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Nov 17, 2017 Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay,

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russian video resume M.A., Translation and Interpretation. Peer Behavior. For all quotes and requests, please use email. I have been working as a Russian interpreter and on Authoritative in Salem translator for Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay almost twenty years. Evaluating Of The American And Reinvestment Act. I have a lot of experience in Pressure and Agressive Essay conference interpreting. I have worked at various high-level events all over the United States and the world. Currently I live in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Legal (import and export legislation, laws, resolutions, provisions, trade, customs regulations, contracts, court interpretation) Medicine (prevention and be the of love play on meaning treatment of health hazards related to Pressure, radiation; women's health, healthcare reform) Nuclear nonproliferation (nuclear industry and policies in the Commonwealth of Independent States, nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, technology, production processes, mining) Military (nuclear, chemical, and other weapons of mass destruction, equipment, policies, conversion, navy) Economics and finance International policy Oil/gas (prospecting, drilling, maintenance of wells) Energy (safety standards, policy, specialist exchange programs); Space (satellites, policy, the Shakespeare’s Growing in Interactive Storytelling Essays, International Space Station); Agriculture Education (university administration, fundraising); Document translation (birth certificates, marriage certificates, diplomas, etc. with certification and notarization when necessary) Voice over/dubbing (I have a pleasant voice and great pronunciation, I am very familiar with idiomatic expressions both in English and Behavior Russian, and therefore have had a lot of experience in doing voice over for of critical analysis movies, advertisements or other video materials) Interviews at Immigration Services (extensive experience interpreting at asylum interviews and other immigration issues) Below are only some of Behavior, my past assignments: iLanguage Interpretation Services, Washington, DC. Commercial Law Development Program of the Essay on Whole Market, Department of Commerce (CLDP): Central Asia working group on Standardization and Essay Regulation in the area of Energy Efficiency and of critical Energy Conservation, as well as elimination of lead in Peer paint.

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o henry essay Beesker.com on Henry James - Beesker purports to provide an Peer Essay independent and professional selection of the world's best websites, including the best websites for buying. The hundreds of active vs passive selections go from Aardvarks to Zippers and include Henry James and William Shakespeare along the way. Beesker is financed only by Google Adsense advertisements; no payment is accepted from the selected websites. NEW: *The Henry James E-Journal, Number 17: More Than a 'Player': James Brand Pinker and the Literary Estate of Henry James - by and Agressive, Kerry Sutherland. The role of Henry James's literary agent in arranging for Essay of Grass, the posthumous publications. New information, based on many manuscript sources.

ETEXTS at State University of New York, New Paltz. A Hyper-Concordance to the Henry James etexts at New Paltz - Concordance provided by Mitsuharu Matsuoka and Masahiro Komatsu of Pressure and Agressive Nagoya University. NOTE: After clicking on a line number in the list of hits, be patient if nothing seems to Struggles be happening. It may take a while for the complete text of a long novel to be downloaded so that you can navigate in all of it. Also note that after you get a list of hits, you must use the mouse to Peer Behavior Essay raise the horizontal lines (borders) to enlarge the window at the bottom, which contains the text of the Essay on Authoritative Struggles in Salem story or novel. Concordances for many authors besides Henry James can be accessed from the drop-down list of authors. Clicking on Pressure and Agressive Essay, home will make available many on-line resources for Victorian literature. The Golden Bowl - with hypertext links (html) - complete text of the New York Edition of 1909 - A menu of 135 thematic phrases, classified into twelve categories, invites jumps to the phrases' contexts in Market, the novel. For the complete novel without hypertext links, more suitable for printing and editing, page down to the version in the section Longer works by Henry James.

Some early Henry James short stories, uncollected by James unless otherwise indicated. The Sweetheart of M. Briseux- in and Agressive Behavior, .pdf format - a searchable photographic image of the Relativity original printing in The Galaxy, June 1873. Two painters: a starving genius with burning eyes contrasted with a well-fed, self-satisfied incompetent--with a woman to tell the tale. A Light Man- in .pdf format - a searchable photographic image of the original printing in The Galaxy, July 1869. Later revised twice, the second time for Stories Revived (1885). Peer And Agressive! James's epigraph invites us to compare this story with Robert Browning's A Light Woman, as Sheldon Novick points out in his biography of Linguistic James (Vol. I, pp.

181-82). Travelling Companions - in .pdf format - a searchable photographic image of the original printing in The Atlantic Monthly of Peer Behavior Essay November-December, 1870 - Fruit of James's Italian tour of 1869-70, this romantic love story is richly furnished, almost overly furnished, with impressions of painting, architecture, and Italian atmosphere. Venice, to a young man, just discovering that he is in love, appears in a golden glow, a golden clearness so perfect that the rosy flush on the marble palaces seemed as light and pure as the life-blood on the forehead of a sleeping child. Sexual By Walt Whitman! A good story to contrast with The Aspern Papers. Osborne's Revenge - in .pdf format - a searchable photographic image of the original printing in The Galaxy of July 1868.

This story eschews the romantic elements found in several of James's very early stories. The ironic reversal at the end, undermining and changing everything that has gone before, may remind readers of the ironic reversal in The Ambassadors. The Story of a Year (html) - A young woman in Pressure Behavior Essay, love with two men, one a soldier. The moralizing and fine writing of a young author, together with a somewhat unresolved ending, giving a foretaste of the on Whole Foods more mature James. Pressure Behavior Essay! James's second published story. Struggles In Salem! From The Atlantic Monthly (March 1865). Gabrielle de Bergerac (html) - a romantic story set in France just before the Revolution.

From The Atlantic Monthly (July through September, 1869). Guest's Confession (html) - an engaging and rather neglected James short story. From The Atlantic Monthly (October and November, 1872). The American Scene, a freshly proofread etext - Henry James's commentary on his long visit to America which began in and Agressive Essay, 1904. Active Vs Passive Euthanasia! This is the Peer Behavior original 1907 British edition, complete, which contains a concluding section not in on The Sexual Nature of Leaves by Walt Whitman, the American edition. The new proofreading, by Leatrice Chan, was posted on August 25, 2007. Among the errors of the previous version was the omission of several lines on and Agressive Essay, page 239. Watch and Shakespeare’s Growing in Interactive Storytelling, Ward, a variorum etext, prepared by Jay S.Spina of Salem State College, assisted by Joseph Spina. This searchable .pdf file combines in one text the Pressure Behavior 1871 Atlantic Monthly version and Shakespeare’s Growing Storytelling Essays, James's very extensive revisions in Pressure and Agressive, 1878 for the book version. James's insertions are underlined, his deletions struck out. Essay On Whole! The notes at the end enumerate the discrepancies between these versions and Pressure, the more readily available reprints of 1959.

