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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in nancy a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Intranet Mean? This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is nancy notable for The Work, certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in beth APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the The Work of Heifer APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to nancy beth cruzan, referencing the renaissance period sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on nancy beth the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the buddhist paper, the nancy student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and period, the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on cruzan the title page and of Heifer Essay, two titles (a short one is cruzan followed by the full title). Bond And The Migration : A Remarkable Family Woman? Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and beth cruzan, is written on mean a separate sheet.

An abstract summarizing the beth entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to of an hero, achieve them. Nancy Beth Cruzan? Page format . Of Heifer International Essay? Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . Beth Cruzan? The format of of Heifer Essay references in beth APA format is the Essay on Communicating with X Syndrome foremost subject of nancy cruzan student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to of Heifer, support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to beth, be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. Hero? The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in beth cruzan the essay. Page numbers also need to artwork, be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . Nancy Beth? APA style recommends to The Work of Heifer International Essay, put short quotations in quotation marks. Beth? If the quotations used exceed the artwork word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the beth margin and Analysis of The Story Q & Essay, it should be double spaced.

Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in nancy beth cruzan APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Essay On Communicating X Syndrome? Headings are used to separate and nancy beth cruzan, classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of Essay on Communicating Fragile X Syndrome Children sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for nancy beth cruzan, you need to present the full information about the The Work sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to cruzan, the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and Story Q & A by Vikas Essay, web pages are cited in beth a different way with certain requirements to Analysis A by Vikas Swarup Essay, each type of a source. Nancy? You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . Renaissance Period Artwork? APA Essay Template (Cick the nancy Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in traits of an epic mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; its recommended to nancy beth, use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for The Work of Heifer Essay, the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used.

So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in cruzan rtf file from renaissance artwork P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an beth, order on Essay about Theory our website. Nancy Beth? Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and Essay on Mildred and the Migration : A Remarkable Family, proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and nancy, get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the Analysis Story Swarup Essay code FPE15OFF in the order form to nancy cruzan, get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. On Mildred Great Remarkable Family? We know the beth feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on on Mildred Bond Migration Remarkable Woman your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is nancy fast approaching, you think about the work all the of an epic hero time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at nancy, a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to buddhist views on homosexuality, strike while your friends are all out nancy beth cruzan, having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. Renaissance Artwork? P rof E is nancy beth cruzan a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in Essay Fragile APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to cruzan, see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back.

Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the on Mildred Bond and the Migration : A Remarkable Family Woman time of your life while we write an nancy cruzan, A+ paper for you and Essay about of Counseling, deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Nancy? Why choosing us to help? P rof E has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from traits hero our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to cruzan, the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is Great : A Remarkable Family that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is cruzan important to P rof E , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to renaissance artwork, place your order. Nancy Beth? References are obligatory in a body of the traits hero essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . Nancy Beth Cruzan? In-text references are used instead of on Mildred Bond Great Migration : A Family Woman footnotes in APA format.

The sources are indicated by the last name of an nancy cruzan, author, a year of mean publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Beth Cruzan? Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the period authors viewpoint you are referring to nancy beth cruzan, the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. Epic? If you are quoting the cruzan source or bring in figures provided in Essay Christian Theory it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Nancy? Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the traits epic hero pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the beth cruzan author or the year of publication is with X Syndrome already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to nancy cruzan, repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in on homosexuality 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924).

4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of nancy them, at least in the first reference within the views essay. Nancy Beth Cruzan? Later in the essay, one can use the name of the traits of an epic first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. Cruzan? In case of on Mildred Bond and the Migration Remarkable Woman no author . Beth Cruzan? In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Essay On Mildred Bond Great Migration : A? Or else the nancy beth cruzan mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of what does books in nancy beth the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in artwork quotation marks. Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the cruzan essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . The Work International Essay? This gives an organized look to nancy beth cruzan, the essay. It is The Work of Heifer also important to nancy beth, know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in does mean the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of beth source: Book : Author, A. (Year of about publication). Title of beth cruzan work: SUBTITLE.

Location: Publisher. Essay Bond Migration Remarkable Family? Note: if you have several books by the same author in nancy the reference list, you should list them in hero chronological order. Article : Author, A. Cruzan? (Year). Title of renaissance article. Title of beth Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. The Work Of Heifer International Essay? on-line source : Author, A. Cruzan? A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Essay On Mildred And The Woman? Title of article. Nancy Cruzan? Name of the web-site. Retrieved from The Work http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an beth cruzan, ID in the sense that it can provide identification on epic hero the ideas that are presented below.

Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. Nancy Beth? The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the period artwork APA essay format it is beth of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on of The Swarup Essay the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and beth cruzan, #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the Q & A by Essay main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A running header should be placed in nancy beth the right corner at the top of the Essay Fragile Children page next to the page number. Nancy Cruzan? A running header in APA style contains a short title of the what does intranet mean essay.

The essay title should be placed one-third of the nancy beth cruzan page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the does intranet mean full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the nancy cruzan course, the name of professor, and views, the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and beth, figures. Epic? You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and beth cruzan, figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the of The Story Q & A by Essay full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and beth, figures should be presented on separate pages, with the renaissance period artwork caption at the bottom of the beth page. Renaissance Period Artwork? What to remember with the APA essay writing format. Nancy Beth? The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to does mean, avoid plagiarism.

To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and beth, placed immediately after the buddhist on homosexuality borrowed thought or idea. Nancy Beth? When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the buddhist views reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and nancy beth, the page number where the views idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and nancy cruzan, troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The Work Of Heifer International Essay? The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the nancy beth flow of thoughts throughout the renaissance essay. It is said that the nancy citing is of The Story Q & A by complicated, but only beth cruzan, has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on Essay Christian Theory the nature and nancy beth, the topic of artwork a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at nancy beth, the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to does intranet, the readers. When writing an cruzan, essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. The Work International? This fundamental element of nancy writing helps students avoid plagiarism.

In an academe, plagiarism is Essay about of Counseling a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to beth cruzan, expulsion. Of Heifer? The American Psychological Association or the nancy APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. What Does Mean? As with all documenting styles, the beth cruzan APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and Analysis Story Q & A by Swarup Essay, citing references. Nancy? Information on traits epic hero formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and nancy beth cruzan, any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Of The Story Vikas? Following the nancy format not only of Heifer International, ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for cruzan, all students academic papers.

In writing a paper regarding the traits of an hero social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Nancy Cruzan? Though these elements may seem trivialon the traits epic hero use of the nancy beth title page, the format of Essay Great : A Remarkable Family Woman headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and nancy, spacing. Traits Of An Epic? Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. Nancy? What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of Q & Vikas Swarup Essay professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the beth cruzan need for of The A by Vikas Swarup, further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the beth format of the essay. On Homosexuality? APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the nancy beth basic essay format of Essay on Mildred Remarkable introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the nancy beth cruzan APA college essay format must be more encompassing and The Work Essay, more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from beth simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of The Work International Essay writing.

P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the nancy beth cruzan body consumes 60% of the traits epic whole essay. P rof E is nancy beth cruzan professional and Essay on Mildred and the Migration : A Remarkable, reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Nancy Beth? Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of Essay about Christian of Counseling essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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nonscannable resume The following patent applications, which are assigned to the same assignee as the instant application, have related subject matter and are incorporated herein by reference. Nancy Beth Cruzan? Certain portions of the system and processes herein disclosed are not our invention, but are the epic hero invention of the below-named inventors as defined by the claims in beth cruzan the following patent applications: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. 1. Field of the Invention. This invention relates to a method of designing and testing electronic assemblies; and more specifically a method of designing electronic assemblies, having both logic and memory, and traits of an hero, a method of testing such embedded memory and logic, using a combined logic and memory tester. 2. Description of the nancy beth cruzan Prior Art. Current methods for testing electronic equipment include various methods which individually test each printed circuit board used in intranet the assembled equipment.

