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Nov 17, 2017 Born to Kill Essay,
LDRSHIP in an Army of O.N.E. Born To Kill? , Essay by CPL Charles D. Donald? Wells. LDRSHIP in Born to Kill, an Army of O.N.E. Animal Farm Snowball? Every private has spent countless hours writing meaningless essays where they babble nonsense because they did something their sergeants did not like. This is not one of Essay those essays. I am going to try to make an argument. I will first present you with a statement, and when you arbitrarily decide that statement is wrong, I will do my damnedest to wto riots, prove it right. There are three major Army Publications, one military website, and one civilian leadership program I will use in Born to Kill, this essay.
They are: FM 7-21-13 Soldiers Guide FM 6-22 Army Leadership FM 7-22.7 The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide Tradoc Command Website The 7 Habits of Highly Successful People. The Examination Of The School In Canada Essay? The point I am making is that the Born Essay Seven Army Values of Loyalty , Duty , Respect , Selfless Service , Honor , Integrity , and Personal Courage all remain at the core of soldiering but change as a soldier progresses. Remember that an farm snowball Army of ONE is Officers , Non-commissioned officers , and Born Essay Enlisted . Young enlisted can learn about the Seven Army Values by evaluative, thinking about specific examples (such as duty or respect). Born? The NCO’s (and up-and-coming NCO’s), on evaluative commentary the other hand, must learn how to grow and maintain it through actions and good decisions. Officers , because of Born Essay their education, and their freedom to think outside the false perception box, have access to civilian leadership techniques. Born? In fact, most college ROTC programs require classes in selco prices, “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People.” Remember, while the to Kill Essay Values remain the wto riots same, how they are used changes whether you are lower enlisted or NCO.
This is Born Essay reflected in selco prices, the subtle differences between the Born to Kill above-mentioned FM’s. FM 7-22.7 recommends that NCO’s “ stand by your soldiers’ honest mistakes ,” allowing them to sink or swim on their own merits while learning from of the School System in Canada their mistakes. Born To Kill? It means allowing them to donald theory, work it out Born to Kill Essay themselves so they earn the respect and super loyalty of Essay their peers and their supervisors. Without loyalty towards your lower enlisted, your enlisted will not show loyalty in selco prices, return. On the Born to Kill other hand, the Tradoc Command Website states “ Open criticism and System Essay being disloyal to leaders. …destroys the foundation of the organization and results in diminished mission accomplishment .” This makes it very clear that the Born lower enlisted do not have any rights in publically challenging an NCO’s order. Even if that NCO made a mistake (“ The loyalty of subordinates is a gift given when a leader deserves it ” FM 6-22).
A single poor decision from either an handbags per una NCO or an Enlisted can turn this into Born, a cycle of farm backbiting and finger-pointing . Born To Kill? An Enlisted may try to super theory, earn the loyalty of to Kill his fellow enlisted and marks per una the respect of his NCO’s, but may make an Born honest mistake. An NCO may step in and prevent that Enlisted from fixing that mistake, or make an The Examination School System in Canada Essay honest mistake himself. Everybody begins feeling a little bit disloyal towards everybody else. Of course, this can easily be avoided by using good judgment. Good enlisted acknowledge when they are wrong, and good NCO’s do their best to Born to Kill, help Enlisted accomplish the vs napoleon mission and Born to Kill Essay work through whatever mistakes get made.
The simplest answer is “ duty means accomplishing all assigned tasks to the best of holbein your ability ” (Tradoc Command Website). Born Essay? That is theory exactly what an enlisted believes Duty is, and Born to Kill is the minimum that is expected from every soldier. NCO’s earned their promotions by going beyond the donald super call of Born Essay duty and exercising initiative. FM 6-22 mentions “ anticipating what needs to be done before being told what to the ambassadors holbein, do .” FM 7-21-13 recommends “ Sacrific[ing] personal time in to Kill Essay, pursuit of excellence .” An interesting thought is that duty is farm snowball nothing more than some intestinal fortitude combined with the Warrior Ethos. A heavy force of will that keeps us on track and Born keeps us moving towards whatever mission we are trying to accomplish. A tenacity of wto riots purpose. From reading the Born Essay Field Manuals, Respect is the super most fundamental building block of to Kill trust, and trust is the wto riots most important element of Born Essay cohesive teambuilding. It is the golden rule, the selco prices most basic customs and courtesies shared by Born to Kill Essay, every culture on this planet.
Something every soldier expects. According to false, 7-22.7 it’s the professionalism and mutual considerations that allow the noncommissioned officers to work smoothly with each other and higher headquarters, and the enlisted to to Kill, maintain a standard of selco prices training that will allow them to survive on the battlefield. It envelopes everything, including the Born Essay way you give orders, the way you interact with your peers, the way you respect the false perception bounds and Essay limitations of perception another human being (personal space, personal property, use of Born to Kill Essay language or gestures, etc). It is our discretion, tactfulness, and evaluative commentary essay professionalism in to Kill, the workplace (FM 7-21-13). FM 6-22 best summarizes “The leader knows that the Army cannot function except as a team. Vs Napoleon? For a team to to Kill Essay, excel, the individual must give up self-interest for the good of the whole.” An enlisted man could very easily chop Selfless Service off as another word for Duty. Wto Riots? Both the Born Tradoc Command Website and FM 7-22.7 describe Selfless Service as your duty towards your fellow soldiers and your team.
It is important that leaders do not confuse Selfless Service with Duty. Donald? FM 7-21-13 proposes the to Kill following points: Focus your priorities on by hans holbein service to the Nation. Place the needs of the to Kill Army, your unit and commentary your fellow soldiers above your personal gain. Balance the to Kill Essay mission, your family, and your personal needs. Accept personal responsibility for marks handbags per una your own performance . Ultimately, FM 7-22.7 says it best “Placing […] your soldiers’ welfare before your personal desires has always been key to the uniqueness of the American NCO,” which is, as we all know, the backbone of the army. An officer may point out that this concept of Selfless Service extends throughout American Society, and is what makes the United States of America the greatest country in the world. Community leaders, the Roosevelt New Deals, and to Kill even the American Work Ethic is by hans based upon the ideal of selfless service. Born To Kill? In social philosophy, this is The Examination System called “Social Utilitarianism,” where social benefit is to Kill more important than personal benefit. Commentary? A scholar could very easily turn a company clean around using only the principles of Social Utilitarianism.
Both the Tradoc website and 7-22.7 state “[Honor] starts with being honest with oneself and being truthful and sincere in all our actions ”. An honorable individual does not delude, confuse, or deny himself the truth. How can an individual or team be truly mission capable if he/they cannot accept the Essay facts the animal snowball vs napoleon way they are. Born Essay? If a person is honest with himself, then not even ignorance can be used as an selco prices excuse, because actions could have been made to Essay, prevent that ignorance. “Stonewall” Jackson What is life without honor? Degradation is worse than death (FM 7-22.7). Wto Riots? This goes far beyond the concept of “face,” where a persons public image is the Born to Kill primary concern.
Stonewall Jackson was referring to the degradation of good training, good health, good work ethics, good team cohesion, etc. Degradation is anything that takes away from Mission Readiness. According to 7-21-13 “ Noticing a problem and deciding to take action involves Honor .” Those problems are probably an theory example of or a cause of degradation. To ignore or reinforce a problem, or to Born, prevent someone else from solving a problem, is The Examination of the School System in Canada Essay dishonorable. Born? It takes away from per una Mission Readiness. It promotes the further degradations of the individual and Born to Kill the individuals’ peers and/or subordinates. “ Leaders of integrity consistently act according to clear principles, not just what works now ” (FM 6-22).
These clear principles are aimed towards the welfare of the soldiers and the mission itself. False? Quickly sending the most accurate information up the chain of Essay command regardless of false personal embarrassment is Born essential for perception mission accomplishment. These clear principles must take the both the individual soldiers and the nature of the mission into Born Essay, consideration. Its easy to farm, get caught up in what seems to work right now, even if it may cost the to Kill Essay group in the long run. Again from 6-22 “ Identifying the underlying maintenance issues and raising the quality bar could ultimately save Soldiers’ lives. Wto Riots? ” FM 7-21-13, The Soldiers Guide summarizes, “[ Soldiers with integrity] can be counted on to do the right thing, […] without playing games or having false agendas. Born To Kill Essay? […] As your integrity develops, so does the trust others place in and spencer per una, you. ” This playing games or having false agenda’s is to Kill what distracts an selco prices otherwise integrity-filled soldier from clear successful principles. Again, this is Born Essay one of those values that grows as a soldier progresses. Evaluative Commentary? It starts out in every enlisted as the to Kill physical personal courage as “ overcoming fears of bodily harm ” (FM 7-21-13). The Ambassadors By Hans Holbein? But as a soldier progresses its becomes a moral courage “ Moral courage is to Kill Essay sometimes overlooked, both in discussions of personal courage and in The Examination of the School System, routine, daily activities. Moral courage often expresses itself as candor. Candor means being frank, honest, and to Kill Essay sincere with others while keeping your words free from bias, prejudice, or malice .” Being willing to donald theory, stick your own head out, or to take point, or to Born to Kill Essay, observe a problem and try to animal snowball vs napoleon, step up and Born to Kill Essay solve it before it gets worst requires personal courage. To reward moral and the ambassadors by hans physical Personal Courage is to reward Bravery itself.
Civilian Leadership Techniques. All seven of the to Kill Army Values are reflected by soldiers’ actions and the ambassadors holbein decision making ability, loyalty is earned by taking just and fair actions, duty itself is Born Essay nothing more than taking appropriate action, respect shines through actions not words, etc. Anything that helps a soldier make better decisions can be included in the Warrior Ethos and the Seven Army Values. One especially useful tool for making appropriate actions and making good decisions is the marks handbags per una 7 Habits of Highly Successful People. To Kill Essay? Be Pro-active . Essay? Here, Covey emphasizes the original sense of the Essay term proactive as coined by Victor Frankl. You can either be proactive or reactive when it comes to how you respond to certain things. When you are reactive, you blame other people and circumstances for handbags per una obstacles or problems. To Kill? Being proactive means taking responsibility for holbein every aspect of Born to Kill your life. Initiative and taking action will then follow. Covey also shows how man is the ambassadors by hans different from other animals in that he has self-consciousness. To Kill? He has the commentary ability to detach himself and to Kill Essay observe his own self; think about his thoughts.
He goes on to say how this attribute enables him: It gives him the power not to be affected by evaluative commentary essay, his circumstances. Covey talks about Born to Kill Essay, stimulus and response. Between stimulus and response, we have the power of free will to commentary, choose our response. Begin with the Born to Kill End In Mind . This chapter is commentary essay about setting long-term goals based on true north principles. To Kill? Covey recommends formulating a personal vision statement to document one's perception of one's own vision in life.
He sees visualization as an important tool to develop this. Wto Riots? He also deals with organizational vision statements, which he claims to Born Essay, be more effective if developed and supported by and spencer handbags, all members of an organization rather than prescribed. Put First Things First . Here, Covey describes a framework for prioritizing work that is Born to Kill Essay aimed at short-term goals, at the expense of tasks that appear not to wto riots, be urgent, but are in fact very important. Delegation is Born to Kill presented as an evaluative commentary essay important part of time management. Born? Successful delegation, according to Covey, focuses on results and benchmarks that are to animal vs napoleon, be agreed upon in to Kill Essay, advance, rather than prescribed as detailed work plans. Think Win/Win describes an attitude whereby mutually beneficial solutions are sought that satisfy the needs of oneself, or, in marks, the case of Born to Kill a conflict, both parties involved. The Ambassadors? Seek First to Understand, Then to to Kill, be Understood . Covey warns that giving out advice before having empathetically understood a person and farm their situation will likely result in rejection of that advice. Born To Kill Essay? Thoroughly reading out your own autobiography will decrease the chance of establishing a working communication.
Synergize describes a way of working in teams. Apply effective problem solving. Apply collaborative decision making. Value differences. Build on divergent strengths. Leverage creative collaboration. Embrace and donald super theory leverage innovation. Born To Kill? It is put forth that when synergy is pursued as a habit, the result of the evaluative essay teamwork will exceed the sum of Born to Kill what each of the wto riots members could have achieved on Born to Kill Essay their own. Perception? “The whole is to Kill Essay greater than the evaluative sum of Born to Kill its parts.” Sharpen the saw focuses on marks handbags per una balanced self-satisfaction: Regain what Covey calls production capability by engaging in carefully selected recreational activities. What My Mother Taught Me: These famous quotes, applied to the ARMY of ONE paradigm, reflect the best application of the BE-DO-KNOW approach to Essay, METL.
Perhaps sergeants must BE in order to wto riots, be able to Born to Kill Essay, DO. Donald Super? But could it be the opposite for Essay the enlisted? Perhaps the selco prices lower enlisted must be able to DO before they can BE! And if the NCO’s are BEing and then DOing, and the Enlisted are DOing and the BEing, then maybe the Born only thing the officers will ever need to by hans holbein, do is twiddle their thumbs and go DO BE DO BE DO. You need to be a member of LegacyConnect to add comments!
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rpi thesis format The latest implementation of the F-RISC processor, F-RISC/G, has been designed for current-mode logic (CML) with GaAs/AlGaAs HBTs from Rockwell International. All on-chip wiring is differential with the wires in to Kill Essay each pair placed in adjacent tracks to improve noise immunity. The CML switches are stacked three-high to allow high-functionality gates. The gates use a non-standard resistive current source. The low yield of by hans Rockwell's HBT process forced us to partition the F-RISC/G central processor into five chips#151;an instruction decoder and a four-chip bit-sliced datapath. Essay. The caches, designed by another student, are direct-mapped with write-back logic. For the donald super theory lowest possible inter-chip communication latency, the chips would be packaged in Essay a thin-film MCM. A novel system for clock distribution, also designed by animal vs napoleon another student, employs feed-back to reduce chip-to-chip clock skew.
The bit-sliced datapath architecture caused some minor architectural changes including: a severely limited shifter, simplified protected-mode support, and new restrictions on interrupt handlers. Shortly after the publication of the Berkeley RISC processor, the idea of to Kill Essay a GaAs RISC was raised[Keir85]. The pairing seems natural. Marks And Spencer Per Una. GaAs (and heterojunction) technologies, while providing faster devices than their silicon contemporaries, have much lower yields. The low yields, and relatively high prices, had previously relegated GaAs mostly to a supporting role providing a few small, fast parts to speed up critical paths in multi-chip designs. Recently, two GaAs super computers, the Cray-3 and the Convex C3, were introduced.
Each contains thousands of small GaAs MESFET chips[Cost93]. In volume, GaAs chips can be as inexpensive as silicon at the same performance due to the fewer processing steps required for the GaAs devices[Isco92]. Because RISC processors use only a fraction of the Born transistors included in a CISC design, RISCs require relatively few GaAs chips. The Ambassadors. In his book, Microprocessor Design for GaAs Technology, Milutinovic collects papers describing various GaAs microprocessors[Milu90]. Presently, there are many projects underway to develop GaAs RISC processors using MESFET, H-MESFET, and JFET devices[Mudg91] . To Kill. However, GaAs bipolar devices seem to promise even more impressive performance figures. False. Also, since the bipolar devices do not rely on to Kill Essay the extremely fine-line lithography of modern CMOS, they may eventually surpass CMOS for wto riots, yield and cost at high performance.
In 1990, DARPA awarded Rensselaer a contract to develop a GaAs/AlGaAs RISC machine that would run at a peak of 1000 MIPS. Born. This machine was christened FRISC/G. The F-RISC architecture responds to this need and the F-RISC/G implementation serves as a test vehicle for the Spartan RISC ideas contained in the architecture. To achieve its 1000 MIPS performance goal, F-RISC/G needs the best available technology. Previous implementations of the farm F-RISC architecture had used silicon bipolar transistors[Greu90b]. Also under development is a version using an HMESFET technology jointly developed by Rockwell International and IBM[Tien91].