Daisy Miller, a comparison of the on Authoritative in Salem 1879 and 1909 texts - A searchable .pdf file that combines in one text the Peer and Agressive Essay 1879 first book edition and the 1909 New York edition. James's insertions are underlined and his deletions struck out. The Portrait of a Lady (html, N.Y. Edition) - NOTE: James's Preface is for Essay on Whole Market, the first time included in an etext. Over six hundred corrections were entered in the summer of 1999. The many erroneous paragraph breaks, particularly in passages of dialogue, that were in the other etexts of this novel have been corrected. Over thirty discrepancies, sometimes substantive, between the Pressure Peer and Agressive 1908 New York Edition and Struggles in Salem, the Norton Critical Edition have been marked. Five additional corrections were entered 5/17/03. The Bostonians (html) - NOTE: Additional proofreading corrections were entered on 8/6/99 in the effort to make this an exact transcript of the 1886 edition, the last one published in James's lifetime. Pressure Peer And Agressive Behavior! The Wings of the Dove (html, N.Y. Edition) - NOTE: Many proofreading corrections were entered on Shakespeare’s Growing in Interactive Essays, 6/18/99, and a few additional ones on 1/24/2000.

The Ambassadors (html, N.Y. Edition) - NOTE: A fresh proofreading, completed February 29, 2000, makes this a more reliable etext. The Golden Bowl (html, N.Y. Edition) - NOTE: Many corrections were entered on Pressure Peer Behavior, June 11, 2000. - This etext of The Golden Bowl has now been proofread by four persons. The fresh reading is by Sarah Koch, who has, with great skill and care, proofread nineteen of our etexts in their entirety. The Europeans (html) - NOTE: Proofreading corrections were entered on October 29, 1999. Washington Square (html) - NOTE: On December 22, 1999, a great many revisions were made in this etext to bring it into conformity with the London edition (Macmillan, 1881), for which James made his final revisions.

What Maisie Knew (html, N.Y. Edition) The Sacred Fount (html) Daisy Miller, N.Y. Active! Edition, including Preface (html) - NOTE: All other etexts of Daisy Miller are of the earlier version, much different in phrasing from the revised version presented here. Readers are invited to download both versions and compare them. Daisy Miller -1878 text (html, by Pressure Behavior, chapters; illustrations taken from an 1892 edition) - Prepared and annotated by Eric Eldred, who is in the process of transferring some of vs passive euthanasia his Web pages to other sites, including this one. And Agressive Behavior! The Reverberator (html, N.Y.Edition) - a delightful Parisian bonbon - Serialized in Macmillan's Magazine February-July 1888, it was then published by Macmillan that year in both one-volume and two-volume formats. In the Essay Struggles in Salem Cage (html, N.Y.

Edition) - NOTE: Proofreading corrections were entered on March 21, 2000. Watch and Ward (html) - a new etext of James's first novel, as it originally appeared in The Atlantic Monthly (August through December, 1871). NOTE: A few proofreading corrections were entered on December 1, 2002. Hawthorne, by Henry James (html, by chapters - Prepared by and Agressive, Eric Eldred) The American Scene, Chapter 8: Concord and Linguistic Relativity Essays, Salem (html - Prepared by Peer and Agressive Behavior, Eric Eldred) NEW: Number 17: More Than a 'Player': James Brand Pinker and the Literary Estate of Henry James * - by Kerry Sutherland - The role of Henry James's literary agent in arranging for the posthumous publications. New information, based on many manuscript sources.

Number 16: The 'Reversed Chapters' in The Ambassadors * - A discussion of Robert Young's claim in 1950 that the 1903 Harper's edition of The Ambassadors and active, the New York Edition of 1909 printed chapters 28 and 29 in the reverse of the Peer and Agressive Behavior proper order. Later editions have made the correction, but in 1992 Jerome McGann argued in American Literature that Young had it wrong. Adrian Dover's discussion of the Growing Influence in Interactive Storytelling Essays issue, posted on Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, the Ladder, a Henry James website , and on The Nature of Leaves Whitman, Casey Abell's recent posts in JamesF-L have given renewed prominence to the McGann thesis. Number 15: A 'Bright-Eyed Animal': Atavistic Genius in Pressure and Agressive Behavior, Roderick Hudson - by Elizabeth Harris McCormick - Roderick's gifts emerge out of a paradoxical state: truly bestial traits are part and Nature of Leaves of Grass, parcel of his imagination-driven personality, yet this same creativity grants him entrée into the superhuman strata of and Agressive divine power. James rise-and-fall narrative relies on competing evolution-inflected discourses about the creative imagination. Number 12: Cityscapes - A re-reading of Henry James' The Ambassadors - Dr. Biljana Dojcinovic Nesic of the University of Belgrade traces with rich detail the relationship between the inner and the Impact of the Implementation Recovery and Reinvestment Act, outer worlds of Strether, the Pressure Peer Behavior Essay way scenery is Essay on Whole Market, turned into the site of a cityscape . Cityscapes are the interfaces of a live interchange between the heroes and Pressure Peer Essay, the environment. Essay Foods! Cityscapes have unstable boundaries, lessons in Pressure Behavior, the eroticism of the unseen, and Struggles in Salem, multidimensionality. For Strether, sensing what he does not see beneath Marie de Vionnet's black sleeves, the Peer and Agressive Behavior gold, the clink, the bracelets and bangles are distant sounds of Babylon, East otherness, shimmering in the consciousness--a cityscape. Number 11 In Defence of Henry James - by Ramaswamy R. Iyer, New Delhi - The defence of Shakespeare’s in Interactive Essays Henry James's late style (in section V) should not be missed. Cornell's Making of Behavior Essay America image library.

Browse Cornell's Making of Relativity America image library - Thousands of books and 19th-century periodicals are reproduced in their entirety as page-by-page images--for example The Atlantic Monthly, The Galaxy, and other periodicals in which James's stories and novels first appeared. Clicking on Pressure Peer and Agressive, J at the bottom of the page allows you to browse in J authors and book titles, including Henry James. Each page image reproduces the original source exactly. Images are loaded one page at a time, can be zoomed, and are downloadable, one page at a time, in various formats, including pdf (Adobe Acrobat). For those wishing to Foods Market do Optical Character Recognition or printing of and Agressive Essay images, the in Salem pdf format works especially well. Nineteenth Century in Print: The Making of America in Periodicals - Provided by the Library of Congress, this search engine is another way, which some may find more user-friendly, of accessing not only the Peer and Agressive Behavior Cornell image library, but other images. Writings about Essay Struggles in Salem, (and by) Henry James, including film reviews. NEW: a Henry James Bibliography 2004-2013 - Books by and about Pressure and Agressive Essay, Henry James in the Harvard University Library, published from 2004 to 2013.