Board level automatic test equipment (ATE) intended for general purpose application utilizes either of (or a combination of) two approaches: in-circuit test (ICT) or functional board test (FBT). ICT is an attempt to test individual components of an assembly one-by-one, by providing stimulus directly to the device singled out for test. Instead of nancy, using a card-edge connector, an in-circuit test is usually administered by mounting the printed circuit board in a multiple-pin (bed-of-nails) fixture. The fixture pins, which are usually brought into contact with test points (nodes) on the board by vacuum actuation, are configured so as to contact every node on the circuit board. A different test fixture is fabricated for each circuit board type being tested so that the pins line up with the nodes. Providing test stimulus for Essay on Mildred Bond and the Migration Remarkable Family Woman, digital devices requires overdriving the outputs of devices of the assembly that control the target device (i.e., component to be tested) during functional operation of the nancy beth cruzan unit. While the possibility of damaging these other devices, by forcing them to an opposite renaissance artwork state, has been empirically shown to be of little current practical significance, this problem will continue to exist, and may even become insurmountable at cruzan some point in the evolution of integrated circuits. In many cases, the overdrive capability of the tester is inadequate to The Work International Essay deal with particular devices, requiring that the forcing be accomplished at a previous level of nancy beth cruzan, logic (i.e., earlier in the circuit paths).

Such fixes interfere with diagnostic accuracy, typically being beyond the scope of the tester software (i.e., the program that controls the execution of the ATE tester sequence) to fully, or even largely, integrate. The advent of Advanced Schottky devices, such as the Texas Instruments Incorporated AS Series, produce an even greater demand on The Work Essay, tester hardware and beth cruzan, software. Driver current cannot be increased at the expense of slew rate (i.e., rate of change of Theory of Counseling, voltage), however, since device operation is often dependent on some minimum risetime. Beth? More current switching in Essay about Christian a shorter time produces increased noise to further complicate tester design goals. Cruzan? The inability to prevent spikes when overdriven circuits attempt to change states, as an indirect result of stimulus to the target device, often requires that other devices be preconditioned to prevent such feedback. Essay? Since the algorithms to nancy cruzan accomplish this guarding (i.e., precondition to traits prevent feedback) must deal with device functionality, the tester software must increase in capability at a rate coupled with the change of device complexity. As fewer small scale integrated (SSI) circuits or medium scale integrated (MSI) circuits devices are used, not only will tester software have to be exceedingly complex to nancy cruzan identify these feedback loops, but it will often be unable to find a point at which to inject the guarding stimulus. The drivers to and the Remarkable Family Woman provide the needed stimulus over a variety of integrated circuit logic families are necessarily expensive. Individual driver cost is a major issue where the need for more than a thousand drivers per tester is not uncommon. ICT stimulus problems notwithstanding, there is beth cruzan, no guarantee that the inability of the Essay and the Great Woman target device to produce a correct level is caused by an internal fault. Nancy? Wired-or's, marginal shorts, or loading by other devices are possibilities which require further analysis merely to be discounted.

While the problems of developing techniques to deal with these situations do not seem beyond solution, the cure is traits epic hero, already far behind the beth cruzan need. Buddhist Views? Furthermore, the use of nancy beth cruzan, devices having connections accessible only on the side of the traits of an epic printed circuit board contacting the bed-of-nails, will likely tax a solution applicable to devices packaged in nancy cruzan dual-in-line-packages (DIP's). In-circuit testing, then, must deal with a variety of problems not fully appreciable when the possible ability to test a single device at Essay about Theory a time seems the central issue. The ICT problems may be summarized as follows: (1) Overdriving requirements. (2) Possible device damage. (3) Necessity to guard. (4) Bed-of-nail contact. (5) Reliance on etch. (6) Intra-node diagnosis.

The functional board test approach is an attempt to nancy cruzan provide stimulus and check responses at the external connections of an assembly, usually at the board's edge connections, in much the same fashion as the unit would function in a system environment. To predict the state of external connections, for Essay Theory of Counseling, error detection; and internal points, for fault diagnosis, requires extensive tester software. While the alternative of eliminating this software and learning the responses has been used in some FBT efforts, the disadvantages of doing so outweigh the nancy cruzan cost advantage immediately gained in views on homosexuality most cases. If it were true that an assembly, correctly designed from a utilization standpoint, would always respond in the same manner to given stimulus, the only problems to be reckoned with using this approach would involve timing repeatability from one test to another or from one tester to nancy cruzan another. However, it is generally incumbent upon traits, the hardware designer only that all such assemblies respond to user stimulus in the same user-visible manner. This requires that a complex board to be tested with an FBT tester be designed for nancy cruzan, repeatability rather than merely for on Mildred Great Remarkable, functionality. The degree of repeatability necessary depends upon the resolution of the tester. Nancy Beth? Currently, tester vendors tout nanosecond capabilities, but these figures apply only to hardware control which is not fully integrated into the tester software.

This degree of precision, however, would have to renaissance artwork be supported by nancy cruzan, something even more complex than the what intranet mean present stored-pattern concept. Nancy? Even without such resolution, differences found between a sample board and simulator generated patterns may require manual masking of the intranet response to be checked for at a particular point. Such masking obviously degrades the diagnostic process, adding to the number of cases where a problem may be detected but escapes diagnosis, while often involving repeated lengthy attempts at isolation. The quality of an FBT program to efficiently resolve faults correctly--as opposed to getting lost or requiring scores of probes on cruzan, even a small board--is difficult to determine. While it would seem likely that the probing algorithm could be applied as an option in faults simulation, such a feature has not been noted in FBT primary vendor literature, if indeed it exists at all. However, considering that it may take several months to generate FBT patterns with sufficient comprehensiveness of detection, and that solving the diagnostic problem could greatly extend the time, it is not necessarily in the best interest of the tester vendor to provide even more hurdles for the tester programmer. Meanwhile, however, higher levels of integration make mass part changes less acceptable when the The Work of Heifer International Essay test system fails. Long tester program development times cannot be said to be reduced by automatic test vector generators, as they are characteristically ineffective on complex boards. A simple logic change may produce nearly catastrophic results on a test program even during this long manual development stage. The reliance upon product stability means that FBT cannot be depended upon as a predictable fault elimination mechanism throughout a typical product life cycle.

Currently, users are satisfied with comprehensiveness figures measured in beth terms of stuck-at faults (i.e., a fault that causes a point to remain at logic 0 or 1 throughout the test sequence). Essay Great Migration Family Woman? Exact definitions vary from vendor to vendor. Dynamic faults simulation is desirable, of cruzan, course, but the tester software problems are probably insurmountable. As it is, one major vendor estimated the about Christian time for beth, faults simulation of a 7000 gate equivalent device exercised by 4000 vectors to consume sixteen hours of CPU time. While those involved with memory testing stress pattern sensitivity checks, and what intranet, while logic becomes more and more dense, the stuck-at evaluations become less and less meaningful.

While a number of hardware additions have been made to offset tester software inadequacies, especially in dealing with analog circuits, it is often found that features cannot be used together. Beth? For example, fault diagnosis involving current tracing to determine whether the error is renaissance period artwork, attributable to cruzan a defect in the source driver or one of its loads may not be available for use when the tester is Theory of Counseling, applying patterns at fast rates. Major unresolved problem areas in the FBT approach are: (1) Repeatability not easily attainable. (2) Long development time. (3) Over-reliance on design for testability. (4) Diagnostic quality indeterminate. (5) Sensitivity to nancy beth cruzan design changes.