More recently, work has begun on adapting the F-RISC/G implementation for use in Xilinx FPGAs and Si/Ge HBTs. (Adapted from [Asbe89].) 3.1.1 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors. The circuits in F-RISC/G use a AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology from Born, Rockwell International[Asbe89]. The devices are formed in MBE-grown epitaxial layers on semi-insulating substrates as shown in figure 3.1. The devices of marks per una primary interest have 1.4 mm ? 3 mm emitter stripes and a DC current gain as high as 400. Some key SPICE parameters are in table 3.1. The Rockwell process uses two levels of gold interconnects formed by liftoff processes and a polyimide dielectric.
AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs are useful because the heterojunction provides a high emitter injection efficiency with a high base doping. To Kill Essay. The high base doping lessens various effects that limit speed in homojunction bipolar transistors. The benefits include: low base resistance, less chance of punch-through, reduced Early effect, and lower emitter-base capacitance[Sze81]. 3.1.2 Current Mode Logic. F-RISC/G arranges the HBTs into false perception differential current tree logic with differential wiring[Nah91; Greu91].
The building block of the gates is the current switch : two transistors with a common emitter terminal arranged as a differential amplifier. A simple gate with one current switch is Born Essay shown in figure 3.2. The lower resistor, , acts as a current source. Depending on and spencer handbags the input signal, the two transistors steer that current either through the left or through the right load resistor. The resulting voltage difference is the output signal.
The voltage swing is fixed at to Kill 250 mV by the current source and super, the load resistors. This gives a current ratio between the on and off transistors of [Trea89]. The switching characteristics of this gate are shown in figure 3.3. Figure 3.2: Differential current switch The use of to Kill differential wiring provides three advantages. First, differential wires (if run in parallel) give common mode noise immunity and allow for the use of a lower voltage swing (250 mV). Second, the need to generate and distribute three reference voltages is eliminated. Finally, since inverting a differential signal incurs no penalty, logic design is the ambassadors simplified and the gate library can be reduced through the Born Essay use of dual gates. On the other hand, differential wiring increases wiring area and average wire capacitance.
Each time one line in a differential pair switches, the other line switches in selco prices the opposite to Kill Essay, direction. Wto Riots. Since these lines are placed in proximity, (for noise immunity) the effective capacitance doubles. The area penalty of Born to Kill Essay differential CML as compared to single-ended ECL is partially offset by the availability of more complex gates in the CML family[Bari92]. F-RISC/G uses circuits with up to three levels of animal vs napoleon stacked current switches. Born To Kill. This arrangement allows the realization of any gate with three or fewer inputs, many special-purpose gates of four or more inputs including a four-input multiplexer, and latches with any two-input gate at the input. Systematic techniques are available to translate a binary logic tree to perception, a CML realization[Choy89]. Two examples of complex gates are shown in figure 3.4. The ALU gate, shown as Fig.
3.3(a), can generate the XOR, AND, and OR of its A and B inputs. It realizes the function: The lower portion of the circuit forms a 2-to-4 decoder. The two odd parity terms together become the XOR term. Then the upper portion of the circuit determines which of Born Essay these terms should be included in the output. For addition operations, the animal XOR operation is selected, with the carry incorporated by the final XOR stage as shown.
The carry chain, explained in detail later, has its output forced to zero if an operation other than addition is desired. In this case, the final XOR stage passes the ALU result unchanged. Carry propagation gate. Switching delays as low as 20 ps are possible from the top-level input to the output. The lower level inputs to a gate have longer delays because the signal must propagate through additional current switches. (These delays are summarized for high-powered gates in table 3.2.) Whenever possible, critical paths are arranged so that the latest signals arrive on the top level with the early signals setting up the lower levels ahead of time. This idea can be seen in the carry propagation gate of figure 3.4(b).
The critical carry-in signal arrives at the top level of the gate. In the less critical ALU gate, the levels for the A and B signals were chosen to to Kill Essay, be the same as in the carry propagation gate. To prevent the transistors from farm vs napoleon, saturating, the signals to the three levels of the tree must have different voltage levels. As shown in figure 3.5, each level is to Kill offset from the adjacent levels by and spencer per una . Each gate generates, as its output, only one of the Born to Kill three voltage levels. In this way, the triple-level current switch logic complicates logic design significantly because signals cannot be arbitrarily connected to gates. Also, commonly available synthesis tools cannot handle triple-level current switch logic. Designers use level 1 (the top level) for data, and levels 2 and 3 for control and clocking. One unusual feature of the selco prices circuits used in F-RISC/G is the use of Essay a resistive current source. This decision was prompted by the high V BE of the Rockwell devices#151;1.35 V compared to 0.85 V for wto riots, a typical silicon bipolar transistor[Greu91]. Born. The required supply voltage depends on the V BE of the transistors as follows: for an active current source: for a resistive current source: where V S is the desired voltage across the supply resistor. If the usual transistor current source were used with a V S of 1 V, then a supply voltage of 6.4 V would be required.
For FRISC/G, we desired a power supply compatible with standard ECL parts. With the resistive current source, a standard 5.2 V power supply is sufficient. Figure 3.5: Three-input NAND gate showing input voltage levels The most important circuit parameter for a CML gate is the current flowing through the selco prices tree. Figure 3.6 shows the delay behavior of a gate as the Born to Kill current changes. The upper chart shows the wto riots basic delay of the gate changing as the current changes. The gates simulated were loaded with one driven gate and a 50 fF load capacitance. Born To Kill. The lower chart shows the gate's sensitivity to wto riots, load capacitance. The higher this sensitivity, the more the gate speed degrades as the fan-out or interconnect length increases. To allow the to Kill Essay designers to make speed/power trade-offs, three power levels were chosen.
Each gate is available as high power, medium power, and low power. Wto Riots. High powered gates use 1.6 mA; medium powered use 1.0 mA; low powered use 0.6 mA. Various authors have attempted to provide a theoretical framework in which to analyze the behavior of CML and ECL gates. Ronald Treadway provides some interesting DC techniques[Trea89]. He gives equations for Born Essay, gate propagation, assuming that the farm vs napoleon current switch has zero delay. His values should correspond to to Kill Essay, the output sensitivities in my digital model. Table 3.3 shows the results of such a comparison. Notice that the CML sensitivities are estimated well, especially for super theory, high powered gates. (For gates with outputs at levels 2 or 3, the CML sensitivity refers to the sensitivity of the delay to the input capacitance of the emitter follower.) The ECL sensitivities are estimated rather poorly by Treadway's equation. I suspect that the difference is in the differential logic. Treadway's analysis considers only the falling edge of the output signal as this is the worst case for a single-ended ECL driver.
However, in to Kill CML, as one emitter follower is going through its worst-case falling edge, the wto riots other driver has a faster rising edge. Born To Kill. The differential pair switches with an intermediate speed. Power, Output Level. Impact of Resistor Current Source. With the resistor current source, the current through the gate is animal farm vs napoleon fixed by the signal voltage of the Born Essay lowest input. For 2-input gates, this causes an the ambassadors by hans ambiguity as the lower input could be either at to Kill level 2 or at level 3, depending on the circuit requirements, see figure 3.7. Snowball Vs Napoleon. The source resistor will have a different voltage drop in each case. Thus, two versions of each 2-input gate are required, each with the appropriate source resistor for the expected voltage drop. Figure 3.7: Two configurations of 2-input gates The passive current source has an important disadvantage. The current through a gate (and thus its output swing) is Born not constant. From basic principles, where V I is the voltage of the lowest gate input and V EE is, in this case, the local supply voltage at the bottom of the current tree.
Looking at the top of the tree, Equations 3.1 and 3.2 have some important implications for designers. Selco Prices. First, control of the Essay supply voltage across the chip is critical to insuring consistent gate performance. A reduced V EE can cause slower gate operation (due to reduced I S) and smaller noise margins (due to reduced V SW). I have designed a CAD tool that models the selco prices power rails on the chip and identifies regions where the voltage drops are unacceptably high. Second, common-mode noise, which would be rejected by the differential amplifier, can be detrimental to gate performance by reducing noise margins and slowing gate operations as described above. Among two-input gates, the Born top configuration (in figure 3.7) is less susceptible to this effect, due to its higher R S. Thus, designers are advised to choose the top gates whenever possible.
3.1.3 Advanced Packaging. If a multiple-chip system is to have a cycle time of 1000 ps, then clearly the the ambassadors by hans holbein system requires advanced packaging. One possibility would be to use wafer-scale integration (WSI) techniques[Sauc86; McDo84]. In WSI, each wafer contains all necessary chips for the multi-chip system plus extra chips for use as spares[Beus90]. The working chips are connected into a system using discretionary wiring or fusible links, like in an EPROM. The wafer is to Kill Essay packaged as a whole. Much has been written about the merits and demerits of such an approach.
If the inter-chip wiring could be fabricated using techniques similar to on-chip metalization, the process could be reliable and dense. However, such processes usually produce slow RC lines rather than the more desirable transmission lines. The thicker, wider lines needed to selco prices, produce transmission lines and minimize signal losses due to the skin effect are less dense and require special processing techniques[Donl85]. For the F-RISC/G project, WSI would be unsuitable because of Born to Kill Essay other concerns as well. First, the low yield of the GaAs/AlGaAs HBT processes would preclude the fabrication of any wafers with sufficient chips to form a whole system. Also, the animal vs napoleon need to fabricate many chip designs on Born to Kill the wafer, in differing numbers proportional to system requirements, would complicate the marks handbags lithographic processes and require changing reticles during stepping operations. Finally, as we shall see later in this chapter, the timing constraints of the F-RISC/G module do not allow connections to remote spare chips to to Kill Essay, replace a malfunctioning die. The working chips must be positioned with minimal separation.
Multi-chip Module Packaging. The best packaging option for the F-RISC/G processor would be a thin-film multi-chip module (MCM) [Greu90b]. Similar to WSI, an MCM contains multiple chips in a single packaging. The primary difference is that the chips and the wiring substrate are fabricated and tested independently before assembly. Each can be optimized separately. Donald. The thin film dielectric provides the required low dielectric constant needed for to Kill Essay, highspeed, transmission line interconnect. One disadvantage of MCM technology as compared to the ambassadors by hans, WSI is Born that the working dies are separated from the wafer and subjected to handling. Wto Riots. Die breakage and poor connections to the wiring substrate are important concerns[Donl86]. Initially, it was assumed that the package would be developed and manufactured by the advanced packaging group at Rensselaer. However, it is increasingly apparent that this will not be the Essay case.
While much work is ongoing to develop wiring technologies for selco prices, thin-film MCMs, Rensselaer does not have the expertise in-house to put together and characterize a complete packaging scheme. Items such as die attach, high-yield interconnect, and external connections remain difficult. Since the contract that funded the F-RISC/G development work does not provide for packaging, the implementation needed to be flexible to accommodate various alternatives. Some commercial and research vendors are developing such packages for high-speed applications. One possibility would be to use General Electric's High-Density Interconnect package (GE-HDI)[Hall93]. It is a commercial packaging scheme that has already seen various military applications and commercial test vehicles developed.
Chips in a GE-HDI package are mounted into recesses in a ceramic substrate, see figure 3.8. Born To Kill Essay. The dies are packed tightly with multiple chips in holbein a single recess and attached using a glue that provides placement to within 1 mil of the desired location. Adaptive routing makes the proper connections once the exact locations of the chips have been measured. F-RISC/G is a multi-chip processor with a system clock of 1 ns. Because of the short clock cycle, inter-chip transfers cannot be assumed to be instantaneous, even on a high-speed, thin-film MCM. ECL poses especially difficult problems[Hamb93]. The floorplan of the proposed MCM is shown in figure 3.9. The cache memory has been simplified for the purposes of Essay illustration. For a fuller treatment of the cache, see [VEtt93]. An important consideration in developing a timing strategy for animal snowball, F-RISC/G is the time spent transferring signals between and among chips.
The worst-case transfer within the central processor is a daisy-chain broadcast from the instruction decoder to all four datapath chips, see figure 3.10. The minimum distance for a broadcast signal is: However, conditions do not often permit the minimum routing specified in equation 3.3. If the control signal must be broadcast early in the DE stage, then it is Born Essay better to broadcast from the left side of the instruction decoder. Transfers on holbein the MCM are faster than transfers across the Born to Kill chips. Also, pad layout restrictions may force the crossing of the instruction decoder or the last datapath chip. In the average case, the by hans holbein distance for the broadcast signal is:
Figure 3.9: Floorplan of the F-RISC/G MCM package Our initial studies in Born this area were with the assumption of using C4 (Controlled Collapse Chip Connections#151;IBM's flip-chip technology) to wto riots, attach the chip to Born to Kill, an MCM using a parylene dielectric. The signal propagation velocity on this MCM (with ) would be [Bako90]: The major question was: Could the broadcast depicted in figure 3.10 be achieved in a single clock phase? The criterion for a single-phase broadcast is: where D f is the maximum allowed clock skew between chips. Since the allowable clock skew is the dependent variable, a more useful form is: In my estimates, I allowed 70 ps for driver and super theory, receiver delay, 20 ps for Born to Kill Essay, each gate delay.
On the animal farm MCM, I assumed chips measuring 5 mm ? 8 mm were placed 1 mm apart. Born To Kill Essay. The allowable clock skew for a single-phase transfer was 20 ps, which is a barely acceptable skew. Thus, initially we assumed that most signal transfers within the FRISC/G processor would complete in one clock phase. Later, we decided to use a mini-TAB package for animal farm vs napoleon, the prototype, possibly on polyimide dielectric. The inter-chip signal delays were recalculated. Born To Kill Essay. Two changes were made to the assumptions. First, the chip-to-chip distance increased to 3 mm. Also, the chip size increased to 8 mm due to the addition of boundary scan testing (see chapter 4) and the need for extra power pads to compensate for the increased inductance in the power leads.
Repeating the same calculation yields a maximum skew below zero. Thus, the system timing needed to be changed to selco prices, allow two clock phases (500 ps) for any transfers of this length. Transfers between adjacent chips could still be made in Born Essay one phase of the clock. Figure 3.10: Distances for broadcast within F-RISC/G central processor More recently, we have been considering the GE-HDI package. This would again allow us to place chips only 1 mm apart, but the use of Kapton increases the dielectric constant to 3.5.
Invoking equation 3.4 gives , which is over a 10% loss in selco prices propagation velocity. Taken together, the to Kill Essay closer chip spacing has more effect. Using the results of false perception equation 3.5, the new MCM is 20 ps faster in the average broadcast, 25 ps faster in the best-case, and about equal in the worst-case adjacent chip transfer. The savings are not enough to allow single-phase broadcasts, but could allow an to Kill additional gate before or after the transfer. Table 3.4 compares the MCM technologies using 8 mm chips. 3.2 IMPLEMENTATION DECISIONS. The F-RISC architecture description leaves some latitude for adapting the architecture to the particular implementation technology. This section describes the major implementation decisions that were made during the design of F-RISC/G. Of course, since the F-RISC architecture was influenced by wto riots the intended HBT implementation, it can be said that some implementation decisions were placed into the architecture.
Figure 3.11: System diagram for GaAs/AlGaAs HBT implementation of F-RISC Figure 3.12 shows a diagram of the F-RISC/G implementation with clock signals indicated for the major latches in the design. The RFA and RFB latches serve to hold the two register file results#151;they are required by the single-port register file. (Figure adapted from [Greu90a]) 3.2.1 Chip Descriptions. Due to to Kill, the small capacity of the selco prices HBT chips, the Born to Kill architecture must be partitioned into multiple chips. This partitioning is shown in figure 3.11. The Ambassadors By Hans Holbein. The core processor is divided into two sections: the to Kill Essay instruction decoder and the datapath. Two copies of a cache controller chip are needed, one serving as the instruction cache controller and the other as the data cache controller. The cache memories consist of sixteen memory chips#151;eight for each cache. The optional data alignment chip shown in figure 3.11 will not be present in the initial F-RISC/G prototype. By Hans. It would have extracted bytes and half-words from the memory.
Clock management will be handled by a clock de-skewing chip, not shown in the system diagram. The low yield of the Born HBT devices forces a simplified cache implementation. FRISC/G will have direct-mapped caches. The data cache will be write-back. (The instruction cache is vs napoleon read-only in the F-RISC architecture.) Each cache will be divided into 32 lines. This choice of Essay size was made so that the main register file memory can be copied and used directly as tag memory for the cache. The cache line size will be 16 words. Farm Snowball. To minimize the time of bus transfers between the to Kill Essay primary cache and the second-level cache, the bus will be 16 words wide. Thus the entire cache line can be refreshed in wto riots one bus cycle. Instruction cache controller.
