Institute of what was true about the sinking uss maine, Food Technologists ®

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Impact of Alcohol, Tobacco And Drug Abuse on was true about the sinking Youth. Alcohol, tobacco and other drugs are affect youth negatively. Of Online And Gender. Youth especially student's e.g. secondary and tertiary students abuse alcohol, tobacco and other Drugs. Drugs such as tobacco, cocaine and marijuana are the major drugs which students abuse or use. Youth may end up drinking alcohol and using drugs because of what was true about uss maine various situations or reasons e.g. youth especially school going drink alcohol, use tobacco and other drug as a result of peer pressure because they may want to feel grown up among their peers, some youth use drugs to relieve boredom and give themselves personal excitement, some use drugs to rebel and get violent without any fear of people or authority, some use drugs to experiment, some use drugs and drink alcohol because their parents also drink alcohol so they end up indulging in of Online and Offline Flirting, the practise as well, social background may also influence youths to use drugs and to drink alcohol e.g. if they are many drug dealers and bottle stores around its easier for was true about, youths to indulge in strengths essay, the use of this drugs and lastly some youth may drink alcohol and abuse drugs to feel pleasure and escape the pressures of what about the sinking of the life or to Privacy for Canadian Constitution, alter their view of reality.

Youth who get into what was true about uss maine drugs may get it from a friend's friend, who also got it from his friend's friend and strengths essay, so on what was true of the this is to say that drugs are not of easy access because they are illegal. At the end of Privacy Policy this long line of friends is a dealer who is making money out of destroying young people futures. The use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs has negative impacts amongst the students who abuse this substances e.g. About. excessive alcohol consumption and the abuse of drugs are dangerous because alcohol and sonnet 76, drug abuse can affect health and ability to function and think properly, almost every system in the body can be negatively affected by use of drugs and what was true the sinking, drinking of alcohol. Alcohol can cause cancer, liver disease, heart attacks and brain damage, to mention a few. Alcohol, tobacco and other drug use does not only Flirting and Gender Essays affect youth especially students' health wise it also affects their academic performance, it also affect them financially, psychologically, physically and ultimately students may suffer some legal consequences. Youth more so teens, who engage in sexual intercourse and drug abuse including abuse of the sinking of the alcohol and tobacco, are more likely than youth who abstain from such activities to become depressed, have suicidal thoughts and or even attempt suicide. HEALTH EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE. The use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs has detrimental effects on health of the youth which may turn out to be fatal. The type of drugs which students commonly use are Stimulants (drugs that produce alertness, high energy, more awake and confident e.g. cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine) and poetry with, Hallucinogens (give strange and intense visions called hallucinations) The scientific name for alcohol that people drink is ethyl alcohol or ethanol.

Beer, wine, and liquor all contain ethyl alcohol. Other types of alcohol, like rubbing alcohol are poisonous if ingested. . Excess alcohol is the most common cause of preventable death. About The Sinking. Alcohol is highly toxic to almost every organ in the body but when alcohol is taken in allowed limits amounts it is detoxified by the liver and therefore does little or no harm to the body. Alcoholic drinks contain ethyl alcohol and it is metabolized in the body to acetaldehyde. Sonnet 76. Both ethanol and acetaldehyde interfere with normal functioning of organs in the body including the heart and the liver and therefore if the was true of the, liver and the heart get damaged disease occur which may eventually kill, teenagers maybe more prone to this effects in Animal Farm, the youth as their organs are still developing thus toxic substances from alcohol damage their body organs. When people drink too much, with time they risk becoming addicted to alcohol. This is called alcoholism, or alcohol dependence. It's a disease, and it can happen at any age, Common signs include, loss of what uss maine control not being able to stop or cut down drinking, not feeling well after heavy drinking (upset stomach, sweating, shakiness, or nervousness), neglecting activities giving up or cutting back on other activities. Essay. Binge drinking happens when someone drinks more than four (for women) or five (for men) alcoholic drinks in about two hours, with the intention to getting drunk.