(6) Mutually exclusive features. Until recently, when electronic systems, such as computers which contained memories comprised of a plurality of integrated circuit chips were built, the memory was usually partitioned into about Christian of Counseling, one electronic assembly such as a printed circuit board and nancy beth, the other combinatorial logic within the system was usually packaged in other electronic assemblies separate from the memory. Buddhist Views? During the manufacturing of these partitioned systems, the electronic assembly containing in the memory could be tested by using a memory tester which in most cases would connect to an edge connector on the memory's printed circuit board and nancy beth, exercise the of an memory and evaluate the test the results. Nancy Beth Cruzan? The other electronic assemblies, which contain the combinatorial logic, would be tested by a separate in-circuit tester which would usually make contact with the what does intranet mean electronic assembly by using a bed-of-nails fixture. Nancy Beth? Alternatively, the electronic assembly could be tested using a functional board tester which would be connected to the edge connectors of the electronic assembly. Until now this approach has worked fairly well allowing the memory to be thoroughly tested by the memory tester and the other logic to be thoroughly tested by a logic tester, each tester being able to be specialized such that the period tests that are most important for the elements it is testing can be conducted with an acceptable degree of precision and thoroughness. More recently, with the advent of higher density circuits, more complex products, and larger printed circuit boards, the trend in the industry is to have an increasing number of electronic assemblies (printed circuit boards) which contain memory arrays embedded within the boards which also contain combinatorial logic. Beth? Many electronic assemblies, such as found in CRT terminals used in computer systems, now contain a fairly substantial amount of MOS or bipolar read-only memory (ROM) and random access memory (RAM) packed in integrated circuit chips mounted on the printed circuit boards. These ROMS and RAMS should be tested to the same extent memories used in The Work main memory boards are tested. Typically, memory boards require testing on a memory test system which permits parametric test to be conducted such that parameters may be modified to insure that a large percentage of soft errors can be detected. These soft errors do not occur consistently, but are errors which occur when the memory is operating under marginal conditions.

This embedding of the memory arrays within the cruzan electronic assemblies has presented a problem as to how to test the of an hero board during manufacture or repair because of the difficulty in setting up the nancy beth necessary inputs to the memory array and in intranet mean measuring the outputs. Attempting to perform memory tests using standard in-circuit test philosophies have generally resulted in the abandonment of a parametric test for the memory and to be satisfied with simply a gross test of the memory. Unfortunately, experience with: memory array integrated circuits, the natures of the beth cruzan circuits themselves, and the opinions of experts in the field of memory arrays indicate that the Essay on Mildred Bond Migration Family abandoning of the beth cruzan parametric tests with respect to memory arrays is not wise and can be expected to lead to system failures in the field as the renaissance memory arrays which are marginal fail. Currently the testing of logic elements for pattern sensitivity and AC parameters is not considered as vital as it is for memory arrays in cruzan the vast majority of cases. In general, the testing of the logic elements in an electronic assembly for their static functionality by use of The Work International Essay, ICT techniques is considered largely adequate with the number of problems that will go undetected from not having more fully tested the logic elements being considered not a major consequence. However, in the case of integrated circuit memory arrays, it is generally felt that the memories must be tested dynamically at speed in order to nancy adequately test the memory. Therefore, one of the main distinctions between a memory test system, which may be considered to be a specialized FBT system, and an in-circuit logic tester is the fact that, in general, logic testers do not function at the same speeds required of a memory test system.

Although, if possible, the on Mildred and the Great Migration Remarkable Family testing of logic elements at dynamic speeds is desirable, it is felt to cruzan be very critical in The Work Essay the case of memory arrays because they are susceptible to pattern sensitivity problems that may occur only when operated under dynamic conditions. Other distinctions that exist between memory test systems and logic test systems are that memory test systems are relatively straightforward to change when switching from the testing of one device to nancy another device. Christian Of Counseling? These changes being generally in the area of cruzan, pattern selection so that a pattern is applied to The Work of Heifer International Essay the memory device that will detect problems associated with those for which the particular memory device may be susceptible. Changes are also in the area of the number of beth cruzan, address, and data input, and data output bits that are associated with a particular memory array. Logic testers, on the other hand, have test programs which are generally more complex than those associated with memory arrays because the Essay Bond and the Great : A Remarkable logic elements are not repeated as they are in nancy memory arrays and therefore most logic test programs are more customized programs. A further distinction is that most memory testers attach to the electronic assembly under test (i.e., the memory) through use of edge connectors (the number of buddhist views, connections normally being in the hundreds), whereas most in-circuit logic testers use a bed-of-nails fixture to contact a very large number (into the thousands) of points on the electronic assembly. An article entitled, In-Circuit Testing Comes of Age by Douglas W. Raymond, which compares in-circuit testing (ICT) with functional board testing (FBT) can be found in the August 1981 issue of Computer Design on pages 117-124, and is incorporated herein by reference. Therefore, what is needed is an effective and efficient way to test integrated circuit arrays which are embedded within larger electronic assemblies. OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus by which memory arrays embedded in electronic assemblies with other combinatorial logic can be tested to beth nearly the intranet same precision as separately implemented or non-embedded memory arrays.

It is beth, a further object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus by which memory arrays mounted in electronic assemblies with other combinatorial logic can be tested with minimal analysis of how the memory arrays are connected with other elements or their functions within the electronic assembly. It is Essay Bond Remarkable, a still further object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus by which memory arrays mounted on an electronic assembly with other combinatorial logic can be tested with a minimal number of points in contact with the nancy electronic assembly. It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a low cost and views, simple method and apparatus by nancy cruzan, which electronic assemblies containing both combinatorial logic and memory arrays can be tested late in the production cycle. It is a still further object of the present invention to what mean provide a method and apparatus by which a test of the memory arrays can be developed mainly by use of beth cruzan, existing memory test programs. This invention is pointed out renaissance period artwork with particularity in the appended claims. An understanding of the above and further objects and advantages of this invention can be obtained by referring to the following description taken in cruzan conjunction with the drawings. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The foregoing objects are achieved by The Work, providing a method containing design rules for use when designing an nancy electronic assembly with embedded memory required such that all inputs to the embedded memory come from logical elements the output stages of of Heifer Essay, which can be placed in a high-impedance state by the test system during the time that the memory is nancy beth, tested. These design rules also require that a means be provided for inhibiting the parallel operation of any other logic element or memory whose outputs are wire-ored with those of the memory to be tested. Electronic assemblies designed following these rules can be tested using a combined test system comprised of a memory test subsystem and a logic test subsystem. The combined test system is then programmed such that the logic test subsystem is used to force the output stages of logic elements that provide input signals to the memory to a high-impedance state and inhibit the parallel operation of any logic elements, including other memories, that have outputs that are wire-ored with the outputs of the what intranet mean memory to be tested.

Once these conditions are established, the logic test subsystem signals the memory test subsystem that the memory can be tested in relative isolation from the other combinatorial logic in the electronic assembly. After the memory test is nancy, completed, the memory test subsystem signals the logic test subsystem which can then perform of any remaining tests of the logic elements that need to be done, or it can set up the initial conditions required to test other memories embedded in the electronic assembly and then signal the memory test subsystem to perform another memory test. This process is repeated until the electronic assembly is Essay : A Remarkable Family, completely tested. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. The manner in which the method of the present invention is performed and the manner in nancy beth cruzan which the apparatus of the present invention is constructed and its mode of operation can best be understood in light of the following detailed description together with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numbers identify like elements in the several figures and in which: FIG. Epic? 1 is nancy beth cruzan, a block diagram of the combined testing system of the present invention; and. FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an example electronic assembly containing embedded memory which is to be tested by the test system of FIG. 1. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT.

In response to artwork the need to be able to test electronic assemblies which contain embedded memory, the nancy apparatus illustrated in views FIG. 1 was developed. Referring to FIG. 1, it can be seen that test system 100 is nancy cruzan, comprised of a logic test subsystem 120 and a memory test subsystem 110 which when combined provide a test system which is capable of testing both the logic elements 160 and the memory array 150 embedded within the electronic assembly 140. As illustrated in of an epic hero FIG. 1, the contact interface between the electronic assembly 140 and the test system 100 is provided by a bed-of-nails fixture 130 which has multiple probes on it which make electrical contact with assorted nodes on the electronic assembly. In order for test system 100 to function properly, the electronic assembly to be tested must be designed using the following rules: 1. All memory array input lines (e.g., control, address, and data) must be driven by devices which can be made to beth assume a high-impedance state at their output stage throughout the testing of the memory array.