Data cache controller. The instruction decoder contains the pipeline controllers, state machines, register tags, and control logic required to operate the F-RISC architecture. I designed and laid out this chip. The datapath contains the ALU, the shifter, the program counter history, and to Kill, the register file. Wto Riots. To meet the Born Essay yield expectations, the datapath is perception itself partitioned into four eight-bit slices. The advantage of a bit-sliced (or byte-sliced) approach is that few control signals are needed to communicate among the chips.
I designed and Born Essay, laid out the datapath chip, with the exception of the marks handbags per una built-in register file (which was designed by Kyung-suc Nah). Each of the two caches will communicate with the instruction decoder through its cache controller. To Kill. The cache controller contains the tag memory, which is consulted to determine whether an access is a hit or a miss. Also, the instruction cache controller contains the remote program counter. This chip is being designed by John Van Etten.
Each memory chip contains eight copies of the register file with added redundancy to improve yield prospects. This chip is being designed by perception John Van Etten. This chip performs the multiplexing, masking, and Born to Kill Essay, shifting necessary to extract bytes and half-words from a word read by the cache. Also, it inserts a byte into a word for STORE instructions. Because LOAD and STORE instructions use this chips at different points in their pipelines, it must be bi-directional and perform two operations simultaneously.
It is not being designed at donald present. Transmission of the 2 GHz system clock must be carefully managed to avoid excessive clock skew between any two chips. This function is handled by a special analog clock de-skewing chip, which is being designed by another student (Kyung-suc Nah). The clock distribution system is discussed briefly in section 3.2.3. 3.2.2 Instruction Set Changes. After considering the technology choices and the partitioning, certain changes were made to the architecture and instruction set to allow an easier implementation. The complete instruction set of F-RISC/G is documented in appendix C. Contrast this with the full instruction set of the F-RISC architecture in appendix A.
Shifters are notoriously difficult to include in a bit-sliced implementation. The basic idea of a shifter involves communication among bits that are widely separated in the data word. Born To Kill Essay. To reduce the impact of the shifter on animal vs napoleon the total hardware of the FRISC/G implementation, the scope of the shift instruction was greatly reduced. The shift amount and Essay, direction were limited to selco prices, one-bit shifts right. Born To Kill Essay. This eliminated both the false need for the communication ports associated with a larger shifter and the need to Born, decode the shift amount as specified in by hans the SHIFT instruction.
While the programming rules indicate that a fixed shift amount of one bit right should be specified in all cases, the actual amount specified is ignored by Essay the hardware. A one-bit left shift is available through the addition operation. To support extended ( 32-bit) shifts, the /SHEX flag on a SHIFT instruction will cause the contents of the C flag (in the PSW) to be placed in the MSB of the result. Also, the LSB of the operand will be available as the new C flag. PSW Bits for wto riots, Logical Operations. The F-RISC architecture does not define the carry (C) and overflow (V) flags in the PSW after a logical instruction (AND, OR, XOR, ANDI, ORI, XORI) with the /SCC flag. The F-RISC/G implementation guarantees that these flags will be zero. Thus, the /AT flag has no effect on these logical instructions as an overflow trap cannot occur. As noted in the chapter covering the F-RISC architecture, the write-back cache in Essay F-RISC/G requires the STORE instruction to perception, occupy the cache for to Kill, two cycles. Thus, the instruction following a STORE instruction cannot be a LOAD or a STORE.
The F-RISC architecture provides a protected mode for donald super theory, use in interrupt handling. This mode has two purposes. First, it freezes the program counter history so it can be read and stored for interrupt recovery. During the beginning of an interrupt service routine (ISR) the history registers should point into the interrupted program#151;not into the ISR itself. Second, protected mode disables external interrupts so that ISR code is Born Essay not interrupted during critical sections. In addition, internal interrupts are redirected to alternate interrupt vectors to indicate that the processor was in marks and spencer protected mode when the Born Essay interrupt occurred. ISR code should be written to avoid triggering any internal interrupts. The code should be locked into memory to avoid page faults. Protected mode is automatically entered upon an interrupt. When the ISR has successfully saved the state of the processor, it exits protected mode using the false /RES flag on to Kill a JUMP instruction.
Later, when the ISR is preparing to resume the interrupted program, it must re-enter protected mode because the interrupt recovery code cannot be restarted if it is interrupted. The F-RISC architecture provides for a /SPM (set protected mode) flag on the MPSW instruction to force the processor into protected mode. Marks Per Una. The /SPM flag must only function if the code is operating in supervisory state, because user programs must not be allowed to turn off external interrupts. In F-RISC/G, the Born to Kill Essay protected mode bit is maintained on the instruction decoder and the supervisor mode bit is maintained on a datapath slice. Donald Super. Thus implementing the /SPM flag would require an additional communication path between these two chips. Instead, in F-RISC/G the /SPM flag is Born to Kill disabled under all conditions. The ISR should re-enter protected mode with the TRAPI instruction and the ambassadors holbein, a specific value of the trap code. The operating system must then only allow supervisory processes to Born to Kill, use that trap code. The INTPC instruction is used to read the value of PC_DW during interrupt processing. The F-RISC/G implementation places some restrictions on false perception the use of to Kill Essay this instruction. These rules stem from the fact that the program counters are advanced late in the D1 stage of the pipeline.
Since the PC_DW register is read early in false perception the DE stage of an INTPC instruction, this results in a three-cycle latency from one INTPC to Born, the next. In other words, the two instructions following an marks INTPC cannot be INTPC instructions themselves. To Kill Essay. This time can be used to store the result of the INTPC instruction into memory. The second rule comes from the fact that once the INTPC instruction enters its D1 stage, the program counters will advance even if a preceding instruction has an interrupt in its D2 or DW stage. Thus, the operating system must insure that the handbags per una instructions surrounding an Born to Kill INTPC are never interrupted. False Perception. This provision should be straightforward as all external interrupts are disabled in protected mode (when INTPC is executed) and the operating system can insure that no page faults or user-requested interrupts (such as TRAP instructions or arithmetic faults) can occur. All external interrupts, except page faults, experience a three-cycle latency between the raising of the interrupt line and the recognition of the Born Essay interrupt by the processor.
This latency results from the inclusion of a three-cycle synchronization delay between external interrupt signals and the processor state machine. Likewise, the ID bit in the PSW (which disables user interrupts) has an additional latency of three cycles after it is changed by wto riots an MPSW instruction. Overflow of Born to Kill Essay Remote Program Counter. The F-RISC architecture provides memory protection by forcing the most-significant bit of all addresses generated by user processes to holbein, one. Thus, the user cannot LOAD from or STORE to addresses with a most-significant bit of zero. Also, user mode processes cannot BRANCH or JUMP to Born to Kill, instruction addresses with the most-significant bit reset. However, the remote program counter can complicate matters. If a user process is executing at address FFFFFFFF (hex), the RPC will increment to 00000000 (hex) for wto riots, the next instruction. This address is in the supervisor space.
Because the supervisor flag is maintained on a separate chip from the remote program counter, no error condition will result. This would appear to be a hole in the security. However, there is, in fact, no potential for mayhem. Location 00000000 (hex) must be a NOOP to provide for proper interrupt recovery. The instructions between 00000001 (hex) and 00000003 (hex) could include a JUMP or a BRANCH to prevent the code from falling through to the error interrupt service routine.
This JUMP will be subject to Born to Kill Essay, the memory protection features, and selco prices, thus will result in a jump to a location in the user's space. Another possibility is to disable the carry into Born to Kill Essay the most-significant bit of the RPC. While this would prevent the situation from occurring, it would also allow code that would not be portable onto a F-RISC machine with a larger address space. In the end, however, the point is moot for an engineering prototype such as F-RISC/G. Because of the limited fan-in of CML gates and our desire to reduce the complexity of the F-RISC/G instruction decoder, the F-RISC/G CPU has some implementation-specific initialization requirements. 1. RESET interrupts always use the protected mode interrupt vector, 20 (hex), regardless of the previous state of the processor. 2. After a RESET interrupt, before any registers are referenced (as either the source or the animal farm destination of an ALU operation), a LOAD instruction must take place. This LOAD instruction will serve to reset the latch tag on the DIN latch. The student designing the register file has determined that a single-port register file is the best choice for F-RISC/G based on considerations of transistor count, speed, area, and to Kill Essay, power consumption.
To support the wto riots F-RISC architecture, this register file must be read twice and written once during a cycle. To accomplish this and to control other events in the processor, the system clock is Born to Kill Essay divided into four phases, as shown in figure 3.13. Each of the phases is nominally 250 ps. The phases are not guaranteed to be non-overlapping. Animal Vs Napoleon. They may overlap slightly or be slightly disjoint. The register file is read during each of f 2 and f 3. The address is set up for the write in the beginning of Born Essay f 4 and farm snowball vs napoleon, the write occurs during the end of f 4 and the beginning of f 1. The system clock is distributed at 2 GHz with a special circuit within each chip generating a phase change for each transition of the to Kill input clock.
The chip-to-chip transmission of the system clock uses a novel approach to reduce the skew among the chips. A central clock distribution and deskew chip generates a clock signal for selco prices, each system chip and Born to Kill, applies a controlled phase shift to wto riots, each signal. Born To Kill Essay. Each chip receiving a clock echoes it back along adjacent tracks in the wiring substrate. Phase-lock loops in the deskew chip adjust the phase shifts to keep all clocks synchronized. The deskew scheme is being designed to provide 2 GHz clocks to eight chips with a maximum 30 ps of skew among them. That is, each signal may differ from the ideal by only 15 ps. The system's clock distribution scheme requires that all chips have the same delay between the 2 GHz input clock and the four on-chip clock phases[Nah92].
Only in this way can we insure that f 1 occurs at the same time on all chips in the system. Therefore, the on-chip clock buffering is critical to selco prices, the proper timing of events within the F-RISC/G system. Figure 3.14 shows various clock buffering schemes. In each case, some initial buffering logic generates the clock, which is then distributed to multiple loads. Each of these loads is a super-buffer that drives five to eight loads. To Kill. The loading capacitances are estimates based on average wiring distances. They do not include the active loads of the driven gates#151;this loading is calculated separately. The first circuit uses a standard buffer to drive the distribution network. As the clock distribution is performed at levels 2 and 3, this buffer has an emitter follower at its output. The emitter follower provides a lower sensitivity to capacitive fanout than a level 1 buffer would. The circuit in figure 3.14(b) adds a super-buffer to increase performance in high-fanout conditions.
The standard emitter follower cannot handle loads of more than one super-buffer without rise-time degradation. In (c) the initial buffer is replaced by a super-buffer. This serves only to reduce the total delay. Finally, circuit (d) uses a special clock buffer (developed for the boundary scan testing scheme described in animal vs napoleon chapter 4) for additional drive capability. This would be ideal for Essay, the highest fanout conditions. Figure 3.14: Various clock buffering schemes If the selco prices fanout were always constant, only one of these circuits would be necessary. However, in practice the number of super-buffers driven in the final stage can vary from one to five.
Thus different buffering schemes are used to balance the delays between differently loaded clock lines. Table 3.6 shows the Born initial estimates of wto riots delays using the various schemes. The delays were calculated from the digital gate parameters for each circuit. Both the capacitive loads shown and the applicable active loads are added. Born To Kill. The standard buffer has different performance figures for level 2 and level 3 signals. Thus, these cases are treated separately. Some uninteresting cases are omitted.
The cases marked with a dagger (#134;) are chosen for initial use in donald super theory F-RISC/G chips. To Kill Essay. The basic delay time is fixed by the high-fanout cases. Donald. In these cases, the extra power consumed by the clock buffer is tolerable because it is the only way to obtain good signals with high fanout. Other cases are chosen to closely match these times while expending the minimum power possible. These figures and designs should be taken as starting points only. The loadings on the various buffers will change based on the locations and numbers of loads. Only through repeated post-route digital simulation can the on-chip clock skew be reduced to acceptable values. #134; Configuration chosen for F-RISC chips. There is Born to Kill considerable communication between and wto riots, among the chips in Born to Kill the F-RISC/G architecture. An understanding of this communication is animal farm snowball vs napoleon essential for a complete understanding of the implementation. This section and the following one on Born Essay timing should be read in parallel.
No one said this would be easy. Only the perception most important and interesting signals will be explained here and in the next section (Timing). The following sub-sections divide the signals into categories. Where a given signal could fall into more than one category, it is Born to Kill repeated in all applicable categories. All signals are differential.
3.3.1 Datapath Control. Most of the communication lines within the CPU are used by the instruction decoder to control the datapath chips. Marks And Spencer Handbags. These signals are listed in table 3.7. The B operand inversion signal needs to go from the instruction decoder to two locations on the datapath. The first, the actual B operand inverter, is covered by the INVB signal. The second destination is the adder carry-in on the least significant slice (to perform two's complement subtraction). This signal needs to be active later than INVB , and cannot be handled internally in the datapath slice (to avoid putting extra logic on the critical carry chain). A separate line, CINLSS , was added to the instruction decoder for this reason. The SPECIAL signal controls some miscellaneous special functions on two instructions. On SHIFT instructions, this signal indicates that the C flag in the PSW should be used as the bit shifted into the result.
On JUMP instructions, SPECIAL indicates that the S and OS bits should be reset#151;this copies the /RES flag on the instruction. Write into register file. Ripple shift signals. Extended shift operation. Processor stall signal. 3.3.2 Condition Evaluation, Branching and Born to Kill Essay, the Processor Status Word. Another area of communication between the instruction decoder and false perception, the datapath is in the evaluation of Essay conditional branches. The signals for donald theory, this function are listed in table 3.8. The BRA signal is generated on the DP3 chip. This signal must be distributed to the other datapath slices (so they can store the Born to Kill previous result as the new PC_I1 value), to the instruction decoder (so it can flush instructions as necessary), and to the instruction cache controller (so it reads the marks and spencer handbags address bus).
If this distribution were handled as one daisy-chained line to each recipient, it would travel a long distance. To Kill. Thus, the signal is sent twice from the DP3 chip. One path, BRA1 , goes to the other datapath slices; the other path, BRA2 , goes to the decoder and cache controller. The zero flag in the PSW is the OR of signals from each datapath slice. These signals converge on DP3 from the other slices. The function of the SPECIAL signal is described in the previous sub-section. Condition Evaluation, Branching, and the Processor Status Word. Branch taken (goes from BRAOUT1 on DP3 to BRAIN on DP0, DP1, DP2) Branch taken (originates from BRAOUT2 ) Leave supervisor mode on JUMP.
Many signals go to and from the the ambassadors by hans holbein caches. They are listed in table 3.9. Many of Born to Kill Essay these lines are time-critical as the cache misses are closely synchronized with the processor. The address bus and vs napoleon, IOCTRL signals may go to other I/O devices as well as to the cache. These other I/O devices may wish to decode the to Kill Essay STALLM signal to detect stalls in the other cache. The WDOUT signal is generated by the instruction decoder during STORE instructions. It activates the OUT_EX latch (see figure 3.12) which holds the data to be sent on the DBUSO lines. 3.3.4 Interrupts and Traps.
The communication lines for interrupts and traps, listed in table 3.10, primarily consist of those lines used to indicate that a trap should be taken. A few signals bear mentioning here: The ERROR , RESET , INT , and INT_U signals are used to signal external interrupts. They activate the Processor Reset, System Error, Device Interrupt, and User Interrupt conditions (described in table 2.16), respectively. The INT and INT_U signals are ignored if the processor is in protected mode. INT_U is also ignored if the wto riots INT_DIS (disable user interrupts) signal is high.
The INT_DIS signal comes from the UO line on to Kill Essay the lowest datapath slice. The user can set the value by using the MPSW instruction. The PROT signal is sent from the instruction decoder (which maintains this line as part of the processor state machine) to the UI line on the lowest datapath slice. In this way, the PROT signal appears in the PSW and can be accessed by animal vs napoleon users. 3.3.5 Clock, Synchronization, and Configuration. The clock deskew scheme requires that all modules that receive the master clock return a copy of it to Born, the deskew chip. The signals used for clock distribution and deskew are listed in false table 3.11. The deskew chip adaptively removes the clock skew using a control scheme that will not be described in this thesis. Each datapath chip has two configuration signals that indicate which of the four sites a particular die is in.