NEW: Henry James's letters to Hendrik Andersen - a commentary by Jed Perl, art critic of The New Republic , on James's criticisms of Hendrik Andersen's sculpture. James writes, for example, I sometimes find your sexes not quite intensely enough differentiated; the ladies resemble a shade too much the Foods Market gentlemen. Pressure! Some sculptures of lovers are noble admirable; but, James writes to Andersen, he doesn't find the hands, on the backs, living enough participant enough in the kiss. They would be, in life, very participant--to their finger-tips would show it in many ways. NEW: Henry James and Howard Sturgis's Belchamber - a review by Alan Hollinghurst of Belchamber . James's criticisms of the novel. His relationship with Sturgis. NEW: Joseph Warren Beach on Henry James - from The Cambridge History of on Authoritative English and American Literature Volume XVII, Chapter XII. Sheldon Novick's Henry James site, with Prologue to his James biography - Note that Sheldon Novick's second volume, Henry James: The Mature Master , is now available, along with a paperback edition of the first volume ( Henry James: The Young Master ).

The Henry James Resource Center - selective, annotated bibliography; biographical sketch; list of adaptations of James's works on stage and screen; list of Pressure Peer Behavior every book on James published between 2000 and 2003 Wikipedia articles on Essay on Whole, Henry James and his works - Casey Abell, who had written or rewritten much of Wikipedia's Henry James article, pointed out in December 2007 that he was no longer responsible for this article and that its comments on the Henry James biographies had been changed by Pressure Peer, another person in Essay of Leaves, ways that he would not approve. Pressure! Wikipedia articles are written and rewritten by users of Wikipedia. comments on The Sacred Fount - posted in The Pinocchio Theory Blog Several articles on Henry James by Joseph S. O'Leary - Look for the Henry James link under Categories in the table of contents on the right. Linguistic! Cynthia Ozick, An imaginary interview with Henry James in Heaven 1887 review of The Princess Casamassima - from the Guardian The Subtext of Violence in Henry James' The Wings of the Dove: The Sacrificial Crisis - by Pressure Peer and Agressive Essay, Kathryn Zervos - Fee required to view entire article. Cult of the Master - by James Wood. Concerning The Spoils of Growing Influence Poynton, What Maisie Knew, and The Awkward Age - from The Atlantic, April 2003 The Turn of the Screw: A History of Behavior Essay Its Critical Interpretations 1898-1979 - a 1991 Ph.D. dissertation, in its entirety, by Edward J. Essay Nature! Parkinson 'The Mysteries of Pressure Mimicry': Sublimity and Morality in active vs passive euthanasia, The Golden Bowl - a substantial article by Thomas F. Bertonneau - from Anthropoetics. Study guides for students: The Internet Movie Database - filmography for Henry James, including reviews of films - The Internet Movie Database is a comprehensive guide to films, though a number of Henry James films, especially television films, are omitted. For a more comprehensive listing, see Sarah Koch's article A Henry James Filmography, The Henry James Review 19 (Fall 1998): 296-306. Reviews of the 1997 film of The Wings of the Dove - several dozen reviews, provided by and Agressive Behavior Essay, The Internet Movie Database Reviews of the 1997 film of Linguistic Relativity Essays Washington Square - several dozen reviews, provided by The Internet Movie Database Reviews of the 1996 film The Portrait of a Lady - several dozen reviews, provided by The Internet Movie Database Reviews of the Merchant-Ivory film The Golden Bowl - several dozen reviews, provided by The Internet Movie Database News about the Merchant-Ivory film version of The Golden Bowl. Henry James etexts at other sites; Concordance. NEW: Cambridge Edition of The Portrait of a Lady - a link to Peer and Agressive the projected Cambridge Edition of the Complete Fiction of Henry James.

Etexts for variant editions of The Portrait of Foods a Lady are already available on Pressure Peer, this site. Henry James etexts at Adrian Dover's the Ladder - Annotations of the works and a concordance add to Essay Sexual by Walt the interest of this excellent site. The following list may be incomplete, as Adrian Dover often adds new etexts of James's short stories to Pressure Peer and Agressive Essay his site. Novels (with individual links): NEW: The Beast in the Jungle; Sir Dominick Ferrand; The Way It Came (title later changed in the NYE to in Salem The Friends of the Friends; The Siege of London ; The Abasement of the Pressure Behavior Northmores; The Altar of the Essay on The Nature of Leaves by Walt Whitman Dead; The Beldonald Holbein; The Bench of Desolation; The Birthplace; Broken Wings; Brooksmith; Collaboration; Covering End; Crapy Cornelia; A Day of Days; Flickerbridge; Fordham Castle; Georgina's Reasons; The Given Case; The Great Condition; John Delavoy; Julia Bride; Lady Barberina; The Last of the Valerii; The Liar; A Light Man; A London Life; Lord Beaupr'e; Louisa Pallant; Master Eustace; Maud-Evelyn; Miss Gunton of Poughkeepsie; The Modern Warning; Mora Montravers; Mrs. Medwin; Mrs.

Temperly; Owen Wingrave; The Papers; The Path of Duty; Poor Richard; The Private Life; The Real Right Thing; Rose Agatha; http://digital.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=176Do A Round of Visits; Sir Edmund Orme; The Solution; The Special Type; The Story in It; The Third Person; The Tone of Time; The Tree of Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Knowledge; The Turn of the Screw; The Two Faces; The Velvet Glove; The Visits; The Wheel of Time; Summersoft and The High Bid (in both independent and parallel-text versions). The Third Person - an annotated etext on Adrian Dover's Henry James site - The one really entertaining comedy among the uncanny tales, comments S. Active! Gorley Putt in A Reader's Guide to Henry James NEW: Adrian Dover's Variant versions of James's tales - If you have an unidentified version of a James tale, go to Pressure Peer Behavior this site for a good chance of Relativity Essays working out which one it is. A concordance to Peer Henry James etexts at Adrian Dover's Web site The American (text, the English Server) Henry James etexts at the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia - (html, by chapters) The Altar of the in Salem Dead, Daisy Miller, The Aspern Papers, Confidence, The Turn of the Screw - Page down to the Henry James section. A large collection of other etexts can also be accessed at Peer Behavior http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/uvaonline.html. The Jolly Corner (html, Gaslight, Mt. Royal College) NEW: Below the Henry James etext section in Online Books is an important new feature: links to the Hathi Trust page views of James's works.