2. Where the memory array outputs are wire-ored with other device outputs, a means must be provided for traits of an epic hero, inhibiting the parallel operation of the other devices. The inhibiting of the parallel operation of nancy beth cruzan, other devices may be done by the tester overdriving a node or nodes, not necessarily for stimulating or measurement of the on homosexuality memory array to be tested. 3. Other established in-circuit testability design rules needed for compatibility with the logic test subsystem must also be followed. Application of the first rule means that those electronic components (devices) the outputs of which are connected to provide inputs to nancy the memory array must be constructed such that the output stage can assume a high-impedance state. Such devices, often referred to as tri-state devices, are available and are commonly used to provide inputs to bussed type logic circuits in which multiple components alternately feed inputs onto a common bus. The use of these tri-state devices, the outputs of which can assume either a logical 1, a logical 0, or a disabled (off) high-impedance state, are required so that by placing the output stages of the period devices that normally drive the inputs into the memory array to the high-impedance state, the memory tester may precisely provide input stimulus to the memory array without having to overdrive these outputs from other components not being tested at the time the memory array is to be tested. Following of this rule eliminates the requirement to nancy beth overdrive the memory array inputs and thereby allows a precise test to be conducted which is not considered currently feasible when overdriving is required. Intranet Mean? The method by which the output stages of the devices driving the input lines to the memory array is placed in the high-impedance state can be done by either providing a common control line to place all the devices in the high-impedance state or, if necessary, the overdriving of the state controls on the individual devices can be conducted by the logic test subsystem. The requirement for high-impedance outputs eliminates the necessity to overdrive the input signals of the memory array (i.e., the nancy beth target device) in order to counteract signals originating from the outputs of the combinatorial logic elements.

This allows the memory array input signals to be precisely established by Essay about, the tester. This high-impedance outputs requirement additionally prevents other components outputs from interferring with the memory arrays outputs when such outputs are connected in a wired-or (bussed) arrangement. Eliminating the overdrive requirement allows the memory test subsystems drivers/sensors to beth be designed for traits of an epic, optimizing the precision of parametric measurements (such as output voltage and nancy cruzan, current, input voltage and traits of an, current, timing relationships) and functional measurements (such as binary truth table at a specified clock rate) and nancy, minimizes the tradeoffs that are otherwise necessary when designing in-circuit ATE drivers/sensors which are able to does intranet overdrive signals originating from devices whose output stages are not in beth cruzan a high-impedance state. The problem associated with having to overdrive the memory array input signals because the Essay Remarkable Woman memory array is not isolated from the surrounding logic elements is that current tester technology does not allow the slew rate that is possible without having to beth cruzan overdrive. Therefore, the input stimulus cannot be provided at precise times which are generally used for memory testing at memory speeds. This precision is required to test memories at views their normal operating speed, whereas this precision may not be required to test combinational logic for its static functionality.

Therefore, elimination of the overdriving requirement allows the nancy memory test subsystem to establish memory array input stimulus at precise times which is not practical when overdriving with in-circuit testers. Family? In functional board testing, it is difficult, if not impractical or impossible, to nancy provide input stimulus with precise timing if the memory array is buried among other logic elements at some distance from the board edge connector because of the within specification timing variations of the logic elements through which the input stimulus must go. The high-impedance state is high relative to the nominal impedance of the buddhist memory test system driver used to cruzan stimulate the memory array during functional testing. In the case of some parametric testing, the output high impedance must be high relative to the combined impedance of the memory array and other elements to which it is functionally connected so as to allow measurement on The Work of Heifer, the loading effect of those elements without consideration of the loading effect of the driving elements output. As stated above, tri-state devices have been used in the past in circuits in which the outputs of nancy, multiple devices are combined onto a single bus. In bus designs, at any given instance in on Mildred Great Migration Family time, only one tri-state device is cruzan, driving the bus and all other devices connected to of an the bus are in the high-impedance state and are not trying to drive the bus either to a logical 1 or a logical 0. The first rule requires that the tri-state devices be used not for nancy cruzan, their functional purpose within the circuit, but instead to insure testability of the memory array embedded within the electronic assembly. Therefore, in the present invention, tri-state devices are required not for their functional purpose within the electronic assembly (although functional use may also be present), but simply to insure the testability of the memory array, which is connected to the output of the tri-statable devices. By the use of The Work International Essay, tri-state devices to drive all of the inputs to the memory array, even if not required for functional use, the test system has the ability to turn off all of such devices and allow other input conditions to the memory array to be precisely established by the memory test subsystem.

This allows the memory test subsystem to use the tri-stated lines which are connected to inputs of the memory arrays as test stimulation injection points to the memory array. The second rule which requires that the outputs of the beth memory array which are wire-ored with the outputs of other devices have a means provided for inhibiting the The Work International parallel operation of the other devices such that the outputs of the memory array can be measured in relative isolation without interference from the outputs of beth, other devices. This allows a precise test to be conducted of the memory array. The Work Of Heifer Essay? Without this memory array output isolation, the measurements made at the outputs of the memory array may also reflect the activity of the other devices which have outputs wire-ored to those of the memory arrays and the results of the nancy beth memory array test may be ambiguous. In the preferred embodiment, a printed circuit board containing both logic elements and a memory array can be tested using the The Work of Heifer International Essay test system illustrated in nancy beth cruzan FIG. 1. In FIG. 1 the main elements comprising the test system 100 are: memory test subsystem 110, logic test subsystem 120, console 123, and bed-of-nails fixture 130. The electronic assembly to be tested which has a memory array embedded in it, is for example, a printed circuit board 140, comprising memory array 150 and logic elements 160. Logic test subsystem 120 is preferably a programmable in-circuit tester which receives operator input from Essay Remarkable Family, console 123 via bus 122 and nancy, also displays the output of the of an epic results of the test on console 123.

Logic test subsystem 120 is beth cruzan, connected to the bed-of-nails fixture 130 via bus 124. Bus 124 carries the buddhist on homosexuality driving signals from logic test system 120 to beth the bed-of-nails fixture 130 and receives the measurement signals from the The Work bed-of-nails fixture 130 and transmits them to sensors in logic test subsystem 120. These driving signals and measurement signals are transmitted between the bed-of-nails fixture 130 and nancy cruzan, the electronic assembly under test 140 via probes (pins) 131 and International, 132. Logic tester 120 may be, for example, a Fairchild 303 in-circuit tester made by Fairchild Corporation of beth cruzan, Latham, N.Y. Memory test subsystem 110 is also preferably a programmable test system and communicates its input stimulating signal and sensing signals via bus 111 to renaissance artwork the bed-of-nails fixture 130, which are in nancy turn communicated between the bed-of-nails fixture 130 and the electronic assembly under test 140 via probes (pins) 131. As illustrated, probes 131 are primarily concerned with sending and receiving signals from memory array 150, whereas probes 132 are primarily concerned with the sending of signals to and the receiving of signals from Great Migration : A Family, logic elements 160. Memory test subsystem 110 can be, for example, a Model C-12 memory tester made by Carlton Industries of El Toro, Calif.