Datapath configuration signals. Clock synchronization signal. #134; Single-ended ECL signals. 3.4.1 Datapath Timing. This section will describe the operation of the processor during the execution of an ADD instruction. Later sections will describe the operation of features specific to other instructions such as the BRANCH, LOAD, and STORE. A diagram of the F-RISC/G ALU timing is shown in figure 3.15; the system diagram is in figure 3.12. By the time they are needed during the middle of the I1 stage, the program counter on the datapath and the remote program counter have been incremented to calculate the instruction address. Born Essay. If this instruction is the target of a BRANCH instruction, then the address bus ( ABUS ) from the datapath will contain the instruction address by f 3 of I1 . The instruction address is animal farm snowball vs napoleon then transferred from the instruction cache controller to the instruction memory chips which read the to Kill desired instruction. Simultaneously, the instruction cache controller checks the tags to insure that there is no cache miss. Assuming there is no cache miss, the instruction is transferred from the instruction memory to the instruction decoder beginning in f 3.
When the instruction arrives at farm the instruction decoder, the most urgent task is to send the Essay register file addresses to wto riots, the datapath chips. The operands themselves must be ready by Born to Kill f 4 of the DE stage. To accomplish this, the B operand is selco prices read from the register file during f 2 with the A operand read during the next phase. The bulk of the instruction bits arrives at Born Essay the instruction decoder at the beginning of the DE stage. The portion of the instruction containing the B operand address (RFB) arrives early (f 4 of I2 ), so it can be ready on the datapath slices by wto riots the end of f 1 of DE . The instruction fields are designed so the same bits are always used for RFB. The cache chips for those bits should be the closest to the instruction decoder to Essay, reduce the path time. The A operand register file address (RFA) is slightly more complex as it can be in one of two locations in the instruction. (See figure 2.13.) For short immediate instructions, RFA is located in the second half of the instruction, near the immediate constant. For long immediate instructions, RFA is located in the same field as the destination register file address (DEST).
Thus, in these instructions RFA and DEST specify the same register. Figure 3.15: F-RISC/G timing during an selco prices ALU instruction While the transfers of RFA and RFB proceed, the instruction decoder determines whether one of the tagged latches contains a more recent value for the selected registers. Born. The results of these decisions are transmitted to the feed-forward multiplexers and the register file output latches on the datapath (as the FFRAH , FFRAL , FFRBH , FFRBL , MBYA , and MBYB signals). Also, the immediate constant fields are decoded and transferred. Theory. The instruction set provides three different types of immediate constants (compare the ALU, ALUI, and STORE instructions). The need for interrupt response adds a fourth source for the constant#151;the trap vector. Also during this time, the Born control signals for the operand selection multiplexers (i.e., OPAH , OPAL , and OPBL ), the false B operand inverter ( INVB ), and the ALU or shifter ( ALUOPH and ALUOPL ) are generated on the instruction decoder and broadcast to the datapath chips. The datapath selects the operands and prepares them for the start of the ALU cycle at f 4. When f 4 arrives, the result register latches the previous cycle's result and the OPA and OPB latches open to present the operands for Born to Kill Essay, the current cycle. The calculation then begins in the ALU. The ALU completes the calculation of the instruction result by the end of f 3. During the next phase, the result is stored in the RES_EX register as the next instruction begins its calculation.
At this time, three of the four condition code flags (NCVZ flags), namely N, C, and holbein, V, are available on the most significant slice of the datapath (DP3). Born Essay. The fourth condition code flag, Z, is yet to be computed as it must combine information from all four slices. The recording of the NCVZ flags is optional and is controlled by /SCC flag on many instructions. If this flag is set, the instruction decoder sends the SCC signal to snowball, the DP3 chip, which records the to Kill flags. During the execution of the wto riots MPSW instruction, which updates all PSW flags, the SCC signal is sent to force the recording of the new NCVZ flags. In this case, however, these flags are copied directly from the top four bits of the ALU result. N and C are the MSB of the result and Born to Kill Essay, the carry out false perception, of the fourth slice, respectively. The N flag can come from either the ALU result or the shifter result. The V flag represents an Essay addition overflow and is a combination of two adder carry bits[Greu90a]. This flag is transferred to the instruction decoder (as the ATRAP signal) in case the instruction requested an arithmetic trap on an overflow (the /AT option).
Because they are ready immediately, the farm snowball vs napoleon N, C, and V flags can be latched when the result is. However, the Z flag is more complex as it requires a synthesis from all 32 bits of the result. Born Essay. During f 4 of the EX stage, an 8-input OR of each slice's result is calculated. During the first two phases of D1 , these results are placed on false the ZOUT output from each datapath slice. These signals travel to Born to Kill, the ZIN0 , ZIN1 , and ZIN2 lines on the most-significant slice.
This slice reads the three signals and forms the Z flag. As described above, during the beginning of the D1 stage, the wto riots Z flag is calculated and stored. At f 3, the result continues its progress toward the register file, moving from Born to Kill Essay, RES_EX to RES_D1. One phase later, the PSW is copied into PSW_D2 to preserve it in case the instruction must be restarted because of an interrupt. In the middle of this cycle, the instruction decoder decides whether the instruction will complete. Either an marks arithmetic trap (from an ALU overflow) or a problem in the preceding instruction (in its DW stage now) would cause the instruction to abort.
If the instruction aborts, then its result will not be saved into the register file. The interrupt mechanisms, described in Born the architecture chapter, would take over. During the D2 stage, the destination address (DEST) is transferred from the instruction decoder to wto riots, the datapath slices. It is held in preparation for the register file write at the end of the cycle. Again, during f 3, the result moves to the last feed-forward register, RES_D2. To Kill Essay. One phase later, the PSW is copied into PSW_DW. Once the snowball result is positioned into RES_D2 and the DEST address has been transferred, the register file write can begin. During the beginning of f 4, the register file is addressed. Then, about 150 ps later, the write pulse occurs so that the register file is written to. After the 250 ps long write pulse, the register file is given 100 ps of settling time before the to Kill next address change occurs.
The only thing that happens in the DW stage of an farm addition instruction is the completion of the register file write cycle. 3.4.2 BRANCH Instruction Timing. The differences between a BRANCH (or JUMP) instruction and an ALU instruction are that a BRANCH must check the condition code to see if a condition branch will be taken, flush instructions in Essay the latency region, and update the program counters. Also, the wto riots BRANCH and JUMP instructions do not write their result into Essay the register file. The complete operation of a BRANCH instruction can be seen in figure 3.16. The fetching and by hans, preparation of operands for Essay, a BRANCH instruction are the same as for any other instruction, and have been described previously.
During a BRANCH instruction, the ALU operation (always addition) calculates the animal vs napoleon target address of the BRANCH. Born Essay. Instead of being stored in by hans the result register, the to Kill target address is stored in the ADDR register for transfer to the cache if the by hans branch is taken. To Branch or Not to Branch. One of the clear differences between a BRANCH instruction and Born, an ADD instruction is that BRANCH instructions can change the flow of instructions into the processor. The condition code flags (NCVZ) in the PSW are evaluated using the condition code field in the instruction to form a branch condition #151;in other words, to decide whether or not to branch. In figure 3.15 (the ADD instruction timing diagram), notice that the NCVZ flags are settling during the first half of the D1 stage. If the selco prices instruction preceding the BRANCH sets these flags, then the flags are settling during the EX stage of the BRANCH. Simultaneously, the instruction decoder transmits the condition code field of the BRANCH instruction to the datapath. Only the most significant slice (MSS) of the datapath need receive this because only there is the BRA signal calculated.
To simplify the design of the datapath, during non-BRANCH instructions the instruction decoder sends 0000 (meaning don't branch) as the condition code. Thus the datapath never needs to be explicitly signaled when a BRANCH is Born to Kill Essay taking place. Per Una. The piece of information available latest during the evaluation of the branch condition is the Born Z flag, which is computed using information from all four datapath slices. The evaluation logic is selco prices arranged to require the Born Essay Z flag as late as possible. For this reason, the condition code field is sent earlier than would be required otherwise. Figure 3.16: Timing of the F-RISC/G BRANCH instruction The transmission of the BRA signal is critical as it must go from the datapath MSS to the other three datapath slices (the datapath slices need to be told to copy the new address into the PC_I1 register) and to the instruction cache controller (to update the remote program counter) as well as to wto riots, the instruction decoder.
Among its other responses to a BRANCH being taken, the instruction decoder must flush some or all the Born to Kill instructions following the BRANCH (depending on the /LAT field of the wto riots BRANCH instruction). When the Essay instruction decoder receives the branch result, the most advanced of these instructions is by hans holbein midway through its EX stage. By this time, it is too late to block transmission of the condition code for that instruction (in the case of Essay two back-to-back BRANCH instructions) or the SCC and WPSW signals for PSW manipulation. This problem is solved by having the the ambassadors by hans holbein instruction decoder send a FLUSHDP signal that indicates that SCC , WPSW , and branch conditions should be ignored if a successful BRANCH has just occurred. If the branch is taken, then the instruction cache must immediately begin fetching instructions from the new location. The result of the addition operation is to Kill Essay stored in the ADDR register and broadcast over the ABUS to the instruction cache controller. Wto Riots. The cache controller monitors the BRA signal to determine whether the address on the ABUS is a valid instruction address. 3.4.3 LOAD Instruction Timing. The LOAD and STORE instructions access the F-RISC/G data cache.
The LOAD instruction is illustrated in figure 3.17. The STORE instruction will be covered in the next section. The sequence of a LOAD instruction diverges from that of an ALU instruction during the last phase of the Born to Kill Essay EX stage. At this point during a LOAD, the datapath places the calculated address on the address bus. The instruction decoder anticipates the cache operation by raising the marks and spencer handbags VDA line during f 3 to indicate that the data cache should read the address bus. The data cache controller reads the address. It then begins the Born to Kill process of reading the memory and checking the tags. If there is a cache miss, the donald theory MISS_D signal is sent to Born, the instruction decoder by the end of the D2 stage.
Figure 3.17: F-RISC/G timing for a LOAD instruction Before being sent to the datapath, the data from the selco prices data cache is transferred to the byte operations chip. This chip takes care of extracting byte and halfword values from the full word read from memory. Born To Kill. It aligns the desired halfword or byte in the lower halfword or lowest byte of the result. All unused upper bits are set to zero. The byte chip is controlled by the /IOCTL field of the LOAD instruction.
This chip is not being designed at this time. As has been explained earlier, the data from the LOAD instruction does not arrive at the datapath in time to be saved directly into the register file. A special latch, DIN, is included to hold the result of super theory a LOAD until it can be saved into to Kill Essay the register file. The contents of the DIN latch are written into the register file during the next LOAD instruction. In other words, during the D2 and DW stages of selco prices this LOAD instruction, the Born Essay result of the the ambassadors previous LOAD instruction is Born being stored into that instructions' destination register. 3.4.4 STORE Instruction Timing. The timing of a STORE instruction is shown in figure 3.18.
The data cache address is selco prices calculated and transferred to the data cache as in the LOAD instruction. The B register output, which is to be the stored value, is placed into a series of two pipeline registers, OUT_EX and OUT_D1. During the D1 stage, this value is Born sent to the byte chip for alignment and masking. Wto Riots. The result is then sent to the data cache to be stored into the memory. Since F-RISC/G has a write-back data cache, the cache tags must be checked before storing data. Born Essay. This ordering is important because the cache line may be dirty and thus need to be moved to main memory before being overwritten with the new data.
Therefore, F-RISC/G first reads the cache tags and data from the cache as if it were performing a LOAD operation. The extra reading of the cache data will speed up the processor in the case of a cache miss on dirty data. Certain paths determine the final speed attained by the processor and are thus called critical. When designing an implementation, the designer must be aware of what operations are critical in the particular implementation. These paths are then given extra attention and priority in the rest of the design. A few such paths have been described in the preceding sections: the BRA signal loop between the instruction decoder and by hans holbein, the datapath (on page ). 3.5.1 Adder Carry Chain. In most processor designs, the adder carry chain is on Born the critical path. False. In the case of FRISC/G, with its datapath partitioned over four chips, this is Essay especially true. Carry propagation schemes that include random logic or high fan-in gates are at false perception a disadvantage in triple-level CML because of signal level considerations. To Kill Essay. Carry look-ahead is especially hurt by and spencer handbags the many ways in which the same signals are combined.
It is difficult to assign voltage levels to signals in this case. The chosen configuration is a carry-select adder with eight-bit blocks. These blocks correspond to the datapath slices. The eight-bit carry chains are implemented as ripple-carry chains with one gate per bit. This gate is shown in figure 3.4 (a); the Born to Kill whole scheme is in figure 3.19. The top of figure 3.19 is a depiction of the eight-bit carry-select adder on each of the four datapath slices. The lower half of the figure shows the four datapath chips wired together to form the 32-bit adder. Super Theory. The performance of this adder is clearly affected by the partitioning. There are three chip crossings on the 32bit carry chain. The components of the adder path delay are shown in a pie chart in figure 3.20. Born. The multi-chip implementation of the donald theory adder accounts for to Kill, 42 % of the delay.
This indicates that substantial savings could be realized if the datapath could be implemented with fewer than four chips. Figure 3.19: Carry select adder used for marks handbags, F-RISC/G 3.5.2 Register File Addresses and Related Signals. As described in the datapath timing section, the most critical part of the instruction decoding is the transfer of the register file addresses. Before any operations can be performed on the datapath, the operands must be prepared and latched. The single-port register file is the bottleneck in the operand preparation. Thus, the instruction memory must be arranged so that the first bits of the instruction that arrive at the instruction decoder are the register file address bits. Of these fifteen bits (operand A can be set from one of two five-bit fields), the operand B address is most critical as it is the earlier address required by the register file. Figure 3.20: Components of the adder critical path Also important at Essay this time are the donald theory memory bypass signals ( MBYA and MBYB ) because they control the latches that hold the register file values. While the datapath requires the bypass signals later than it requires the Born to Kill Essay addresses themselves, the wto riots extra computation needed to generate the bypass signals warrants considering these signals critical as well.
Both sets of feed-forward signals ( FFRAH , FFRAL , FFRBH , and Essay, FFRBL ) must arrive at the datapath when the later memory bypass signal MBYA arrives. Treating them as critical signals allows them to arrive slightly earlier and thus set up the feed-forward multiplexers ahead of when the register file data arrives. 3.6 Core Processor Chips. Under contract with the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), I have developed detailed plans for the two core processor chips in the ambassadors the F-RISC/G implementation: the datapath chip and the instruction decoder. The chips use the GaAs/AlGaAs HBT technology with CML circuits as described in the preceding sections. The overall organizations of these chips may provide insights for to Kill, future implementations of the F-RISC architecture. Also, the donald super theory transistor count and power dissipation figures can provide some understanding of the nature of the technology. The schematics for these two chips are available on-line through the COMPASS design automation tools. Essay. The library locations are described in the naming conventions chapter of [Phil93]. The following descriptions will highlight some of the significant points in the design of these chips. Farm Vs Napoleon. The floorplans shown for the chips are meant as general guidelines; small regions of logic have either been ignored or enlarged to permit labeling.
Most of the datapath chip was straightforward to design. The overall structure of the datapath is Born to Kill shown in figure 3.12. The most difficult portions were the control logic (for the PSW and PC registers). Selco Prices. The layout of to Kill this chip was difficult, as there are many feed-back paths and almost all buses are critical. A floorplan for the datapath chip is shown in figure 3.21. In this floorplan, the probe locations during testing are indicated by the brackets in the shaded padring area. Animal Vs Napoleon. The large brackets that contain two V's represent the six-signal probes from Cascade Microtech; the smaller brackets with only one 'V' are ground-power-ground probes to provide additional power supply.
These probes are discussed in the following chapter. A plot of the chip is in Essay figure 3.22. A summary of the devices and power in the datapath chip is found in false perception table 3.12. Paste Datapath chip plot here. Core chip logic. The following sub-sections describe the most important blocks in the datapath schematics: This sheet latches the register file addresses coming in to Kill from the instruction decoder and selects the proper one for presentation to donald theory, the register file. The final selection multiplexer is located within the register file itself. This is a diagram of the Born Essay register file as implemented for the F-RISC/G datapath chip. It contains one of the address selection multiplexers as well as two sets of output latches for the A and B operands.
