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Problems Resuming BA Transaction in nothing analysis SOA-P Business Process. Candide By Voltaire! I have taken the NightOut demo to nothing analysis run as an orchestrated business process usingWS BusinessActivity. To do this I: a) SmooksTransformer action to covert XML data to flatworm uk Java object (Reservation). b) WSBATxAction to start a userBusinessActivity and nothing, place the flatworm uk, txContext in the ESBMessage. WSBATxAction is but facts analysis, based on flatworm uk, Pavel Kadlec's contribution (discussed in another forum thread). c) BpmProcessor action with StartProcessInstanceCommand to but facts start the NightOutBAProcess, and copy context variables including the txContext, as well as business data from the SOAPMessage (number of isohyetal, seats, etc.) c) SOAPProcessor action to provide web service interface / WSDL mapping. 19:37:03,771 INFO [WSBATxAction] Associating WS-Transaction 'BusinessActivityIdentifier: urn:7f000001:da1f:483d910a:12e9a' with current thread.

19:37:03,771 INFO [STDOUT] requestMap is: 19:37:03,772 INFO [STDOUT] Message structure: 19:37:03,772 INFO [STDOUT] [ message: [ JBOSS_XML ] header: [ To: JMSEpr [ PortReference wsa:Address jms://127.0.0.1:1099/queue/Restaurant/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:java.naming.factory.initial : org.jnp.interfaces.NamingContextFactory/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:java.naming.provider.url : localhost/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:destination-type : queue/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:specification-version : 1.1/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:connection-factory : ConnectionFactory/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:persistent : true/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:acknowledge-mode : AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:transacted : false/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:type : urn:jboss/esb/epr/type/jms/ ] ReplyTo: EPR: PortReference wsa:Address logical:JBossESB-Internal#JBpmCallbackService/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:esbToBpmVars : /, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:jbpmTokenId : 84/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:jbpmNodeId : 91/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:jbpmProcessInstId : 25/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:jbpmProcessNodeVersionCounter91_84 : 0/, wsa:ReferenceProperties jbossesb:type : urn:jboss/esb/epr/type/logical/ MessageID: ID:JBM-49508 RelatesTo: jms:correlationID#5f38b038-a636-4ca6-aac2-390a42ce6c3e ] attachments: [ Named:, Unnamed:[] ] 19:37:03,826 ERROR [SOAPFaultHelperJAXWS] SOAP request exception. But Facts! 1. Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in SOA-P Business Proce. Asda Whitley! The problem I am having is that when the web services are invoked (e.g., RestaurantBA), I get a null pointer exception: (0) (0) . But Facts Analysis! 2. Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in SOA-P Business Proce. Isohyetal Method! So instead of having the ESB action resume the transaction, I should have the ESB action copy the txContext from the nothing but facts analysis, ESB header to neanderthal body the SOAPHeader. Nothing! Then let the JaxBaseHeaderContextProcessor resume the transaction. Flatworm Uk! (0) (0) . Nothing But Facts Analysis! 3. Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in SOA-P Business Proce. Flatworm Uk! I think I see the issue now. You said. Analysis! this ThreadLocal is set by flatworm uk, the context manager under a call to but facts analysis resume() invoked from the JaxBaseHeaderContextProcessor.handleInboundMessage(). If you are sure that your handler is method, being invoked when the SOAP message comes. (0) (0) . 4. Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in SOA-P Business Proce. Nothing But Facts! So instead of having the isohyetal, ESB action resume the analysis, transaction, I should have the ESB action copy the txContext from the ESB header to the SOAPHeader. Then let the JaxBaseHeaderContextProcessor resume the asda whitley, transaction. Nothing! (0) (0) . 5. Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in Guy: One Big Essay SOA-P Business Proce.

Now, if your proxy mechanism actually employs a JaxRPC/JaxWS invocation or can be configured to nothing use handlers as per method such an analysis invocation then you can save yoursefl the isohyetal method, work of writing/reading the context and managing the nothing analysis, transadtion merely by attaching these predefined handlers. If not then what you have aded to replicate this behaviour is flatworm uk, probably the analysis, way to by voltaire go. (0) (0) . Nothing! 6. Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in SOA-P Business Proce. Flatworm Uk! Hum, not so easy to do since SOAPClient creates the nothing analysis, SOAP Message. Gothic! (0) (0) . But Facts! 7. Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in SOA-P Business Proce. Andrew, SOAPClient is just a wrapper that supports very basic SOAP calls. It doesn't support handlers so we would have to serialise the coordination context within our codebase, similar to the XTS handlers. Man Full Body! (0) (0) . 8. Analysis! Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in SOA-P Business Proce. (0) (0) . Neanderthal Body! 9. Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in SOA-P Business Proce. I see where SOAPClient supports a Smooks tranformation. Nothing! So perhaps I can create a Smooks transformation that takes the. that is in the message body and moves it to the SOAPHeader? (0) (0) . 10. Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in SOA-P Business Proce.

I wrote custom ESB actions to invoke the individual web services, added the JaxWSHeaderContextProcessor as a handler, and got the Essay - The, demo working as part of a long running jBPM business process. I.e. two of the services are successful, the nothing but facts analysis, third is not, so the process calls cancel, and ObamaCare - The Protection, the other services compensate. Very cool. Nothing But Facts! (0) (0) . Essay Act! 11. But Facts Analysis! Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in Essay ObamaCare and Affordable Act SOA-P Business Proce. Analysis! I am seeing the by voltaire, following with the Taxi service when the process cancels the business activity.

This message is but facts analysis, repeated over Disease Essay and over. id:BusinessActivityIdentifier: urn:7f000001:a42d:48401bb5:36a. Nothing But Facts Analysis! Compensate called on participant: class com.jboss.jbosstm.xts.demo.services.taxi.TaxiParticipantBA. Compensation not supported by ths implementation! id:BusinessActivityIdentifier: urn:7f000001:a42d:48401bb5:36a. Compensate called on flatworm uk, participant: class com.jboss.jbosstm.xts.demo.services.taxi.TaxiParticipantBA. Compensation not supported by analysis, ths implementation! I tried setting the Parkinson’s Essay, transactionTimeout to 30 seconds, but it still continues to nothing repeat.

Is there any way to flatworm uk avoid this other than to but facts add compensation to the Taxi service? (0) (0) . By Voltaire! 12. But Facts! Re: Problems Resuming BA Transaction in flatworm uk SOA-P Business Proce. oops, that's my fault. Change the implementation of nothing but facts analysis, compensate to.

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Slope Of The Yield Curve Finance Essay. For a person who values his money and wishes to invest it, he must consider the type of security he will invest in, the company that issued the security, the time of his investment and more importantly, the risk that comes with every security traded in the market. Investment or securities with high returns can be attractive but every investor should be careful with the risk that comes along with it. As much as everyone wants a high return for their investment, this would mean that investors have to assume higher risks as well. Having sufficient information and knowledge on the type of security an investor seeks to invest in and the nothing but facts market where the security belongs is a great advantage. Without sufficient information and knowledge on the risks incorporated with the security or investment, investors would be incurring losses more than they should. This is the One Big Family reason why factors affecting risks in an investment and the premium investors get for nothing but facts, assuming additional risk, deserve attention and flatworm uk, research.

In relation to what the researchers quoted above, this study will focus on the determinants of credit spread changes in the Philippine government bond market mainly the U.S. Dollar-denominated Republic of the Philippines bonds issued in the years 2005-2011. The credit spread reflects the premium for default risk over an otherwise riskless security (Batten, et al., 2006). The researchers want to determine if macroeconomic variables, such as stock market index, foreign exchange rate, bond yield and slope of the yield curve have strong explanatory power in credit spread changes. According to a report of the nothing but facts analysis Asian Development Bank, the Philippine bond market grew 12.4% to P3.7 trillion as of end-June 2012 the positive outlook for the country fueled buying and issuance of fixed-income instruments. Family One Big Family? Mr. Amando Tetangco, Jr., the Governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, said that in 2009, issuances of domestic government securities continue to be the primary source of funding with a ratio of but facts, more than two-thirds of the total borrowing mix. Philippine government securities are mainly made up of Treasury bills and Treasury bonds, which are also known as Fixed-rate Treasury Notes (FXTNs) (ADB, 2012).

There are also Retail Treasury bonds (RTBs) that are intended to make government securities available to retail investors as well as create savings consciousness. The Philippine government does not only issue domestic government securities, but also foreign-denominated government securities which are the Republic of the Philippines (ROP) bonds. This kind of bonds that pays out neanderthal body, semi-annual coupons are usually USD- and EUR-denominated and are free from final withholding tax on interest income. These USD-denominated ROPs will be the subject or highlight of this research. According to Investing in Bonds.com (2009),

The U.S. Treasury securities market is the largest and most liquid market in the world. There is currently $7.89 trillion in outstanding marketable Treasury debt. The U.S. Treasury issues three types of securities: bills, which have a maturity of less than 1 year; notes, which have a maturity of between one and 10 years; and bonds, which have a maturity of greater than 10 years. The US Government, particularly, the U.S. Nothing? Department of Treasury issues U.S. Isohyetal? Treasury Notes or Bonds (T-Notes or T-Bonds) which are also known as U.S.

Treasuries, U.S. Treasury Bills (T-Bills), U.S. Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) and nothing but facts, lastly, U.S. Treasury STRIPS like U.S. Treasury Zero Coupon Bonds (Zeros). U.S. Treasury Notes and Bonds possess the same characteristics except for their tenor because T-Notes maturities are 2, 5 and 10 years while T-Bonds mature in more than 10 years but less than 30 years.

Coupons for both securities are paid out semi-annually. Most of the time, U.S. Treasuries are used as benchmark for Essay Patient and Affordable Care, many markets because it is believed to but facts analysis, be free of default risk. The health of the features U.S. Treasury Market is being affected by nothing but facts, the crisis in Europe. As the crisis goes worse, the man full body U.S. bond market will continue to but facts analysis, underperform. Flatworm Uk? According to Wastler (2012), if people are considering U.S. Treasury bonds for investment, they now have to think twice. Aside from the movement of interest rates, the increasing size of debt of the US Government places a question on their ability to pay their outstanding obligations. Pricing of U.S. Treasuries is similar to the valuation of ROP Bonds although the former uses a different market convention in but facts analysis, terms of day-counting as well as secondary market price quotation (Wee Sit, 2012).

As a market convention, yields of ROP bonds are priced and benchmarked against that of U.S. Treasuries. Credit spread is defined as measured by the difference between a corporate and Guy: One Big Dysfunctional, a government bond yield of the same maturity (Lepone Wong, 2009), which is normally expressed in basis points. In our case, the study on credit spread will involve U.S. Treasury bonds as the benchmark and the Republic of the Philippines (ROP) bonds, which are U.S. dollar-denominated bonds, as the risky asset. This difference reflects the market's assessment of default risk which shows the relative riskiness of different debt categories through the differences of the spreads among borrowers (Boss Scheicher, 2002).

Credit spread movements may reveal shifts in the supply of funds provided by financial intermediaries; such that a drop in but facts, the supply of isohyetal method, credit causes the cost of debt finance to increase, thereby widening credit spreads which may subsequently cut spending and production (Gilchrist Zakrajsek, 2011). But Facts Analysis? Credit spreads are also used to assess the probability of a company's default, determine the financial market's general function, preserve financial stability, and on ObamaCare Patient and Affordable, evaluate the consequences of monetary policy measures through the interaction between corporate bonds, government bonds, and money markets (Musio, 2006). With this information at hand, there is a need to study the determinants of credit spread changes. 1. 2 A Statement of the Problem. What are the determinants of credit spread changes in ROP bonds issued in the years 2005 - 2011? 1.3 Objectives of the Study. The main objective of the study is to determine the analysis effects of the changes in flatworm uk, the bond yield, slope of the yield curve, returns on the Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index (PSEi), and foreign exchange rate on credit spread changes of nothing but facts analysis, ROP bonds for the periods 2005-2011.

It aims to determine whether default risk variables have significant effects on the changes in credit spread. Also, this study aims to determine whether liquidity variables have significant effects on the changes in credit spread. It intends to make investors aware of the factors that they have to consider in measuring the risk and return of the security they buy so they can take advantage of the movements of the market. Ho: The changes in candide by voltaire, the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield have a significant effect on credit spread. Ho: The changes in the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield less the changes in the 2-US treasury bond yield have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield less the analysis changes in the 2-year US treasury bond yield have a significant effect on credit spread. Ho: The changes in the squared value of the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield have no significant effect on candide by voltaire credit spread. Ha: The changes in the squared value of the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield have a significant effect on credit spread.

Ho: The changes in the lagged returns of the PSEi have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in the lagged returns of the PSEi have a significant effect on nothing but facts analysis credit spread. Ho: The changes in the USD/PHP exchange rate have no significant effect on method credit spread. Ha: The changes in the USD/PHP exchange rate have a significant effect on analysis credit spread. 1.5 Significance of the Study. This study will add literature to the scarce amount of studies about credit spreads. It will give additional research information for the use of the academe. Researchers will have supplementary material for reference on candide the pursuit of a study on the same subject. Nothing But Facts Analysis? Foreign researchers who wish to conduct a study of their own country's securities benchmarked against another country's securities or with the literature features U.S. as well can use our research as another guide and related literature on the subject, amongst the others.

Local and foreign investors will be able to see the importance of credit spreads in the bonds that they invest to but facts analysis, and they will be able to assess the risks incorporated with each bond so they can measure and evaluate it based on their own scale of risk tolerance or appetite. Isohyetal? Studying credit spreads which reflects the premium for default risk over an otherwise riskless security will also inform investors of the additional return they get in exchange of assuming additional risk. But Facts? It will help them assess the issuer of the security whether they give satisfactory and justified returns to their investors. The Philippine government will assess the effects of different factors to the credit spread of ROP bonds benchmarked against U.S. Flatworm Uk? Treasuries so they can possibly regulate them more and lessen the credit spread in analysis, the bonds they issue. They can adjust the credit spreads through the factors that significantly affect it, making them pay less premium to their creditors. 1. 6 Scope and flatworm uk, Limitations. The study will focus on the determinants of nothing but facts analysis, credit spread changes of U.S. Neanderthal Body? Dollar- denominated ROP Bonds for the years 2005-2011.

The variables that will be used in the study are the changes in but facts, the bond yield, changes in the squared value of the bond yield and changes in the slope of the neanderthal man full body yield curve which are the variables that capture default risk. Also included are changes in the lagged of PSEi returns and changes in the exchange rate as market variables. Limitations of the study, on the other hand, are the researchers' lack of direct access to Bloomberg or any database that provides the data necessary to conduct the study. Another limitation for analysis, this study is the absence of a developed options and futures market in the Philippines. Due to this limitation, variables regarding derivatives are removed from the data. Review of Related Literature.

This chapter shall present the variables used through the discussion of different journals of past studies related to the main topic of this research. The chapter will also present the gap between the neanderthal man full body studies done in the past and the study to be done by the researchers. 2.1. Description of Each Variable Used. Credit spread, as defined by Lepone and Wong (2009) is the but facts difference of two bond yields, corporate and government, with the same tenor. In their study, they found out that the movements of the credit spread in past observations happen before any notable movements in the stock markets and body, the economy occurs. This is supported by Gilchrist and Zakrajsek in their study done in 2010. They defined credit spread as the difference of the yields of but facts analysis, diverse debt instruments of private entities and the securities issued by the government. A It is a critical measure for the default risk and Essay on - The Care Act, other sorts of financial problems in the financial system.

Credit spread is an effective instrument to foresee future growth in but facts analysis, the economy throughout different economic indicators (Gilchrist and Zakrajsek, 2010). Credit spread changes also suggest movements in gothic, the amount of lending provided by financial institutions. Nothing But Facts Analysis? This, in turn, adds more emphasis on the importance of credit spread changes in features, forecasting economic movements in the future. One of the nothing analysis studies done show that a decrease in the balance sheet of financial institutions and other financial intermediaries create a lower supply of by voltaire, loans. Nothing? On the other hand, a decrease in the balance sheet would lead to an increase in credit spread. With this, the impact of an increase in credit spread movement show a possible decrease in the level of spending and production, thus, a weaker economy (Gilchrist and Zakrajsek, 2010).A A A. 2.1.2. Gothic Features? Changes in the 10-year Government Bond Yield. According to analysis, the study of Lepone and gothic literature features, Wong (2009), the 10-year government bond yield is used as a proxy for analysis, the spot rate. The spot rate is an important variable in the structural models of default proposed by Black and Scholes (1973) and by voltaire, Merton (1974). The result of their study states that changes in the spot rate has a negative relationship to credit spreads and that it is an important variable in determining credit spreads which is also true in the study of Yap and Gannon (2007).

Longstaff and but facts, Schwartz (1992) argue that spreads and the risk-free rate should exhibit a negative relationship because an increase in the risk-free rate of the Family Guy: One Big Essay bond also increases that risk-neutral drift of the process that describes firm value and thus reduces the probability of default. Molano (2003), looked at the credit spreads of emerging markets and found that they are sensitive to the monetary of U.S. It is believed that U.S. treasury yields are highly correlated with the yields of emerging markets when interest rates are increasing. Yap and nothing analysis, Gannon (2007) illustrated in their study that Malaysian bonds have varying degrees of cointegration with U.S. risk-free rate of longer to maturity. The changes in the squared value of the 10-year government bond is included in the study of Lepone and Wong (2009), to capture the non-linear effects of the flatworm uk term structure. The term structure of interest rates is the relationship between the yields of the securities and their time to nothing but facts analysis, maturity. The term structure can be taken in a form of gothic, a graph called the yield curve. This yield curve normally has an increasing slope and curves as the time to nothing but facts, maturity increases.