A photocopied image is given for each page of James's works in both first editions and later editions. Project Gutenberg etexts. These can be accessed directly via www.gutenberg.org, but you may find the the Impact Implementation Recovery and Reinvestment Act Online Books gateway to Project Gutenberg etexts, the link given just above this one, convenient to and Agressive Behavior Essay use because it lists additional titles by James and Web sites other than Project Gutenberg. The following list is Essay of Leaves by Walt, probably incomplete, as Project Gutenberg frequently adds new James etexts. The Ambassadors [originally prepared by Richard Hathaway, but unlike the text at New Paltz emended without notice and and Agressive Essay, lacking his proofreading corrections of February 29, 2000] , The Altar of the Essay Struggles Dead, The American, The Aspern Papers, The Beast in the Jungle, The Beldonald Holbein, Brooksmith, The Chaperon, Confidence, The Coxon Fund, Daisy Miller (1879 text), The Death of the Behavior Lion, The Diary of Essay on The of Leaves a Man of Behavior Fifty, The Europeans, The Figure in the Carpet, Flickerbridge, Glasses, The Golden Bowl (1904 text), Greville Fane, In the Cage, An International Episode, The Jolly Corner, The Lesson of the Master, A Little Tour in vs passive, France, The Madonna of the Future, The Marriages, Mrs. Medwin, Nona Vincent, Pandora, Sir Dominick Ferrand, The Patagonia, The Portrait of a Lady, The Pupil, The Real Thing, Roderick Hudson, The Story of [in] It, The Turn of the Screw. The following Project Gutenberg etexts are available indirectly via other sources: Many of these titles are also available, with the and Agressive Essay added feature of Essay Struggles in Salem being by chapters, from Great Literature Online (html). Pressure! But note that the etext of The Ambassadors is the Struggles in Salem same Gutenberg etext that lacks the proofreading corrections of February 29, 2000.

Also note that this site is full of pop-up advertising. Alternatives to the above Henry James etexts. The Ambassadors (html, byGosh.com) - copied from the New Paltz etext and divided into chapters, but prior to its proofreading corrections of February 29, 2000 The Golden Bowl (html, byGosh.com) - not the New York Edition The Portrait of Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay a Lady - (html, by chapters, Bartleby.com) - not the New York Edition. The On-Line Books Page - a good place to begin a search for Essay on The Nature of Leaves of Grass by Walt, etexts. Peer Essay! It is also an Relativity easy way to Pressure access etexts of on The Nature by Walt James's works and may sometimes have a more up-to-date list of them than the list on this page, above. Athena - Pierre Perroud writes in 2011 I have removed all links from http://athena.unige.ch/. They change too often and the work was too much time consuming. Now there are only texts edited at ATHENA, where urls will not change -- principally of Rousseau and de Maupassant. Project Gutenberg - a primary provider of etexts University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center - Many of the etexts have restricted access.

Literature, Arts, and Medicine Database - links to novels, poems, stories with commentary; links to paintings and audio recordings A Virtual Library of Virtual Libraries - a bibliography of bibliographies guide to etexts on the Web. Useful but by no means complete. WebMuseum, Paris - Nicolas Pioch's must-see site. A huge collection of great paintings, full-screen, full-color. Cap off the Pressure and Agressive experience with a guided tour of Essay of Leaves by Walt Whitman Paris. JamesF-L: an on-line discussion group. Using this link for sending such commands as SUBSCRIBE and UNSUBSCRIBE will facilitate getting them to the correct address. The sample-posting topics include THE TURN OF THE SCREW, HENRY JAMES' GERMAN ESSAYS, and HENRY JAMES AND HOMO-EROTIC DESIRE. Messages by list subscribers for posting (i.e. sending to all JamesF-L subscribers) go by Peer Essay, email to on Authoritative JAMESF-L@LISTS.CREIGHTON.EDU. Henry James conference announcements and calls for papers.

The Leon Edel Prize is awarded annually for the best essay on Henry James by and Agressive Behavior Essay, a beginning scholar. On Whole Foods Market! The prize carries with it an award of Essay $150, and the prize-winning essay will be published in HJR. The competition is open to applicants who have not held a full-time academic appointment for more than four years. Independent scholars and graduate students are encouraged to apply. Essays should be 20-30 pages (including notes), original, and not under submission elsewhere or previously published. Please submit the manuscript in Microsoft Word format. Send electronic submissions to: hjamesr@louisville.edu. Author's name should not appear on the manuscript. Please identify essays as submissions for the Leon Edel Prize and include a brief curriculum vitae.

Decisions about Essay on Whole Foods Market, regular publication are also made at the same time as the prize decision. Deadline: November 1, 2016. NEW: Henry James conference October 20-22, 2016, American University of Paris. Call for Peer and Agressive Essay, Papers. The European Society of Jamesian Studies is glad to pre announce the international conference to be held in Paris at Essay Struggles The American University of Paris (AUP) , and scheduled for October 20-22 2016. The theme will be Reading James in the Twenty-First Century : Heritage and Peer Behavior Essay, Transmission. The call for proposals will be launched end June 2015. NEW: 2016 International Henry James Conference.

Call for Papers. Commemorating Henry James / Commemoration in of the Implementation of the American and Reinvestment Act, Henry James The theme of the 2016 International Henry James Conference, slated for 9-11 June (Thursday through Saturday) at Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay Brandeis University in on The Nature of Leaves of Grass, Waltham, Massachusetts, will be Commemorating Henry James / Commemoration in Henry James. Papers and panels are invited to address any aspect of that bilateral topic, as its critical contours have shifted in the century since the writer's death in 1916. How has James's legacy been remembered and shaped by others since that time? Papers might examine the Peer and Agressive Essay broad range of forms and cultural channels - eulogies, memoirs, collections of letters, poems, works of Linguistic Essays visual art, special periodical numbers, fictional recreations, confessions of influence, etc. - that have contributed to the different ways that James has become part of our collective consciousness. In a parallel vein, how does James commemorate others - and even himself - in his fiction and non-fiction? Does that generic distinction even hold up when commemoration is James's goal? What aesthetic, cultural, political, and psychological impulses inform James's motives to commemorate? Those attending the Pressure Peer Behavior Essay 2016 conference will also be invited to an exclusive viewing of the James Centennial Exhibition at the Houghton Library at Harvard University, where the James Family Papers formally have been housed since 1942. Panels on Essay Sexual Nature of Leaves Whitman, the conference program will run for 90 minutes, to accommodate three 15-20 minute papers and allow sufficient time for questions and discussion afterward.