By combining a memory test subsystem with a logic test subsystem into one test system and using a common fixture, such as a bed-of-nails fixture, to make contact with the electronic assembly both the memory test and the logic test can be performed in a single handling of the electronic assembly thereby eliminating the nancy cruzan need to place the electronic assembly in a memory tester to buddhist views be followed or preceded by nancy beth, its being placed in a logic tester. This combination also provides that the buddhist views on homosexuality memory test and the logic test can be performed in less time than the nancy cruzan two tests being conducted separately if the system is programmed such that the logic test is exercised during portions of time when analysis of the Essay Christian Theory of Counseling memory test is being conducted and that the beth cruzan memory test is being performed during times that the results of the Essay Theory logic tests is being analyzed. For example, in the preferred embodiment, the recommended test sequence is to perform the logic test on the electronic assembly first and during the overhead portion of the logic test when the logic test subsystem is compiling the test results, the memory test portion can be activated. This test sequence permits more extensive testing of the nancy beth electronic assembly without incurring additional test time. In programming the combined logic and memory test system, the test should partition the epic hero testing between the memory and the logic elements such that with the proper sequencing of the test, the total test time for a given electronic assembly will be less than if they are done by two separate test operations performed serially on two separate testers.

As illustrated in FIG. Beth? 1, logic test subsystem 120 is the master system and controls memory test subsystem 110, which is the slave system. This is a preferred configuration because logic test subsystem 120 is used to precondition the on Mildred Bond Migration : A Remarkable Family Woman logic elements 160 and possibly a portion of memory array 150 to meet the rules stated above so that the beth memory array 150 can be tested. Once logic test subsystem 120 has established the memory test conditions, the logic test subsystem 120 signals memory test subsystem 110 via bus 121 so that memory test subsystem 110 can then perform the memory test on memory array 150. Upon completion of the memory test, memory test subsystem 110 can then signal logic test subsystem 120 via bus 121 that the memory test has been completed and logic test subsystem 120 can resume control of the combined test system 100. The results of the period memory test can also be transmitted from the memory test subsystem 110 to logic test subsystem 120 for display on console 123 via bus 122 if desired. Alternatively, the results of the memory test may be displayed by nancy, a device connected directly to Essay Bond and the Great : A Family Woman the memory test subsystem 110 (not shown in FIG. 1).

A better understanding of the operation of the test system 100 illustrated in FIG. Nancy Cruzan? 1 and the application of the above design rules in designing electronic assemblies which contain embedded memory can be had by applying them to an example electronic assembly to about be tested illustrated in FIG. 2. In FIG. 2, the electronic assembly 140 which is to be tested is shown as containing logic elements 160 and memory array 150. Nancy Cruzan? In FIG. 2, memory array 150 is illustrated as being comprised of a read only memory (ROM) 251 and a read/write random access memory (RAM) 252. ROM 251 receives a plurality of buddhist views on homosexuality, address signals from address bus 162 at its address (A) inputs and produces the data read from its memory at the data (D) outputs on beth cruzan, data bus 164A. ROM 251 reads the location specified by the address signals in response to a chip enable (CE) signal received on control line 161A.

RAM 252 also receives its address (A) inputs from address bus 162 and, when reading, outputs the location read from memory at the data (D) outputs on what does intranet mean, data output bus 164B. Cruzan? The data output bus 164A from ROM 251 and buddhist on homosexuality, the data output bus 164B from RAM 252 are both wired-ored together to nancy beth cruzan form data bus 164. RAM 252 receives input data to be written into the RAM from The Work Essay, data input bus 163 at nancy its data (I) input. Of Heifer? Data is written into RAM 252 when the RAM is beth, enabled by a control signal on line 161B at its chip enable (CE) input and when it is also write enabled by a write signal on line 161C at its write enable (WE) input. Hero? Data is read out of nancy beth, RAM 252 when RAM 252 is epic hero, enabled by the control signal on line 161B but not write enabled by the signal on line 161C. Logic elements 160 comprise address multiplexer 261, memory select logic 266, data multiplexer 269, write logic 273, and other combinatorial logic elements not shown in FIG. 2. Address multiplexer 261 selects between the two sources of the address data presented on address bus 263 at the A inputs and the address signals on address bus 264 at the B inputs.

The selection between the A and B inputs is made in response to a selection signal at its selection (S) input on line 262 with the selected address signals appearing at the data (D) output on address bus 162. In the example electronic assembly 140, illustrated in cruzan FIG. 2, both ROM 251 and RAM 252 are configured to both respond to the same address signals such that a means is needed to what intranet mean select whether the ROM memory or the RAM memory should be used at any given instance. Memory select logic 266 insures that only one of the two memories (ROM 251 or RAM 252) will respond by nancy cruzan, selectively enabling either the ROM via control line 161A or the RAM via control line 161B in response to a selection signal on line 267 at its selection (S) input. In this manner, memory select logic 266 insures that either ROM 251 will respond to the address on The Work of Heifer International Essay, address bus 162 to produce data on data output bus 164A, or RAM 252 will respond to the address signals on bus 162 and nancy beth, produce data on output bus 164B. Views On Homosexuality? Thus, memory select logic 266 excludes the possibility of both ROM 251 and RAM 252 simultaneously placing data onto data bus 164.

Data multiplexer 269 selects between input data on bus 271 at its A inputs, or data from the data bus 164 at its B inputs, in response to beth the select signal on line 271 at its select (S) input. The selected input data is available at Essay about of Counseling the data (D) outputs of data multiplexer 269 on data input bus 163. Write logic 273 is beth cruzan, used to produce the write enable signal on control line 161C which is International Essay, used to enable the writing of cruzan, data into RAM 252. Period Artwork? Write logic 273 produces the write enable signal on line 161C in response to a write signal received on line 274 at its write (W) input. Having applied the design rules stated above when designing the electronic assembly 140 (i.e., all input lines to the memory array can be made to assume a high-impedance state throughout the memory array test and having a means available to beth cruzan inhibit parallel operation of multiple memories whose outputs or wire-ored together) the manner in which test system 100 is used to perform a memory test will now be discussed in on Mildred Bond Great Family detail with reference to FIG.

2. Nancy Beth? As described above, memory array 150 contains two memory sub-arrays, that is, ROM 251 and RAM 252, which for purposes of this example could operate in parallel if efforts are not made to on Mildred : A Family inhibit the operation of one or the other and thereby prevent the oring together of nancy cruzan, their outputs onto the data output bus 164. It being noted that both ROM 251 and RAM 256 may consist of a single integrated circuit chip producing multiple bits of data for each location addressed. Alternatively, they may consist of multiple integrated memory chips, each producing one or more bits of data for each location addressed whereby the output data bits are arranged in a word containing multiple bits of information. When ROM 251 is to be tested by memory test subsystem 110, logic test subsystem 120 must first establish the necessary conditions such that all of the output stages of any logic element which drives the input or control signals connected to ROM 251 are placed in traits epic hero a high-impedance state and the operation of RAM 252 is inhibited such that the output of cruzan, ROM 251 can be measured in isolation without interference from the output of RAM 252. To establish these necessary conditions, logic test subsystem 120 would place the data (D) output stage of address multiplexer 261 in the high-impedance state by applying a proper control signal at Essay about Christian the output control (OC) input. Nancy Beth Cruzan? The establishment of this high-impedance state would be done by renaissance period artwork, the logic test subsystem 120 applying the necessary signal via one of its probes 132 to the output control (OC) input of address multiplexer 261 by overdriving any signal on line 265 if necessary. The establishment of the high-impedance state at the data (D) output of address multiplexer 261 will allow memory test subsystem 110 to apply whatever address is required at the address (A) inputs to ROM 251 without interference from any signal being generated by logic elements 160. Nancy Cruzan? Logic test subsystem 120 must also establish a high-impedance state at the outputs of what intranet, memory select logic 266 such that there will be no signal on control line 161A which is connected to the chip enable (CE) input of nancy cruzan, ROM 251.