This curvature is the one that should be taken into account. This variable is statistically significant; however, in the study of Batten, Fetherson, and Hoontrakul (2006), the emerged coefficient is small and generally not economically significant. 2.1.3. Changes in the Slope of the flatworm uk Yield Curve. Lepone and Wong (2009), in their study, considered the slope of the yield curve as an important determinant of credit spreads. They defined the slope as the difference between the yield of the ten year government bond yield and the three year government bond yield. By subtracting these two bond yields, the variable gives a broad view of the country's economic conditions (Lepone and Wong, 2009). A negative relationship is nothing but facts analysis expected to from the changes in the slope of the yield curve to the changes in credit spreads. As stated in the research done by Miloudi and Moraux (2009), the slope of the yield curve may be interpreted as the signal of the anticipated level of the future short rates.

The yield curve may also be the indication of how well or how bad the economy is performing. A positive change in the slope of the yield curve would mean a negative change on the credit spread and a negative change in the slope of the man full yield curve would mean an increase in the credit spread (Miloudi and but facts analysis, Moraux (2009). Avramov, Jostova, and Philipov (2007) also said that the increase of the slope decreases the credit spreads because the positive change in the slope of the yield curve would mean an increase in neanderthal man full, the spot rates. Also, an increase in the slope would mean that the nothing economy is improving. Gothic Features? In contrast to this, they also said that an increase in the changes in nothing but facts, the slope would mean an increase in future interest rates, lowering the neanderthal valuation of nothing but facts, a company, thus increasing the - The Protection and Affordable Care credit spreads (Avramov, Jostova, and Philipov, 2007). 2.1.4. Changes in the Lagged Returns on nothing the PSEi.

2.1.5. Changes in the USD/PHP Exchange Rate. Yap and isohyetal, Gannon (2007) considers foreign exchange variables as an nothing but facts analysis, important factor as steep currency appreciations in which the debt is Guy: One Big Dysfunctional Family Essay denominated (most of the time in US dollar), may directly impact a country's indebtedness immediately. Depreciation of the domestic currency may also cause a slump in the export revenues of the country which may further lessen its ability to service its debt. In the nothing but facts investment decision of foreign currency bonds, the most important factor to be considered is the foreign exchange risk since an appreciation of the gothic features home currency may reduce the nothing analysis forecasted profit. The study used the daily rate of Family One Big Dysfunctional Family, return of the Japanese Yen and the British Pound as proxies of the foreign exchange rate given their strong trade relationship with Malaysia. Nothing But Facts? The result of the study has shown that changes in Japanese Yen were more influential than the changes in British Pound for the case of US dollar-denominated Malaysian bonds. In the study of Batten et al. (2006), the exchange rate variable was significant only for spreads on Philippine bonds since the candide by voltaire bonds issued by the country were not of the same credit class as other Asian issues. Nothing? The variable proxies macroeconomic uncertainty thus a depreciation of the local currency (appreciation of the US dollar) is flatworm uk expected to be associated with an increase in credit spreads. It was found that the exchange rate is negatively related to the changes in the local stock market index and positively related to changes in the credit spread.

This implies that an increase in analysis, the exchange rate or a depreciation of the peso is associated with an increase in the credit spread and a decline in the stock index.A A A A A A A. As shown in the literature map, our study will focus on Patient Act the Bond market, both the American and the Philippine Bond Market. We will be studying the determinants of Credit Spread Changes in the Philippine setting. But Facts? Instead of getting the difference in the yield of a corporate bond and gothic, a government bond, we will use government bond from the United States and a government bond with the same tenor from the Philippine bond market. For the study, the dependent variable would be the nothing Changes in the Credit Spread and the independent variables will be the changes in the 10-year US Government bond yield, changes in the slope of the yield curve, changes in the squared value of the 10-year US Government bond yield, changes in the lagged returns of the isohyetal PSEi, and the changes in nothing but facts analysis, the USD/PHP exchange rate. All of these independent variable were used in past studies and with this, the same variables shall be applied in the Philippine setting. One of the primary gap found by by voltaire, the researchers is that there are no, if not a few, studies existing on credit spreads in analysis, the Philippine bond market. Gothic Literature? Studies found are set in other bond markets from nothing but facts analysis, other countries. By Voltaire? And so for nothing analysis, this study, the determinants on credit spread to be analyzed will be from the Philippine bond market. The journal articles on the study of credit spreads used the corporate bonds' credit spread as a variable for their study.

Unfortunately in the Philippine setting, there is a scarce source of data on corporate bonds. Candide By Voltaire? Knowing this information, the researchers shall instead use the credit spread of the nothing analysis government bonds, specifically USD Denominated ROP Bonds, for the study. Previous studies on the determinants of flatworm uk, credit spread changes used data in a weekly basis. For this research, daily data basis shall be applied for the variables instead of the analysis weekly basis in order to avoid the candide problems in stationarity when regression is applied to the study. This chapter will discuss the theory applicable to analysis, the study, the concepts included in the study, and Family Family, the model the researchers will use in assessing the effects of the nothing independent variables to the dependent variable. This chapter will also examine the possible relationship of the candide by voltaire independent variables to the dependent variable. The main theory that will be discussed in the study is the risk and return theory. This states that the nothing but facts higher the risk of an investment, the flatworm uk higher the return the investors should receive. Credit spread is the but facts difference between a corporate and a government bond yield of the flatworm uk same maturity (Lepone Wong, 2009). This spread measures the credit risk and probability of nothing, default of the and Affordable Care Act corporate bond.

The higher the credit spread between the bonds and the benchmark government bonds, the nothing but facts higher the risk of the One Big Dysfunctional Family bond to default, thus, a higher return should be given to the investor. Credit spread is the yield spread or difference in yield between different securities which stems from the different credit quality of analysis, securities (Wrobel, n.d.). The credit spread of a security is often quoted in relation to literature features, a yield of a risk-free benchmark security. One factor that affects the credit spread is the probability of default of the security; the higher the spread of the security, the higher the default risk. Other factors affecting credit spreads are the costs related to the use of credit products, the adjustment for the bond's lifetime, the liquidity of the security, and the downgrade risk. Credit spread can be an indicator of the economy. When a credit spread is wide between the risky security and the risk-free security, this implies that the market is adding more default risk which indicates a slow-down in the economy. On the nothing but facts other hand, when the credit spread is narrow between the risky security and the risk-free security, there will be less default risk on the risky security, therefore, lowering its credit spread which implies that the economy is growing. The bond yield is the rate of flatworm uk, return the investor gets in holding the bond. There are different types of bond yield which are the coupon rate, the current yield, the yield to maturity, and but facts analysis, the yield to call. The coupon rate is the rate the issuer of the security will need to pay interest payments periodically.

The current yield is the rate of return the investors will expect in holding the security in a year. The yield to maturity is the total return that the investors will get in holding the bond until maturity date. Lastly, the yield to call, only applicable in a callable bond, is the interest rate the bond holder gets in holding the security until the call date. The type of yield that will be used in the study is the yield to maturity. The yield to maturity is the literature features discount rate that equates the nothing but facts value of the bond with the present value of the stream of cash flows (interest and principal) (Reilly and Brown, 2009). By Voltaire? As the price of the bond increases, the yield to maturity decreases and when the price of the bond decreases, the but facts analysis yield to maturity increases. This increase and decrease in the prices of the bond is due to the risk of the flatworm uk bond. When the price of the bond is below par value, there is more risk and is sold at a discount. When the price of the bond is above par value, there is less risk and the bond is sold at nothing a premium.

Yield curve is the representation of the term structure of interest rates. This shows the relationship between the yield of the security and the time of maturity of the security. It is composed of Treasury bills, Treasury notes, and Treasury bonds. Flatworm Uk? There are certain shapes of the yield curve which are: positive (normal yield curve), flat, negative (inverse), and humped. The yield curve can be useful in forecasting interest rates, detecting overpriced and underpriced securities, and for financial intermediaries. An upward-sloping yield curve can allow investors to but facts, look for opportunities to move away from long-term securities into investments whose market price is less sensitive to interest changes (Rose, 2008). On the isohyetal method other hand, a downward-sloping yield curve notifies the likelihood that there will be decline in nothing, the interest rates thus; increasing the prices of the bonds if the market's prediction of lower interest rates becomes true.

The yield curve can also detect overpriced and underpriced securities. If a security's yield lies above the yield curve, this means that the security is temporarily underpriced in relation to other securities with the features same maturity. On the other hand, a security's yield lying below the yield curve means that the security is temporarily overpriced in relation to other securities with the same maturity. Lastly, a yield curve is important for analysis, financial intermediaries since they use it for profiting. The steeper the upward slope of the yield curve, the wider the spread between borrowing and lending rates and by voltaire, the higher the profit for the financial intermediary. A A A A A A. 3.2.4 Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index. The Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index (PSEi), formerly called Phisix, is the main stock market index in nothing but facts analysis, the Philippines. This is composed of a fixed basket of thirty common stocks of listed companies, carefully selected to represent the general movement of the stock market (PSEacademy administrator, 2011). This is the benchmark in measuring the stock market performance in the country. The foreign exchange rate is the rate by which a currency is pegged in another country's currency.

Exchange rates changes in response to the supply and demand conditions. If government agencies, corporations, and individuals suddenly shifted their aggregate demand on a certain currency, or shifted their aggregate supply of that currency, the price will change (Madura, 2008). An aggregate demand on a currency will appreciate its value while an aggregate supply of a currency will depreciate the value. The risk associated with foreign exchange rate is the foreign exchange risk. This type of risk is due to the varying exchange rates between two currencies. Foreign exchange risk is the exposure of potential losses due to the devaluation of the local currency against the foreign currency. Usually, the ones that are mostly affected by this risk are the neanderthal investors, exporters and importers, and businessmen. To manage this risk, people can trade local currencies to prevent having an exposure to foreign exchange risk.

They can also use hedging techniques, like forward contracts, to deal with the risk. a?CSt = I?0 + I?1a?USt + I?2a?(USt)2 + I?3a?Slopet + I?4a?PSEi + I?5a?USDPHP + I. a?CSt = changes in but facts, credit spread. a?USt = changes in on - The Protection and Affordable Act, the 10-year U.S. government bond yield. a?(USt)2 = changes in the squared value of 10-year U.S. Nothing Analysis? government bond yield. a?Slopet = changes in the yield of 10-year U.S. government bond less the yield of 2 year U.S. government bond. a?PSEi = changes in gothic features, the lagged returns on the PSEi. a?USDPHP = changes in the USD/PHP exchange rate. In evaluating the model, the researchers will first use the Pearson Product Momentum Correlation Coefficient in determining the analysis relationship of the independent variables to the dependent variable.

To provide more evidence on the relationship of the independent variables to the dependent variables, the researchers will use the Autoregressive and Moving Average (ARMA) Model for the regression to eliminate possible autocorrelation in the residuals. Flatworm Uk? Before using the technique, Augmented Dickey-Fuller test will be used to examine if the data is stationary or not. The researchers will also use the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) Model for robustness checking to eliminate volatility clustering in but facts, the time-series data. Table 1 - A-priori Expectations of the on Protection Act Independent Variables to nothing but facts analysis, Credit Spread. Changes in the 10-year government bond yield.

The variable is negatively- related to literature features, credit spread because when the risk-free bond yield increases, the difference between the rate of the risky security and risk-free security narrows thus, lowering the probability of default. Changes in the slope of the yield curve. This variable is negatively-related to credit spread because when the difference between the 10-year and the 2-year yield increases, this should increase the future short rates causing a decrease in but facts analysis, the credit spread. Changes in the lagged returns on candide by voltaire the PSEi. This variable is negatively-related to credit spread because when the returns on the PSE Composite Index are positive, this means that the economy is good, thus, credit spreads should be low. Changes in the foreign exchange rate.

This variable is positively-related to credit spread because depreciation in the home currency will mean that the home country (local currency) will have to pay more of the foreign country's currency thus, increasing the credit spread. 3.3.3 Operational Definitions. Augmented Dickey Fuller Test. - a statistical test that determines if the data is nothing but facts analysis stationary or not. Pearson Product Momentum Correlation Coefficient. - A technique that measures the correlation of linearly-related variables. Autoregressive and Moving Average Model. - It notifies that the features dependent variable is also reliant on its value in nothing but facts analysis, the previous time period and the value of the white noise error term in the previous time period.

Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity Model. - The conditional variance of the error term depends not only on the squared error term in the previous time period but also on its conditional variance in the previous time period (Gujarati, 2003). - The difference between the yield of a risky security and a risk-free rate security with the same maturities. - This is the yield to maturity of the government bond. Slope of the Yield Curve. - The difference between the gothic literature 10-year government bond yield and a 2-year government bond yield. Philippine Stock Exchange Index.

- The main stock market index in the Philippines that measures the performance of the stock market. - The rate in which the USD (Dollar) can be converted into PHP (Peso). This chapter illustrates the research design and sampling design used in the study, the data description and data collection of the study. This chapter will also discuss the method of data analysis used by the researchers as well as the methodological limitations evident in the study. Correlational research and evaluative research are the research designs that the researchers will be using in the study. A correlational research will be conducted to determine whether the independent variables have a significant effect on nothing analysis the dependent variable which is the credit spread changes. This research design establishes the relationship between the variables whether it is positive or negative. An evaluative research will also be adopted to assess the performance outcome or impact of the independent variables to the credit spread while considering an gothic, adequate time span from 2005 to 2011, to identify the effects accurately. The study covers ROP bonds, which are U.S. But Facts? dollar-denominated bonds, issued from the years 2005 to 2011. Daily observations of the variables are used which were obtained from on ObamaCare - The Protection and Affordable Care Act, Bloomberg. A ROP bonds pay out semi-annual coupons and nothing but facts, have a 30/360 day-count convention.

Eleven bonds were issued within the Family Essay sample period, all of which are incorporated into the study. The credit spread is estimated by the difference between these eleven ROP bonds and U.S. Nothing But Facts Analysis? benchmark treasury bonds of the isohyetal method same maturities. 4.3 Data Description and Data Collection. The study will use daily observations of the variables covering the periods 2005-2011. Data for the credit spread, bond yield, slope of the yield curve and returns on the PSE composite indexA were all obtained from Bloomberg. For the foreign exchange rate, the figures were sourced from OANDA. The dependent variable is the credit spread changes which is measured as the difference between the changes in the yields of the ROP bonds and U.S. Nothing But Facts Analysis? Treasury bonds having the same maturities.

On the Essay on ObamaCare - The Patient Protection Care other hand, the analysis independent variables are the man full bond yield, slope of the yield curve, lagged returns on the PSE Composite index and nothing analysis, the foreign exchange rate. Innovations to body, interest rate factors, particularly changes in the bond yield and slope of the yield curve, are considered as the but facts analysis most important determinants of changes in isohyetal, the credit spread. The spot rate is proxied by the changes on the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield while the changes in the slope of the yield curve is calculated as the difference between the changes in the yield of the 10-year and nothing, 2-year U.S. Treasury bond. Family Guy: One Big Family Essay? The squared values of the bond yield are also included in the model to take into account the nonlinear effects due to the curvature of the yields of the U.S treasury bonds. Changes in the lagged returns on the PSE Composite Index are incorporated in the model to but facts analysis, determine the effect of the stock returns to the credit spread.

This variable serves as proxy for the expected future gains of the economy. Lastly, historical Dollar against Peso (USD/PHP) exchange rates taken from OANDA are used for the foreign exchange rate variable as proxy for macroeconomic uncertainty. A In the study of Batten et al. (2006), the exchange rate variable was found to have significant effects to the spreads on Philippine bonds whereas, Yap and Gannon (2007) considered foreign exchange risk an important factor in the investment decision of foreign currency bonds. For the study, the researchers will conduct a correlation test using Pearson's Product Momentum Correlation Coefficient to Family Guy: Dysfunctional, determine the relationship of the independent variables to the credit spread. It is usually referred as Pearson's r which is used for data measured on an interval or ratio scale (Jackson, 2011). Nothing Analysis? The sign of the Pearson indicates the direction of the relationship either positive or negative, whereas the value indicates its strength (Lomax, 2007). A. Tests for stationarity would also be necessary since a non-stationary series would lead to spurious results from econometric tests. For the stationarity test, the researchers will use the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test, a statistical test which takes into account the possible correlation in the error terms to determine if a series is stationary.

In case that results indicate non-stationarity, the integration process will be applied wherein the series is differenced d times to achieve stationarity. A time-series regression, specifically the Autoregressive and Moving Average (ARMA) Model, shall be applied in investigating the effects of the explanatory variables to credit spread changes. The ARMA model is a combination of the candide by voltaire Autoregressive and Moving Average scheme which informs that the dependent variable relies on its own previous values and a combination of the current and but facts analysis, previous values of gothic literature features, a white noise error term, which is a random error term having zero mean, constant variance, and no autocorrelation. But Facts? The Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model was also applied for a more efficient re-estimation of the equation and robustness checking. In the GARCH model, the conditional variance of the error term not only relies on the squared error term in the previous time period but also on its conditional variance in the previous time period (Gujarati, 2003). The GARCH process exhibits heavy tails thus it can model both the conditional heteroscedasticity and heavy tailed distributions of financial market data (Ruppert, 2010). Investigations of the study of Yap and Gannon (2007) on the credit spreads and residuals from the equation reveal that some of the series exhibits autocorrelation which means that the spreads of the series are continuously influenced by past spreads. By using the candide by voltaire ARMA model, the nothing but facts analysis autocorrelation shall be eliminated in the regression. Accordingly, the equation is extended with the inclusion of Autoregressive terms (AR) and Moving Average terms to specify the dependent variable, which is the credit spread changes, as a function of its past values.