As one might expect, this sheet contains the arithmetic and logical unit (ALU) of the F-RISC/G processor. The eight-bit carry chain is implemented as one standard cell to reduce the internal wiring capacitances. The gates from figure 3.4 are used. This sheet includes the one-bit right shifter. Besides shifting its input (which takes no gates other than to select the type of shift), this circuit provides the access path to the PC_DW register. The feed-forward registers are provided by this sheet. The D1 and D2 stage registers are clocked early so that they become less critical and can be implemented with lower powered gates. This is the address register.
It provides the address for the caches and implements the memory protection scheme by forcing the MSB of the the ambassadors by hans holbein outgoing address to be high unless the processor is in protected mode. This sheet contains the program counter registers. Born To Kill Essay. It consists of three sub-blocks: pci1 , inc , and pc_history . The pci1 sub-block holds the program counter for the I1 stage. The output levels of the selco prices bits differ to provide the correct input levels for the incrementer. The incrementer is contained in the inc sheet. It is a simple counter with a high-speed carry generate and propagate unit. The pc_history maintains the Born to Kill program counter history registers and advances them as directed by the instruction decoder. The different bits of the processor status word are implemented differently according to their functions. Each type of bit is in a separate sheet. The zero bit (Z) is the ambassadors by hans generated in the zgen sheet.
The results from all four datapath chips are combined on the most significant slice. The rest of the condition code bits are generated in the ncvz_regs sheet. All four condition code bits are stored here. Four operations on these registers are implemented: hold previous value, update value from Born to Kill Essay, ALU or shifter result (/SCC flag), update value directly from result bits (MPSW instruction) and restore old values for exception processing. The uio_regs sheet provides for the I and O bits.
The supervisor sheet is somewhat complex as it must support many functions of the S and OS bits. The following functions are supported: copy S into OS (setting S) during interrupt, copy OS into S at the end of an interrupt, updating S and OS from ALU result if the S bit was previously set. The bragen sheet calculates the BRA signal from the condition code bits and the branch condition from the instruction decoder. This sheet contains the clock distribution tree and buffers. This sheet reads the perception external configuration signals and determines whether this slice is either the LSS or MSS. These static configuration signals are broadcast throughout the Born chip. 3.6.2 Instruction Decoder.
The instruction decoder chip consists mostly of random logic. Therefore, it was more difficult to design, debug, and lay out than the datapath chip. The floorplan of the instruction decoder is donald super shown as figure 3.23. The final chip layout is to Kill plotted in figure 3.24. A summary of the power consumption and transistor count in the instruction decoder chip is shown in donald super table 3.13. Only about Born to Kill 45% of the the ambassadors by hans holbein devices and 35% of the power is spent generating the design functions of the instruction decoder. The instruction decoder schematics are arranged, for the most part, by pipeline stage. Born Essay. For instance, the stage_EX sheet contains the snowball vs napoleon logic to generate signals for the EX stage operations and to hold information needed by later stages. The following subsections describe the toplevel blocks of the Born to Kill Essay instruction decoder schematics.
This is one of the simplest pages of schematics. The logic controls the I1 stage of the pipeline. However, since the corresponding instruction has not been fetched, very little control is necessary. Only one latch is included; it indicates whether the instruction in I1 is valid or has been flushed during a BRANCH. The I2 stage is not much more complex. Along with the wto riots valid bit, this stage has a pass through for to Kill, the RFB signals, which are received early from the instruction cache and selco prices, sent to the datapath. Paste Instruction Decoder Plot Here. This stage is more complex than the Born to Kill Essay previous two.
The major duties of the DE stage are as follows: store the incoming instruction, assemble the immediate constant, generate some control lines to select operands on the datapath, and pre-calculate control signals needed early in the next stage. Marks. A latch maintains the information as to whether this instruction is Essay valid. The latch_inst sub-sheet holds the selco prices incoming instruction, nullifies it if it should not be executed, and substitutes the dummy BRANCH instruction during interrupt processing. Its companion, imm , generates the immediate constant for the datapath. Depending on the specific instruction format, this constant can come from various portions of the source instruction or from the trap vector during interrupt processing. Core chip logic. This sheet controls the EX stage of the pipeline.
While the Born DE stage passes on most of the instruction to perception, its successor, by the EX stage it is more economical to send only those control lines needed by future stages. Born. Thus, this sheet generates many functions that are not used until the D1 or D2 stage. Farm Vs Napoleon. This stage also forms the Born to Kill Essay first result tag#151;for the RES_EX register. The one sub-sheet, latch_opcode , holds the five-bit opcode and holbein, translates its bits to levels appropriate for decoding. Certain functions on Born to Kill Essay this sheet are disabled by the FL_EX_EA signal. This signal, an abbreviation for farm vs napoleon, FLush EX stage EArly, cancels certain critical signals if the instruction in the EX stage is being flushed by the instruction in Born to Kill Essay the D1 stage. These signals could cause undesired effects if they were allowed to take effect.
The rest of the selco prices control signals will be flushed when the instruction moves to the D1 stage. The validity bit in this stage differs from to Kill, those in the preceding stages in selco prices that it refers to the program counter register (on the Born to Kill datapath) rather than the instruction itself. The distinction is donald theory important in protected mode, when these program counter registers are not advancing normally. The extra pipeline latch on this path is included to to Kill, compensate for skew between the wto riots normal clock signal and the qualified clock, ADV3 , which is Born Essay inactive in protected mode. The major event in the D1 stage is the incoming BRANCH result. The Ambassadors By Hans Holbein. The incoming BRA signal from the datapath's evaluation of the condition code is used to Born to Kill Essay, flush selected instructions from the pipeline, as indicated by the latency bits on the BRANCH instruction. This stage also controls the program counter history registers.
This logic is complex, as described in sections 2.5.2 and 2.5.4. Also, the donald super arithmetic overflow indication is Essay received from the datapath at this time. The interrupt is deferred until the next cycle. Except for the register file result, very little happens during the and spencer per una D2 stage. Most of the Born inputs from the D1 stage are passed straight through to the DW stage. The software trap and arithmetic overflow trap conditions are presented to the trap_encoder module to theory, invoke the respective trap sequences. At the end of the D2 stage, the register file will be updated.
The address is selected and sent to the datapath chip early in this cycle. The validity bit on the selected tag will be used to determine if the Born to Kill write should take place. This final stage remembers whether the instruction in the DW stage was a LOAD or STORE so that interrupt processing can proceed properly. However, the logic is concerned mostly with maintaining the address tag for the DIN register. The DIN latch tag should be updated under the following circumstances: · A successful LOAD instruction should validate the tag to match the invalid one in the current RES_D2 feed-forward latch. · A LOAD instruction that is canceled by a trap should cause the tag to be invalidated. The previous contents have already been written into perception the register file, and the latch now contains whatever data was on the data bus when the trap occurred. · If a valid tag in the RES_D2 latch matches the tag in the DIN register, the DIN register should be invalidated.
This accounts for the case where an ALU instruction overwrites the Born to Kill Essay destination of a LOAD instruction while that result is still waiting to be stored into the register file. This sheet contains the logic to generate the register file addresses and animal vs napoleon, control signals for the datapath chip. Very little logic appears here, only the multiplexers between the B-operand and destination addresses for the shared bus and the logic to cancel writes when a trap is in to Kill progress. Herein are the gates that compare the register file addresses to wto riots, the tags for the feed-forward registers and the DIN register on the datapath. The results of these comparisons generate the feed-forward and memory-bypass control signals.
Also, the D2 stage tag and the DIN register tag are compared to determine if the DIN register should be invalidated. The latter function was described in Born Essay figure 2.15 and the ambassadors by hans holbein, the surrounding text. The processor state machine (figure 2.28) and Born, the logic to generate the STALL signal are contained on this page. The operation of false this logic is Born highly critical as its outputs are used to control widely separated functions on the instruction decoder. Especially time-critical is the donald generation of the STALL signal. Born. This is an OR of the marks handbags per una ACKI and ACKD lines, which control the caches.
ACKI is generated if the DE stage instruction is Born to Kill valid, the cache signals a miss, and there is no pending trap. This final condition allows an instruction cache page fault to cancel the STALL signal. The ACKD is generated similarly, except only donald super theory, certain interrupts (as listed in table 2.16), which are authorized to abort the D2 stage, can interfere with that stall. Some of the Essay inputs for these signals (including the the ambassadors holbein TRAP signal from the trap encoder) are available only at f 2 of the clock. To Kill. However, the f 3 clock must be gated with the STALL signal for use in various functions. This page contains the logic necessary to synchronize the external interrupt lines to the internal clock, recognize and prioritize interrupt conditions, signal that a trap is to take place, and calculate the interrupt vector. The clock distribution system is grouped in marks and spencer handbags per una this module. A combination of super-buffers, clock buffers, and normal high-powered buffers and to Kill Essay, gates is used to reduce clock skew within the chip.
These two sheets contain the control logic for boundary scan testing. The BS_control sheet includes all the control logic that will be described in chapter 4. The scan_ports sheet contains distribution buffers for the various boundary scan control signals. A 1000 MHz implementation of the selco prices F-RISC architecture has been designed. This implementation would require, for the central processor, six chips on a thin-film MCM. Four of the chips are a bit-sliced datapath; one is an instruction decoder; and the sixth is a clock de-skew chip. The caches will require many more chips, depending on the memory available. Each of these chips contains many signal paths in the sub-nanosecond range. These chips must be tested, either on a wafer or as bare die, before being mounted on the MCM. Once on the MCM, the system must be tested for proper operation before being put into service. The timing resolutions of to Kill Essay conventional test equipment or standard boundary scan techniques are not sufficient for selco prices, at-speed testing of these chips. To Kill. Built-in self-test techniques require too many devices and too much power to be of use in this yield-limited technology.
The following chapter will address the testing issue and describe the solution used for the F-RISC/G chips.
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The U. S. Civil War and Civil Right Era. This paper will contain information dated during the Civil War through the Civil Rights Era. Throughout this paper you will hear about the expansion of the U.S Federal government and the events of the Born Essay, Civil War, The Reconstruction Period, The Progressive Era, The Great Depression and The Civil Rights Era. The Civil War is a war between organized groups within the same nation state or republic or less commonly between two countries created from wto riots, a united nation. The Civil Right Era began in 1955. Another important factor of this particular era was the great depression. Throughout this paper you will hear about the events, trials and tribulations that transpired throughout this time frame. Essay? Through the expansion of the U.S Federal government are the events of the Civil War, the super, Reconstruction period, the Progressive Era, The Great Depression and the Civil Rights Era, which will also be discussed. The Civil War officially began on April 12, 1861, when confederate troops attacked Fort Sumter in Born Essay Charleston Harbor. The bloodiest battle of the Civil War took place in false Maryland on September 17, 1862, which was called the Battle of Antietam.
This event caused Abraham Lincoln to announce abolish to slavery in the South, which became official in to Kill 1863. More men died in the Civil War than any other American conflict, and vs napoleon, two-thirds of the dead perished from disease. (Facts, 2011) The Civil War ended in spring of 1865. To Kill? The Northern armies won, and the rebellious states returned to the Union. The Reconstruction Period occurred between the years of wto riots, 1865 and 1877. After the Civil War the south was in need of major repair and fixing. Essay? The South money was worthless because all they had was confederate dollars and the confederate government no longer existed. So in this. . Week Eight - CheckPoint Civil War, Table and Response Due Date: Day 5, Assignments Link Points Possible: 20 Points Earned: XX ------------------------------------------------- Part One: Table, Union and Confederate Home Fronts Points Possible: 10 Points Earned: XX Fill in the following table with experiences on the Union home front and experiences on the Confederate home front. Civil War Home Fronts | DifferencesBetween North and South Home Fronts | 1. The Union and the Confederates were very different in the way they conducted business.2.
The Union they made industrialization development, infrastructure grew, and the ambassadors by hans holbein, urban cities and towns grew.3. The Confederate had large plantations and made their slaves work long and to Kill, hard on their farms. They grew cotton and tobacco on these plantations.4. The Union was able to pass laws to tax on imported goods so that the Confederates would have to buy from them.5. The confederates wanted stronger state rights and a weaker central government; the Union wanted the government to have more power. | Similarities Between North and South Home Fronts | 1. Both the Union and confederates Struggled, economically, politically, and culturally to agree with one another.2. Union and confederate home fronts faced hardship during the wto riots, war, from diseases, bad medical care, lack of food, corruption of morality, and rising numbers of Essay, deaths.3.
Woman of animal snowball vs napoleon, both the union and Essay, confederacy found new opportunities to work outside the home. Words: 520 - Pages: 3. . formed the Confederacy, wrote their own constitution, and planed for an independent nation The south was against abolitionist and when Lincoln was elected to office they thought he was an abolitionist that is why those states succeeded. This is a turning point because if they had never seceded there would had been no problem and the Civil war. November 6, 1860 - Abraham Lincoln, who had declared Government cannot endure permanently half slave, half free. is elected president, the first Republican, receiving 180 of 303 possible electoral votes and wto riots, 40 percent of the Born Essay, popular vote. Wto Riots? December 20, 1860 - South Carolina secedes from the Union. Followed within two months by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas February 9, 1861 - The Confederate States of America is formed with Jefferson Davis, a West Point graduate and Born Essay, former U.S.
Army officer, as president July 1-3, 1863 - The tide of war turns against the South as the Confederates are defeated at the Battle of wto riots, Gettysburg in Pennsylvania. July 18, 1863 - 'Negro troops' of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment under Col. Robert G. Shaw assault fortified Rebels at to Kill, Fort Wagner, South Carolina. Col. Shaw and half of the 600 men in the regiment are killed September 2, 1864 - Atlanta is by hans holbein captured by Sherman's Army. Atlanta is ours, and Born to Kill, fairly won, Sherman telegraphs Lincoln.
The victory greatly helps President Lincoln's bid for re-election December 21, 1864 - Sherman reaches Savannah in Georgia. Words: 564 - Pages: 3. . Abstract In this essay you will learn about the civil war, reconstruction, the progressive era, the great depression, and wto riots, the civil rights era. Essay? Also the American Anti-Slavery and and spencer handbags, Civil rights Timeline, 1854-1896 during the civil war era. Born To Kill Essay? Identify and describe two examples of the U.S. Authority Expansion between the beginning of the U.S. Civil War and the end of the Civil War Era? (1) The twelve years following the Civil War carried consequences for the nation’s future. Reconstruction helped set the pattern for future race relations and defined the federal government’s role in promoting equality. This section describes President Lincoln’s and farm snowball, Johnson’s plan to readmit the confederate states to Born to Kill, the Union as well as the the ambassadors, more stringent Congressional plan; it also describes the power struggle between President Andrew Johnson and congress, including the vote over the president’s impeachment. This section also identifies the groups that ruled the Essay, southern state governments from 1866-1877 and explains why Reconstruction ended in 1877. (2) Immediately following the false, war, all-white Southern legislatures passed black code which denied blacks the right purchase or rent land.
These efforts to force former slaves to Born, work on donald super plantations led Congressional Republicans to seize control of Born Essay, Reconstruction from wto riots, President Andrew Johnson, deny representatives from the former Confederate states their Congressional seats, and pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and. Words: 857 - Pages: 4. The U. S. Civil War and Civil Right Era. . The U. S. Civil War and Civil Right Era Abstract This paper will contain information dated during the Civil War through the Civil Rights Era. Essay? Throughout this paper you will hear about the expansion of the wto riots, U.S Federal government and the events of the to Kill Essay, Civil War, The Reconstruction Period, The Progressive Era, The Great Depression and The Civil Rights Era.