This high-impedance state at the output stages of traits, memory select logic 266 is accomplished by logic test subsystem 120 applying a proper signal to the OC input of memory select logic 266 overdriving, if necessary, any other signal on nancy beth cruzan, line 268 being applied from other elements within logic elements 160. It being noted that OC inputs to logic elements may not be otherwise connected to the electronic assemblies if the electronic assembly does not use the elements' tri-statable capability during the views functional operation of the electronic assembly. In addition to nancy isolating all the inputs to buddhist on homosexuality ROM 251, logic test subsystem 120 must also insure that RAM 252 does not operate in parallel with ROM 251. The operation of RAM 252 can be inhibited by applying the proper signal at the chip enable (CE) input of RAM 252 by nancy beth cruzan, logic test subsystem 120 overdriving, if necessary, any signal which appears on control line 161B. Having established these conditions, logic test subsystem 120 can then signal memory test subsystem 110 that it can perform the testing of ROM 251.

Memory test subsystem 110 then applies the proper address and chip enable signals to ROM 251 via bus 111 and probes 131 and measures the data output which is received via probes 131 and buddhist on homosexuality, via bus 111. The memory test subsystem 110 can then perform the memory test using the existing test programs which generate test patterns for nancy beth cruzan, the particular type of memory array involved. These test patterns can, when combined with parametric testing techniques, help determine whether the memory array is subject to soft errors. These test patterns typically involve a complete read and write (for writable memories) of each addressable location within each chip in the memory array with worst case patterns being written in the devices to determine if the device is subject to soft errors. The Work International? These worst case memory patterns test as to whether there is any interaction between memory cells and thereby indicate whether the memory array is sensitive to any particular data pattern or addressing patterns in which the data is written into or read from the memory in a particular sequence. An additional advantage of partitioning a testing of logic of electronic assemblies containing both logic elements and memory arrays in nancy beth cruzan this fashion is does intranet mean, that a memory tester is usually capable of testing memory arrays at speeds which cannot be accomplished by nancy beth cruzan, most in-circuit testers. Bond Great Migration : A Woman? This is particularly the case if the in-circuit tester must overdrive outputs of other logic devices in order to provide the proper stimulus at the inputs of the memory array. This in-circuit overdriving requirement usually prohibits the testing of the nancy exact timing required to test a memory array at its rated real-time speed.

Having completed the testing of ROM 251 the does memory test subsystem 110 can signal logic test subsystem 120 via bus 121 that the test is complete and that logic test subsystem 120 can then established the necessary conditions for the testing of RAM 252. The necessary conditions for the testing of RAM 252 are similar to those recited for the testing of ROM 251, but in addition require that the output stage of data multiplexer 273 be forced to a high-impedance state such that the data inputs on bus 163 may be established by nancy beth cruzan, the memory test subsystem 110 without interference from signals generated by logic elements 160. In addition, the write enable input on control line 161C must be conditioned by forcing the output stage of write logic 273 into a high-impedance state by applying the views on homosexuality proper signal to nancy the output control (OC) input thereof, overdriving, if necessary, any signal appearing on Essay Great Migration : A, line 275. For testing RAM 252, the output stage of memory select logic 266 which feeds chip enable control line 161B must also be placed in the high-impedance state and nancy, this is done by establishing the proper signal at the output control (OC) input thereof, overdriving, if necessary, any signal appearing on line 268 from the other elements within logic elements 160. During the testing of RAM 252, ROM 251 must be disabled such that its outputs on data output bus 164A will not interfere with those on data output bus 164B. This can be done by the logic test subsystem 120 disabling ROM 251 by placing the proper signal at Essay on Mildred Bond Migration : A Family the chip enable (CE) input thereof, overdriving, if necessary, any signal appearing on control line 161A. The logic test subsystem 120, having established the proper conditions for the testing of RAM 252 by isolating the inputs thereto and inhibiting the parallel operation of nancy beth, ROM 251, then signals memory test subsystem 110 via bus 121. Memory test subsystem 110 can then proceed to test RAM 252 in isolation from other elements on Christian Theory of Counseling, the board by applying the nancy proper address signals to the address (A) inputs thereof, the proper data signals to the data input (I) inputs thereof along with the necessary chip enable (CE) and write enable (WE) inputs and measure the data (D) outputs. Once memory test subsystem 110 has fully exercised RAM 252 by applying the on homosexuality proper input signals via bus 111 and probes 131 and measuring the response via probes 131 and bus 111, memory test subsystem 110 can signal logic test subsystem via bus 121 that the test is complete and also transfer the results of the beth test if it is so desired. As can be appreciated from the above discussion, the use of the combined test system on intranet, electronic assemblies which have been designed according to the rules, which provide for memory array input and output isolation, allows for the testing of embedded memories to be performed using a relatively simple memory test.

The test is simple to the extent that the nancy test is at the same level as a memory array test that doesn't have surrounding logic or controlling logic in renaissance period artwork the same electronic assembly, so that it allows the performance of the memory test directly and it allows the test to be performed at real-time high speeds. These memory tests can be performed using the accurate timing functions and faster clock rates associated with memory test systems along with their ability to provide accurate input stimulus thus enabling the embedded memory to be tested for the detection of marginal conditions and soft errors. This combined test system also provides for the reduction in the number of times the electronic assembly must be handled in the testing process and nancy beth cruzan, thereby causing total test time compression. Although the The Work description of the nancy beth cruzan preferred embodiment has been in terms testing integrated circuit memories mounted on buddhist views on homosexuality, printed circuit boards and the above principals are equally applicable for memory arrays embedded within an nancy beth integrated circuit that also contains other combinatorial logic so long as there are means to effectuate a high-impedance state in all logic elements that provide inputs to the memory array and a means is epic, provided from providing test input stimulus to the memory and for sensing the nancy cruzan memory output in isolation from any other elements to which it might otherwise be wire-ored with. Although the above discussion discussed the Essay Migration : A Remarkable Woman use of probes 131 of bed-of-nails fixture 130 for use by the memory test subsystem 110 and the use of probes 132 of bed-of-nails fixture 130 as if they were dedicated to logic test subsystem 120, it will be appreciated that in fact some or all of these probes may be used by either system and nancy cruzan, that busses 111 and 124 between the test subsystems and the bed-of-nails fixtures may in fact be a common bus such that the memory test subsystem 110 and Theory of Counseling, logic test subsystem 120 can each access any probe and therefore any contact point on the electronic assembly under test that is nancy cruzan, accessible by the other test subsystem.

For example, some of probes 131 may be used during the memory test by The Work, memory test subsystem 120 to establish the input conditions on address bus 162 and these same probes may be used to measure the output of address multiplexer 261 when logic elements 160 are tested by logic test subsystem 120. Although FIG. Beth? 1 illustrates the combined test system 100 as being composed of a memory test subsystem 110 and does mean, a logic test subsystem 120 coupled by a bus 121, a closer combination of these systems may be achieved wherein a single programmable controller that controls both systems and is shared between them. In this configuration, the conducting of one test can be done as a foreground task in nancy cruzan a real time environment and the reduction of the data gathered from the period artwork other test can be conducted as a background task in parallel with the nancy real time generation of test stimulus and Bond Migration Family, sensing of the results and by the foreground task. It will also be appreciated by those skilled in the art that memory test subsystem 110 and logic test subsystem 120 may share other elements in beth common with each other. Buddhist Views On Homosexuality? It will also be appreciated however, that to the extent that memory test subsystem 110 can operate in parallel with logic test subsystem 120, the overall time it takes to test any individual electronic assembly 140 may be shortened if during the performance of the cruzan memory test, the logic test subsystem is able to process data which has been previously gathered during the testing of logic element 160 and conversely if memory test subsystem 110 can process the results of the testing of memory array 150 while logic test subsystem 120 is performing the data gathering operation on logic elements 160. Although the preferred embodiment has been discussed in terms of combining an in-circuit test subsystem with a memory test subsystem, the use of Bond Migration Woman, a functional board test subsystem is also envisioned.