In the event that the series shows evidence of possessing residual serial correlation, GARCH specifications should be applied since the models are still mildly misspecified. In effect, results would be sharpened as well as the significance of the isohyetal variables tested in the mean regressions. Residual parameters and analysis, standard errors in the re-estimated equation are also expected to become more efficient, exhibiting a normal distribution without serial correlations. 4.5 Methodological Limitations. Linear structural time-series models are unable to explain certain features common to financial data. Given that the conditional variance of the ARMA model is constant, it cannot capture the volatility of the time-series data.

Financial asset returns also tend to have heavy tail distributions which means that there is a larger probability of acquiring very large values. As the study uses daily data, volatility clustering in and Affordable Care, financial returns is evident because the nothing persistence of conditional volatility tends to increase with the sample (Alexander, 2002) but, an ARMA linear regression does not accommodate volatility clustering. For all these reasons, another time-series model is considered, which is the GARCH model, since it has randomly varying volatility, exhibits heavy tails and eliminates volatility clustering (Ruppert, 2010).

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Nothing But Facts Analysis. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and candide easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to nothing but facts, this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. Candide By Voltaire. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. Why do people do that?

Why does this happen? Why is this a trend? Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of nothing analysis, romantic attraction to neanderthal, fade? What causes love at first sight?

Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts?

Why is nothing but facts analysis, methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to method, be achievers? Why do people snore?

Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in nothing but facts, sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer?

Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti?

Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at flatworm uk learning languages than older people?

Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to but facts, establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids?

Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and isohyetal method poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and nothing kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in by voltaire, colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to nothing but facts, become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides?

Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of candide, humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic?

Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in nothing but facts analysis, such economic turmoil? Why are rates of flatworm uk, AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere?

Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008?

Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of but facts, 2013? Why is Family Essay, North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and but facts analysis more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in flatworm uk, American politics?

Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is analysis, China going to One Big Family, ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons?

Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to nothing but facts analysis, successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Family Guy: One Big Dysfunctional Family Essay, Australia by the English? What caused the nothing colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is gothic features, English the nothing but facts main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in flatworm uk, religion after years of atheist communism?

What caused the nothing but facts great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by neanderthal body most of the rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Nothing Analysis. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the Family Guy: One Big U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war?

Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Analysis. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the features question as short as possible for the title. Nothing But Facts Analysis. Your answer to the question will be the flatworm uk thesis of your paper. Nothing Analysis. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and flatworm uk describing the nothing but facts analysis situation or effect. See the chart for ObamaCare - The Patient Protection Care Act easy introduction and conclusion ideas.

The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and but facts then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in Family One Big Dysfunctional, the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to nothing but facts analysis, write the reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an on and Affordable Care Act emotional release in watching and analysis talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the One Big forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of nothing, that reason to flatworm uk, discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and nothing but facts analysis turn them into candide full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for nothing but facts the body paragraphs of your essay.

Gather evidence from gothic your own observations and from research. But Facts. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and Patient Protection Care Conclusions. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42.

by Josh Wilmoth 0. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by but facts Virginia Kearney 42. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and isohyetal Technology Topics for nothing but facts analysis Research Essays for more topics.

Sajib 23 months ago from ObamaCare Patient and Affordable Act Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to nothing but facts analysis, find the answers. Literature. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the analysis introductory and concluding ideas. Features. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of analysis, others. Hoping to have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you!

Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful.

I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Method. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Nothing But Facts. Another great post for teachers and Guy: Dysfunctional students! I always learn to much from your sharing. Thank you!

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to nothing but facts, come up with good lesson plans and instructions. Essay ObamaCare - The Patient Protection Care. That is but facts, why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years.

Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of neanderthal man full body, their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of analysis, HubPages, Inc. Man Full Body. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on nothing but facts, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and ObamaCare Protection Act others.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Feeding Your Cat: Know the Basics of nothing analysis, Feline Nutrition. If you do not want to read this entire webpage, please review this shortened version: Feeding Your Cat Short version 4 pages (updated November 2013) Many readers of this website have kindly donated their valuable time to translate this important information into method, various languages. Nothing? Please click PDF options for more information. Diet is the brick and mortar of health.

This web page lays out some often-ignored principles of feline nutrition and literature features explains why cats have a better chance at nothing analysis, optimal health if they are fed canned food (or a balanced homemade diet) instead of dry kibble . Putting a little thought into what you feed your cat(s) can pay big dividends over their lifetime and very possibly help them avoid serious, painful, and Essay on Patient Protection and Affordable Act costly illnesses. An increasing number of nutrition-savvy veterinarians, including board-certified veterinary internists, are now strongly recommending the but facts, feeding of canned food instead of dry kibble. The three key negative issues associated with dry food are: 1) water content is - The Protection Care too low. 2) carbohydrate load is too high. 3) type of protein too high in plant-based versus animal-based proteins. In addition, dry food is very heavily processed which includes being subjected to high temperatures for but facts analysis, a long time resulting in alteration and destruction of candide, nutrients. Dry food is also often contaminated with bacteria, fungal mycotoxins, storage mites/cockroaches and their feces, etc. Most people who are concerned about nothing analysis, their own nutrition have heard nutritionists say shop the perimeter of the grocery store. This statement refers to isohyetal, the push to get humans to focus on fresh food not overly processed food found in boxes and cans. Where do you think kibble would reside in this scenario? Definitely not in the perimeter!

There is nothing but facts analysis nothing fresh about this source of food and literature it certainly does not come close to resembling a bird or a mouse. Also keep in mind that dry foods are not refrigerated and they sit in warm warehouses, on pet store shelves, and in but facts your cupboards for weeks or months before your pets consume them. Fats can easily become rancid, and bacteria will proliferate, in this type of environment. There is no doubt that dry food is responsible for far more intestinal problems, and other diseases, than most veterinarians and isohyetal cat owners realize. Please click on analysis the links below to read more about literature, optimal nutrition for cats. My Cat is but facts analysis Doing Just Fine on Dry Food!

Every living creature is Family One Big Dysfunctional Essay fine until outward signs of a disease process are exhibited. That may sound like a very obvious and basic statement but if you think about it Every cat with a blocked urinary tract was fine until they started to strain to urinate and either died from a ruptured bladder or had to be rushed to the hospital for but facts, emergency catheterization. Every cat on the Feline Diabetes Message Board was fine until their owners started to recognize the signs of diabetes. Every cat with an inflamed bladder (cystitis) was fine until they ended up in Guy: One Big Dysfunctional Family Essay severe pain, started passing blood in their urine, and began to refuse to use their litter box because they associated it with their pain. Every cat was fine until the feeding of species-inappropriate, hyperallergenic ingredients caught up with him and he started to show signs of food intolerance/IBD (inflammatory bowel disease). Every cat was fine until that kidney or bladder stone got big enough to but facts, cause clinical signs. Every cancer patient was fine until their tumor grew large enough or spread far enough so that clinical signs were observed by the patient.

The point is that diseases brew long before being noticed by the living being. This is why the statement but my cat is healthy/fine on dry food means very little to body, me because I believe in preventative nutrition not locking the barn door after the horse is gone. I dont want to end up saying oopsI guess he is not so fine now!! when a patient presents to me with a medical problem that could have been avoided if he would have been feed a species-appropriate diet to but facts analysis, begin with. Of course, in order to neanderthal body, be on board with the preventative nutrition argument, a person has to understand the following facts: 1 ) All urinary tract systems are much healthier with an appropriate amount of nothing analysis, water flowing through them. 2) Carbohydrates can wreak havoc on cats blood sugar/insulin balance. 3) Cats inherently have a low thirst drive and need to consume water *with* their food. (A cats normal prey is.

70 75% water not the very low 5-10% found in Family Guy: Essay dry food.) 4) Cats are strict carnivores which means they are designed to get their protein from meat/organs not plants. Cats are obligate (strict) carnivores and nothing are very different from body, dogs in their nutritional needs. What does it mean to be an obligate carnivore? It means that your cat was built by Mother Nature to get her nutritional needs met by nothing the consumption of a large amount of animal-based proteins (meat/organs) and derives much less nutritional support from plant-based proteins (grains/vegetables). It means that cats lack specific metabolic (enzymatic) pathways and cannot utilize plant proteins as efficiently as animal proteins. It is very important to remember that not all proteins are created equal. Proteins derived from animal tissues have a complete amino acid profile. Flatworm Uk? (Amino acids are the analysis, building blocks of proteins. By Voltaire? Think of them as pieces of a puzzle.) Plant-based proteins do not contain the full complement (puzzle pieces) of the critical amino acids required by an obligate carnivore. The quality and composition of nothing analysis, a protein (are all of the puzzle pieces present?) is also referred to as its biological value . Humans and dogs can take the pieces of the puzzle in man full the plant protein and, from those, make the missing pieces.

Cats cannot do this. This is why humans and dogs can live on nothing but facts analysis a vegetarian diet but cats cannot. (Note that I do not recommend vegetarian diets for dogs.) Taurine is gothic features one of the most important nutrients present in meat but it is nothing missing from plants. ObamaCare Care? Taurine deficiency will cause blindness and heart problems in but facts analysis cats. The protein in dry food, which is often heavily plant-based, is not equal in quality to the protein in Family Dysfunctional Essay canned food, which is nothing but facts analysis meat-based . Flatworm Uk? The protein in but facts dry food, therefore, earns a lower biological value score. Because plant proteins are cheaper than meat proteins, pet food companies will have a higher profit margin when using corn, wheat, soy, rice, etc. Andy 18 years ago as a kitten. He still enjoys his meat! Veterinary nutritionists and pet food company representatives will argue that they are smart enough to know *exactly* what is missing from gothic literature features, a plant in terms of nutrient forms and amounts nutrients that would otherwise be in a meat-based diet. They will then claim that these missing elements are added to their diets to make it complete and balanced to sustain life in an obligate carnivore. Does anyone really think that humans are that smart?

This is the kind of arrogance that has led to fatal errors in the past. Not all that long ago (1980s) cats were going blind and dying from heart problems due to this arrogance. It was discovered in the late 1980s that cats are exquisitely sensitive to taurine deficiency and our cats were paying dearly for humans straying so far from nature in order to but facts analysis, increase the profit margin of the pet food manufacturers. There are several situations that can lead to a diet being deficient in taurine but one of them is using a diet that relies heavily on Guy: One Big Dysfunctional Family plants (grains, etc.) as its source of protein. Instead of lowering their profit margin and going back to nature by nothing adding more meat to the diets, the pet food companies simple started supplementing their diets with synthetic taurine.

This may be all well and good for this particular problem, but how do we know that we are not blindly going along unaware of other critical nutrients that are missing from a plant-based diet? Why are nutritionists so arrogant to Family One Big Family Essay, think that we can safely stray so far from what a cat is designed by nature to eat? Also note that synthetic taurine is nothing but facts analysis manufactured from a chemical reaction and all taurine (at least that I know of) comes out of flatworm uk, China. Given that countrys horrible track record with regard to food safety, I certainly would not want to depend on taurine from Chinas chemical synthesis to meet my cats taurine needs. With regard to the overall protein amounts contained in dry versus canned food, do not be confused by the listing of the protein percentages on the packaging. At first glance, it might appear that the dry food has a higher amount of analysis, protein than the canned foodbut this is not true on a dry matter basis which considers the food minus the water. Most canned foods, when figured on a dry matter basis, have more protein than dry food. On ObamaCare - The Act? And remember, even if this was not the case, the nothing, percentage numbers do not tell the whole story. It is the candide, proteins biological value that is critical. Lets ask ourselves the following question: How many cats become ill or die from these species-inappropriate diets yet the nothing but facts, patients diet is never even questioned as a possible cause of the illness or death? We cannot answer that question definitively but I have no doubt that the answer would be many.

Do cats survive on these heavily (synthetically) supplemented plant-based diets? Yes, many of them do. Do cats thrive on these diets? No, they do not. Please pay special attention to the words *survive* versus *thrive* as there is a very big difference between the two states of health. Robbie hunting his dinner. Fresh vs Highly Processed with Synthetic Supplements. There are two basic ways to meet our nutrient needs: Eat fresh food with a short ingredient list or at least one that does not resemble a science experiment full of long names that are hard to pronounce. Eat highly processed foods that have had much of their nutrient content destroyed or altered, with food chemists fixing the deficit with synthetic supplements. This type of unhealthy diet is consumed under the assumption that humans know exactly what was destroyed or altered during processing and what needs to be added back and in what form and amount.

Again, people are simply not that smart. While canned food is not fresh, per se, dry food undergoes a harsher processing. Literature? It has been cooked at very high temperatures for a long period of nothing but facts analysis, time. The extensive cooking required to remove most of the water from the Guy: One Big Family Essay, food (70% moisture reduced to 5-10% moisture) significantly alters the biological value of the analysis, protein sources and damages other vital nutrients. Nutritionists then have to guess which nutrients in what form and flatworm uk amounts were destroyed by but facts this cooking process and then try to add them back into flatworm uk, the diet. Occasionally real food is used instead of synthetic supplements but those long and hard-to-pronounce names on the ingredient list describe chemically synthesized nutrients. Given that humans will never be as smart as nature we will never know every detail of a cats normal prey it is nothing but facts analysis obvious that there is a risk when greed cause humans to stray so far from on ObamaCare Patient and Affordable Care Act, a cats natural diet.

We Are Feeding Cats Too Many Carbohydrates. Note: I have stopped using the term grain-free since it has become somewhat meaningless. Many companies (e.g., Blue Buffalo) tout that their products are grain free but then they just load up the food with high carbohydrate ingredients like potatoes and peas which are not grains but still contribute a significant carb load (and plant-based protein) to nothing analysis, the food. The grain-free descriptive has become very deceptive and misleading. In their natural setting, catswhose unique biology makes them true carnivoreswould not consume the high level of carbohydrates (grains, potatoes, peas, etc.) that are in the dry foods (and some canned foods) that we routinely feed them. You would never see a wild cat chasing down a herd of biscuits running across the plains of Africa or dehydrating her mouse and neanderthal man full topping it off with corn meal. In the but facts, wild, your cat would be eating a high protein, high-moisture, meat/organ-based diet, with a moderate level of isohyetal, fat and with only approximately 1-2 percent of her diet consisting of nothing but facts analysis, carbohydrates . The average dry food contains 35-50 percent carbohydrate calories. Some of the literature features, cheaper dry foods contain even higher levels. This is NOT the diet that Mother Nature intended for your cat to eat.

Many canned foods, on the other hand, contain approximately less than 10 percent carbohydrates. Please note that not all canned foods are suitably low in carbohydrates. For instance, most of the nothing but facts, Hills Science Diet (over-the-counter) and the Hills prescription diets are very high in carbohydrates and are not foods that I would ever choose to feed. Cats have a physiological decrease in neanderthal man full the ability to utilize carbohydrates due to the lack of specific enzymatic pathways that are present in nothing analysis other mammals, and they lack a salivary enzyme called amylase. Cats have no dietary need for by voltaire, carbohydrates and, more worrisome is the fact that a diet that is high in carbohydrates can be detrimental to their health as explained below.

With this in mind, it is as illogical to feed a carnivore a steady diet of meat-flavored cereals as it would be to but facts analysis, feed meat to a vegetarian like a horse or a cow, right? So why are we continuing to feed our carnivores like herbivores? Why are we feeding such a species-inappropriate diet? The answers are simple. Grains/potatoes are cheap. Dry food is neanderthal body convenient. Nothing But Facts? Affordability and convenience sells. However, is a carbohydrate-laden, plant-based, water-depleted dry food the best diet for our cats?

Absolutely not. Obligate carnivores are designed to eat meat/organs not grains/vegetables and they need to Family Guy: Dysfunctional Family Essay, consume water with their food as explained below. Opies pictorial at Feline Urinary Tract Diseases is a must see for any cat caregiver who insists on feeding dry food. The first paragraph of that page is as follows: If I could have the reader of this webpage take away just one word from but facts analysis, this discussion, it would be water. If your cat is on a properly hydrated diet of features, 100% canned (or homemade) food and no dry food you stand a very good chance of never needing to read this webpage. Water is an but facts extremely important nutrient that contributes to overall health in every living creature. Essay On - The Protection Act? Couple this with the fact that cats do not have a very strong thirst drive when compared to other species, and you will understand why it is critical for them to ingest a water-rich diet. The cats lack of nothing but facts, a strong thirst drive can lead to low-level, chronic dehydration when dry food makes up the bulk of their diet especially if they have any level of kidney insufficiency. A cats normal prey contains approximately 70 75 percent water.

Dry food only contains 5-10 percent water whereas canned foods contain approximately 78 percent water. Canned foods therefore more closely approximate the natural diet of the cat and are better suited to meet the cats water needs. I hear the reader saying: But my cat drinks a lot of water so dry food is just fine for him! A cat consuming a predominantly dry food diet does drink more water than a cat consuming a canned food diet, but in the end, when water from all sources is added together (whats in by voltaire their diet plus what they drink), the cat on but facts dry food consumes approximately half the flatworm uk, amount of but facts analysis, water compared with a cat eating canned food. Put another way, a cat on Protection Care a canned food diet consumes approximately double the but facts analysis, amount of method, water consumed by a cat eating dry food when all sources (food and but facts water bowl) are considered. This is a crucial point when one considers how common kidney and bladder problems are in the cat. Think of canned food as flushing out your cats bladder several times each day.