The U. S. Wto Riots? Civil War and Civil Right Era The Civil War is a war between organized groups within the same nation state or republic or less commonly between two countries created from a united nation. The Civil Right Era began in 1955. Another important factor of this particular era was the great depression. Throughout this paper you will hear about the events, trials and tribulations that transpired throughout this time frame. Through the expansion of the U.S Federal government are the events of the Civil War, the Reconstruction period, the Progressive Era, The Great Depression and the Civil Rights Era, which will also be discussed. The Civil War officially began on Born to Kill Essay April 12, 1861, when confederate troops attacked Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. The bloodiest battle of the Civil War took place in the ambassadors holbein Maryland on September 17, 1862, which was called the Battle of Antietam. This event caused Abraham Lincoln to announce abolish to slavery in the South, which became official in 1863. More men died in the Civil War than any other American conflict, and two-thirds of the dead perished from disease. (Facts, 2011. Words: 983 - Pages: 4.
. The True Cause of the Civil War Between the economic, political, and social quarrels that evolved throughout the 1850's, the North and the South underwent many changes that led to Born to Kill Essay, the start of the Civil War. The most attributing factor to this war was that of a moral dispute between two sections who both wanted different things. Slavery became the issue that spread across the marks and spencer handbags per una, nation and Essay, was disputed back and forth between the North and South sections of the country. Abolitionists were focused upon in the North and tried to get their message across to theory, those owning slaves in Born to Kill Essay the South. They expressed moral disapproval but engaged in few out-in- the-open activities. To the extent that there was an organized antislavery movement, it centered on the concept of colonization-the effort to encourage the marks and spencer per una, resettlement of Born, American blacks in Africa or the Caribbean. (Brinkley, American History 342) Among these Abolitionists, was a famous U.S. journalist who published The Liberator and helped lead the successful Abolitionist campaign against donald slavery in the U.S.
In his first issue of Born to Kill Essay, The Liberator, he boldly states his opinion on the issue of slavery: I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. I am in earnest-I will not equivocate-I will not excuse-I will not retreat a single inch-AND I WILL BE HEARD. (www.britannica.com) The Civil War forced Garrison to choose between his pacifist beliefs and emancipation. In December 1865 he published the last issue of. Words: 440 - Pages: 2. . Between the the ambassadors by hans, historical periods of gilded age and civil rights movement the gilded age period and to Kill Essay, civil rights movement period women faced political, economic, and social challenges. Women were meant to maintain the house and raise their children while men went to work outside home. Animal Snowball Vs Napoleon? Women also could not vote during the period of late 1800’s to Born to Kill Essay, 1960’sthat period. Women mostly increasingly involved themselves in their family life. Women’s life lives was were bounded around their family as they went for farm vs napoleon shopping only when they were accompanied by their husbands or their children. . Born Essay? Women since that period and till now face a lot of by hans, social problems. Especially educated women had tremendous knowledge to influence both man and a boy but due to problems of domesticity like taking care of family members and the house, many women feltel frustrated. They often felt feel a sense of contraction and lost opportunities as they did do dishes and remaining household work and wentgo to Essay, sleep.
Educated women of the civil rights movement period were not happy with the ideology of super, domesticity of the gilded age as many had a college education and Born, desired to put their hard work, education, and knowledge for their own self-growthfor good . A woman in the 1950’s appealed for a right to be a “modern young women.” . The right to have economic independence by having a job that is not completely involved in domesticity and have individual choice which is not guided by her family. But this. Words: 531 - Pages: 3. . Kidlen Kidka Speech 110 Demonstration Speech I. After the 14years of civil war in my country Liberia West Africa; we lost of family, friends and love ones. I was blessed to be counted among the living once and privilege enough to wto riots, live a normal life after the civil crisis. Essay? My parents got jobs with the largest natural company in the world “Firestone Rubber Plantation”. In 1926, the Then Firestone Tire and Company leased 1,600 square mile of jungle on Liberia West Africa with the goal of producing its own natural. Liberia was selected because of the location, soil and our good climatic condition. Selco Prices? The company was name after the to Kill, founder Harvey Firestone.
II. The rubber product we see today came away from the grown. Washington Waka the general manager of the factory said; that growing and producing rubber is a lot harder than having and raising Children. From planting the rubber, tapping and collecting and finally processing and shipping it out. First step in planting a rubber tree is by hans holbein getting a rich fertile soil in a rubber or polished clayed container. Proper planting is the most important procedure is important because it minimize transplant shock. * Plant the Born Essay, seed in the center of the soil that is in the container and selco prices, water. * Water the seed one a week until it is ready for transplant. * Transplanting occur after approximately several months. * The trees should be planted about a foot apart and in a straight line. * Rubber trees. Words: 663 - Pages: 3. . Eric Yarger HIS/115 The Civil War in my opinion was a war that could have been avoided if each state could have acted as a whole nation rather than an Born individual state.
This war divided our country and in some areas today they still seem to be fighting the perception, same battle that the to Kill Essay, north and perception, south fought. The Civil War took place over much of this great nation and Born to Kill, as a whole experienced a great loss of life. Between both sides, civilian and even Native Americans over 600,000 deaths were recorded. Donald Super Theory? There were probably many others that were not recorded. Even thought the north lost more soldiers than the south, they won the war which ended up in Essay end of slavery. The south called their part of the the ambassadors by hans holbein, war “the lost cause”.
According to historian Shelby Foote; “Any understanding of this nation has to Essay, be based . . . on an understanding of the Civil War. . Animal Snowball? . . The Civil War defined us as what we are, and it opened us to being what we became, good and bad things. It is very necessary if you’re going to understand the American character in the 20th century to learn about Born to Kill Essay this enormous catastrophe of the mid-19th century. It was the crossroads of our being.” I feel Foote wrote this so people could understand that the Civil War was the event in wto riots history that has made us the nation that we are today. Born To Kill? The Civil War has taught us a nation about what we have lost and what we have gained. It also has taught us that if we were to work at something we believe in we can achieve it. To. Words: 826 - Pages: 4. . Under the circumstances which invited it, the civil war was undoubtedly inevitable, and despite the consequences and casualties America suffered as a result of it, it ultimately managed to unite the country as a whole into one..
The main causes for and spencer handbags it were infringement on civil liberties, infringement on states rights, and the collapse of a two party system. Another cause of it was the north and south had different ideas regarding what a Government looks like. Much like the rest of Europe, the north’s economy was more industrial, with factories, railroads and shipyards while the south’s was agricultural with slavery playing a major part in; the north had their own ideal of a government in which slavery would be abolished, the to Kill, south’s ideal involved slavery which would naturally cause tension between the two. The South favored an the ambassadors agricultural system, while the North was centered around a city life. it meant that the North’s economy grew through people of different ethnics and backgrounds working together, while the South had a fixed social order. Essay? Both sides did their best in trying to donald, reconcile with each other but different events such as the fugitive slave act, bleeding kansas, and the dred scott decision only managed to pull them further apart; although they did create different compromises which managed to quell the tension for to Kill a little while but ultimately failed to unite them in the long term. Slavery was a major factor in the early to perception, late 1900’s as well as the. Words: 2055 - Pages: 9.
. commented in 1861 that Union forces “may overrun our frontier States and plunder our coast but, as for conquering us, the to Kill, thing is an impossibility.” Union and Confederate leaders adopted very different strategies to animal farm snowball vs napoleon, achieve victory. Beginning in 1861 with Winfield Scott’s so-called “Anaconda Plan,” the Born to Kill Essay, United States pursued a strategy that included a naval blockade to restrict the flow of goods into southern ports, a combined Army-Navy effort to divide the Confederacy by seizing control of the Mississippi River, and major offensives into the Confederate hinterlands. The Confederacy first tried to defend all of its borders, but for most of the false, war Jefferson Davis and his advisers followed what often is termed a defensive-offensive strategy. Confederate armies generally stood on the strategic defensive, protecting as much of to Kill, their territory as possible. When circumstances seemed favorable, the wto riots, Confederacy launched offensives—the most important of which culminated in Born to Kill the Battles of Antietam and the ambassadors holbein, Perryville in 1862 and Gettysburg in 1863.
Military fortunes ebbed and flowed for more than three years before United States forces gained a decisive advantage. Born To Kill? The loyal states wavered more than once in their determination, most notably after Robert E. Lee frustrated Union offensives in the spring of 1863 and the spring and early summer of 1864. A string of Union successes won by Ulysses S. Grant in the West at Forts Henry and Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, and per una, Chattanooga in Born to Kill Essay 1862. Words: 2066 - Pages: 9. . Holbein? Civil War Research Paper This unit can be broken down into three different areas: the causes of the Civil War, the atrocity of the Civil War, and to Kill Essay, America’s Reconstruction after the war. With each unit there are a multitude of false perception, things that have had a significant impact on our development as a country since this period.
With that in mind, you will be expected to research a topic of your choosing and write an in-depth research paper on Born to Kill Essay it. My rationale for this assignment is two-fold. One, we are towards the end of the selco prices, semester and Born to Kill Essay, I feel it is important to push your limits and force you to continue to work hard. Two, you will be in high school next year. This is a type of assignment you could and most likely will have in the near future. It is donald super something you must work on in order to perfect it. Topic Choices (broken into to Kill Essay 3 subunits) • Middle Passage • Indentured Servants • Jobs of Slaves • Resistance to Slavery • Slave Rebellions • Political Compromises • Abolition Movement • Life on Plantations • Free Blacks • Runaways • John Brown • Underground Railroad • Black Codes • Josiah Henson • Harriet Tubman • Frederick Douglas • Harriet Jacobs • Henry “Box” Brown • Olaudah Equiano • Economic Causes • Election of 1860 • Abraham Lincoln • Confederate States of America. Words: 530 - Pages: 3. . discredited ethnic and racial inequality.
Originally promoted by religious and ethnic minorities in the 1920s and the Popular Front in the 1930s, a pluralist vision of holbein, American society now became part of official rhetoric. Born Essay? What set the United States apart from false perception, its wartime foes, the government insisted, was not only dedication to the ideals of the Four Freedoms but also the principle that Americans of all races, religions, and Essay, national origins could enjoy those freedoms equally. Wto Riots? Racism was the Born Essay, enemy’s philosophy; Americanism rested on toleration of animal farm snowball vs napoleon, diversity and equality for all. By the end of the Essay, war, the new immigrant groups had been fully accepted as loyal ethnic Americans, rather than members of distinct and inferior “races.” And the contradiction between the principle of equal freedom and the actual status of blacks had come to the forefront of national life. The civil right movement which had been happening from the selco prices, early periods of Born to Kill, America as an independent country, started to rise to a great magnitude after the WWII. During the war America was witnessed how African-American, and other immigrant who have been granted the US citizenship and had sworn to protect their new homeland, fought side by wto riots, side with white people for the right cause. Another main factor which led to the success of the civil right movement during 1950’s to 1990’s was the fact that this period was in the times of Cold War. American politicians and leaders realized in order to be able to prevent the. Words: 1612 - Pages: 7.
. To Kill? NONVIOENT RESISTANCE RACIAL JUSTICE The Civil Rights Movement was a movement that gave African Americans equal rights and false perception, freedom. To Kill Essay? One person who was important during this time was Martin Luther King, Jr. He was a strong advocate that used non-violent resistance against the racial oppression of African Americans. Racial justice is farm snowball vs napoleon where everyone is treated equally and not discriminated against. No matter if a person has a different type of skin color, they should not be treated differently.
The way King did this was speaking to people of other races. One of his well-known speeches was “I have dream.” He claimed that black people should have equal rights as the whites. “One day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.” Martin Luther King, Jr. wanted Americans to be unified. He wrote about six necessary characteristics of nonviolence and was inspired by Gandhi. Though these were big part of the movement, King really gave much emphasis to it by fighting for freedom, and Born Essay, treating people equally. Three significant aspects that he brought to The Civil Rights Movement were strength of spirit, friendship, and willingness to accept suffering without retaliation Black people bonded together during The Civil Rights Movement in 1950s and selco prices, 1960s. When people were gathered in the fight for freedom, it kept. Words: 844 - Pages: 4. . The United States became a much more developed society after the Civil War.
Industrialization improved American life in many ways, however, industrialization also created difficulties for American Society. There are many examples to Born, support industrialization after the Civil War. One example would be the proportion of high school graduates. America saw an wto riots upsurge in 17 year old graduates upright the to Kill Essay, Civil War. This meant that the nation was going to have more cultivated people who partook in government matters and a change in the type of people who detained jobs. However, the number of employed children under 15 years old was also increasing.
This meant that these kids who were supposed to be getting an education, were being subjugated, sometimes earning a lot less than any other employed group of workers. The living circumstances these children were visible to might have been a reason for them working so young. Farm Snowball Vs Napoleon? The living conditions many children were open to Essay, were underneath what the snowball, poor have seen. Houses that were built to Born Essay, dwell in a family of four was shared by several families. Many of the houses didn’t have water supply and the streets were very dirty. Circumstances like these were meant to be repressed by the poor working people.
It seemed that the rich were getting richer and the ambassadors holbein, the poor were getting poorer. Industrialization meant that the people with money will devote to Born, have more money and the people that worked could spend the little money they earned.
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9 Creative Resume Design Tips (With Template Examples) If you’re hunting for that dream role at a creative company you’re going to want to Born, dust off your old resume and theory, give it a modern refresh. But how can you make sure that—out of all the applicants—it’s your resume that catches your future employer’s eye? Today we take a look at nine resume design tips for overhauling the format, layout, and structure of your resume. Discover fantastic ideas for injecting creativity into Born to Kill Essay, your resume design without compromising on professionalism. We also share creative resume examples and false perception, templates throughout the post, visually demonstrating these design tips in to Kill Essay action so you can readily put them to work for perception you. Essay. When you're ready to selco prices, create your own resume, check out Born, this tutorial on designing a creative resume in Adobe InDesign. You can also browse the full selection of false creative resume templates on GraphicRiver to get even more inspiration. Tip 1: Use Columns to Maximize on Space. One thing that is an absolute nightmare for employers tasked with trawling through resumes by the bucketload is encountering resumes that are more than one page long. Sure, you might want to go into detail about that part-time training course you took seven years ago, but, frankly, all your future employer wants to know is how that qualification is relevant to the job you’re applying for. Born Essay. The best advice for putting together the content of your resume?
Keep it short and sweet. Edit out qualifications and details that are irrelevant to marks, the role. You’ll find that editing your text down to fill just one page can be tricky, but it’s well worth it—you’ll appear concise, organized and you’ll also be highlighting only the most important, and best, information about yourself. This is going to make your resume easy-to-digest and a doddle to print ( you’re welcome, environment ). But how can you even begin to Born, fit all your wonderful achievements on just one sheet of false paper? There are some design techniques you can employ to Essay, maximise the space on your one page, without forcing the layout to feel overcrowded. One tip is to try splitting your resume layout into two sections, with a narrow column running down the left- or right-side of the page, as shown below: Creative Resume Template example with functional columns and organized layout format. Place shorter sections of information, like a brief bio, skills, software competencies, languages and contact details in the column, along with a photo in the same column. Switch up the snowball vs napoleon, background color of the column to keep it visually distinctive.
Placing more detailed chunks of information, such as your job experience, education and to Kill Essay, qualifications, in the other wider column will help maximise the limited space available in your creative resume layout. Tip 2: Resume Layout Structure is All-Important. Though it may be dull, organization is the key to a successfully-designed resume. You want the design of your creative resume format to be well planned and organized. Once you have edited down your content to one-page’s worth, you need to selco prices, visually separate that information into Born to Kill, digestible chunks. Imagine you’ve been sat at your desk looking at resumes all day—you sure aren't going to linger long over someone’s essay-long summary of the farm vs napoleon, internship they did last summer.
Don’t lump all your information together. Use a grid structure for your layout, with columns and Born to Kill Essay, rows, visual dividers and white space to section out all the wto riots, data you’re presenting to the reader. This will also make it much easier for them to refer to individual items of information in conversation with a colleague or during an interview. You want to make your creative resume a pleasure to read, not a chore, and keeping your information visually organized is going to help you achieve this. Born To Kill. Take a look at this simple-yet-striking resume template, and particularly at wto riots, how the information is sectioned up. This creative resume layout is based on a simple grid structure with two columns, and to Kill Essay, plenty of white space, the different sections are clearly marked out and divided from each other with subheadings and lines. Donald. Creative Resume Template with underlying grid formatting shown. It may seem a “well, duh!” sort of tip, but you’d be amazed at how many people crowd their resumes with waffle.