Binge drinking is the most harmful type of drinking. It usually happens at teen or student parties. The dangers of was true of the uss maine smoking are so great, but because of it governments get a lot of if music be the food on meaning tax money from tobacco and was true uss maine, cigarettes manufacturers, they are less hesitant to ban it totally. Government and society is aware of the danger that is poetry why they made it illegal for teens to possess and use cigarettes. Smoking of tobacco can cause many with many diseases like respiratory and heart disease including, respiratory infections, lung cancer as well as cancer of the larynx, pancreas, stomach, uterine cervix, bronchitis, emphysema and about the sinking, stillborn or premature children ().Smoking causes surges in the concentrations of catecholamine's (the stimulator chemical messengers of the autonomic nervous system) as well as increases in Farm Essay, carbon monoxide in the sinking of the uss maine, the blood. Both of these short- term effects can exacerbate existing heart disease, resulting, for instance, in if music food play, attacks of angina (chest pain). Nicotine raises blood pressure and heart rate, requiring the what was true of the, heart to work harder.

It also constricts the coronary arteries, thereby lessening the supply of Animal blood and was true about the sinking of the, oxygen to the heart muscle. Animal Farm. It also promotes irregular heartbeats (cardiac arrhythmias). Smokers are not the only people harmed by the sinking of the tobacco. Toxic fumes from cigarettes pose a health threat to all those around smoker's family, friends, and. Privacy Policy Constitution Essay. Because the what of the, organic material in tobacco does not burn completely, smoke contains many toxic chemicals, including carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar. As a result of this exposure, smokers' children have more colds and flu, and they are more likely to take up smoking themselves when they grow up. Smokers also affect other people as well e.g. passive smoking. This is the involuntary inhaling of smoke from other people cigarettes and with, we all suffer when we have people smoking around us. It is called second-hand smoking and it is known to be even more dangerous than smoking itself. Use of what was true the sinking uss maine cocaine has increased among youth over the years, along with the of Online and Offline Flirting Essays, myth that the drug is relatively safe, especially when it is sniffed rather than injected or smoked as 'crack.' In fact, no matter how it is what was true of the used, cocaine can kill.

It can disturb the heart's rhythm and cause chest pain, heart attacks, and even sudden death. These effects on the heart can cause death even in the absence of any seizures. Sonnet 76. Even in the absence of underlying heart disease, a single use of only a small amount of the drug has been known to be fatal. Cocaine use is of the not healthful for anyone, but especially for certain groups like the youth. Although the drug has been shown to impair the function of normal hearts, it seems even more likely to cause death in people with any underlying heart disease. When pregnant women use cocaine, they not only raise the likelihood of having a miscarriage, a premature delivery, or a low-birth-weight baby, but also of sonnet 76 having a baby with a congenital heart abnormality, especially an atrial-septal or ventricular-septal defect. Use of cocaine raises blood pressure, constricts blood vessels, and speeds up heart rate. It may also make blood cells called platelets more likely to was true about the sinking uss maine, clump and form the blood clots that provoke many heart attacks. In addition, cocaine's effects on sonnet 76 the nervous system disrupt the normal rhythm of the heart, causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats). Recently, scientists have established that cocaine binds directly to heart muscle cells, slowing the about the sinking of the uss maine, passage of sodium ions into the cells.

Cocaine also causes the release of the neurotransmitter nor epinephrine (nor adrenaline), a chemical messenger that stimulates the Farm, autonomic nervous system. Both changes can lead to arrhythmias. Heart attacks in young people are rare. However, when they do occur, cocaine is frequently the cause. Cocaine is a highly addictive substance, and crack cocaine is substantially more addicting, as the drug is far more potent and is smoked. Users quickly develop a tolerance to crack cocaine, needing more of the substance to was true uss maine, achieve the desired effects. Because the high from crack cocaine is so short-lived, users commonly smoke it repeatedly in poetry with, order to sustain the high.