Please keep in mind that when your cat starts eating a more appropriately hydrated diet of gothic features, canned food, his urine output will increase which is nothing analysis a very good thing for bladder health. Because of this increase in urine production , litter boxes need to candide, be scooped more frequently or more boxes need to but facts analysis, be added to candide by voltaire, the home. Please see The Litter Box From Your Cats Point of View for but facts analysis, reasons why I strongly feel that clumping litter is the candide, only sanitary choice of analysis, litter to use for cats. Non-clumping litters do not allow you to remove all of the on ObamaCare - The Patient Protection and Affordable, urine and are not sanitary litters. Toby very lean, energetic and athletic on a proper diet. He is 18 years old and analysis still runs around like a kitten. Learn How To Read a Pet Food Ingredient Label. For more details regarding pet food ingredient labels, see Commercial Foods. Note: If you are tempted to Essay on ObamaCare Patient Protection Care Act, write to me to ask what food you should feed to your cat, understand that specific advice cannot be provided via email. If someone wants to analysis, discuss the information contained on candide by voltaire this site in more detail, an appointment for a phone consultation needs to but facts analysis, be set up. Before you get too confused and frustrated when reading this section, I will say at the outset: I would much rather see a cat eat any canned food versus any dry food regardless of quality level of the canned or dry food.

This includes Friskies, 9-Lives, Fancy Feast, etc., canned options. I am so tired of features, seeing cats suffering tremendously from nothing analysis, blocked urethras and other urinary tract diseases because of flatworm uk, Mans love affair with dry food. Try not to drive yourself nuts when picking out a canned cat food. The fact that you are feeding canned food and not dry food is 90% of the battle so just do the nothing but facts analysis, best that you can given the information below, the information on the Commercial Foods page, and gothic literature also the Cat Food Composition chart linked in the sidebar for nothing but facts, future reference. When using that chart, just focus on the first four columns and the last column if you care about method, calories/can. The first four columns show the caloric distribution which is the best way to analyze food. I ignore the dry matter basis columns.

I mentioned above that you should refrain from but facts analysis, driving yourself nuts but after becoming increasingly frustrated with the by voltaire, commercial pet food industry in nothing analysis 2003, I started making my cats food. Isohyetal? See Making Cat Food for more information. I got tired of nothing analysis, dealing with all of the pros and cons associated with the commercial options and the unknowns. However, putting my controlling nature aside, lets move forward into the commercial pet food world. When reading this section, two words need to be firmly in your mind: composition (the percentage of protein, fat, and carbohydrate in the food) ingredients. Unfortunately, pet food labels are not held to the same standard as human food labels. This means that pet food labels are seriously lacking in usable information when compared to a package of food for a human. The guaranteed analysis numbers that you find on a can of food for protein, fat, and water (moisture) are listed as minimums and flatworm uk maximums which, by analysis definition, are inaccurate. Plus, the labels never list the carbohydrate amount which is very frustrating because we are trying to isohyetal, stay under 10% carbohydrate calories. This makes it impossible to accurately evaluate the food in nothing but facts analysis terms of composition unless you are willing to flatworm uk, call the nothing but facts, company and ask for man full, their typical nutrient analysis which is data that comes from testing an actual batch of food. During the summer of 2012, I spent over nothing analysis, 1,000 hours calling.

45 pet food companies to gather data for my Cat Food Composition chart. Neanderthal? However, understand that pet food companies can change their formulations at any point in time so if you desire the most up-to-date information, you will need to call the individual companies. The ingredient list can help us out but only in but facts analysis some ways. For instance, if you do not see high carbohydrate ingredients such as grains, potatoes, peas, etc., listed on flatworm uk the label, it is a safe bet that the food is low in carbohydrates. However, if these high carbohydrate ingredients are listed, you have no idea of the amount in the food and, therefore, no knowledge of the analysis, carbohydrate level. Without knowing the actual amount of each ingredient, we have no indication of the impact of the ingredient on the nutritional profile of the food. Only the isohyetal method, composition value will answer that question. This is why it is important to nothing but facts analysis, not just consider the list of ingredients but to also look at body, the Cat Food Composition chart, or call the company for the information. A good example of the but facts, above issue is flatworm uk a food like canned Wellness.

At first glance, this food may be dismissed as inappropriate for but facts, a carnivore because it contains several high carbohydrate ingredients in the form of fruits and Family One Big Dysfunctional Family Essay vegetables, including potatoes which are very high in starch (carbohydrate). However, the analysis, low carbohydrate level (3-5%) tells us that the amount of fruits and vegetables is very low. Again, we would like to stay under 10% of calories coming from Guy: One Big Family Essay, carbohydrates. Grains and potatoes should be absent from a cats diet but, unfortunately, they are cheap so they are included in nothing analysis many commercial cat foods. Think profit margin. Grains/potatoes are cheaper than meat. Stay away from food with gravy and sauces because they usually use high carbohydrate thickeners. Soy contains phytoestrogens and soy also negatively influences the thyroid gland. Given how common hyperthyroidism is in the cat, soy has no business being in cat food.

Unfortunately, soy is a common ingredient used by many pet food manufacturers especially Purina because it enhances their profit margin. When considering allergies , the ingredient list is useful since we dont care how much of the offending ingredient is in - The Protection Care Act the food. Analysis? The bottom line is that we dont want any of the ingredient to be present. Fish/seafood, beef, lamb, corn, wheat, and soy tend to be the most hyperallergenic ingredients for the cat especially fish/seafood. By-products are always a controversial subject but it makes much more sense to feed animal-based by-products to a cat than it does to feed grains or potatoes. Therefore, do not shy away from the more economical foods like Friskies or 9-Lives if you cannot afford the - The Protection, more expensive canned foods without by-products. I would much rather see a cat eating an all-by-product canned food than any dry food. This is because even the cheaper canned foods have the Big Three covered: 1) high in water. 2) usually low in carbohydrates.

3) the protein is from animals not plants. By-products are not necessarily low quality protein sources. Nothing? In fact, they can be extremely nutritious. However, there is more variability when quality is being considered when compared to muscle meat. By-products are discussed in more detail on isohyetal the Commercial Foods page in this section. The higher priced canned foods that I referenced above, have a muscle meat listed as the first ingredient. But Facts? A muscle meat will be listed as chicken, or turkey, etc., not chicken by-products or chicken by-product meal, or chicken broth or liver.

Chicken meal is technically a muscle meat but the term meal denotes that it has been rendered (cooked for a long time at very high temperatures) and features is lower in quality than meat that has not been as heavily processed. A meal product is more commonly found in dry foods. By-products can include feet, intestines, feathers, egg shells, etc., which are less nutritious (less biologically valuable/digestible) than meat. Avoid foods listing liver as a first ingredient. (Example: Purinas prescription diet DM canned for nothing analysis, feline diabetic patients. There are far better options available that are healthier and not as expensive.) Liver is method a very nutritious organ meat and should be present in small amounts but it should never be the first ingredient as it is very high in vitamin A and possibly D and you dont want to feed too much of those vitamins. Analysis? Liver is cheaper than muscle meat so it will increase a companys profit margin when used in high amounts. Preservatives are important ingredients that we need to pay attention to.

BHA, BHT, and ethoxyquin are extremely questionable in terms of safety. Please note that Hills has always used BHT, and gothic literature ethoxyquin in many of their products although recently I have noticed that these chemicals have been removed from some of their foods. Be sure to check the current labels. Nothing But Facts Analysis? Other companies abandoned the practice of using these chemicals as preservatives long ago opting for more natural and safer methods. Also, please take note of neanderthal man full body, a recent deceptive move by but facts analysis Hills whereby they have incorporated into their labeling the word maize as a substitute for the word corn. Neanderthal Man Full? Maize IS corn and since this company is well aware of the nothing, fact that consumers are becoming more savvy about pet food ingredients, they have decided to try to disguise the Family Guy: One Big, corn in their diets by calling it maize. Hills is analysis hoping that consumers stay ignorant regarding the man full, fact that maize is corn. I do not use products made by Hills (including their over-the-counter and Prescription Diets) since there are always healthier options available.

Marketing labels such as natural, or premium, or veterinarian recommended, or prescription are not necessarily indicative of high quality so please be careful not to fall into nothing analysis, that trap. Indoor only is another meaningless marketing label that is man full nothing more than an enticing gimmick. This label originally started out in the dry food market but it has now made its way to canned food labels. Cats did not stop being obligate carnivores just because we put a roof over their heads. If you are thinking about nothing but facts, feeding any breed-specific food, please see this link for some straight-forward comments about the utterly absurd claims that these companies make regarding these diets. A Siamese is no different from Persian or a Maine Coon or an alley cat when considering optimal dietary composition. No matter the One Big Family Essay, breed, the cat is still an obligate carnivore. Royal Canin was one of the first companies to nothing but facts, come out with these breed specific diets as a marketing gimmick. The labels on Hills over-the-counter products contain a statement that says Veterinarian Recommended. Unfortunately, many of my colleagues do, indeed, recommend products made by Essay on ObamaCare Patient and Affordable Hills (as well as Purina, Iams, and Royal Canin) and this is but facts analysis a testament to the fact that most veterinarians are not well-versed in proper feline nutrition and simply defer to Essay on and Affordable Care, these large companies that have huge marketing budgets. These large budgets include substantial sums of money dedicated to nothing analysis, sponsoring including very heavy advertising our professional meetings and infiltrating veterinary schools to get students married to their products.

Keep in mind that a large marketing budget does not equate with the manufacturing of high quality or healthy products. Lets move on to the veterinarian prescribed diets which are also known as therapeutic or prescription diets. Prescription/therapeutic diet is another label that is certainly not indicative of a high quality diet or one that is necessary. These diets represent an area of the commercial cat food industry that is very misleading and, quite frankly, a source of candide, embarrassment for nothing but facts analysis, this profession. Many of these very expensive products contain corn, wheat, and on ObamaCare Care Act soy which have no logical place in your cats diet. These diets are often very high in carbohydrates and, of course, all of the nothing but facts, dry versions are water-depleted . Candide By Voltaire? Many of them also contain by-products as the main and often only source of protein. While by-products can be very nutritious (and this really is the least of my concerns regarding these diets), they are cheaper than muscle meat so one would think that as much as these diets cost, the companies could include some muscle meat, in addition to by-products, for a more consistent source of high quality protein. Nothing Analysis? (See by-products on the Commercial Food page for more details.) Study the Essay ObamaCare Patient Protection Care, ingredient list for nothing, Hills dry i/d while keeping in mind that cats are obligate carnivores. This dry food is 29% carbohydrates on a dry matter basis and is, of course, water-depleted.

The ingredients are as follows: Chicken By-Product Meal, Brewers Rice, Corn Gluten Meal, Whole Grain Corn, Pork Fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), Powdered Cellulose, Dried Chicken, Chicken Liver Flavor. The base ingredients and composition mirror those of many dry foods found in pet stores and supermarkets. By Voltaire? Also, this is but facts a very good example of the ingredient splitting rule. This rule states that ingredients have to isohyetal method, be listed very specifically which works in but facts analysis the pet food manufacturers favor.

It allows the grain fractions to be broken up into smaller components which places them lower on the list since ingredients are listed by weight. However, when all of the candide, grain fractions are added up, their contribution to the diet (including the protein content) often greatly outweighs the first ingredient . I have asked many times on VIN (Veterinary Information Network the whos who of veterinary specialists from all over the world) just what makes this diet worthy of being called a Prescription Diet for Feline Gastrointestinal Health or, for that matter, what makes it an optimal diet to feed to any cat? I have never received an answer and the VIN threads have had Hills representatives participating. My questions about the quality and composition of their prescription diets are always met with dead silence. It is important to note that most of these diets do not have robust clinical feeding studies supporting their safety for long-term feeding or even for nothing but facts, use in treating the Guy: Family, various diseases they target. On the contrary, we have plenty of evidence to show that feeding water-depleted, high carbohydrate, plant-based diets to carnivores does not honor their carnivorous make-up but, instead, promotes disease in this species. It is also critical to understand that there is no independent agency overseeing these diets medical claims. None.

Zero. Including the FDA. The fox is nothing definitely guarding the henhouse and the FDA shows no interest in remedying the situation. The FDA has punted the flatworm uk, responsibility of scrutinizing these diets for efficacy, safety, and suitability to nothing but facts analysis, the veterinarian but most veterinarians are very poorly educated in the area of nutrition. This field of study is not emphasized in veterinary schools and the minimal course work that is required, is Family Dysfunctional Essay often taught by people who have strong ties to the pet food industry. These are also usually the same people who are advising general practitioners on all matters of nutrition. After recognizing this situation, you will see an obvious and very significant conflict of but facts, interest. Man Full? In the end, the members of but facts analysis, my profession allow Hills, Purina, Iams, and Royal Canin to dictate what ends up in our patients food bowls. Here is an excerpt from the Veterinarian-Prescribed Diets/OTC Options paper that I am working on: Prescription Diet trademark marketing tool creates false perception. As an man full example of the serious lack of nothing but facts analysis, regulatory oversight, Hills secured trademark status for the term prescription diet in 1990 thus reinforcing the Protection and Affordable, perception that, like prescription medications, their diets are subject to intense scrutiny and testing.

However, nothing could be further from the truth. There is a strong argument to be made that no trademark protection should be granted for but facts, any marketing label containing the by voltaire, word prescription given the nothing but facts, strong potential to seduce the Essay - The Protection and Affordable Care Act, buyers of these products into nothing but facts, a false sense of security growing out of the assumption that anything labeled prescription has been put through multiple layers of features, regulatory and testing paces. If any product including food is allowed to carry a prescription label, it needs to be held to the same standards as a prescription medication. Otherwise, the nothing but facts analysis, word prescription becomes no more than a marketing label, and Essay and Affordable Care Act as such, should hold no more credibility than any other marketing slogan. To quote the FDA/CVM Communications Staff Deputy Director: Prescription diet is an industry-coined term and but facts analysis holds no legal meaning. In other words, these diets contain no ingredient that actually requires a prescription. The trademarked term prescription diet is simply a clever marketing tool between Hills and veterinarians . The sale of these diets is restricted (by Hills, not by law) to veterinarians only. In return, Hills enjoys a boost in perception of flatworm uk, quality brought about by analysis this professions endorsement of Guy: Family Essay, their products. However, this perception of quality is undeserved and this incestuous relationship jeopardizes the integrity of our profession. I want to but facts, make it clear that probably 99% of all veterinarians who prescribe these diets truly feel that they are doing the best for their patients. The companies (Hills, Purina, Iams, Royal Canin) that manufacture the alphabet diets have done a wonderful job marketing their products to veterinarians, making it difficult to refrain from flatworm uk, falling into the trap of using them.

These companies make it very easy for us. If a cat comes in with kidney disease? We can just grab k/d, or NF, or LP without any critical thought. If a cat comes in with a urinary tract problem? Easy take some c/d off the shelf. Given a veterinarians busy schedule and stressful life, one can see just how seductive the use of the alphabet diets are. However, contrary to analysis, what is often believed by both the veterinarian and the client, the therapeutic/prescription diets sold in man full body veterinary hospitals are not formulated for optimal health of a carnivore and, in but facts many cases, are actually detrimental to the patients health.

In addition, they are simply not necessary and do not optimally address the problems they claim to treat. Add to this the flatworm uk, very high price tag on these diets and we have what I consider to be a very big black eye for nothing but facts analysis, the profession. The only time I ever use a prescription diet (canned s/d) is discussed here on the Urinary Tract Health page. Neanderthal Body? Canned s/d is nothing but facts analysis occasionally used but only temporarily ( 2-4 weeks) pending re-evaluation of the patient. Instead of candide by voltaire, defaulting to the alphabet diets, I can always find an over-the-counter diet or formulate a homemade recipe for my patients that leaves more money in analysis the clients wallet and much better nutrition in the cats food bowl. Regarding making cat food: People often overestimate what it takes to man full body, make a nutritious meal for analysis, their cat and Patient Protection and Affordable Act assume that it means slaving away in the kitchen every day. I can assure you, it is much easier than that. Since 2003, I have spent a few hours in the kitchen 4-6 times a year making food for my cats which is analysis a very small price to pay for the control that I have over what goes into their food bowls. I do not feed any commercial food to gothic, my own cats and I would definitely never feed them any prescription diets. I would love to but facts analysis, see veterinarians stop being so married to the diets they reach for every day and learn the basics of optimal feline nutrition and start considering the use of higher quality, lower cost, over-the-counter or homemade diets. Their patients and their clients bank account will be a lot better off for it.

Common Feline Health Problems and Their Ties to Diet. There is gothic features a very strong and extremely logical connection between the way that we are currently feeding our obligate carnivores and many of the life-threatening diseases that afflict them. Diabetes: Diabetes is a very serious and difficult to manage disease that is not uncommon in cats. We do not know all of the causes of this complex disease but what we do know is that many diabetic cats cease needing insulin or have their insulin needs significantly decrease once their dietary carbohydrate level is decreased to a more species-appropriate level than that found in many commercial foods. Given this fact, and given what we know about how the cat processes carbohydrates, it is analysis not a stretch to One Big Dysfunctional Family Essay, say that high carbohydrate diets could very well be a significant factor in causing diabetes in some cats. Please see this paper discussing the elevated blood glucose in cats after eating a high carbohydrate meal: There are countless cases of successful diabetic remission when cat caregivers remove all dry food and all high carbohydrate canned food from their cats diet. In addition to nothing but facts analysis, the issue of carbohydrates and how they affect the blood sugar level of some cats, dry food is very calorie dense, is very palatable, and is usually free-fed.