Be brave and clinical, and create a resume that’s as well-organized as the company’s filing system. It will say something about your personality to your potential employer—your organizational skills and efficiency being immediately apparent. Tip 3: Catch the Eye with Resume Infographics. Infographic design details are a great way of introducing a more unique look to your resume, while looking data-driven and professional. How to to Kill Essay, achieve the infographic look?
First, divide your resume layout up into a grid with two columns and four or five rows. Focus on placing one section of ‘data’ into each square of the grid, whether that’s your list of awards and certificates, or your educational history. Transform each section of data into its own individual infographic. Try transforming your list of the ambassadors by hans holbein past jobs into an experience timeline, ordered chronologically. Born To Kill. Use graphic icons to represent different skills or hobbies (take a look at the huge range of free icons available at and spencer handbags per una, flaticon.com if you don’t fancy creating your own from scratch). Use the shape tools in Born to Kill your design software of choice to create simple charts and the ambassadors by hans holbein, graphs to represent your language skills or software experience. Check out this simple tutorial on creating your own infographic elements in Born to Kill Essay Adobe InDesign, and use them to wto riots, embellish your resume layout. One final tip for infographic styles—keep your colors pared-back, neutral and minimal. With all those graphic elements going on, you’ll want to Born to Kill Essay, keep the design looking ultra-professional.
Tip 4: Make a Nod to Your Profession. Odds are, you’ll be looking for a particular role, which will make good use of selco prices your particular skillset. If this is the case, you can fine-tune the design of your resume to make a nod to your chosen profession. For example, if you’re a publishing designer, make your resume look a little bookish. Use classic typefaces like Caslon and Baskerville, and structure the layout to mimic a beautifully typeset book page. If you’re a web designer, take inspiration from Born to Kill this digital-inspired resume template and give your layout a digital-inspired design with neon pops of color, data-like icons and bars, and a precise, clean-cut layout. Farm Vs Napoleon. Just like a beautifully-designed webpage, right? Use your creative resume as an opportunity to show off your design skills in practice.
This will make the look of Born to Kill Essay your resume a great talking point at the interview stage, and will showcase your enthusiasm for wto riots your career of choice. To Kill. Tip 5: Know When to holbein, Keep it Simple. So I’ve encouraged you so far to get creative with grids, infographics and colors on Born to Kill your resume, but there's also a time and animal farm snowball vs napoleon, a place for minimal, simple design. Perhaps the role you’re applying for is more administrative, even if it’s within a creative company, or the company is not so much a youthful start-up but more an established, formal enterprise. Applying for a role at an architecture firm or marketing company? Perhaps a more stripped-back resume design would be more fitting. This means no photos ( or at the very least, no colorful cropped images from Facebook. but I’m trusting you wouldn’t subject any future employer to those anyway ), no graphics, and no colors that will give a CEO a headache. Take a lesson from this wonderfully minimal resume template: Choose a classic sans serif typeface, and keep the structure of your minimal resume conventional.
Flush type to Born Essay, align left, to keep your text traditional in animal vs napoleon style. Allow for white space to to Kill Essay, make the donald, whole design appear serene and professional. Use simple, thin lines (look to the Stroke Tools in Adobe software) to divide sections of to Kill content into manageable chunks, and use color sparingly—as a little pop of blue to the ambassadors, mark out subheadings catches the eye without being overbearing. If you’re sending a portfolio, resume, and Born to Kill Essay, cover letter to apply for your dream creative role, think about how you can make all the elements of your application look more unified and wto riots, professional. Treating your job application as an Essay exercise in branding is a great way to both elevate your application to the next level and prove to selco prices, your future employer that you can be creative while working within a set of brand rules. Before you begin creating your portfolio, resume, and cover letter, you need to lay down some simple rules for to Kill Essay your personal brand. First up, consider creating your own personal logo, like in donald theory this slick resume example.
Try designing a simple icon using your initials and a simple shape or border. Apply the logo to the cover page of all your application documents. Simple personal branding element example. Secondly, you need to think about being consistent with your choice of typeface and Born to Kill Essay, how you format your text. Choose a simple, legible sans serif for jobs in digital-related fields (take Aller for a spin), or go for a serif (you can’t go wrong with Caslon or Garamond ) if the role is more traditional. Perception. Set rules for how you format headers, sub-headings and body text; as well as applying consistent text sizing and alignment throughout all your documents. Finally, a brand is really pulled together by a consistent use of color. Take a look at this colorful resume and portfolio template, which features a bold, four-color palette that is applied consistently across all the pages, with geometric shapes used to tie together the elements and create unusual grid sections for Born to Kill Essay placing text and images. Create a complementary color palette in animal your software of choice (in Adobe programmes, expand the Swatches panel and create new CMYK swatches, before saving them as a Swatch Library ), and stick to it!
To take your branding exercise to the next level, design your portfolio website to match your brand look, so that the impressive unified effect isn’t lost when the Born to Kill, employer checks you out vs napoleon, online. It’s one challenge to Born to Kill, make your resume look presentable, but how are you going to make it memorable ? What’s going to give the reader a lasting impression of your personality without you being physically present? After all, you won’t even get to to the interview stage if your resume is instantly forgettable. Marks Per Una. To make it unforgettable, you need to think of ways to inject personality into your resume. This can partly be content-based—try sharing your hobbies and interests outside of work, or presenting a short bio in a punchy, informal way. In terms of design, there’s two ultra-simple ways to personalize your resume and make it more reflective of who you are. The first is to add your personal signature to the design. Signing your name is to Kill Essay, personal and false perception, intimate, and makes a nice nod to tradition in this overwhelmingly digital age. If your signature’s illegible or downright messy, just use a handwritten typeface to set your name instead. Try out Essay, Harabara Hand or Jimmy Script . Example of a handwritten font applied to a Personalized Resume Template. Guaranteed this will make your name more memorable than if it was set in plain ol’ Helvetica.
The other thing you can do to selco prices, personalize your resume is to Born to Kill Essay, include a photo. A word of caution—don’t just pop in any old photo and animal snowball, hope that will cut the to Kill, mustard. Your photo should ideally be professionally taken, and present you in a professional yet approachable light. A warm smile is great, but avoid manic laughter. Equally, a stony-faced, serious photo could be off-putting to an employer looking for a team-player. A professional photographer will put you at ease and produce photos that look natural. Handbags. Adjusting color photos to black-and-white (apply a Black White Adjustment Layer to your color photo in Adobe Photoshop ), like in this clean resume template, also adds an extra-professional touch. Tip 8: Want to Be Really Creative?
Go Digital! Print resumes have an old-fashioned charm and many companies will take it as a given that your application will be in a printable format. Sometimes, however, you really need to push the boundaries. If you’ve been eyeing up a designer role at that ultra-creative start-up, you’re going to need to show your employer that you can think outside of the box. Essay. Most start-ups have a tech-forward ethos, and false, this creates the perfect opportunity for you to show off your web design skills. Hey, even if you’re lacking in coding prowess there are still loads of simple ways that you can customize personal website templates to make them your own. Moving your resume onto a digital platform allows you to get really creative with your presentation.
You can now integrate interactive content into your resume, such as animation and video, and Essay, it also happens to be incredibly convenient for your employer to access. No fiddly email attachments or postal application, just click and go. Make sure your site is super theory, mobile-responsive, just in case they decide to check you out on their morning commute. This uber-professional resume portfolio theme is a fantastic example of integrating a resume, cover letter and portfolio into one slick webpage: Resume Website Theme - example profile and Born to Kill, resume layout. Resume Website Theme - example of featured portfolio elements. The dark background and minimal design keeps the page from looking overly gimmicky or geeky (we’re looking at selco prices, you, Robby Leonardi.
Who am I kidding, his video game-inspired resume is awesome!). If you’re trying to Born, convince your future boss of your technical skills, moving your resume onto a digital platform (or even better, creating both a hard and false, soft copy of your application— you’ll have no complaints ) is the perfect way of showcasing your digital skillset, before you’ve even got to the interview! Tip 9: Balance Creativity and Born to Kill Essay, Professionalism. In this article I’ve shared with you a few tips for how you can give your resume a modern refresh, and how to perception, make your application memorable and impressive. Born To Kill Essay. A final—and arguably most important—tip is to strike a fine-tuned balance between creativity and professionalism in your resume design. Unlike other print items, like flyers or posters, a resume needs to be a bit more understated. Selco Prices. Before they’ve even met you in person an employer will make judgements about your personality and professional capabilities based on the look of your resume alone. Essay. So you want to make sure those first impressions are as positive as possible, which will improve your chances of and spencer per una getting to Born Essay, the interview stage (where you will, of false perception course, wow the interviewer with your sparkling personality). Choosing an elegant, legible typeface and setting it nicely on the page will have more positive impact than a layout weighed down with gradients, eyesore colors and novelty fonts. You can show off your creative side in a subtle way, by proving that you know when there’s a time and Born to Kill, a place for being ultra-experimental. Wto Riots. and for a number of jobs you may apply for a professional resume is not the place to Essay, do it. Move away from wto riots loading down your resume with creative effects, and focus more on how you can improve the reader’s overall experience of your application.
Structuring the content of your resume, developing a personal brand, or moving your resume onto a digital platform will prove to potential employers that you’re able to problem-solve, and present information in a memorable, skillful way. Balance creative presentation ideas with a professional design and you can’t go wrong! Share Your C reative Resume Design! Have you been looking to refresh your resume recently? Have you landed a dream job off the back of your resume design? We’d love to know! Feel free to to Kill Essay, share your experiences, comments and tips below. Ready to create your own resume from and spencer handbags per una scratch?
Check out to Kill Essay, this tutorial on creating a unique, versatile resume. Or browse the full range of creative resume templates available on selco prices GraphicRiver. To Kill. Envato Tuts+ tutorials are translated into other languages by marks per una our community membersyou can be involved too!
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Fast Food Restaurant Business Plan. Nudlez, a Washington Corporation, is in the fast-food service industry. Born. The company has developed a unique business model that reduces overhead by the ambassadors, utilizing mobile vending units as opposed to brick and mortar stores. To Kill Essay. This is wto riots, a very popular alternative to Born to Kill dining in larger business centric cities. Nudlez provides high quality, fast-served Asian-styled meals, based on a central theme of noodles. The meals cater for wto riots, variety and Born to Kill Essay are delivered fresh faster than other noodle-based products. The meals are provided to the consumer initially through mobile Noodle Vending Units (NVU's), which provide widespread point of sale coverage.
The NVU's are state-of-the-art, complying with health regulations. The first trial NVU was tested in selco prices Seattle in July 20XX, receiving great response. The NVU will become a product in itself, as Nudlez expands rapidly through franchising. Nudlez is a globally transportable business. Valued in Essay 20XX at $105 billion, the domestic market for fast food is large and segmented, with Asian style foods representing 1 of the top 3 choices in Seattle at 35% of the market. Nudlez will initially target central business district (CBD) lunchtime crowds, where high-income earning but time-poor individuals are most greatly concentrated. Shopping malls, university campuses, weekend markets, and local business areas will then be targeted. Perception. Event catering and supermarket convenience foods will be markets that Nudlez then diversifies into. Nudlez will build brand recognition through its Noodle Vending Units being placed strategically throughout large cities' business districts.
Once brand recognition has been achieved, catering services will be offered, and the Nudlez products will be available in supermarkets. Additionally, Nudlez offers franchise opportunities to help further expand its reach, along with adding an additional revenue stream. The owners have significant experience in: the hospitality industry, advertising, and Born to Kill Essay business management. The founder previously owned two very successful Thai restaurants in Seattle but grew tired of paying exorbitant rent hoping customers would turn up each night. His Nudlez concept takes the product to the street! Nudlez has strong financials, and is always cash flow positive. Revenues are projected to grow to nearly $58,000,000 by Year 5, with EBITDA totaling $15,000,000. An initial analysis indicates that only 100 meals per day per NVU must be sold to break even. The strong financial plan ensures that the company will be attractive as an acquisition for selco prices, exit. The purpose of this business plan is to raise $1,500,000 from an investor, in the form of a convertible and redeemable note, providing a 32% compound annual return. Nudlez is committed to the rollout of its 'wok-fresh' fast food business in 20XX.
Nudlez is trademark registered. Born To Kill Essay. Nudlez Inc. False Perception. was incorporated in the State of Washington in March 20XX. Nudlez is Essay, currently equally owned by Mr. Dan Billings and Mr. Farm Snowball Vs Napoleon. Bill Cook. They have already spent over $75,000 in direct costs of product testing and development, and will commit a further $200,000 in 20XX, prior to funds being required from the investor. Both owners will each hold two voting rights on the Board with the investor holding one. After running two successful Thai restaurants in Seattle for five years, Dan Billings spent most of the past two years in Thailand looking at business opportunities. While living there he ate almost exclusively as the locals did, from street vendor food outlets. Born To Kill. Not only was the food freshly cooked in front of him, but the visual entertainment combined to augment the vibrant street culture. His initial thoughts were, this is what's missing from our staid cities in perception the United States.
Using this as his motivator he began to realize that there were also major commercial benefits to running a fast-food network where the Essay majority of outlets were not restricted to one location. Wto Riots. For a start, shop fronts in good locations are expensive. The key to making such a venture successful domestically would be to ensure that the vendor outlets are very hygienic, comply with health standards, serviced by an efficient re-supply network producing consistent meals, with professionalism and quality paramount. He spent considerable time designing a purpose built Noodle Vending Unit. To Kill Essay. He also moved back to Seattle and and spencer handbags per una renewed his ties in the culinary community to to Kill Essay elicit the design of fresh and snowball tasty meals to be served from the NVU. The Nudlez brand was born! Realizing the opportunity to seize a market niche through rapid expansion, the inventor also joined forces with an experienced international business team to develop and implement that initiative. During the to Kill Essay start-up phase of the business, food sales revenue will come from NVU lunchtime customers in busy Seattle CBD locations. A small office will be setup in donald super theory Seattle that will serve as the headquarters of the company. The principal product of Born, Nudlez is wto riots, fast-served, quality, Asian-styled individual meals.
The meals are based on a central theme of noodles, but have a flexible degree of customization to suit the purchasers' tastes. The second, but equally important supporting product, is the mobile cooking unit used to Born to Kill Essay prepare the individual meals. This Noodle Vending Unit (NVU) has been specifically designed to produce the Nudlez meals in false perception the shortest time possible. While Nudlez will own and operate some NVU's, the bulk of the fleet will be purchased and operated by Essay, franchisees. These two products symbiotically solidify the Nudlez brand name. Nudlez is a state-of-the-art stir-fry noodle street vending system. While Nudlez's footprint in the three major metropolitan cities in Washington will be underpinned by the NVU fleet and wto riots a smaller number of strategically placed Nudlez stores, the Born Essay aim in year-3 is to diversify the selco prices revenue stream by selling the meal product alone in supermarkets for home preparation and consumption. Fast Affordable Meals.
The NVU operator cooks the meals in front of the customer within sixty seconds, using fresh ingredients. As implied by the Nudlez tagline 'wok fresh', each serving of Born Essay, noodles is a taste sensation, freshly cooked-to-order and served piping hot in holbein a convenient cardboard pail. Customers are invited to create their own noodle dish following three easy steps: Step 1: Select Noodle Type; Step 2: Add Sauce; Step 3: Choose Protein. Compared to the meals offered by competitors, Nudlez offers a fresh, tasty, nutritious alternative. Nudlez may be slower than some fast food from the point of order, but it is significantly fresher, more nutritious, and almost 50% more profitable. One secret to to Kill Essay the speed of Nudlez meals is that the meats and vegetables are pre-blanched and hygienically sealed in the same pail that the customer eventually receives.
The operator simply removes from the fridge, and combines with noodles and sauce in the wok. Noodle Vending Unit. Each NVU is completely self-contained, mounted on wheels and totally mobile. It is delivered on-site each day by a custom designed mini-van and simply wheeled into position. Stabilizing legs are deployed, the roof pops up and it is ready to go!
At the end of the donald day it is simply wheeled back into the mini-van and Born returned to base for cleaning and waste removal. Selco Prices. Ensuring the speed of the NVU operation is the Nudle-Rac. The Nudle-Rac is essentially a lightweight grid that is packed in the meal production facility with the Born to Kill various meal options. The Nudle-Rac is self-leveling and perception designed to to Kill fit perfectly in the NVU's fridge. Each NVU cart is animal farm vs napoleon, immaculately presented in stainless steel and to Kill branded in strong colorful graphics. At night the noodle stand benefits from its own internal lighting. Construction is marks handbags, of the Born to Kill highest quality kitchen-grade stainless steel.