This can lead to an even faster onset of addiction. Also, because crack cocaine works on about the brain's system of An Examination and Offline Flirting Essays reward and punishment, withdrawal symptoms occur when the drug's effects wear off. These symptoms can include depression, irritability, and extreme fatigue, anxiety, an intense craving for the drug, and sometimes even psychosis. Users will often keep using crack cocaine simply to avoid the negative effects of withdrawal. Marijuana harms in many ways, and kids are the most vulnerable to its damaging effects. Use of the drug can lead to what was true about uss maine, significant health, safety, social, and learning or behavioural problems, especially for Animal Farm Essay, young users. Making matters worse is the fact that the marijuana available today is more potent than ever. Short term effects of marijuana use include memory loss, distorted perception, trouble with thinking and problem solving, and anxiety. Students who use marijuana may find it hard to learn, thus jeopardizing their ability to was true the sinking, achieve their full potential. Long term effects include reduced resistance to common illnesses (colds, bronchitis, etc.), suppression of the immune system, growth disorders, increase of abnormally structured cells in the body, reduction of strengths essay male sex hormones, rapid destruction of lung fibre's and lesions (injuries) to the brain could be permanent, Study difficulties: reduced ability to learn and retain information, apathy, drowsiness, lack of motivation, personality and mood changes, inability to understand things clearly.

ACADEMIC EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE. Heavy drinking by students can lead to the sinking uss maine, positive blood alcohol levels the next day, affecting whether or not they even get up for class and, if they do, the quality of how information is processed and ultimately stored. Sleeping off a buzz, a common practice, can interfere with the sleep cycle, resulting in Policy for Canadian, an increase in anxiety, jumpiness, and irritability the next day, and fatigue the day after that. With evening use, marijuana has the same impact on sleep that alcohol has, throwing off the sleep cycle and impacting how a person feels for at least two additional days. Marijuana suppresses neuronal activity in the hippocampus, resulting in problems with attention, memory, and concentration. There is increasing evidence that there is an impact to motivation following marijuana use. This could be due to the effect of THC in the body blocking the passage of what about the sinking nutrients through cells, the neuronal suppression in the hippocampus, or the sonnet 76, decrease in energy accompanying the fatigue that follows night time use. Marijuana significantly increases heart rate, weakens the was true about of the, heart muscle, and affects blood pressure- the increase in heart rate can be a concern for someone already dealing with anxiety ( and particularly panic). College students often forget why they are supposed to be in school.

Is the Constitution, purpose of university life to party all the time or to get the what of the uss maine, most out of the Farm Essay, learning environment? Substance abuse can seriously affect academic performance. Aside from was true of the uss maine, long-term addiction (or possible emptying you bank account) it can cause grades to sonnet 76, plummet. How? Substance use affects you entire body, including your brain, in a variety of ways.

Judgment is often the first attribute to be affected. Was True Of The Uss Maine. You may find it difficult to make good decisions, to make them quickly or to Privacy Constitution, be realistic when you make them. Suddenly, it becomes much easier to wait until the last minute to cram for that exam or to crank. First of all, drugs and alcohol are a drain on what was true the sinking of the people's finances. We have all experienced the stress associated with money at An Examination and Gender Essays one time or another. For those who abuse drugs or alcohol, financial issues are further compounded by about of the uss maine their need to feed their habit. They frequently accumulate debt, borrow or steal money from others, or choose their substance of choice over more important things like food for their family or utility bills.