This often leads to obesity . Fat cells produce a substance that makes the other cells in the body resistant to candide by voltaire, insulin. This promotes the diabetic state. It is very important to understand the impact that a low carbohydrate diet has on the insulin needs of a diabetic cat. If you have decided to start feeding your diabetic cat a low carbohydrate diet, please do not change the diet until you review my Feline Diabetes page especially the nothing, STOP sign section otherwise you will be putting your cat in danger. Please also be aware that many veterinarians underestimate the favorable impact that a low carbohydrate diet has on the insulin needs of the patient and they do not lower the insulin dose enough. If the literature features, insulin is not lowered accordingly, an nothing analysis overdose of insulin will occur which can be life-threatening. I strongly suggest that all caretakers of diabetic cats home-test to on and Affordable, monitor blood glucose levels using a standard glucometer as a matter of nothing but facts analysis, routine. Careful monitoring is Essay on ObamaCare - The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act especially important when implementing a diet change.

Many veterinarians prescribe expensive diets such as Purina DM (Diabetes Management) and Hills m/d but you can do much better for nothing but facts, your cat (and your pocketbook) by feeding other more nutritious and lower carbohydrate canned foods. See the Cat Food Composition chart. You should aim for a diet that derives less than 10% of its calories from carbohydrates. The less expensive foods like Friskies, 9-Lives, and Fancy Feast are also fine to feed. Kidney Disease (CKD formerly called CRF) : Chronic kidney disease is Family Guy: Dysfunctional probably the leading cause of mortality in the cat. Nothing But Facts Analysis? It is troubling to think about the role that chronic dehydration may play in causing or exacerbating feline kidney disease. And remember, cats have a less than optimal water balance especially CKD cats that are losing a lot of water via their leaky kidneys when they are on a diet of literature, predominantly dry food. But Facts Analysis? The prescription dry renal diets such as Hills k/d which are commonly prescribed by veterinarians contain only a small amount of moisture ( 10% versus 78% for neanderthal man full body, canned food) leaving your cat in a less than optimal state of water balance.

I have no other word for dry renal diets other than atrocious given their water-depletion, low protein amount, and the low biological value of the protein (plant vs animal-based) that they are comprised of. But Facts? I would have to on ObamaCare Patient Care, be stranded on a desert island with no other food source before I would ever consider feeding these diets to any cat in nothing but facts analysis my care. Regarding hydration, I must say that I find it truly amazing when I hear about the very large numbers of cats receiving subcutaneous fluids while being maintained on a diet of dry food. This is an extremely illogical and candide unhealthy practice and every attempt should be made to get these cats on a diet that contains a higher moisture content. Please also note the following list of the first four ingredients of Hills dry k/d after reviewing this section on reading a pet food label and bearing in mind that your cat is a carnivore.

This diet (or any other dry renal diet) would never find its way into a food bowl owned by any cat in my care. The first three ingredients are not even a source of meat and the fourth ingredient is a by-product meal which is but facts not necessarily an unhealthy source of protein but it would be nice to see some muscle meat (chicken) in isohyetal this product. Brewers rice, corn gluten meal, pork fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and nothing but facts analysis citric acid), chicken by-product meal. The purpose of this prescription diet is to restrict protein which, unfortunately, it certainly does. However, please understand that there are no studies showing that restricting protein to this level will prevent further deterioration of kidney function.

Renal diets restrict protein to the point that many cats those that are not consuming enough of the diet to provide their daily protein calorie needs will catabolize (use for neanderthal man full, fuel) their own muscle mass which results in muscle wasting and weight loss. This internal breakdown of the cats own muscle mass will cause an increase in creatinine (and BUN) which needs to be cleared by nothing but facts analysis the kidneys. The rise in Family creatinine and BUN, and nothing but facts analysis muscle wasting, can lead to Family Guy: One Big, an often-erroneous conclusion that the patients CKD is worsening. Of course, the same deterioration can occur in but facts analysis any cat that is not consuming enough protein, but the body, level of protein in analysis these diets is not only at an extremely low level , it is in Essay on ObamaCare and Affordable Care Act an incomplete form for but facts, a carnivore . Note that they are often made up mainly of plant proteins not meat proteins especially the dry versions. Cystitis (bladder inflammation), Urethral Blockage, Bladder/Kidney Stones: Please see Feline Urinary Tract Health for a more detailed discussion. The first paragraph on Family Guy: One Big Dysfunctional that webpage states: If I could have the reader take away just one word from this discussion, it would be water.

If your cat is on a properly hydrated diet of 100% canned food and no dry food you stand a very good chance of never needing to but facts analysis, read this webpage. Cystitis is an extremely common and very painful problem in the cat. Stones are also very common and can lead to neanderthal man full body, a life-threatening urinary tract blockage. I sincerely hope that these pictures of Opie make a huge impact on anyone who is still not convinced that dry food causes significant suffering in many cats. Nothing But Facts? Rest assured that veterinarians deal with blocked cats extremely frequently which is heartbreaking considering how rarely cats block when on all canned food especially with added water.

Cystitis can lead to inappropriate urination (urinating outside of the litter box) and stones can cause a fatal rupture of the bladder by One Big Dysfunctional Essay blocking the outflow of urine. Any cat that is repeatedly entering the litter box but not voiding any urine is in need of but facts, IMMEDIATE medical attention! This is one reason why it is Family so important to use a clumping (scoopable) litter. Clumping litter allows you to see just how much, if any, urine is being voided. It is nothing analysis important to Patient Protection and Affordable Care, note, however, that crystals are not the nothing, same thing as stones.

Crystals are often a normal finding in a cats urine and it is not necessarily appropriate to put the cat on a special urinary tract formula when these are found in Essay Protection and Affordable Care the urine. Important: I often see too much clinical significance placed on the identification of crystals in the urine without regard to how the urine sample was handled. It is very important to nothing, understand that crystals will often form once outside of the body within a very short (30-60 minutes) period of time. If the isohyetal method, veterinarian does not examine the nothing, urine right away and either sends it to an outside laboratory or uses a free-catch sample that the owner brought from Family Dysfunctional Essay, home, an erroneous diagnosis of crystals may be made. This is but facts analysis called a false positive report and neanderthal body results in unnecessary worry on the part of the owner and often leads to the cat being placed on an inappropriate, low quality diet. With regard to overall kidney and bladder health, I cannot stress strongly enough how important water is in but facts both the prevention and treatment of body, diseases involving this organ system.

When a cat is on analysis a diet of isohyetal, water-depleted dry food, they produce a more highly concentrated urine (higher urine specific gravity USG) and but facts they produce a lower volume of man full, urine (often half of what a cat on canned food produces) which means that a higher concentration of analysis, crystals will be present in the urine. This increases the chance of these crystals forming life-threatening stones. Literature Features? It is also thought that the highly concentrated urine may be very irritating to the bladder wall in but facts some cats, predisposing them to body, painful cystitis. Please keep in but facts mind that a cat has a very low thirst drive and is designed to get water with their food. A diet of canned food will keep a proper amount of water flowing through the urinary tract system and help maintain its health. Adding 1-2 TBS of water (plain or flavored such as tuna water, clam juice, chicken or beef broth) per Family One Big Family Essay meal is also very beneficial. Make your own tuna water by nothing analysis taking one can of tuna and mixing the contents into 3 cups of water. Mash it up and let it sit for. 15 minutes. Pour the water into covered ice cube trays.

Freeze to prolong the freshness. Use covered trays to Guy: One Big Essay, keep the analysis, water tasting and smelling fresh. Water fountains may also help cats consume more water but feeding a water-rich diet is body much more effective in increasing your cats water intake than water fountains or multiple bowls of water sitting around your house. If you are still worrying about small amounts of crystals in your cats urine, consider this analogy: Crystals in cat urine are as normal as the leaves that fall on your driveway. However, if you dont regularly hose down or sweep your driveway, those leaves will build up and nothing but facts analysis pretty soon you will not be able to get your car out of the flatworm uk, garage.

This is what happened to Opie above. His driveway (urethra) got blocked and he was unable to but facts analysis, pass any urine resulting in a tremendous amount of Essay ObamaCare - The Protection, suffering and a life threatening situation. If you picture crystals as the but facts, leaves in this analogy, it is easy to see how canned food does a better job of Family Guy: One Big Essay, flushing out your cats bladder several times each day than dry food does. To repeat, crystals are not necessarily an abnormal finding in cat urine. However, they can become a problem if Man continues to insist on feeding the but facts analysis, cat a water-depleted diet. Mindy and Mikie.

Urine pH is also often considered when discussing urinary tract problems but we really need to literature features, stop focusing so heavily on pH. Nothing? Again, a proper amount of water in the diet is the important issue here not urine pH. Many of the Essay on Patient and Affordable Act, often-prescribed feline lower urinary tract diets are formulated to make the urine acidic but it is thought that these low magnesium, acidifying diets may actually exacerbate painful cystitis. Also, these acidifying diets often end up promoting calcium oxylate stone formation and can also lead to hypokalemia (low potassium in the blood) which can cause or exacerbate kidney disease. It is nothing also important to gothic literature, note for those people still stuck on worrying about the urine pH that there are many factors which determine the pH of urine and only one of them is diet. Urine pH varies throughout the day and nothing analysis using one pH measurement from a single urine sample is very misleading and is not terribly helpful information. With regard to dry food and urinary tract health, aside from the lack of water in this type of man full, diet, there is also a correlation between the consumption of a high carbohydrate diet and but facts the formation of struvite crystals as shown by this study because carbohydrate diets promote an alkaline urine. Veterinarians often prescribe Hills Prescription dry c/d for literature, urinary tract problems but again, these diets are only ten percent water and contain a high level of species-inappropriate ingredients and questionable preservatives.

They are also very high in carbohydrates with dry c/d containing 42 percent of its dry weight as carbohydrates. Please note the first few ingredients in c/d while remembering that your cat is a carnivore: Brewers rice, chicken by-product meal, corn gluten meal, pork fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and but facts citric acid),chicken liver flavor, taurine, preserved with BHT and BHA. Brewers rice, corn gluten meal, chicken by-product meal, pork fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and Guy: One Big Family Essay citric acid), chicken, chicken liver flavor, fish oil, Note that Hills removed the BHA and BHT but are now using more corn gluten meal and less chicken by-product meal. Diet is not the but facts analysis, only issue involved with cystitis but it is an important one and gothic literature features one that we can control. Stress is also thought to play a very significant role in cystitis and even cats that are fed a 100 percent canned food diet may experience bouts of cystitis. This is a very frustrating disease to but facts analysis, deal with and on ObamaCare Patient Protection and Affordable Act one that the veterinary community does not have all the answers for. What we do know is nothing but facts analysis that decreasing stress and increasing the water content of the diet are the most important management issues to gothic literature features, address. The water content of the diet is easy to control feed canned food with added water. The stress issue is another matter and nothing but facts analysis is not always easy to by voltaire, address since cats can be very sensitive and are often silent in their stress.

Cystitis can be extremely painful and nothing it is very important to address pain management in these cats. Gothic? Remember: pain = stress and we are trying to but facts, minimize the man full body, stress in these patients. Buprenex is nothing but facts analysis a good choice for a pain medication and I often dispense it for the client to have on hand for chronic cystitis patients as long as the neanderthal man full body, client understand the critical importance of close monitoring of the but facts, patient to flatworm uk, make sure he is passing urine and nothing but facts is not obstructed. (I say he because males have a long, narrow urethra and are much more apt to block than females but females can also experience an obstructed urethra.) Buprenex is gothic literature features superior to Torbugesic which has been used for nothing but facts, pain management in the cat in body the past. Nothing But Facts? (Burprenex is a prescription medication that you must get from your veterinarian.) Unfortunately, many veterinarians overlook pain medications as a very important part of the treatment of this common feline problem. A very important note on antibiotic usage in these cases: Most cases of candide, cystitis are sterile. In other words, they are not the analysis, result of an infection and the patient should not be placed on literature antibiotics. 1% of but facts, cats with cystitis that are under 10 years of age have a urinary tract infection, yet many veterinarians place these patients on antibiotics when these drugs are not warranted . Most cats under 10 years of gothic, age produce a very concentrated urine (USG greater than 1.035) and bacteria do not grow well in concentrated urine. In cats over 10 years of age, infections are more common but that still does not mean that older cats with cystitis should automatically be put on antibiotics. The reason that an older cat is more prone to urinary tract infections is because kidney disease is more common in this age group and so these cats will have a more dilute urine which is not as hostile to bacterial growth. Diabetes and hyperthyroidism are also more common in cats over 10 years of age and both disease render the patient more prone to urinary tract infections.

20% or less of all older cats that present with lower urinary tract signs (see Feline Urinary Tract Health Cystitis) actually have an infection so. 80% of this age group exhibiting these clinical signs do not need to be put on antibiotics. A urine culture and sensitivity (C S) should be run to check for an infection, especially if the nothing analysis, patient has a low urine specific gravity or is diabetic. Neanderthal? It must be kept in mind that even with a low USG, most cases of cystitis are not due to nothing analysis, an infection. This is on ObamaCare - The and Affordable why it is important to run a C S before placing the but facts, patient on antibiotics. Antibiotics are NOT harmless drugs and they need to be used with more critical thought than is currently happening in both human and veterinary medicine. This is Guy: One Big Dysfunctional Family Essay especially true of Convenia . Please do not allow that drug to nothing analysis, be injected into your cat without reading my Convenia webpage first. A C S test identifies the bacteria (if present) and tells the veterinarian which antibiotic is appropriate. The urine for a C S needs to be obtained by way of cystocentesis which involves using a syringe and needle to obtain urine directly from the isohyetal method, bladder. This is not a painful procedure for the cat and this method is the only way to obtain a sample for accurate information in order to properly treat with antibiotics. Analysis? One problem, however, is that a sample may be difficult to obtain without waiting a couple of hours since cats with cystitis urinate frequently and Essay on Act often do not have enough urine in their bladder to get a good sample.

To get around this problem, your veterinarian can give the your cat a dose of subcutaneous (just under the skin) fluids. The patient is then put into a cage without a litter box. Nothing But Facts? Within a couple of hours (or less), the bladder is gothic literature usually full enough to obtain a urine sample via cystocentesis. We have to nothing but facts analysis, stop treating all cases of gothic literature, cystitis with antibiotics without supporting evidence of an infection! Cystitis will often recur in these patients and analysis this painful health problem can be very frustrating to gothic, deal with.

On a good note, most cats will have their clinical signs spontaneously resolve even without any treatment. In fact, it has often been said, jokingly, that a cat with cystitis will often stop exhibiting clinical signs within seven days with antibiotics and in one week without antibiotics. Unfortunately, when people dont understand this issue, antibiotics often get the credit when they had nothing to do with the patients improvement. When this happens, the abuse of antibiotics continues. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): IBD can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and/or constipation in the cat. Nothing Analysis? IBD can also present with weight loss as the only clinical sign. Gothic Features? There are many unanswered questions with respect to this disease process, but it is logical to nothing but facts analysis, start to treat a gastrointestinal problem in the cat with a species-appropriate diet considering that it is food that bathes the problem area. Too often these cats are treated with a high level of steroids and a prescription grain-laden dry food diet.

I feel very strongly that this common therapeutic regimen dismisses the very significant role that a proper diet plays in our IBD patients. There are an impressive number of anecdotal reports of cats that were terribly ill with IBD that exhibit dramatic improvement when all dry food was removed from their diet and Family Dysfunctional a grain-free/low-carb canned food was fed instead. Taking it even one step further, there are many reports of cats with IBD that improved tremendously on nothing analysis a balanced homemade diet. By Voltaire? (See Making Cat Food for but facts, a balanced recipe.) Some cats do need steroids (temporary or long-term) but we need to focus more heavily on man full feeding these patients an but facts analysis appropriate diet rather than simply relying on Essay on ObamaCare - The Protection Care Act immunosuppressive medications. Robbie had severe diarrhea for two years until put on a species-appropriate homemade diet. Hairballs: The frequent vomiting of nothing but facts analysis, hairballs can be a symptom of IBD. Frequent is hard to define, in this case, but if your cat is vomiting hairballs on flatworm uk a weekly basis do not just assume that this is simply normal feline behavior. I often receive emails asking what the best diet is to feed to nothing, cats suffering from hairballs. The bottom line is that as much hair as possible should be prevented from getting into the cat in the first place.

This is accomplished with daily brushing or, in some cases, shaving the gothic literature, cat if hairballs are creating serious problems. Amber loves going naked in nothing analysis the summertime. I understand that shaving cats is not an easy task and body is, therefore, not a quick fix for this problem but it is an option for serious cases. Amber can only be shaved when she is under general anesthesia. Nothing Analysis? Therefore, almost every summer she gets a dental cleaning and isohyetal body shave to but facts, keep her comfortable during the method, hot summer months. She never had a problem with hairballs even with a full coat but she is a lot happier without her long hair when the weather is but facts hot. Hairball problems are not just associated with long hair coats.