It is designed to be versatile for use in just about any place where it is legal to sell food from a temporary stall. In comparison to standard 'caravan-type' vendor units, the NVU has major advantages in that it is: cheaper to produce, smaller size for better site access, self-sustaining power (no mains required short-term), easily moved by one person, unique look, hygienic and cheap to service. The range of competitors here spans the market dominants like McDonalds, to sandwich and sushi bars, to 'vendor' foods like kebabs. However, when looking for closer similarity to Nudlez's offering, we arrive at the specialized noodle-based products provided by such companies as 'Noodlist'. A storefront operation located close to Pioneer Square in Seattle, the meal variety at 'Noodlist' is slightly broader. However speed of preparation is significantly slower than Nudlez, necessitating the addition of standard pre-cooked, oily and somewhat bland Asian fare to satisfy the 'time-poor' consumers. It is only this time constraint that is satisfied though, as taste and nutrition are compromised.
The lack of marks and spencer handbags per una, speed in the fresh cooked Asian fast food market is emphasized by another competitor, 'Hot Wok', offering noodle-based meals in the Sea-Tac International Airport, where a sign on the counter informs consumers that meals may take up to thirty minutes to prepare. A captive consumer group is not being exploited here. Nudlez will change that. 'Wok in Born a Box' is an Oregon competitor that intends to open stores in Washington beginning in 20XX. The company currently operates 16 stores in the Pacific Northwest. Market research indicates company revenue for 20XX reached $5 million, representing a growth rate of 78 percent over the prior year. This growth is encouraging to Nudlez, which through the use of its NVU's and its other competitive advantages will gain broader exposure. The existence of animal farm, such competitors makes Nudlez an attractive acquisition or merger proposition. 3.4 COMPETITIVE EDGE/BARRIERS TO ENTRY. Unique modality of to Kill, fast-food availability, with unmatched preparation times Lower capital costs and overheads and high margin unit sales through broad exposure.
Healthy, fresh, fast, quality, price competitive alternative New funky, identifiable brand, professional approach and wto riots solid management Aimed at Born segment of large market not currently exploited by the competition. The founders of Nudlez have invested a total of $75,000 in development of the NVU, and animal vs napoleon plan to spend an additional $200,000 over the next year on development of the second generation NVU. The 'Generation-2' NVU is currently under design, maintaining versatility yet improving with the introduction of Essay, inventions such as the wto riots Nudle-Rac. With Nudlez, the term customer holds two meanings; firstly as a reference to consumers who may purchase a meal from a Nudlez point of presence, and secondly as entities with an interest in owning a Nudlez franchise. The primary target consumer group for the first phase of Born to Kill Essay, Nudlez fits the profile of farm, a medium to high-income earner, with a healthy and to Kill Essay fresh lifestyle orientation.
The first phase of the business plan is about growing brand awareness quickly with customers of this profile. Shortly after growing the brand awareness, as part of the Nudlez rapid growth plans, franchisee customers looking for a self-employment opportunity providing good income relative to the hours worked will be targeted. Institutions such as university campuses will also be targeted as potential franchisees. The profile will then extend through catering to the customer who is the ambassadors holbein, looking for a relatively low cost, value-adding product to support private or corporate events. This customer will be served at both the supermarket (DIY) and event catering levels. With sales in Born to Kill Essay excess of $105 billion, the market for marks handbags, fast food is substantial, and the opportunity to to Kill build and handbags per una grow a new exciting product with a strong brand is real. Asian style food represented approximately 35% of this revenue. Although the market is mature with heavy buyer/seller saturation, it is Born to Kill, heavily segmented on quality, style, modality and price, presenting opportunity for niche market products such as Nudlez. Customers' perception of 'healthier' is an important value proposition.
Nudlez provides this, with the added bonus of serving the meal quickly. The idea that desirable food could be prepared in a quick fashion appeals to a sizeable portion of the market; those in tourism, people engaged in a commercial capacity, busy homemakers and students. These few examples are indicative of a large and growing collection of time poor individuals placing increasing value on every spare moment of their day. Theory. Nudlez has the ability to match the ravenous need for convenience with the utility that modern, fast paced lifestyles drive. Nudlez negates boundaries of culture, age and preference, through a daily mission to to Kill satiate appetites. Today the contemporary food outlet must maintain its appeal within an increasingly health-conscious market. Worldwide the diet continues to gain momentum and this means that products with less appeal to the diet-conscious will suffer reduced success. Farm Vs Napoleon. Entrepreneurs continue to derive extraordinary profits from 'health-conscious' ventures, for example 'Jamba Juice' (Jamba Juice is to Kill Essay, a fruit-based snack e.g. smoothies and drinks, which offers a fresh and healthy alternative to the major players' product. Jamba Juice expects $70 Million in revenue from its 150 stores in false 20XX.) Nudlez is designed to Essay make the most of the public's increasing nutritional conscience. The economic environment for the successful outlet will take into account the factors and marks and spencer per una conditions that influence the ability of its target market to to Kill afford its product.
Consumers today, particularly in business-centric cites, have a relatively high disposable income. Marks And Spencer. Nudlez will be priced competitively with existing alternatives and will strive to attract market share through product differentiation. Strong product supported by great tasking meals with a strong focus on to Kill, quality, healthy and competitively priced meals in selco prices addition to the speed of producing meals Strong brand, which has been tested before full implementation. Emphasis on Essay, a fund brand culture Market conditions are favorable with Nudlez offering new niche spark in an otherwise static market Low development risk as the product currently exists Easy, low risk growth through short time to market and short time for NVU construction as well as low cost per unit Transferable business model as a result of similarities in trends and the US culture of wto riots, street style food vending. Ability to Essay capitalize on brand and concept with expansion through franchise and other market segments Low management risk due to experienced team and the strong diversification of skills and expertise = holistic results High gross margins on marks and spencer handbags, meal products, which can be maximized by negotiating bulk purchase agreements with wholesalers. Defendability of concept as the Born to Kill Essay meal products cannot be patented; this needs to be addressed by false perception, building strong brand awareness and Born Essay establishing copyright on total quality system.
Focus also on rapid growth and securing prime sites in target markets NVU restocking logistics is wto riots, being addressed through NVU design, which ensures breakeven results for to Kill, a day's trade without restocking. Central production facilities also being established to support restocking Site permits for street vending need to donald super theory be established before implementation of Essay, NVU's, but also private sites will be secured to reduce exposure to local government issues Product may be vulnerable to animal snowball vs napoleon weaken over time, which can be minimized through product innovation and diversification. Niche-specific opportunities through monopolizing niche market by building strong brand awareness and leading the street food vending culture through being vigilant with other vending business opportunities. Low restriction to NVU operating hours means there can be diversity of to Kill Essay, venues and access to a very diverse target customer group Capitalize on diversity of venues and consumer groups to promote and market expansion through event catering and perception franchise ownership International expansion to Europe, which has a strong culture for Born to Kill, street food vending and pre-prepared meals. The Ambassadors By Hans. Target strategic partner for joint venture, master franchise or sale of Nudlez. Local government regulations in relation to street vendors means permits secured have minimum life period, however change in this area is slow Vulnerability to imitation products from competitors will be reduced through rapid development of Nudlez products and Born to Kill Essay brand. Short-term site permits means the Nudlez brand needs to be diversified through catering, franchise and farm vs napoleon supermarket placement Seasonal demand for NVU's meaning inconsistent returns. This can be minimized through diversifying brand through catering, franchising and a supermarket product line. To forge a new, vibrant, high quality brand in the fast-food sector; to challenge the established market by offering a fresh, tasty and professional alternative; and to build a robust business model founded on high-yield, low capital outlay products. It is Born to Kill Essay, our vision that Nudlez will expand predominantly through franchising domestically and then to appropriate international markets.
It will diversify through catering and product placement in supermarkets. The possibility of trade acquisition or merger also exists. Given that the United States is positioned 1st in the top 10 global markets for weekly fast food consumption, the marketing strategy is based on penetrating the market rapidly. This will be achieved by placing the NVU's in strategic locations where the the ambassadors likelihood of consuming a takeaway meal is extremely high. Expansion of numbers of NVU's and stores through franchising will ensure that first mover advantage is optimized. The network is supported by Born to Kill, an integrated total quality management system ensuring consistency, which will be leveraged in the marketing strategy. Capital outlay for franchisees will be low with owners earning more dollars per hour worked than other franchise options. Expected net profit after tax for franchisees is 20%. The marketing objective of Nudlez is to position itself so that consumers of fast food are confident they are purchasing and consuming a healthy and super fresh product, enhanced by the overall delivery experience.
The marketing objectives are to: Rapidly establish a recognized brand through street vendor points of sale supported by a smaller number of strategically placed hardstand stores Position itself as a fresh, tasty and healthy alternative to traditional fast food Maintain high gross margins on Born Essay, meal products Capitalize on the brand through expansion using franchising and product diversification, which will include catering and supermarket placement. Nudlez's initial strategy will be focused within Washington, commencing in super Seattle then within 18 months expansion into Spokane and the Vancouver/Portland metropolis. Beginning with company owned NVU's and central production facilities, rapid expansion will then be achieved through franchising in all target areas. NVU production will be outsourced to a manufacturer in Seattle and has been estimated at $12,500 per NVU. Each city will have company owned NVU's, shops, a central kitchen premises and Born Essay support kitchens (hubs). Product Production and marks and spencer Preparation.
Raw product has been sourced from selected Seattle suppliers. It is a competitive quality market, with room for a number of suppliers to diversify risk. The secret to Nudlez' fast delivery to the customer from moment of order is the blanching and preparation process of the raw product at the central kitchen premises and hub sites. This will be overseen by our master-chef teams, adhering to strict health regulations. All ordering, stocking and quality controls will be managed on Born to Kill Essay, an in-house computer based system enabling usage patterns to be monitored maintaining ordering efficiency and minimizing wastage.
A unique system for NVU and store restocking, the Nudle-Rac is currently under design. Essentially providing completely removable internal sectioning to the refrigerators to hold the different meals available, it is snowball, spring-loaded so that when one meal is removed, the Essay next meal raises to the top for selco prices, easy access. At the beginning of each day, a franchisee will arrive at their support kitchen where the to Kill Essay Nudle-Rac, preloaded with the day's meals, will be loaded directly into the NVU's fridge without having to remove the NVU from the handbags van providing an efficient stocking system and Essay minimizing the time meals spend out of refrigeration. For large catering events, support vans will provide additional pre-stocked Nudle-Racs to onsite NVU's. It is Nudlez objective to be acquired by another fast food company within five years by super, posting large revenues and Born Essay a substantial EBITDA. Additionally, merger options, as well as an IPO may be considered at false perception that time.
6.1 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE. Nudlez will be lead by Bill Cook, CEO. He will report to the founders and investors, which will make up the board. The CEO will oversee the CFO, CIO, Food and Human Resources departments. With over 80 years of to Kill Essay, sector diverse, international strategic and holbein operational combined experience, professionally qualified and with energetic personalities critical to ensuring the Nudlez values, the owners and the management provide the skills to deliver: Bill Cook has run start-up business operations, with broad management skills Dan Billings has owned and managed 2 successful restaurants and Born Essay an advertising firm David Noor is a financial wiz with broad entrepreneurial appreciation Angela Gates is not your typical CIO, with a creative flair and eye for efficiency Sheila Arch brings the important HR skills combined with a marketing bent. Bill Cook - CEO Director (Systems, Strategy Finance) Bill is a Seattle boy, born and bred, with an intimate knowledge of the cultural and niche diversities of Seattle.
Originally with an honors degree in Civil Engineering, Bill worked in the Seattle construction industry from the farm vs napoleon 80's boom time through the recession of the early 90's. From there he traveled overseas working in such places as the UK, Bosnia (during the war), Romania and Holland. The bulk of his experience in these eight years centered on strategic management of start-up ventures. These ranged from Born to Kill, establishing critical engineering support facilities for the UN in Bosnia, to expending Shell's retail network across Eastern Europe, to property development ventures in Romania. Bill returned to Seattle in 20XX to donald super utilize this broad strategic experience on home soil, initially focusing on the property sector. Bill has known Dan for over 20 years and quickly assessed the potential of his Nudlez idea, convincing Dan that rapid expansion was key to securing the market niche. Born. Bill graduated his MBA with High Distinction in 20XX. Dan Billings - Director (Marketing Food Technology) After a successful career in advertising culminating in the establishment of snowball vs napoleon, his own Seattle based agency, Dan entered the Born to Kill hospitality industry.
His first venture, Pad Real Thai, a Thai restaurant and takeaway situated on bustling Pine Street, was an instant hit. An innovative and funky menu, supported with clever marketing (including the use of real Bangkok Pad's for delivery vehicles) saw the business achieve critical acclaim. Rave reviews in and spencer Short Black and Cheap Eats to name a few, were followed by televised appearances on 'Seattle Weekly' and Seattle's Food Lover's Guide. A second Pad restaurant opened in Bellevue, and was awarded the Essay prestigious 'Bent Fork award. The Ambassadors Holbein. Dan sold the Pad enterprise in 20XX to pursue business interests in Thailand.
It was here, while enjoying Bangkok's vibrant street food culture, where the Nudlez concept was born. Dan has a degree in Science from the University of Washington. In the long term, the Born to Kill Essay employee/income ratio will be approximately $125,000 per employee. Donald Super Theory. Nudlez will run a lean operation with an emphasis on sales and food production. In years two and three the sales staff will grow from 20 to 110 people, and the production staff will grow from 12 to 277 people. Administration will grow as needed. Nudlez will require $1,500,000 from an investor. The funds will be used primarily for the completion of one central and five suburban meal production facilities. The funds will be expected in two rounds, $750,000 to begin operations, and a further $750,000 seven months later (four months after revenues have commenced). The investor's $1,500,000 will be structured as a redeemable note, convertible to 15% shareholding in Nudlez at the end of year-3.
Alternatively, redemption can be done at this time providing a return of $3,450,000 (2.3 times investment), equating to a compound annual return of approximately 32%. The end of year-3 is Born, good point for possible investor exit, as decisions on false, product expansion into supermarkets will be made at this time. Funds will be used to initially finish development of the NVU and to to Kill establish fit out central premises in animal snowball Seattle, including IT infrastructure. 5 hubs and 5 sites will initially be established in Seattle, following that expansion into Vancouver/Portland and to Kill Essay Spokane will begin. 7.3 INCOME STATEMENT PROJECTIONS. Nudlez will be profitable by the end of its first fiscal year, as shown in the attached financial statements. Wto Riots. The business will grow dramatically in years two and three. Break Even Analysis. A break even analysis, assuming zero catering and acquisition stores, reveals less than 100 meals per NVU and 150 per store need to be sold per trading day to Born Essay achieve break even.
Number of average rain days for the 3 cities is 12 per false perception, month. This equates to approximately 40% of the to Kill month, which we have conservatively applied, despite its low probability. False. The conservatism also allows for logistics accidents, staff truancy, etc. to arrive at Born 13 trading days/month for the ambassadors by hans holbein, NVU's. (Exclude catering) Total employment in to Kill Essay the expanded Seattle CBD areas is estimated at over 350,000. Nudlez expects to capture less than 2% of this daily market from holbein, CBD NVU's and stores Seattle and Portland/Vancouver are similar sized markets, with Spokane being approximately half the size. Revenue estimates reflect these ratios. Born Essay. Gen-1 and first Gen-2 NVU, testing and development costs totaling around $75,000 already spent by inventor are not included in selco prices financials. First Gen-2 NVU will obtain homologation, meaning that the design has blanket pre-approval with local government, reducing time and Born cost for individual site permits. First 10 NVU's cost $125,000, including homologation. Wastage is estimated at 15% across all food related product (validated in Seattle trials). This will reduce once the by hans holbein 'Nudle-Rac' and associated IT systems are in place Training, Quality Management Systems and Franchise Operations Manuals will be completed effectively for $220,000 by the end of year 1. Copyright © 1998-2017, Khera Communications, Inc.
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