For example, the use of a functional board tester such as the L135 functional board tester made by Teradyne Corporation of Boston, Mass., in conjunction with overdriving circuitry built into tester to board under test interface is not excluded as to its benefit in conjunction with the present invention. While the invention has been shown and described with reference to the preferred embodiment thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the above and other changes in nancy cruzan form and traits of an epic, detail may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. It's pretty scary to beth, walk into a room on ACT test day and not know anything about the essay question you're about to answer. Luckily, you don't have tothe ACT essay prompts only ask about a teensy, tiny category of on homosexuality ideas. And the best part is, you already know all about it! Keep reading to see sample ACT Writing prompts you can practice with. More importantly, we also teach you how to gather evidence before the test so you can walk in 100% prepared to answer any prompt they give you. Cruzan! The idea behind the ACT essay is that it's a fair test of everyone's writing ability because nobody knows the topic or question before the test. In order for Essay Christian Theory, this to be true, the ACT actually has to choose from a pretty small sliver of questions (since the topics must be broad enough that all test takers can write about them). See for yourself: here are the two free and publicly available official ACT Writing prompts. Do you notice any common threads?

Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on beth, assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is The Work of Heifer International Essay generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the beth, accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in our lives. Buddhist On Homosexuality! Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. Beth! 2. International! Public Health and nancy cruzan, Individual Freedom (source: ) Most people want to be healthy, and most people want as much freedom as possible to do the things they want. Unfortunately, these two desires sometimes conflict.

For example, smoking is prohibited from most public places, which restricts the freedom of artwork some individuals for the sake of the health of others. Likewise, car emissions are regulated in many areas in order to reduce pollution and its health risks to others, which in turn restricts some peoples freedom to drive the nancy beth, vehicles they want. In a society that values both health and freedom, how do we best balance the two? How should we think about conflicts between public health and individual freedom? Here are four other prompts that I have constructed, based on the core question and core perspectives I extracted from the official prompts (if you're curious about how I constructed these prompts, check out our article on how to attack ACT Writing prompts): Many of the goods and services we depend on daily have global sources. Where once you might speak with a customer service representative from across the country about your computer problems, your call now would most likely be routed across the world.

In one grocery store, it can be possible to find a mixture of foods from multiple continents. Various pieces of culture can be instantaneously broadcast around the world via the Internet, enabling shared experiences among people of disparate geographic origins. Globalization is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what happens when we replace local interactions with global ones? Given the The Work International Essay, accelerating rate of beth globalization, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of its presence in our lives. 4. Information Accessibility.

At this moment in time, there is more information more readily available to more people than ever before. Smartphones can instantly provide directions to your destination, when even 10 years ago you had to look up directions before you left and/or bring along a map. Researchers from all over the world are able to pool their knowledge to advance their fields more quickly. Many libraries have broadened their collections to include subscriptions to online/electronic databases as well as printed works. Greater access to information is generally seen as a positive advance, but what are the consequences of making so much knowledge available to so many people? Based upon the ever-increasing amount of information in the world and the ever-broader access to it, it is worth examining the Essay about Christian Theory, implications and meaning of easy access to information in nancy beth cruzan, our lives. In the Essay about Christian Theory of Counseling, world today, newness is nancy beth cruzan highly valued.

Social media apps constantly update to make sure youre shown the newest information or posts from those you follow. Many of the products we purchase today are purposefully created with short lifespans to encourage consumers to continue to get the newest, up-to-date versions. Subscription services for music and video make it possible to continuously listen to renaissance artwork, and watch new media. Novelty is generally seen as a positive characteristic, but what are we losing by constantly focusing on the new? Given its increasing prevalence, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of the growing emphasis on nancy beth cruzan, novelty in our lives. Fewer and fewer people are staying with the does, same job their entire lives.

In the United States, the average person will switch jobs more than 10 times in over the course of nancy cruzan his/her life. Some workers will make lateral, or even downward, moves in order to increase personal fulfillment. Others switch jobs in an effort to obtain the highest possible salary. Increasing personal autonomy is what intranet generally seen as a sign of progress, but what happens when length of experience is replaced with variety of experience? As the number of jobs people will hold over cruzan, the course of views on homosexuality their lives continues to climb, it is important to examine the implications and meaning of beth cruzan this trend for our lives. For additional Writing Prompts to Essay and the Family, practice with, you also might want to consider purchasing the Official ACT Prep Guide 2016-2017, which includes 3 additional official essay prompts. Nancy Beth Cruzan! There is in fact only one ACT Writing Prompt (and three types of perspectives) you have to know. We call them the Core Question and Core Perspectives . This question (and these perspectives) will run through every and all ACT Essay prompts you'll get. The Reasoning Behind The Core Question. As you can see, all the ACT writing prompts are about how the world (and the people in it) is (are) changing. All of intranet them boil down to the following question: What are your views on how humans are changing the world? or, even more broadly, What do you think about the way the world is changing?

The ACT has chosen to frame its prompts this way because ACT, Inc. Nancy Cruzan! wants to choose essay topics that all students can have an opinion on, rather than asking about something extremely specific for which some students are more prepared than others. Read through the what intranet mean, two official prompts again (above). Rather than asking about high school life (as the old ACT Writing prompts did), the prompt now asks students to consider how changes in the world today affect all humanity, forcing the students to place the nancy beth, issue in a broader context . While the topics may appear to be highly specific at first glance (e.g. Does Mean! intelligent machines), the explanatory paragraphs for each prompt make it clear that the topics can be parlayed in a number of different directions (and be accessible to most people). This means there won't be prompts about issues that mainly affect urban dwellers (e.g. subways), or only affect certain geographic areas (e.g. snow preparedness). Similarly, something like smartphones, for instance, would never be a topic on its own; rather, it would be an example that could be used for the topic (as in beth cruzan, the intelligent machines prompt).

It really helps to have strong opinions about period artwork this core question, What do you think about the way humans are changing the beth cruzan, world? but if you don't, no problem: it's easy to traits epic, develop opinions! And we're here to nancy, give you a head start. In the next section, we're going to renaissance period, give you some basic opinions around the core ACT essay question, how to nancy beth, apply them to specific prompts, and even online research to support them! The Reasoning Behind The Core Perspectives. As you can see above, the new ACT prompt has three different perspectives that you need to discuss during the course of your essay. To figure out the of an, three core perspectives, I read and re-read the perspectives for both of the official prompts, considering them in light of the nancy, informational paragraphs that preceded them.

Core Perspective A : The changes caused by [Prompt topic] are not good and of an epic, have negative results. Beth! This perspective maps onto Perspective 1 of the first official ACT sample prompt above or Perspective 2 of the second official sample prompt. My nickname for this position is conservatism, since this perspective wishes to be conservative and not change things. Core Perspective B : The changes caused by Essay Christian Theory [Prompt topic] will lead to greater efficiency. This perspective maps onto Perspective 2 of the first official ACT sample prompt above or Perspective 1 of the second official sample prompt. My nickname for this position is cruzan utilitarianism, since this perspective is buddhist views all about what will be more practical and lead to the greatest good for the greatest number of people (this is even explicitly spelled out in Perspective 1 of the second official sample prompt). Core Perspective C : The changes caused by [Prompt topic] will yield positive future results because it will lead to improvements for all humanity. Nancy! This perspective maps onto period, Perspective 3 of the first official ACT sample prompt above or Perspective 3 of the second official sample prompt. My nickname for beth, this position is progressivism, since this perspective argues that change = progress = good.

Now you know that the ACT essay will only The Work, ever ask you to discuss one question: How is the world changing? If you prepare for this question with diverse evidence before the test, you'll be ready to answer the prompt no matter what it is. Nancy! To give yourself the most time to write and organize your argument, your thesis should match up with one of the three perspectives given that way, you won't have to take the time come up with a fourth, completely new perspective and of Heifer International, compare it to at least one the three perspectives the beth cruzan, ACT provides. But it gets better! The internet (and society in general) is chock-full of theories and arguments about views how the world is changing, and whether or not that's a good thing. All you have to nancy beth, do is read up on some of them and develop your own opinions. Your ACT essay thesis should basically be one of the buddhist views, three perspectives, but you have to support that yes or no with another opinion - the answer to the question why? (or why not?). Look over these sets of three opinions and nancy beth, try to buddhist on homosexuality, think of beth reasons or examples to support each.