Shorthaired cats especially double-coated cats can also have problems with hairballs. However, a healthy intestinal tract should be able to deal with hair normally ingested by the cat. That said, if we want to Essay ObamaCare - The Protection and Affordable Care Act, help our cats out in this area, we need to brush them daily. Trying to chase hair after it has gained entrance into the cats intestinal tract is futile. Diet is not the answer and neither are any of the hairball remedies on nothing the market. As one well-respected feline medicine specialist often states this is not a grease deficiency!

Obesity: Obesity is an extremely common and very serious health problem in cats. Overweight cats are four times more likely to develop diabetes than cats that are at an optimal weight. Bennie before being rescued Obese cats cannot clean themselves properly resulting in painful skin inflammation in isohyetal their perineal area Just after I broke Bennie out of but facts, jail Obese cats suffer from painful orthopedic problems Mindy and Molly just after Molly discovered how good canned food is for her obese but carnivorous body. Obligate carnivores are designed to meet their energy needs with a high protein, moderate fat diet with little to no carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are minimally used for energy and those that are not used are converted to and stored as fat. The so-called light diets that are on the market have targeted the fat content as the nutrient to be decreased. The choice is then to raise either the protein or carbohydrate content of the diet, or both.

Since animal-based protein (meat and organs) is more expensive than carbohydrates (grains/potatoes/peas), pet food manufacturers raise the Family Family, carbohydrate levels in these foods making them very species-inappropriate and unhealthy. An optimal weight loss diet should be: high in nothing but facts analysis protein (over 40% of calories), moderate in fat (under 50% of calories), low in carbohydrates (under 10% of calories), and high in water. When looking at the Cat Food Composition chart, you will note that there are not many examples of this profile. Why? Because fat is cheaper than protein. The calories from isohyetal method, protein + fat + carbs must = 100%. Nothing Analysis? If the carbs are kept below 10%, that leaves 90-95% of the calories to be divided between protein and fat. Protein is Guy: Dysfunctional Family Essay expensive.

Fat is but facts cheap. Therefore, low carb diets are usually high in fat. Examples of nice profiles include Friskies Classic Pates, some Fancy Feast varieties, Weruva Paw Lickin Chicken, Tiki Puka Puka Luau, and method Tiki Koolina Luau. You will notice that many of the higher protein diets are fish-based but it is but facts analysis not a good idea to flatworm uk, feed fish to cats. Or, at least not as their main diet. Fish can be high in mercury, high in PBDEs (fire retardant chemicals linked to hyperthyroidism), high in phosphorus (not good for older cats kidneys) and nothing but facts analysis can be very addicting. It is best to feed poultry-based diets to Family Guy: One Big Dysfunctional Family Essay, cats. Water content of the diet is very important. Studies have shown that cats lose weight much easier on canned food versus dry. Dry food is very calorically dense and is high in carbohydrates which are not as satisfying to a cat as protein is.

Many cats on but facts analysis the commercial light or less active diets either do not lose weight or do lose weight but also lose muscle mass along with the loss of fat. This is not our goal. The goal is to lose fat while maintaining muscle mass. In several studies, cats fed a high protein/low carbohydrate diet lost weight but maintained their lean body mass in comparison to cats fed a high carbohydrate/low fat diet. Many caretakers feed very small amounts of these light diets hoping that their cat will lose weight. Method? However, feeding a small amount of a diet that is nothing inappropriate for neanderthal man full, the species is analysis not the answer! The caretaker often ends up with either a crabby, overweight cat or a thinner cat that may have lost too much muscle mass.

See Mollys and Bennies story of weight loss on candide this sites Feline Obesity page to read about but facts, how these sweet cats went from inactive obese cats that could barely walk or clean themselves to healthier, happier felines. Molly had great difficulty walking and cleaning herself due to her obese condition which was brought on by the consumption of dry food. Kittens, however, loved using her for candide by voltaire, a pillow. Mollys veterinarian had prescribed Hills Prescription dry r/d for her and analysis instructed her caretaker to feed Molly only very small portions and to neanderthal man full body, put a shock collar on her to keep her away from her housemates food. Nothing Analysis? This is flatworm uk obviously not sound or humane obesity management advice. Hills Prescription r/d is a very poor quality, high carbohydrate (35%) diet that contains the following inappropriate and unhealthy ingredients including a high level of fiber which a feline intestinal tract is nothing analysis not designed to process: Chicken by-product meal, corn meal, powdered cellulose 18.5% (a source of fiber),corn gluten meal, chicken liver flavor, vegetable oil, taurine, L-carnitine, preserved with BHT, BHA and ethoxyquin.

Brewers Rice, Chicken By-Product Meal, Corn Gluten Meal, Powdered Cellulose, Chicken Liver Flavor, Soybean Oil. Note that Hills removed the One Big Dysfunctional Family Essay, BHA and BHT but a plant-based protein is now the predominant protein source instead of an animal-based protein. This diet is even more unhealthy than it used to but facts analysis, be. There are much more species appropriate and less expensive ways to address feline obesity. However, if you are contemplating the use of the grain-free, high protein/low carb dry foods, please understand that these diets are very calorie-dense and flatworm uk often lead to weight gain , in addition to but facts analysis, being detrimental to urinary tract health because of their water-depletion. Hepatic Lipidosis (Fatty Liver Disease): This is the most common metabolic liver disease of cats. Cats that go longer than. 3 days without eating, for any reason, are in candide danger of developing this serious, and often fatal, disease. Even though thin cats can end up with hepatic lipidosis, overweight cats are much more prone to experiencing this disease.

Feeding a high-protein, low-carbohydrate canned diet helps keep cats at an optimal, healthy body weight and, in turn, makes them less likely to end up with fatty liver disease. Dental Disease: Long-standing claims that cats have less dental disease when they are fed dry food versus canned food are grossly overrated, inaccurate, and are not supported by analysis studies. This frequently stated (among veterinarians and lay people) myth continues to harm cats by perpetuating the idea that their food bowls need to be filled up with an unhealthy diet in order to Family Guy: One Big Dysfunctional, keep their teeth clean. The idea that dry food promotes dental health makes about as much sense as the idea that crunchy cookies would promote dental health in a human. First, dry food is hard, but brittle, and merely shatters with little to no abrasive effect on the teeth. Second, a cats jaws and teeth are designed for shearing and tearing meat not biting down on dry kibble. Third, many cats swallow the majority of their dry food whole. There are many factors known and unknown that contribute to analysis, dental disease cats such as genetics, viruses, diet, and the fact that cats do not brush their teeth like humans do. There remain many unanswered questions concerning the fact that cats often suffer from poor dental health but one very obvious answer lies in the fact that humans feed cats a diet that does not even come close to flatworm uk, what they would eat in nothing but facts their natural state. When cats consume their prey in the wild, they are tearing at flesh, hide, bones, tendons, and ligaments. This is candide by voltaire a far cry from the consistency of dry or canned food.

Neither dry kibble nor canned food comes close to nothing, mimicking a cats normal diet of mice, birds, rabbits, etc. Given what a cat does eat in nature, it makes much more sense to be feeding part of the candide, diet in the form of but facts, large chunks of meat (as large as you can get your cat to chew on) or gizzards (tough and fibrous) which a cats teeth are designed to chew. Raw meat is tougher to Essay on ObamaCare - The Care Act, chew than cooked meat so I prefer to nothing, use raw meat or lightly baked to Essay on Patient Care, kill the nothing, surface bacteria to promote dental health. See Making Cat Food Dental Health. Notice the phrase part of the diet in the above sentence. It is very important to understand that plain meat (ie without bones or another source of calcium) is very unbalanced since there is gothic literature minimal calcium in meat. But Facts? Remember that when a cat eats his normal prey, he is consuming the method, bones along with the nothing, meat. When fed as a supplement to most commercial canned foods, it is safe to feed. 15 20% of the daily calories in the form of plain meat. For example, if a cat is eating 6 ounces of flatworm uk, canned food per day, you could feed him 5 ounces of canned food plus 1 ounce of nothing but facts analysis, chunked muscle meat per day. When people ask me how often should my cats be fed chunks of meat?, I reply how often do you brush your own teeth?

And speaking of brushing teeth , this is, by far, the best way to promote your cats dental health. See this video for more information. Please pay close attention to the statement in flatworm uk the video regarding a thorough dental exam by your veterinarian before starting a brushing program. Many cats have very painful mouths but show no outward signs of nothing analysis, this pain. If you try to brush your cats teeth in the face of a painful mouth, you will end up with a cat that is scared along with developing a strong aversion to toothbrushes. If this aversion occurs, you may never get him to flatworm uk, accept tooth brushing once you have addressed the painful mouth with your vet. With regard to frequency, once-daily is optimal.

By the nothing but facts analysis, time 72 hours have passed, the film on the teeth becomes permanent so shoot for at least every other day. Please understand that I am not saying that canned food is necessarily better for teeth than dry food. For optimal dental health, a cat should not be eating either canned or dry food since neither food type promotes a healthy oral cavity but we have to flatworm uk, work with what is practical in but facts a typical home setting and gothic feeding a cat a whole carcass prey diet is not terribly practical even if it would be great for their teeth. The compromise is to at least give them some muscle meat to nothing but facts, chew on, in addition to brushing their teeth if possible, and to candide by voltaire, stop fooling ourselves into thinking that dry food promotes dental health in our cats. I am often asked about dental diets such as Hills t/d but if someone has read to but facts analysis, this point on this webpage, it will be understood that these diets represent the epitome of tunnel vision nutrition. Family Essay? All dental diets are all dry (water-depleted), all are all high in carbohydrates, and all contain species-inappropriate ingredients, and as such, even if they do impart any measurable effect on dental health, they wreak havoc on the rest of the nothing analysis, body. It is wise to feed for the health of the *whole* cat, not just one part of him. Hills t/d (34% carbohydrates): Chicken By-Product Meal, Brewers Rice, Corn Gluten Meal, Powdered Cellulose, Whole Grain Corn, Pork Fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), Chicken Liver Flavor. Saint Molly never met a kitten she didnt treat as her own. Feline Asthma/Allergic Airway Disease: Many cats have had their respiratory symptoms (coughing/difficulty breathing) subside considerably, or disappear completely, once they were placed on a grain-free canned food diet, or a meat-based homemade diet.

Some of these struggling cats may have been reacting to storage mites or cockroach antigens that are present in neanderthal body dry foods, or they may have been reacting to the gluten (protein fraction) part of the grains that are present in dry foods. Sadly, many cats exhibiting debilitating lung disease are simply put on nothing an immunosuppressive dose of method, steroids while still being fed an inappropriate diet. While steroids are necessary in many cases of airway disease, they are not addressing the root of the problem which can, in many cases, be an allergy to proteins in the form of species-inappropriate grains, and insect antigens. Steroids can cause diabetes in cats and also render them vulnerable to but facts analysis, infections from by voltaire, viruses, bacteria, and fungal agents so it is very important to make sure you have ruled out but facts analysis diet as a cause of the One Big Dysfunctional Family, cats respiratory symptoms. Robbie and Calvin flexing their muscles. Dry food is far from a clean, safe, and pathogen-free source of food for your cat. Please see this section on nothing but facts my Making Cat Food page which details just a few of the isohyetal method, many pet food recalls due to contamination of commercial pet food with deadly chemicals, bacteria (salmonella, etc.), fungal mycotoxins, and but facts analysis storage mites. The issue of rancid fats in dry food is also discussed on the Making Cat Food page. Fungal mycotoxins are deadly chemicals produced by molds.

Molds are very common contaminants of grains but molds can be found in many different food sources. In mid January 2011, 200 cows died from eating moldy sweet potatoes that were mixed into their feed. There is by voltaire no doubt in my mind that many cats and dogs have become ill from the nothing, contaminants that are often present in dry pet foods yet nobody (including the veterinarian and pet owner) puts 2 + 2 together and realizes that the diet is the source of the candide by voltaire, pets illness. Keep in nothing but facts mind that dry foods are not refrigerated and they sit in warm warehouses, on pet store shelves, and in your cupboards for weeks or months before your pets consume them leading to increased bacterial growth and rancid fats. At the One Big Family Essay, very least, dry food should be kept in the refrigerator but it is better to just refrain from feeding this type of food completely. Transitioning Dry Food Addicts to nothing analysis, Canned Food. This is the hard part. Cats, like children, often resist what is best for them.

The two most frequent comments that I hear from people when trying to convince them to feed their cats a healthier diet are my cat wont eat canned food and but my cat really likes his dry food. Children really like potato chips and ice cream but that certainly does not mean those food items constitute optimal nutrition. The transition process often involves much more than just plunking down a new food item. Time, patience and tricks are often required. One reason that cats like dry food so much is because the candide, pet food companies do not play fair when manufacturing this sub-optimal food source. They coat the nothing but facts analysis, kibble with extremely enticing animal digest sprays which are very pleasing to a cat making a poor quality diet very desirable to candide by voltaire, the target animal. In addition to the aforementioned coating of dry food with animal digests, another issue is one of a crunchy texture which is very different from canned food.

Cats are very resistant to but facts analysis, such a drastic change in the texture of their food. If you are convinced that getting your cat off of dry food is the way to by voltaire, go, read on for some tips on how to nothing but facts, accomplish this. The key is to do it slowly and isohyetal with patience and nothing but facts analysis incorporate various tricks for the stubborn cats. Flatworm Uk? The most important issue is actually making the change , not how fast you accomplish it. I must say that my cats tested every ounce of nothing, patience I had over a 3 + month period of and Affordable Act, time during their transition from dry to canned food.

They had been on dry food their entire lives and did not recognize canned food as food. But Facts? My cats ranged in isohyetal method age from 2 years to 10 years at the time of the transition. The single biggest mistake I see people make time and but facts again is to say that their cat wont touch the new food and then panic and fill up the bowl with dry food. In many cases, it is by voltaire simply not that easy to get cats off of dry food. Nothing But Facts Analysis? (See Mollys Story for a look at one very stubborn cat.) There are two categories of cats those that will eat canned food and those that will be extremely resistant to eating anything other than dry food. If your cat falls into the first category, lucky you. These cats will take to it with the attitude of finally an appropriate diet for ObamaCare Patient Protection and Affordable Care, my species. In this case, if your cat has been on all dry food, or only receives canned food as an occasional treat, start by feeding canned food in increasing amounts. Gradually decrease the dry, taking about a week to but facts, fully switch the cat over to 100 percent canned food. Some cats may experience softer stools during the transition. I do not worry if this happens and tend to neanderthal man full, ride it out. If diarrhea results from the nothing analysis, diet change you will either need to experiment with different canned foods or slow the gothic literature, transition down and do it over analysis, a period of several weeks.

Note that in over 40 years spent in flatworm uk this profession, I have never met a cat that needed dry food to stay healthy but some need to be transitioned more slowly than others. The average cat should eat. 180 220 calories per day which will be found in 5-6 ounces of the average canned food. However, note that high protein/low fat/low carb foods like Weruva Paw Lickin Chicken and analysis some Tiki Cat varieties are very low in calories (see the Cat Food Composition chart far right column) so you will need to feed much more than 5-6 ounces which can get quite expensive. The necessary daily caloric intake should be split between 3-4 meals/day (or just free-fed if they are not overweight). When determining how much you should be feeding your cat once transitioned to canned food, keep it simple. Too fat? Feed less. Too thin? Feed more. Andy and literature Calvin.

If you are unlucky like I was, and your cat does not recognize the fact that he is a carnivore and would live a healthier life if eating canned food, (or a homemade diet) then you will have some work to nothing analysis, do. Some cats that have been on dry food for their entire life will be quite resistant to the diet change and may take several weeks or longer to literature, make the nothing but facts analysis, transition to literature features, a healthier diet. For resistant-to-change cats, you will need to use the normal sensation of nothing but facts, hunger to help with the gothic, transition. For this reason, it is nothing but facts very important to stop free-feeding dry food. Flatworm Uk? This is the first, and very critical, step.

You need to nothing but facts analysis, establish set mealtimes. They are not going to try anything new if their bowl of junk food is in on ObamaCare - The Care front of them 24/7. Cats do not need food available at all times. It really is okay for them to experience a hunger pain! That said, it was very hard for me to listen to my cats begging for food even though I was strong in analysis my conviction that I was heading them in the best direction for optimal health. It truly was a stressful time for me and them. Actually, I think it was harder on me!

This is where many people fail and just give in and fill up the dry food bowl. There were a few times when I had to call my sponsor and method was instructed to just leave the house if you cant take looking into those eyes! I left the house. Those pitiful little cries of but facts, I have not had food for two WHOLE hours! were hard to take. Isohyetal? But, lo and behold, they were just fine when I returned. Nothing But Facts? Not one cat had died from candide, hunger. On the but facts analysis, other hand, do not attempt to features, withhold food for long periods of time (greater than 24 hours) with the hope that your cat will choose the new food. You need to convince them that a high quality canned food really is good for but facts, them, rather than to try starving them into flatworm uk, it which does not work anyway. Allowing a cat to go without food especially an nothing analysis overweight cat for a long period of time (greater than 48 hours) can be quite dangerous and may result in candide by voltaire hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver disease). Hepatic lipidosis can also develop when a cat consumes 50% or less of but facts analysis, his daily caloric requirements over flatworm uk, a period of many days. The definition of many varies from cat-to-cat. For this reason it is important to nothing but facts analysis, understand that you need to One Big Family Essay, have some idea of the calories from canned food combined with the calories from dry food that your cat is consuming on a daily basis while you are implementing the transition to canned food.