While no one wants to be homeless, in debt, or engaging in criminal activities, the financial impact of drug and alcohol abuse risks not only your ability to support yourself, but it can also destroy relationships. When you abuse drugs or alcohol, you are choosing that substance over everything else, including your loved ones. Whether they are suffering from your financial choices or have become mistrustful of you, you have placed a strain on analysis your relationships, which can ultimately ruin those connections for good. Families and others that rely on a sufferer of alcoholism are likely to experience problems related to financial troubles caused by what was true uss maine drinking habits. The costs of alcohol increase as the alcoholic person builds tolerance to sonnet 76, the drug in his or her system. This requires the person to take in ever-greater amounts of alcohol in order to feel the same effects. The psychological effects of this alcohol tolerance and dependency may cause the what was true about the sinking uss maine, sufferer to become withdrawn and less supportive of with colleagues, friends and family members. Sufferers may no longer attend social functions that do not allow drinking and may not be fully aware of their behaviour if attending functions where their drug of choice is about the sinking uss maine allowed. A lack of networking and communication with peers may cause further financial problems if the An Examination, sufferer loses promotion opportunities. Greater drains on income and lessened opportunities may cause undue troubles for the sinking uss maine, others financially dependent on the sufferer, requiring a spouse or roommate to strengths essay, pick up extra hours or a second job to keep bills at a manageable level. SOCIAL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE.

Excessive alcohol use can affect all areas of a person's life, including family, work and personal relationships. Family problems: Arguments over someone's drinking can cause family and relationship problems that may lead to break up. Work problems: Drinking alcohol at work and hangovers can lead to what was true about of the, poor performance and accidents at work, while illness can result in absenteeism. Legal problems: Drink-driving may lead to fines, loss of license and even imprisonment. Misbehaviour caused by alcohol can also have disastrous effects on a pupil's educational attainment, as well on performance in Policy Constitution Essay, tests of intellect in later life. Compared with those pupils who have never truanted, pupils who had ever truanted from school had increased odds of having drunk alcohol in the last week (odds ratios of 2.24 for those who had truanted in the last year, 1.69 who had truanted previously). 6.5% of permanent exclusions of children from English state-funded secondary schools in 2010/11 were due to alcohol. Women, especially young women, encounter special risks in groups of drinking friends and acquaintances. In many societies, a woman who drinks seems to signal that she is at was true about of the least approachable, and to some men an intoxicated woman is by definition sexually available. Such concepts as 'acquaintance rape' and with analysis, 'date rape' bear witness to recent concern with this problem.

A large proportion of unwanted sexual advances are mediated by alcohol. Initiation into certain groups, such as military units or college fraternities, sometimes includes drinking very large amounts of alcohol, so-called 'binge drinking'. This pattern of was true the sinking of the drinking entails high risks of accidental injury, violence and acute alcohol-poisoning. It has long been known that a heavy-drinking lifestyle in groups of friends is relatively common in the armed forces. More recently, the focus has been on such drinking patterns on college and university campuses and what they mean for the development of problem drinking patterns later in life. A drug intervention is with a structured, solution-oriented process undertaken to persuade someone who is abusing drugs to seek help in overcoming the addiction. Family, friends, and was true about the sinking uss maine, others involved in sonnet 76, the person's life use the intervention to demonstrate the was true, extent of the effects of drinking and if music be the food, related behaviours. A successful intervention is not a confrontation but an opportunity for an addicted individual to accept help in taking the first step toward recovery. Often, an of the uss maine, interventionist is invited to sonnet 76, serve as a guide and educator before, during, and after the intervention. Some drug addicts can and what of the uss maine, do recognize the extent of the poetry with, problems stemming from what was true of the, drug abuse and seek treatment without the need for an intervention.

Most, however, are reluctant or unable to realize that drugs are responsible for the problems in their relationships, health, or work. They ignore the safety issues related to drinking and Privacy Policy Constitution Essay, driving and other high-risk behaviours. It is common for addicts to deny that drugs are the source of the difficulties they face. They may instead blame other people or circumstances in what about the sinking uss maine, their lives. When that happens, an sonnet 76, intervention can break through the what was true about uss maine, denial and help these individuals clearly see the effects of their drug abuse on the people who matter most to them.

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