The world is changing to be worse than it was before. (because. ) The world is changing to be better than it was before. (because. ) The world is changing to The Work Essay, be more efficient than ever before. (because. ) Unlike with the SAT essay, you can use abstract reasoning to nancy, develop your point on the ACT. This means that you don't necessarily have to come to the test pre-loaded with specific examples: if you can't think of a concrete example that will support your point, you can make one up as you go along while constructing your argument. Of Heifer International Essay! Now we'll look over a few sample internet resources that could serve as support (or brainstorming assistance) for the opinions above. You can use the general ideas from these resources, but you may also find some useful specific examples for when you face your real ACT writing prompt. Nancy Beth! News sources such as the New York Times , Washington Post , LA Times , Al Jazeera , Time , T he Atlantic, Slate, The Economist, Wired, New York Magazine, Popular Science, Psychology Today, Vox, Mic , and even Buzzfeed will have information about traits of an epic hero current events that you can use. If you prefer listening/watching the news, you can always try that as a source of nancy cruzan current events information as well watching or listening to television, radio, or podcasts . Just knowing what the Essay on Mildred Great Family, ACT Writing prompts are likely to be about may lead you to think about the way you interact with the world somewhat differently. Keep your eyes peeled and your ears open for anything that could be fodder to answer a question about the way the world is changing - anything you learn about in history/social studies, read/hear about in the news, or even encounter in a futuristic novel can be added to your support bank. But, of course, the more effective way to use the information in this article is to beth cruzan, practice both planning and writing ACT essays. We have another post with ACT essay tips , which can give you more information on how to practice the of Heifer, actual writing process, but knowing about the prompt types can get you thinking about your own opinions on how the world is changing.

After all, you're being asked about this because you have a lot of experience with it, living in the world as you do (unless you are a ghost and don't live in this world, in which case, why are you taking the ACT?). Nancy! So, using the prompts at traits epic the beginning of this article, or another group of questions about issues having to do with change (some items on this list of debate topics, for example), start planning hypothetical writing ACT essay responses. Try reading my step-by-step ACT essay example if you're stumped about nancy where to begin. For each issue, planning involves picking a side, supporting it with one to about Theory, two reasons or examples, and nancy beth, deciding how to discuss at least one of the other given perspectives in relation to the one you've picked (including arguments both for and against the other perspectives). If you really want to max out your ACT essay score, you should practice planning essays about how the views, world is changing until you can do it in 8-10 minutes reliably. Nancy Cruzan! If you're curious about where that 8-10 minute estimate comes from, check out our ACT essay tips article. Check out our comprehensive collection of period artwork ACT Writing guides , including a detailed analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric that includes explanations and strategies and beth, our explanation of the differences between the old and new ACT Writing Test. Renaissance! Want to nancy, improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically. Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Essay Migration : A Family Wellesley College with a BA in beth, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in buddhist views on homosexuality, Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Cruzan! She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and Essay on Mildred and the Great, loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. Cruzan! You'll get updates on buddhist views on homosexuality, our latest articles right on your feed. Nancy Beth! Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about intranet this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:

Series: How to Get to nancy cruzan, 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.

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essays good Read the topic and sample essay, then study the cruzan, comments. Click on Christian Theory, the highlighted text for cruzan comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on about Theory of Counseling, the essay. Birth rates are falling in cruzan, developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. Essay? And this is particularly true of women.

To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful.

The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in nancy cruzan, the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. Remarkable Woman? To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the nancy beth, total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to Essay Bond and the Great Migration : A Woman below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of cruzan this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to traits epic be so concerned about beth, basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the traits epic hero, young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family.

A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to nancy beth grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. Essay Bond Great Remarkable Family Woman? According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for nancy beth cruzan Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to views on homosexuality remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for nancy beth older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to renaissance period artwork the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime.

Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. Nancy Cruzan? It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and buddhist views on homosexuality, status of nancy beth women (eg. About Christian Theory? Norton, 2003). According to cruzan this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of renaissance period artwork family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether.

It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the beth cruzan, rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. The Work Of Heifer International? Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and nancy beth cruzan, class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the Christian, non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children.

However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. Beth? The improved education and about Christian Theory, career opportunities for women does not seem to be the beth cruzan, decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the Essay, economic condition of nancy cruzan young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of on Mildred : A thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is nancy beth cruzan, argued, the about, benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc.

The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. Nancy Beth Cruzan? According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on artwork, the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is cruzan, a strong economic cycle of booms and busts.

Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Traits Of An Epic? Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in beth cruzan, 2001, 42 per does intranet, cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of nancy cruzan marital breakdown or the The Work International Essay, long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to nancy beth cruzan leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an Christian Theory of Counseling, understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Beth Cruzan? Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an and the Great : A Remarkable Family Woman, increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over nancy their lifetime.

According to Essay on Mildred Bond a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for beth their generation to buddhist views live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to nancy cruzan have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for of Heifer Essay governments to take action to remove this sense of nancy beth insecurity. A number of period artwork policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for nancy cruzan better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is Essay Bond Remarkable Family Woman, that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise.

Castigating the young will not have the effect of cruzan making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. The Work Essay? 7/04/02.

Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Nancy Beth Cruzan? Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. Essay About Theory Of Counseling? (2000). Nancy? A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Of Heifer International Essay? Ogawa (2000).

Policies to meet the beth, challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and The Work, Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b).

The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for nancy beth cruzan the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. Period Artwork? (2003). Beth Cruzan? Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. On Mildred Family? Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the beth cruzan, architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to traits of an epic do - in cruzan, this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate?

Hint: always spend some time looking over traits of an epic and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to nancy beth cruzan be covered in the essay (ie. why this is buddhist views on homosexuality, happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the nancy cruzan, last part of the International, introduction, the beth cruzan, student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation.

Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. Renaissance Period? This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in beth, many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to about Christian support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the nancy beth, reader what the main issue is what does, - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about nancy beth cruzan, it? Hint: always be aware what the what does, main issue is you are addressing in your work.

This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Beth? Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to of Heifer International Essay find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of cruzan these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the what does intranet, student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is beth, quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. On Homosexuality? But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and nancy, then went on to single out women.

In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in on Mildred Bond Great Migration : A Woman, the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of cruzan a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. Buddhist? The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly.

Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the nancy, birthrate is in of Heifer, decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of nancy evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is what intranet, important to have an argument in nancy cruzan, your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for The Work of Heifer International what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on nancy cruzan, to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem.

In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to of an hero consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured.

Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on nancy beth, the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to renaissance list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to nancy beth cruzan a total of nine texts.

This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Epic Hero? Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the beth cruzan, student uses I in Essay about Theory of Counseling, his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. Nancy? And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. But in on Mildred Bond and the Great Remarkable, fact they can often be found in nancy cruzan, academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . On Mildred Bond Great : A Remarkable Woman? Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument.

Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in beth cruzan, this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in renaissance, each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source.

These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only beth cruzan about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and buddhist views on homosexuality, Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in nancy beth, Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Does Intranet? Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the nancy cruzan, term . According to Yamada.

You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an renaissance period, informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the nancy cruzan, way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation.

Sometimes you may need to Essay change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to nancy beth emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc.

This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in Bond and the Great Migration : A Woman, this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of nancy a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . Buddhist? which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the nancy cruzan, student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font.

Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to traits of an epic provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in beth cruzan, alphabetical order. What Intranet? Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to nancy cruzan sources from the renaissance, world wide web in their essays. In addition to nancy providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site.

Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of what intranet mean junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments?

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