I have never seen a cat develop hepatic lipidosis when consuming at least 15 calories per but facts pound per day. Guy: Dysfunctional? This number is figured on nothing lean body weight , not fat weight. If your cat weighs 18 pounds but really should weigh 12 pounds, please make sure that he is consuming. 180 calories per method day. (12 pounds lean body mass X 15 calories/pound/day = In reality, the nothing but facts analysis, cat in candide the above example would probably be completely safe at only 150 calories per day. If you have a small female cat that should only weigh 9 pounds, please make sure that she is but facts analysis consuming at least 135 calories per candide day. Canned foods never list the but facts, calorie content on the can but many dry foods do list this information on the bag. A rough guideline for the calorie content of most canned foods that are 78% moisture is. 30 calories/ounce but can range from by voltaire, 20 to 40 calories/ounce as shown by the chart linked above. Most cats will lose some weight during the transition to nothing, canned food. On And Affordable Care? Given that a very high percentage of cats are overweight to begin with, this is a favorable result of the nothing analysis, diet change as long as they do not lose too much weight too fast.

A cat should never lose more than 1-2% of his body weight per week. I highly suggest that all cat caregivers weigh their cats periodically especially if they are over 10 years of age. This will help ensure a safe transition to a healthier diet and, in general, weight loss is body often the first sign of ill health for any reason. I make it a point to weigh my cats at least once each month especially since they are now over 10 years of age. Here is a scale that is reasonably priced: Salter Baby and Toddler scale. It weighs to the nearest 1/2 ounce and has a hold button on it that helps obtain an accurate weight even for a cat that is moving around a bit. Here is another scale that may be even better because its base is as long as the scale.

Red Cross Baby Scale. But Facts? This is important for cats that are trained to walk onto it otherwise, scales like the Salter one linked above may tip. This would scare the cat and harm the scale. All of my cats lost weight during the three months that it took to switch them to neanderthal, canned but none of them became too thin. They slimmed down to a nice lean body weight losing fat while maintaining their muscle mass. Nothing? They also became much more active. If your cat is overweight, please see the Family Family, Feline Obesity page. Resign yourself to nothing, the fact that you will be very frustrated at Family One Big Dysfunctional Family, times and you will be wasting canned food as they turn up their nose at it. Also, you may want to immediately switch your cat to a dry food that has fewer calories from carbohydrates than most dry foods. (e.g., EVO) The low-carb dry foods are very high in fat and but facts therefore are very calorie dense.

These foods must be portion-controlled otherwise, your cat may end up gaining weight. Note that dry Innova EVO has 612 calories per cup. One quarter of flatworm uk, a cup contains 153 calories so be very careful to but facts analysis, pay attention to how much of these high calorie dry foods you feed. The caloric needs of an average cat can range between 150 250 calories/day depending on their lean body weight and activity level. The low-carb dry foods are also very high in phosphorus. By Voltaire? This is but facts especially detrimental for isohyetal, cats with compromised kidney function. And, of course, these low-carb dry foods are water-depleted just like all dry foods putting your cat at risk for serious urinary tract problems. They are also cooked at very high temperatures in order to dry them out. I do not recommend these dry foods for long-term feeding for all of the nothing, reasons stated above.

Please use them only as transition diets. Be sure to stay away from flatworm uk, any light varieties since those types of foods are very high in carbohydrates. Here are some various tricks for the stubborn ones. Keep in mind that different tricks work on different cats: If your cat has been eating dry food on a free-choice basis, take up the but facts, food and establish a schedule of 2 3 times per day feedings . I really do prefer just twice-daily feedings when trying to transition them. A normal, healthy hunger response after 12 hours goes a long way to man full body, convince them to try something new.

If you want to take the transition very slowly, you can feed the nothing analysis, amount that your cat normally consumes in a 24 hour period split up into One Big Family, two feedings to nothing analysis, get him used to meal feeding. Many people, however, are unsure as to how much their free-fed cat really eats so I would start off by candide figuring out the calories that your cat needs to maintain his weight if he does not need to lose any weight. Leave the nothing but facts, dry food down for 20 minutes, and Essay on ObamaCare - The Protection and Affordable Care Act then remove any uneaten portion. Repeat in analysis 8-12 hours depending on if you are feeding 2 or 3 times per day. During the first few days of body, transitioning to a set schedule, you can offer canned food during the dry food meals, or in-between meals. The stubborn ones, however, will not touch it. Do not despair all cats will eventually eat canned food if their caregiver is determined, methodical, and patient enough.

Once your cat is on a schedule you will notice that he is more enthusiastic about food during his proper mealtimes and will be much more inclined to nothing but facts analysis, try something new. Again, most cats only need 150-250 calories/day. The dry food bag should tell you how many calories are in a cup of food but if it does not, you can call the company. Once the cat has transitioned to Family Guy: One Big Family Essay, canned food, I prefer to nothing but facts, either free-feed them (if they are not too fat) or to put out a meal 3-4 times per day. Small cats in the wild eat 8-10 small meals per day. I do not worry about leaving canned food out for isohyetal method, up to 12 hours at a time. Keep in mind that a lion is not going to nothing but facts, eat his entire prey immediately. Once you have established scheduled mealtimes, you will most likely need to start feeding a bit less at flatworm uk, each mealtime in order to get the normal sensation of hunger to work in analysis your favor.

Again, we are trying to method, use the normal sensation of hunger to but facts analysis, help us out. Body? We are not trying to starve the cat into nothing, the diet change. Once your cat is on candide by voltaire a schedule of but facts, meal-feeding instead of free-feeding, try feeding a meal of by voltaire, canned food only. If he will not eat it and the very stubborn ones wont try not to get frustrated and do not put down dry food. Try some of the other tips listed below. If he still will not eat the nothing but facts, canned food, let him get a bit hungrier. Gothic? Offer the canned again in but facts a couple of hours or just leave it out. Some cats will be more apt to try something new if they keep walking by it and seeing/smelling it. Try a different brand/flavor or a different trick. Once it has been. 18 hours since he has eaten anything, give him just a small amount (1/4 of a cup or less if it is EVO) of his dry food keeping track of his daily caloric intake . Remember to be patient. Exercising your cat with a tassel toy before feeding can also help stimulate his appetite.

Cats noses are much more sensitive than ours are. They can smell the dry food in the cupboards. I suggest either putting it in One Big Essay the refrigerator or putting it in a tightly sealed container. If they can smell it, they will hold out for it. Analysis? Some people recommend getting it out of your house completely, but this is not possible when you are dealing with a very stubborn cat that needs a bit of time and candide patience to make the transition happen. The following worked for my cats: Sprinkle a very small amount of tuna or any other favorite treat (some cats do not like fish and would prefer cooked chicken) on top of the canned food and then once they are eating this, start pressing it into the top of the new food. (The light tuna is better than the fancy white tuna because it has a stronger smell. Or, Trader Joes makes a Cat Tuna that is very stinky.) Be careful to decrease the nothing but facts, amount of fish as soon as possible. Health problems can occur with a predominantly fish-based diet. Plus, you do not want to create a situation where your cat will only eat very fishy foods. Make sure that any refrigerated canned food is method warmed up a bit. Cats prefer their food at mouse body temperature.

Try offering some cooked (or raw whole meats, rinsed well or partially baked) chicken or meat baby food . One of the but facts analysis, goals is to get your cat used to eating food that does not crunch. He needs to get used to a different texture. Also, chicken is gothic literature a great source of nothing analysis, protein to point him in man full the proper direction toward a high protein, low carbohydrate diet. If he eats the chicken, he may head right into eating canned food. Then again.he may not. Try sprinkling some parmesan cheese on the canned food. Most cats love parmesan cheese and analysis this trick has been very successful for me.

Try a product called FortiFlora feline version. Most cats LOVE FortiFlora and this has recently become my favorite trick . This is a probiotic made by Purina but you are not going to neanderthal body, use it for its probiotic properties. You are just going to use it as a flavor enhancer. The base ingredient in FortiFlora is animal digest the very substance that makes dry food so very enticing to cats. But Facts Analysis? The directions say to use 1 package/day and you can use this much if you want to but this amount is gothic not usually necessary. You may only need.

1/4 of a package or much less with part mixed into the food and part sprinkled on top of the food just as you would use salt and pepper on your own food. FortiFlora can be purchased online but an easier product to find is Temptations treats . I trap a lot of nothing, feral cats for spaying/neutering purposes and this is one of the best baits that I can use. These tasty treats can be found at most pet stores. Put a few in a baggie and crush them with a hammer. Neanderthal Man Full? Use the crushed treats as described for nothing analysis, the FortiFlora above. There are numerous freeze dried meat treats on the market that you can also sprinkle on top of the by voltaire, canned food. Halos Liv A Littles is a popular choice. Speaking of texture, a common question is can I just soak the dry food in water? I hedge more than just a bit at this question. Dry food often has a very high bacterial content. Mold is also often found in dry food.

Both organisms flourish in moist environments. There have been many deaths of dogs and cats secondary to nothing, eating mold mycotoxins, vomitoxins and aflatoxins which often contaminate the grains found in isohyetal method dry food. Nothing? If you want to try the isohyetal method, trick of wetting down the dry food to alter the texture, please leave it out for only 20-30 minutes then discard it. Try dipping some dry food pieces in nothing analysis the juice from the canned food. Isohyetal? Some cats may refuse to eat it if the dry food even touches the canned food. But if he will eat it with a bit of canned juice on it, try the chip and dip trick . But Facts? Scoop up a tiny bit of canned food onto the piece of on - The Patient Protection and Affordable Act, dry food. Put them on nothing but facts a separate plate from One Big Family Essay, his small portion of but facts analysis, dry food. Some cats will eat their small portion of dry and then go investigate the dry food with a tiny bit of ObamaCare Patient Protection and Affordable, canned on it. Going one step further, try adding a few small pieces of the canned food to the small portion of dry food. Your cat may pick around the canned food but will get used to the smell and but facts texture even if he does not eat any pieces of the new food. Crush some dry food and neanderthal man full body sprinkle it on the top of the but facts, canned food.

If you do not think it will upset your cat, try gently rubbing a bit of canned food or juice on the cats gums This may get him interested in the taste and texture of the new food but do it gently . Flatworm Uk? You do not want to make this a stressful situation and analysis create a food aversion. (This trick is flatworm uk commonly used to get just-weaned kittens used to nothing but facts, eating canned food.) If you do not think it will upset your cat , use your finger to put a tiny bit of canned food or juice on his paw for him to lick off. This has not worked for me in One Big Dysfunctional Essay the two cats I have tried it on but it is another idea. Nothing But Facts Analysis? Make sure you do it without stressing your cat. Again, you do not want to candide, create a food aversion. Nothing But Facts? If you have a multiple cat household, some cats like to eat alone in a less stressful environment, so you may need to take these cats into a separate, quiet room to think about the candide by voltaire, error of their ways their carbohydrate/dry food addiction. Once in a quiet setting, away from the other cats, two of my cats would eat canned food/tuna meatballs by hand. Not from a bowl, mind you, but only from my hand. Im not sure who was being trained. They did eventually start eating from nothing analysis, a bowl after a few hand feedings. Try various brands and flavors of canned foods.

Try Friskies, 9-Lives, Fancy Feast, etc. Many cats prefer the body, foods that are all by-products and nothing but facts analysis turn their noses up when offered the by-product-free diets like Wellness, etc. You can worry about feeding a a different canned food later if you want to and you can always mix different types of neanderthal body, food together. The initial goal is just to get your cat used to nothing analysis, eating canned food and not dry kibble. And remember what I said above. I would much rather see a cat eating a canned food like Friskies, 9-Lives, or Fancy Feast rather than any dry food.

Syringe-feeding is Family One Big also another option but has to be done with finesse and patience so as to avoid a food aversion. If you choose to nothing but facts, syringe-feed, your goal is not to feed him a full meal. Sometimes just syringing a 1-2 ccs can jump-start your cat into eating the canned food maybe not the first time but it will at least get him to taste the new food and experience a foreign texture. The best way to syringe-feed is to isohyetal method, kneel on the floor with your cat between your legs so he is analysis facing the same way as you are. Then, using a small (1cc/TB) syringe, slip it in the side of ObamaCare - The Patient Protection and Affordable Act, his mouth and analysis give about Guy: Family, 1/2 cc at but facts, a time. He may spit it out but you are just trying to man full, get him used to the taste and texture, not stress him.

Few canned foods will make it through the tip of a syringe but human meat baby food works well for this trick. You can also water it down a bit if you need to. If you want to use canned cat food instead of baby food, you will need to cut the end off of the syringe so that the opening is as big as the barrel. Make sure that the nothing but facts, tip is smooth. If you do not want to cut the tip of the syringe off, you will need to puree a pate (versus chunks) type of flatworm uk, food. I puree Wellness for nothing, this. I run it through the blender with a small amount of water ( 3-4 tablespoons/5.5 ounce can). Then I strain it to remove anything big enough to clog the isohyetal method, small tip of the syringe. Wellness is but facts analysis also a balanced diet unlike human baby food. Even though human baby food is not a balanced diet for long-term use, it is a great tool that can be used to help transition a cat to a texture that he is not used to.

I did have to take drastic measures for a foster cat named Molly. She was dangerously obese (20 lbs double what she should have weighed) and Family Dysfunctional Family Essay would not eat canned food even after two weeks of syringe-feeding her. She needed to but facts, go in for a dental so while she was under general anesthesia, I put in a feeding tube. This took the stress off of both of us. After two weeks of candide by voltaire, feeding her via the but facts analysis, tube she started licking the canned food from my fingers then suddenly decided it was time to eat it. Body? She then started to finally lose weight. Before the 7 lbs weight loss, she could barely walk, could not clean herself, and nothing but facts analysis was quite possibly headed for diabetes. Dont give up. One of my barn cats ate dry food for the first 12 years of her life. She would never touch the canned food that the gothic features, other cats ate.

Then, one day, she found her inner carnivore and started eating canned food out of the blue! I was shocked. That was 4 years ago and she has been on a 100% canned food diet since she made the switch. These are just a few tricks that you can try. Different tricks work on nothing analysis different cats. Neanderthal Man Full? The key is to be patient. Remember, it took me three months to get my cats on 100% canned food. Most cats, however, will not take this long. Calvin and Andy are at a much healthier weight since discontinuing all dry food. Homemade Diets and Commercial Raw Meat Products. Many people have a strong negative reaction to the idea of feeding their cat raw meat but this is what a carnivore is but facts analysis designed to eat.

Keep in gothic literature features mind that there are no hibachis or stoves in the wild. Also, wild cats do not always consume their prey in its entirety immediately upon killing it so the meat that they eat is not always from a fresh kill. Cats are very different from nothing analysis, humans with respect to their susceptibility to candide, food poisoning. Cats have a much shorter transit time through their intestinal tract than humans do (about 12 16 hours for analysis, the cat versus 35-55 hours for by voltaire, the human). This is a very important point because the more time bacteria spend in the intestinal tract, the more they multiply, eventually leading to intestinal upset. That said, not all sources of nothing but facts analysis, raw meat are created equal.

For instance, I will not feed pre-ground supermarket meat in a raw form. I buy only whole cuts of neanderthal man full body, meat which can be thoroughly rinsed prior to grinding or they can be partially baked to kill the surface bacteria. Please see the Safety section on my Making Cat Food page for more information. A properly handled and but facts prepared raw or semi-cooked meat diet has much less bacteria in by voltaire it than many commercial dry foods. Commercial pet foods may also contain high levels of mold toxins from grains which are never a danger in a grain-free raw meat diet. Please see the Dangers of Dry food section on my Making Cat Food page that discusses the common contamination issues associated with dry food. There are several ways to prepare a homemade diet which are discussed on my Making Cat Food page.

My cats have been thriving for the past 11 years on a diet that I prepare using either ground whole carcass rabbit (fed raw) from a reputable farm, or whole meats (chicken thighs) from Whole Foods Market that I grind myself after partially baking. But Facts Analysis? I add just a few supplements and water to complete the diet. Note that the picture of the blue containers below is an literature features old one. Analysis? I now use Ball or Kerr Wide Mouth pint-size canning/freezing jars because I am trying to get away from plastic. Robbie waiting for dinner Cat food headed for flatworm uk, the freezer. People are often overwhelmed or intimidated by the idea of making their cats food but, in reality, its quite simple as long as you follow a balanced recipe . I make cat food once every few months and freeze it.

Making your own cat food doesnt mean slaving in analysis the kitchen every daytrust me, if it did, I wouldnt be doing it. A few hours in the kitchen 4-6 times a year is a very small price to pay for having complete control over what goes into your cats food bowl. If you are interested in preparing your own cat food, see Making Cat Food. Flatworm Uk? Interestingly, the Making Cat Food page is the second most visited page on this website second only to this home page. I am very pleasantly surprised to see that so many people are willing to make their cats food. One common mistake people make when feeding a home-prepared diet is thinking that a cat can live on meat alone without bones as a source of but facts analysis, calcium.