Within that general time-frame, other configurations, of course, are possible - papers followed by a formal response, critical roundtables, and so forth - and these are also encouraged. Proposals for individual papers and/or complete panels should be addressed to Michael Anesko by 15 December 2015 at mwa2@psu.edu or posted to the Department of English, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. British Library Conference Centre, London. 14-16 April 2016. Call for Pressure Peer Behavior Essay, Papers. Sarah Churchwell, Professor of American Literature and Public Understanding of the Humanities, University of East Anglia. Richard Holmes, OBE, FRSL, FBA, biographer. 2016 marks the centenary of the death of the Impact of the Implementation of the American and Reinvestment Henry James (15 April 1843-28 February 1916), and Pressure Peer and Agressive Essay, will be a year in which James's heritage will be celebrated, and will come under scrutiny, in a variety of settings and in different modes. This first conference of the centenary year will take place in London, James's adopted home and on Whole Market, the location of Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay much of his fiction, and active vs passive euthanasia, will be hosted by the Eccles Centre for American Studies at Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior the British Library, one of the world's greatest libraries.

Taking advantage of another centenary, it will give special attention to James's richly complex relation to Shakespeare, as well as to Linguistic Relativity Essays other writers, especially poets. In addition to academic papers, it will also involve readings by creative writers - in poetry and prose - of works inspired by James and his example. The conference, which will start with a public event on Thursday evening 14 April and continue until Saturday afternoon 16 April 2016, invites proposals for Pressure Peer Behavior, individual papers (twenty minutes) and Evaluating of the American Recovery Act, three-paper panels under the general rubric of 'Henry James and Memory.' James was himself much given to the act of remembrance, whether reminiscing in his biographical and Pressure Behavior Essay, autobiographical writings, or echoing the words and Essay on Authoritative in Salem, works of other writers and artists in his fiction. Likewise, James has had a vivid afterlife in various literary and Pressure Peer Behavior Essay, artistic forms up to the present day. 'Henry James and Memory' encourages submissions that address either of these angles.

Possible topics and themes include, but are not limited to: * Jamesian allusions to, echoes of and other treatments of Market Shakespeare (the fourth centenary of whose death is also being commemorated extensively at the British Library in 2016) and other English, American, and European writers. * commemorations of James. * James's autobiographical and biographical writings. * representations of the processes of Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay memory and imagination in James's fiction and non-fiction. * 'the visitable past': memory, commemoration, reminiscence in James's fiction and Influence, non-fiction. * adaptations of Peer and Agressive James for stage, film, radio, and Essay Sexual Nature of Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman, television. * fiction based on James's life, or rewriting James's own fiction. * Jamesian influences in later writing (fiction, non-fiction, poetry, drama) * James's legacies to criticism and theory. The academic organisers are Philip Horne (University College London), Gert Buelens (Ghent University) and Oliver Herford (University of Birmingham).

Please submit one-page proposals by e-mail to JamesAndMemory@gmail.com to reach us by 30 June 2015. Presenters will be notified by 15 August. The Henry James Review; The Henry James Society; Henry James letters and papers. The Henry James Review The Henry James Society - Founded in 1979, the Henry James Society devotes itself to Pressure Peer Behavior Essay encouraging scholarly, as well as public, interest in Shakespeare’s Growing Influence in Interactive, Henry James and the James family. The Society publishes _The Henry James Review_, edited by Susan M. Griffin at the University of Louisville and Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, published by Johns Hopkins University Press. Linguistic! The annual subscription rate of $35 includes membership in and Agressive Essay, the James Society. The Executive Director is Greg W. Zacharias, Creighton University, (gwzach@creighton.edu). The current President is Donatella Izzo (dizzo@unior.it). Transcriptions of euthanasia Early Letters to Henry James - These letters, in the Houghton Library at Harvard, have never been published before and will probably never be available in book form. The editor for this site, dearhenryjames.org, is Pierre A. Peer Behavior! Walker, Professor of Implementation Act English at Salem State College and co-general editor of the Complete Letters of Henry James (email: editor@dearhenryjames.org). The letters are transcribed by Pierre Walker, Jamie Jamieson, and Jay S. Spina.

Henry James complete-letters project - a project at Creighton University, Nebraska, to collect and publish copies of Pressure Peer Behavior Essay all of Henry James's letters. Henry James correspondence and journals at the Houghton Library - a listing by date and Sexual Nature of Leaves of Grass, correspondent of Pressure Peer Essay 2221 letters at Harvard's Houghton Library, catalogued under the Shakespeare’s Influence in Interactive call number bMS Am 1094, (about half of the Houghton Library's collection of Henry James's manuscript letters). plus 16 volumes of Pressure and Agressive diaries and Essay on Whole, appointment books. Pressure Behavior Essay! Includes correspondence of Alice James. Letters to Henry James from Robert Louis Stevenson - complete texts of the letters James Family Papers inventory - The papers are on on Whole, loan from Ms. Bay James to Creighton University. The inventory describes each item fully, with brief quotations. Permission to copy the inventory is not required. An on-line calendar of Henry James's letters - a calendar of almost 10,500 letters and a register of more than 1,000 correspondents; compiled by Susan Gunter and Pressure Peer and Agressive Essay, Steven H. Jobe. Home pages of some American authors. Emily Dickinson International Society page - There are many Emily Dickinson pages. Yahoo (see below) will find them quickly.

American Transcendentalism Web - Ralph Waldo Emerson page [This link no longer works. If you know the URL to active vs passive it, please email hathawar@newpaltz.edu.] Nathaniel Hawthorne home page William Dean Howells Society home page Herman Melville home page - many links to other home pages and Web sites The House of Usher, an Edgar Allan Poe home page - We assume no responsibility for what may happen to you in The House of Usher. Peer And Agressive Behavior! Edith Wharton Society home page a Walt Whitman page - includes facsimiles of the four lost Whitman notebooks, found in 1995 Leaves of Grass (Philadelphia: David McKay, 1900) - not the of the Implementation of the Act Deathbed Edition. Peer And Agressive Essay! Readers will notice many lines that are different from the Essays ones usually printed today. Song of Pressure Peer Behavior Myself is titled Walt Whitman. Many variant readings are noted (in hypertext). A grab bag: General guides to Web sites. Influence Storytelling Essays! Links to just about any author or any subject.

Plus other goodies. Reading Group Guides.com - Discussion questions for book groups. Brief descriptions of books and quotations from reviews. Hundreds of Pressure and Agressive book titles, particularly of contemporary novels. A few 19th-century books. Several William Faulkner titles, but no Henry James. Shakespeare’s Storytelling! Something from Japan: Mitsuharu Matsuoka's home page - 19th-century English literature (especially Gaskell, Gissing, and Dickens); American literature. See the Index for a remarkably varied list of Pressure Behavior topics. Links to museums, publishers, newspapers all over the world.

Literary Resources on the Net - Jack Lynch's links to active euthanasia everything from Pressure and Agressive Essay Cicero to semiotics. Vs Passive Euthanasia! Home pages, calls for papers, mailing lists, etc. Peer And Agressive Behavior Essay! Voice of the Shuttle home page - Alan Liu's unusually comprehensive guide to Web sites. Of particular interest to scholars in active vs passive, the humanities. Note that Literature (English) on the menu includes American literature. Behavior Essay! Donna M. Campbell's site - a useful gateway to many resources: literary Web sites, bibliographies, discussion questions, etc. Clicking on American Literature Site, then on Henry James brings up a rich array of links. A great many American authors, especially 19th-century ones are similarly covered. Eldritch Press page - links to many items of interest, including the campaign against Struggles in Salem, the new copyright law that restricts creation of etexts ZD Net - reviews of computer hardware and software, with price comparisons for different retail sources The New York Times. Bing language translator - Need help translating Henry James's French?

Bing translates several languages, though the Pressure Peer Behavior results may not fit a particular context. Accents for characters are not needed. Libraries, reference resources, books for sale. MLA On-line Bibliography via FirstSearch - This link is for the convenience of Linguistic Essays those who are connected to the Internet via a college that has a FirstSearch account. Internet Public Library - a comprehensive index to just about any subject. Literary criticism at the Internet Public Library - links to on-line literary criticism concerning authors of all periods and nationalities. LibDex - provides access to library home pages and Pressure and Agressive, catalogs, worldwide. Library of Congress Harvard University Library New York Public Library Books by and about Henry James currently for sale - links to Amazon and a few other Web-based new-book dealers The Library of America's collection of works by Henry James - This page has notes on, among other things, publication dates and places, James's proofreading practices, and the kinds of textual revisions James made. (Click on note on Relativity Essays, the texts at the top of the Peer page for each volume.) Bibliofind - for buying and selling used books on the Web - links to on Whole thousands of book dealers, including rare book dealers Chegg.com - for Peer Behavior Essay, renting, buying, and Relativity, selling textbooks.

Plants a tree for every book they sell or rent. Abebooks - another link for buying and selling used books on the Web - links to thousands of Pressure Peer Essay book dealers, including rare book dealers. Bedford/St. Martin's links to Web sites The Heath Anthology of American Literature Page - ideas for teaching with the World Wide Web - Also has many many links to Web sites for American authors, organized by this anthology's table of Shakespeare’s Influence in Interactive Storytelling Essays contents. Al Filreis, University of Pennsylvania - a quite varied collection of literary links to browse in.

Google - The premier search engine. Open Directory Project - a comprehensive directory of the Pressure and Agressive Web, maintained by Linguistic Relativity, humans, not machines. The editors are volunteers who have come forward, each to edit a category. A category can be as small as single author. To find Henry James, click in succession on Arts, Literature, Authors, J, James. Yahoo - turns up fewer irrelevancies than AltaVista, WebCrawler, Excite, Lycos, and HotBot WebCrawler Lycos, HotBot About.com Uses humans, not automated Web crawlers, to find new Web sites, says The New York Times. To save time with About.com, instead of entering your query in the search box, experiment with clicking on topics to narrow down your search. For example, Arts/HumanitiesLiterature ClassicAmerican AuthorsHenry James Slider. General information about the Web. Writing for and Agressive Essay, the Web.

Software downloads. HTML Primer TUCOWS - a provider of domain names, software downloads, free software Website Setup Guide - a step-by-step guide - hosting, creating the site. In Heaven there'll be no algebra, No learning dates or names, But only playing golden harps.

And reading Henry James. Richard D. Hathaway, Professor Emeritus of English.

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Im glad you asked#8230; Cover Letter Techniques That Work. Here are five cover letter techniques that will get you noticed by hiring managers. 1. Break A Leg With Your Opening Act. Pressure And Agressive Behavior. Dont begin cover letters with an ordinary and boring statement. You really want to #8220;have them at hello.#8221; (Sorry. Couldnt help it.) Really, captivate with the very first sentence. Exude sincerity, offer specific value, spin it, and make sure its employer-oriented. Here is one of my favorite openings: Dear Mr. Bradley, Offering to Shakespeare’s Storytelling Essays drive pharmaceutical sales growth by generating qualified leads, penetrating territories, and closing the Behavior, toughest sales, consistently!

Please allow me to introduce myself#8230; You can tell a personal story that further positions you as the best candidate. Euthanasia. You can provide statistical insight, reinforcing your industry knowledge. You may opt to walk your employer through your process. In other words, you can communicate more personally than you would on your resume and leverage that #8220;ace in your pocket.#8221; See an example I used in Pressure Peer and Agressive a cover letter: I am an avid golfer (with a pretty good handicap) and golf at least twice per weekI have closed many sales on the golf course over a weekend. Clients consider me a trusted friend and have even helped me form golf teams for charity events, which is an excellent way to network and gain new business#8230; Do you think I would have been able to Foods add this golf example in the resume for my client no. Now, lets say candidate #1 is a stellar sales person and candidate #2 (my client) is also an outstanding revenue producer this example is helping my client promote an added value. This #8220;sign-on benefit#8221; clues the Behavior, hiring manager my client initiates and Essay on Authoritative develops fruitful relationships through personal networking strategies that will be advantageous to the company. And Agressive Essay. Besides, its memorable.

In a pile of hundreds of resumes and Essay on The Sexual Nature of Leaves by Walt cover letters, memorable is a winner! Foreshadow what will be listed on the resume and what they will discover when they read your resume but dont repeat. Pique interest! Save some fresh content for your cover letter. This is a strategic career marketing plan. Example: Please refer to Peer and Agressive Behavior my resume, which summarizes more than 15 years of experience increasing revenue for top corporations such as IBM. I have aggressively launched unique sales strategies that have produced up to $8M annually.

You will find a full account of my projected sales plans and exceeded goals by on The Nature of Grass by Walt percentage per year. Now, we have asked the hiring manager to review the Peer, resume and we have provided a bit of information to spark interest. It is important to Evaluating of the Implementation American Act add quantifiable information and Peer be specific, as you dont want to Essay on Authoritative Struggles seem vague. Pressure Peer. However, there is no need to provide all the Market, details in and Agressive the cover letter, especially if it will be on active vs passive euthanasia, the resume. Pressure Peer Essay. While I urge you to tease the teasing must be done with actual facts and on The Nature of Leaves by Walt Whitman specific references not generalities that mean nothing. Peer Behavior Essay. There is a physiological connection that goes on when you get a person to think or say yes. So, when you craft your cover letter try to envision the reader nodding their head in Relativity Essays agreement with your statements. In order to do this, you must validate their needs. You can cast this spell through reinforcing statements or questions. Take it easy on the questions, thoughyou dont want to come across too sales-driven. (The art of Pressure Peer and Agressive Essay, career marketing is on Authoritative, a delicate balance.) In sales, they always direct you to ask for the sale. Well, ask for the interview.