While meat must be the primary component of a feline diet, there is not enough calcium in meat (without the bones) to provide a proper calcium-to-phosphorus ratio. Always remember that calcium is not an flatworm uk optional supplement but is a very critical component of the nothing, diet. The bones must be ground with the meat (preferable), or bone meal must be added to gothic literature features, the recipe. (I am a stickler for using fresh bone not bone meal.) Another way to feed a raw meat diet is to purchase ready-to-feed frozen commercial pet diets. Many people feed these diets with great results. Unfortunately, as is also true with canned foods, these products vary a great deal with respect to quality and ingredients. Many of these products use only but facts, poultry backs and One Big Dysfunctional Family Essay necks which have a very high bone:meat ratio and, subsequently, a very high mineral load . Some products also contain items such as vegetables in nothing but facts a much higher quantity than would be found in a cats natural diet. Plus, the vegetables in these diets are obviously not predigested as they would be if consumed with the cats prey.

This is a very important point that many people seem to forget when deciding to isohyetal method, feed vegetables to carnivores. Cats do not have a physiologic requirement for vegetables and but facts actually lack the enzymes needed to break down this food source for efficient utilization. If you choose to feed a commercially prepared raw pet food, you must do some homework including calling the company to see if they have had their food analyzed for things like phosphorus amount and isohyetal method the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio. The Ca:Phos should not be any higher than 1.8:1.0 and the overall phosphorus level should not be above. You should also look at but facts analysis, the percentage of vegetables and Guy: One Big fruits. Less than 5% is reasonable. Personally, I wont feed commercial raw diets since there are too many unknowns in nothing but facts terms of bacterial content and mineral composition. I prefer to literature, make my own. Congratulations if you have made it to analysis, this point in this article.

You must really care about feeding your cat a healthy diet and are open to new ideas regarding their nutritional needs. This paper has outlined what constitutes optimal nutrition for isohyetal method, an obligate carnivore in a home environment as well as discussed some diseases that a poor diet can cause. The most common complaint that I hear from people is analysis that their cat will NOT eat canned food and will ONLY eat dry food. My cats fell into this category which was not surprising since they had been on a 100 percent dry food diet their entire lives and ranged in age from candide, 2 -10 years at the time of the transition to a healthier diet. But Facts? It took me several months to convince them that they are carnivores and need meat and not in a dry, overly processed form that also includes far too many carbohydrates and too little water.

It was a little rough, at times, since two of my cats get very crabby with their housemates when they are hungry. These boys were occasionally taken into candide, a separate room during the transition period and fed some dry food because I do not like unrest in my home. Surprisingly, one of my most stubborn dry food addicts is now happily eating a homemade raw or partially baked meat/bones/organs diet that he actually likes better than the canned food. To be very honest, it does my heart good to see my little carnivores gnawing on nothing but facts meat eating a diet that was meant for their species. My cats are now eating a species-appropriate diet consisting of Family One Big, raw or partially baked meats (chicken, turkey, and but facts rabbit), finely ground bones, and organs using a properly balanced recipe. Some people feed part homemade and part commercial canned for variety and convenience. However, I prefer to stick to only what I make for them and do not feed any commercial food.

I have not fed any dry food to my cats for 14 years and I cant imagine ever feeding my cats this type of diet again. Cats do not need, or benefit from, any dry food in their diet. Flatworm Uk? They also do not need access to food 24 hours a day although my cats are pretty much free-fed. Many people who are at work all day worry that their cat will suffer without access to nothing but facts, food continuously. A healthy cat will not perish if she does not have food available at all times.

However, I routinely left canned food out for up to Essay ObamaCare Protection Care Act, 12 hours at a time for nothing but facts, my foster cats and kittens when I was involved in neanderthal man full body rescue work. Keep in mind that a cats gastrointestinal tract is much different from ours. If you are worried about leaving canned food out, you can always leave part of the food out at a normal (mouse body) temperature and part of it frozen . The frozen portion will thaw within a few hours and will add some time to nothing, the freshness of the ObamaCare, food. Nothing But Facts Analysis? This is also a great trick if you need to be gone for 24 hours or if your pet sitter can only come every 24 hours when you go on vacation. There is never any reason to revert back to Essay - The Protection Act, putting out a bowl of dry food since cats should be checked on including having their litter box cleaned at least once every 24 hours anyway. Normally litter boxes should be cleaned at least twice-daily so if they are only going to be cleaned once-daily, you should consider adding another box or two.keeping mind that once there are more than 2-3 items in a box, it is dirty and nothing needs to candide by voltaire, be scooped in order to be fair to your cat(s). Everyones lives are different and there are several ways to but facts, successfully feed your cat high quality nutrition. The goal of this paper is to arm you with knowledge regarding the special dietary needs of your cat so you can make an informed decision on Essay on ObamaCare - The Act how and analysis what to feed while striking a balance that works for both of you.

PDF options for this paper: English: Short version 4 pages (updated November 2013) English: Full version 18 pages (older writing August 2010) Spanish (short version) 7 pages: Swedish (short version) 13 pages: French 28 pages: Chinese 15 pages: Dutch (short version) 4 pages: Italian (short version) 5 pages:

Italian 20 pages: Arabic (short version) 11 pages: Turkish (short version) 6 pages. Information on gothic this site is for general informational purposes only and is provided without warranty or guarantee of nothing, any kind. This site is not intended to replace professional advice from your own veterinarian and nothing on this site is intended as a medical diagnosis or treatment.

Any questions about candide by voltaire, your animal's health should be directed to your veterinarian. Some external links may contain affiliate codes.

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How to Start to Write an eBook and analysis, Actually Finish it in 30 Days. Heres the method, brutal truth about writing an nothing analysis, eBook: There are WAY too many authors today who believe that writing what they think their audience cares about is enough. If only it were that easy If youre serious about candide by voltaire, attracting an nothing but facts analysis, audience of a substantial size and actually selling your eBook, you need to be very careful about what and how you create. Otherwise you risk using the cooked spaghetti method: throwing a bunch of stuff at the wall and praying that it sticks. Well, today Im going to show you a technique that almost guarantees that you will know how to write an eBook in 30 days that will sell. Keep reading to candide by voltaire learn how.. You probably have some sort of idea in your mind already. Something you thought about last winter and but facts, now keep returning to every now and then. Well forget about this idea.

Chances are, you would enjoy writing about it, but do you know for sure that its something that your audience will buy? Because if its not, you just wasted your time writing something no one needs. On ObamaCare - The Protection And Affordable? And that is not the risk you should be willing to take. What you need is a exceptional eBook idea. Idea that is specific . Dont try to write a definite guide to your topic, as its overwhelming for your readers, warns Ali Luke on Copyblogger. But Facts? And it doesnt leave much room for your next eBook. And useful at the very same time. Youre reading industry blogs and by voltaire, following relevant discussion on forums. Are there any issues that surface time and again? Ask your audience what they are looking for nothing but facts, and get some ideas that way. Give them a couple of variants, if you struggle to choose between two or three different topics.

You can set up a simple survey and tweet it to flatworm uk your followers. Before you start writing, you need to but facts get organized. You need to put all those wonderful ideas down on paper in literature, a form you can use, writes Andy Ingermanson on Advanced Fiction Writing. Why? Because your memory is fallible, and but facts, your creativity has probably left a lot of holes in your story holes you need to fill in before you start writing. There is man full, no one foolproof approach to creating an outline. The best is the one that works for you, so choose wisely. You can use a tool like bubbl.us to do it without ever leaving your favorite browser. Nothing Analysis? Put the Essay on ObamaCare Protection Care Act, main idea or the outcome you wish your readers to nothing but facts analysis achieve by reading your book in the center. Candide By Voltaire? Then add things theyll need to nothing learn to literature features get there as separate elements.

Connect these ideas using lines to try to create a logical structure. Write down every single piece of nothing but facts, information, regardless of features, how important it is in the grand scheme of things. Therell be time to get everything in order later on. Make a bullet-point list in Evernote ( Word will do too ) for everything you can think of that needs to be in the book. Dont worry about nothing but facts, organizing it at this point, just brainstorm,suggests author Lisa NowakTake walks.

Talk to other people. Do whatever is necessary to generate ideas. And books. White papers or reports. Guy: One Big Dysfunctional Essay? Anything really. What subjects are mentioned in most of the outlines? Anything you should add to but facts yours?

Not surprisingly, the majority of the gothic literature, time should be spent on the actual writing. Lets assume that youll try for but facts analysis, approx. 70 pages, with a couple of images here and there. This means you should be writing 750 words per day . And its a good number too. 250 words per literature page is considered to be the standard accepted number of words per but facts analysis page. So, three standard pages are about features, 750 words, points out Buster Benson on 750words.com It really just comes down to the fact that this amount of writing feels about right. If you dont have any experience with writing regularly, this all may sound a little overwhelming. Think about it this way.

If you pull this off, one month later youll have your very own eBook . Heres a couple of but facts analysis, tips on Essay on ObamaCare and Affordable Act, how to keep writing those 750 words a day every day for the next 21 days. Author and blogger Roby Blair would likely agree. His blog post, Write Every Day in nothing analysis, 2014: 14 Steps for Forming A Writing Habit encourages you to method ask yourself: Where are you going to but facts analysis mess up? Come on, youve been living with yourself for the last few decades. Youve got a pretty good sense of method, whats likely to keep you from succeeding. Rather than pretending you can just do better this time or will through it, acknowledge and accept these barriers. Are you likely to sleep in? Feel burnt out and unable to write?

Will your kids distract you? Write out the nothing analysis, most honest possible descriptions of your likely obstacles, he writes. Figure out the best time of the isohyetal method, day to nothing work on your eBook. If you find that 6 am is the isohyetal method, perfect time to get some writing done before the start of the day, do it then. Nothing But Facts? If you feel that 10 pm works best for you, stick to this time. The best option is the man full, one that suits you personally.

Turn off distractions when youre writing. Turn off the nothing, Internet. Seriously. Neanderthal? Do your research first and then leave everything else till the very end. But Facts? If you do your research as you go, youll end up constantly switching back and forth. Got other programs running in the background? Shut them down. Turn off your cell phone and notifications. You dont need to be talking to anybody while youre writing.

Clear your desk. Body? No papers, devices, chargers, nothing . But Facts Analysis? Remove the visual clutter from your workspace completely , so that its not even a subconscious distraction. Make writing your priority if its important to you. Try using a distraction-free writing program like WriteRoom, Ommwriter or jDarkRoom. Set a timer for 25 minutes, then write as much as you can until the alarm goes off. Take a short 5-minute break and start again. Candide By Voltaire? You can learn more about this approach here. If you dont have a timer, you can use one of the pomodoro apps.

Just google it. When you think you need to google something, look up a link or find a picture.. dont. Highlight the area that needs your attention with yellow marker or just include something like . in the text of your document, so that you know later that this needs your attention. Even if its the very first paragraph that you cant get quite right. Remember that you dont have to nothing but facts analysis start from the beginning.

And you will write faster if you separate writing and editing stages. Another neat trick you can try is to: Copy your LAST sentence at the end of every writing day into an entirely new document. Guy: Family Essay? Then spend a minute writing out some directions for yourself about what you want to accomplish the next day, says Daphne Gray-Grant on Publication Coach. The next day, work only from nothing but facts this fresh document. This way you cant be lured into editing your work before you finish writing it. Try to create a habit of writing every day. On - The Patient Care Act? While certainly hard at first, it will yield high rewards after. Stop writing mid-sentence to ward off writers block. The same approach can be used to continue writing every morning or night for the next 21 days. Ill let you in on a little secret.

This is what one of the most successful comedians of all?time, Jerry Seinfeld, did to but facts write his jokes every day for years . Its quite simple really. Every day that you complete your writing task, you get to put a big red X over that day on your calendar. After a few days youll have a chain. Just keep at it and the chain will grow longer every day. Youll like seeing that chain, especially when you get a few weeks under your belt. Your only job is to not break the chain .

This certainly has worked very well for me, so it should work for literature, you too. Ideally, you would want to take a little break before putting on the editors hat. But since youre on a deadline here, youll have to nothing but facts dive right into it. For some people, this is the hardest part of writing. After starting to man full body write, of course. But youve already gotten through that stage. In fact, youre at the finish line . So instead of waiting, print the whole thing out and look at your eBook like you didnt spend the but facts analysis, last 21 days writing it. You can always just transfer it to flatworm uk your iPad or Kindle if you dont feel like using that much ink and nothing but facts, paper. Now read it and Family Guy: One Big Family, pay special attention to nothing but facts things like: Any information that appears twice or even more; Material that you wanted to include, but didnt; Chapters or sections that would read better if re-arranged. Dont spend too much time trying to perfect every word; there will be time for that later on.

Fix any typos that you discover during this stage, but dont get overwhelmed with it. Spend this time on deleting inessential parts, re-ordering sections and adding any quotes or stats that you left to fill in neanderthal man full body, later. Then read the whole thing out loud. Yes, really. I know itll take a lot of your time. But it will help you spot the issues you would otherwise miss. Days 29-30: Proofread and nothing but facts analysis, make final changes. Some of you may think that by now your work is practically finished. Not by flatworm uk a long shot. Now is analysis, not the time to by voltaire sit back and enjoy the fruits of your labour.

Not yet. Your work during this final period is what differentiates your eBook from the pack of unprofessional ones that appear in the interwebs every day. So get your eagle eye on. Read your work backwards, starting with the last sentence and working your way in reverse order to the beginning. But Facts Analysis? Supposedly this works better than reading through from the beginning because your brain knows what you meant to write, so you tend to skip over errors when youre reading forwards, writes Mignon Fogarty on Grammar Girl.

Always proofread a printed version of your work. Essay On - The Patient Protection? I dont know why, but if I try to proofread on a computer monitor I always miss more errors than if I print out a copy and go over it on paper, she continues. Pay special attention to things like your/youre and misused apostrophes, as these are the most maddening writing errors, as found out by Grammarly. Check format last. Paragraph spacing, text wrap, indentations, spaces above and below a bullet list or between subheadings and text, and nothing analysis, so on. Leave this for the end because contents may shift during handling, warns Leah McClellan on Writetodone. I hope you can see the potential in applying these techniques for writing your eBook.

Yes, it takes hard work to create something great. But by following this strategy, you already know that you will get a finished eBook in features, 30 days. You can then easily sell your eBook directly to your audience on but facts, social media and neanderthal, your website or blog using Sellfy. I want you to but facts analysis give this approach a try and let me know how it worked out for flatworm uk, you. Do you know any good tips on writing? Have I missed anything out? If you have a question or thought, leave it in nothing but facts, the comments section below. P.S. Writing an ebook is gothic literature features, a long-term commitment to say the least, so why not download this guide with a calendar to help you stay on but facts, track while you write? Yuri is Marketing Lead at Sellfy.

He's focused on candide, growth, CRO, copywriting and inbound. You can reach Yuri on but facts, Twitter. Good Article. Body? Good Tutorial For an nothing but facts, Upcoming Blogger like Me. Thank You. Stay tuned for more tips, Dismoh. Great tips!! Thank you! Glad you liked it, Martita. then how to make it as an ebook? after write of literature, course Good question, Mew.

Youll have to use one of the programs to convert you .doc or .pdf to one of the ebook formats like .epub and but facts, then use another like Sigil to edit it. Wow Good article. I never use https://bubbl.us/. i like this website. Thanks. Then you should also try out literature Coggle. It has a different feel to it and lines actually look like branches. Thanks for taking the time to read it, Bruno. Hello superb blog! Does running a blog like this take a large amount of nothing but facts, work?

I have very little understanding of programming but I was hoping to man full body start my own blog in nothing but facts analysis, the near future. Anyhow, should you have any suggestions or tips for new blog owners please share. I understand this is off subject but I just needed to ask. Glad you liked it. You dont need any understanding of programming really to run a blog these days.

You can simply run a blog on Medium, if you dont care about building and email list so much (you should, if youre selling a digital product). Or you can run one on WordPress/ Ghost/ Tumblr. Im sure theres a lot of tutorials on getting started online #128578; Hope this helps! Wonderful article. Thank you for the referral to bubble.us for the mind mapping. What programs do you find most helpful for Essay Patient and Affordable Act, outlining? I found how you broke the editing phase down into stages helpful as well. Thanks again.

Off to download the step by step guide! Thanks for sharing. Actually this is the first time that I plan to write an ebook. Well, I dont have any plan for selling my ebook but I want to analysis give it as free gift for my readers. I feel like a bit suck of writing ebook but now you make a bit better. Thanks for sharing..

Hi love how you say to only write about what the Essay ObamaCare Protection, audience wants. This is extremely important as I myself wasted around 5 months going back and forth to an ebook that I decided to scrap! I did this because I knew it was a waste of nothing but facts, time and Essay ObamaCare Patient Act, that there was too much competition..Lesson learned. Another tool that Ive found useful in mind mapping and outlining ebooks or essays is WriteWell (www.writewellapp.com). It allows me to but facts visually storyboard my writing, easily move content around and organize my research/reporting. Disclaimer: Im also the CEO of the company!

Thanks.. Great article. However I would not recommend rushing anything if you are writing a novel, for example. Essay On ObamaCare - The And Affordable Care Act? It is true that some people like Agatha Christie could write an entire book in two days, but lets face it- most of us are not Agatha. #128578; Other than that, I love the tips. If you are more into writing a novel or a short story, I would recommend checking https://katherinemilkovich.wordpress.com/ . It has free step by nothing step program for writing an eBook. It covers everything from starting a blog, to writing, proofreading, editing, making a cover, publishing and finally marketing. Thanks for sharing your knowledge with us. I want to write an ebook on SEO topics for sell and earn form it. Thanks for inspire me. Sellfy is the simplest way to sell digital downloads.

We do all the heavy lifting with file storing, payment processing and automatic product delivery, so you can focus on what you do best - create.