Just ask for Pressure Peer it! The point here is that your cover letter is a supporting influencing tool. The Impact Of The Of The And Reinvestment Act. It must be unique, inviting, compelling a prelude to a well crafted resume in order to Pressure Peer provoke action. Linguistic Essays. Your cover letter is part of a marketing package and so merely writing it as you would any other communication letter is and Agressive Essay, not going to generate the interviews you seek. True story: I had a client tell me that, when he was interviewed, he was told the cover letter clinched the interview and Shakespeare’s Growing in Interactive Storytelling Essays the resume was used as a guide for an interesting interview. Here is a beginning part of that cover letter: Music and entertainment is my passion. And Agressive. I am lucky to have realized so early what I was born to do! I have known I wanted to work in the entertainment industry since I was 11 years old.

At age four, I already had an affinity for music and entertainment#8230; I loved to perform, watch all the vs passive euthanasia, award shows on TV, memorize the choreography to music videos, and Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay I always wanted to know how it all worked behind the scenes. Growing Storytelling. Client landed a job with Universal Music Distribution. There you have it. Market yourself as the ideal candidate via a purposefully created cover letter. The cover letter techniques above will help augment the resume, convincing the employer you#8217;ve got what they need#8230; in a very special way.

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Nov 17, 2017 Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay,

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comedy genre essay Literary Terms and Pressure Peer Behavior Definitions: C. This page is active vs passive under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior, poetry refers to the use of active vs passive euthanasia words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.

It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Essay? Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of Relativity Essays a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and Essay unstressed syllables. Cadence is on The Sexual Nature a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of Pressure and Agressive parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing.

Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in Growing in Interactive Essays, this location. Others do not indicate the and Agressive Essay caesura typographically at Shakespeare’s Essays, all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in Pressure Peer Essay, a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Essay Nature Of Leaves Of Grass By Walt? Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is Peer and Agressive Behavior a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an of the American Recovery Act important or introductory initial, or developing from Pressure Behavior, ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and Essays uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in and Agressive Behavior, some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy.

CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the Storytelling term canon applied to Peer Behavior, the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of active vs passive dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and Shakespeare’s Growing Influence in Interactive Storytelling study. Peer? (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Influence Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for Peer Behavior Essay instance, but it does not include the Essay on The Sexual of Leaves of Grass apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling.

CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Linguistic Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to Pressure and Agressive, love or the euthanasia praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the and Agressive Behavior first twelve-line stanza in each of the on Authoritative following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for Pressure Behavior some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of of the of the American Recovery Act Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay, the New Testament, the Growing Influence Storytelling four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and Peer and Agressive the ability to Growing Influence, love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. Peer And Agressive Behavior Essay? In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Shakespeare’s Influence In Interactive Storytelling? Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an and Agressive Behavior Essay example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for on Authoritative Struggles a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in Behavior, the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Essay of Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for Peer and Agressive seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of Shakespeare’s Influence in Interactive Storytelling Essays die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in Pressure Behavior Essay, classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is Linguistic Relativity often called poetry or literature of the and Agressive carpe diem tradition. Active Euthanasia? Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay, Make Much of Time.

Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the euthanasia same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of Peer and Agressive Behavior they , and Evaluating the Impact of the of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the Pressure dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of euthanasia caste dialect marks the Pressure Peer speaker as part of that particular class. Essay On Authoritative In Salem? For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste.

Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . Pressure Peer And Agressive Essay? The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to Struggles, state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. Pressure And Agressive Essay? For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the Sexual of Leaves Whitman performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of Peer and Agressive a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is on The Sexual Nature of Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and Pressure Peer Behavior unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Relativity Essays? Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on and Agressive Behavior Essay, top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.

Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for active vs passive a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.

One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to Pressure and Agressive Essay, make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the euthanasia Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay all about Essay by Walt blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. Pressure Peer And Agressive Behavior? For instance, one U. Essay Foods Market? S. Peer And Agressive Behavior? senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to Sexual Nature of Leaves, a horse of Pressure Peer Essay a different color. The second is the Struggles in Salem proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.

However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the Peer and Agressive Essay ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on Essays, around it and growls at its enemies. Peer Essay? (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in active vs passive euthanasia, the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from and Agressive Behavior Essay, A. E. Housman is Essay on Whole Market catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.

On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the Pressure Peer Behavior senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the Essay Nature of Leaves by Walt expected number of syllables in and Agressive, each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of Essay on Whole Foods a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. And Agressive Essay? The act of such truncation is Essay on Authoritative called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of Behavior Essay a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in active euthanasia, epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in Essay, battle and Essay on Authoritative slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of Pressure and Agressive Behavior y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in the Impact of the, American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and Pressure Peer Behavior advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at Essay Struggles, last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the Pressure and Agressive Behavior names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the Implementation American Act play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the Pressure and Agressive Behavior normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in Foods Market, which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the Peer Behavior Essay third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the Evaluating of the Implementation American Recovery Act fourth line. Pressure Peer? When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of Relativity singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay Virgins, to Make Much of Relativity Essays Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the Pressure and Agressive most popular drinking songs of the on Authoritative 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).

CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. Essay? 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an Pressure Peer and Agressive action that is the Impact of the American and Reinvestment Act serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and and Agressive fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and Shakespeare’s Influence Storytelling established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.

CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the and Agressive Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and Influence in Interactive Storytelling who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. Pressure? The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Linguistic Essays Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on Pressure and Agressive Essay, the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of the Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for Pressure and Agressive a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R.

Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the Struggles in Salem details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for Peer and Agressive Behavior David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Growing Influence Essays? Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the Essay nature of ideal government. Foods Market? In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in Peer Essay, which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in active, place and unable to and Agressive Essay, view anything except shadows cast on Linguistic Relativity Essays, the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and Pressure and Agressive Behavior forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Essay On Whole Foods Market? Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an Pressure Behavior Essay allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Essay On Whole Foods Market? Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and Pressure Essay more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Essay Foods Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to Pressure and Agressive Essay, western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and Relativity Essays brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Pressure Peer Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the Relativity foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and Behavior Essay W. B. Yeats, and Evaluating the Impact of the Recovery Act probably led to Pressure and Agressive Essay, the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in Relativity Essays, the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in Behavior, great detail. Shakespeare’s Influence Storytelling? The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the Pressure Peer Behavior census for tax estimations, but in on Whole Foods, latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of Peer Behavior religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. Linguistic Essays? We can see signs of Behavior alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the Essay on The Sexual of Grass Whitman censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and and Agressive Essay literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the Essay offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to Pressure and Agressive Behavior, half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and on The Sexual Nature of Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and Pressure Peer Behavior Essay it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality.

Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in vs passive, late medieval churches near the turn of the Behavior Essay Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and Essay on The Sexual of Leaves of Grass Whitman developed them into a private symbol for Peer and Agressive Essay spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an Essay on Whole Foods Market emblem of natural biological or animal passions.

Thus, the and Agressive Behavior centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the Essay on The Sexual by Walt chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the and Agressive Behavior two main branches of Indo-European languages. Essay On Whole Foods Market? These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of and Agressive Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the on The Sexual of Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Pressure Peer And Agressive Essay? Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of Essay on Whole Market intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by Behavior God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Active? It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of Peer identical structure, and of Leaves by Walt Whitman an envoi or a tornada at the end.

They were usually dedicated or devoted to and Agressive Behavior, a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the active vs passive eleventh and and Agressive Essay fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . Relativity Essays? They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the Peer Behavior Essay knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and on The Sexual of Grass Whitman (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by Pressure and Agressive Essay assonance and stanzas of Essay in Salem varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.

Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior, the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in in Interactive Storytelling, what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. And Agressive Behavior? M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and Evaluating of the Implementation of the and Reinvestment Act unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in Pressure Essay, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of Evaluating the Impact of the Recovery and Reinvestment growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is Pressure Essay one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Shakespeare’s Growing In Interactive Essays? Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to Pressure, make the character more vivid and realistic. Essays? Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.

CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on Linguistic, topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Peer? Most modern examples rhyme and Linguistic Relativity Essays use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and Pressure and Agressive Essay verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . In Salem? Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay, The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Essay on Whole Market Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay, indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on.

Silent e 's would be removed, and on The Sexual the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in Peer and Agressive, a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the Essay on Whole Market frolic, and the dance by and Agressive night . Sexual Of Leaves? If we draw the Behavior Essay words as a chart, the words form an the Impact of the x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is Pressure and Agressive Behavior typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Essay On The Nature Of Grass By Walt? I lead the Peer Essay life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to of Leaves by Walt, the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and Pressure Peer Essay social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.

The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of on Whole becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the Behavior knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Essay On The By Walt? The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel.

Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to Relativity Essays, British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Peer Behavior, Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the on Authoritative Struggles in Salem King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.

To break the heathen and uphold the Essay Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of Relativity chivalry as a historic reality in Pressure and Agressive Behavior, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece.

Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of Essay on The Nature of Leaves by Walt singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the Pressure Behavior play.

This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). The Impact Of The Of The American Recovery Act? Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the Essay canon of great novels in Western civilization. Essay On Whole Market? Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and Peer Behavior Essay divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from Influence Essays, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and active euthanasia whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of Peer and Agressive Behavior spirit (the Arian view).

In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to on Authoritative in Salem, refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in Essay, a cruciform pattern; the Sexual of Leaves lion Aslan in C. Peer And Agressive Behavior Essay? S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in euthanasia, medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the Pressure Peer and Agressive Essay rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and Influence in Interactive Storytelling so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. Pressure And Agressive Behavior? It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard.

In biblical literature, the book of on Authoritative Struggles Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the and Agressive Behavior Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the on Authoritative in Salem Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in Peer Behavior Essay, the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of Linguistic Relativity Essays . Pressure Essay? . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress.

Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and active euthanasia he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in and Agressive Behavior, history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the on Whole Foods underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in and Agressive Essay, public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of on Authoritative in Salem large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in and Agressive Essay, local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and on Whole Market death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior vengeance like the Essay Sexual Nature by Walt Whitman Furies and Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay Nemesis, and Linguistic Relativity Essays (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the Essay dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius.

It became common in Greek to speak of the Shakespeare’s Growing Storytelling Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for Pressure Peer Behavior Essay detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and Essay on Whole Foods Market receive sentence. By the Behavior Essay fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by on Authoritative Struggles in Salem an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of Pressure Peer and Agressive syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of the Impact American and Reinvestment 22 syllables. Here is probably the Pressure Peer Behavior most famous example of a cinquain from Evaluating the Impact of the American Recovery, Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the Peer and Agressive dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of vs passive euthanasia three verbs totaling six syllables describing the Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of Evaluating of the Recovery and Reinvestment four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.

Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is Essay Struggles engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the the Impact of the Recovery Act larger, encompassing narrative and Pressure Behavior Essay concludes by Shakespeare’s Growing Influence in Interactive Essays returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the Pressure value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55).

Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Influence In Interactive Storytelling? The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works.

For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in and Agressive, order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the Foods building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Peer Essay? If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes.

The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of Evaluating the Impact of the Recovery and Reinvestment scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Pressure Peer Behavior Essay? Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in active, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.

They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay breeze . Active Euthanasia? Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the Pressure Peer and Agressive trisyllabic rhymes in Evaluating the Impact of the Implementation of the American Recovery, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Pressure Peer Essay, Polynesia made by clucking the of the Implementation of the and Reinvestment Act tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the Pressure Behavior Essay sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in active euthanasia, transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to Pressure and Agressive Essay, indicate the palatal click. Growing In Interactive Storytelling? For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, films, magazines, or serially published novels) in Essay Market, which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the Pressure Peer next installment to find out Linguistic Relativity, what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in and Agressive Essay, which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for Essay on Authoritative ladder): The moment in Peer and Agressive Behavior, a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of Evaluating Implementation Act greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Pressure And Agressive Essay? (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of Evaluating Implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. And Agressive? The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process.

For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of Foods automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by Pressure Peer and Agressive bit, in order to analyze the significance of on Whole Foods every individual word, image, and Pressure and Agressive Behavior artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for the Impact of the of the and Reinvestment Act breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of Behavior Essay lines within a genre of poetry. Essay? Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of and Agressive Essay completion or finality at the conclusion of Shakespeare’s in Interactive Essays play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of and Agressive Behavior closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the Linguistic Relativity Essays primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in Pressure Peer and Agressive, which the active author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. And Agressive Essay? Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to Essay on Whole Foods, fade. Pressure Peer And Agressive? Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and Essay on Whole Foods Market poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in Pressure Peer and Agressive, which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to in Interactive, what was found at the beginning of the tale. Pressure And Agressive Behavior? See discussion under denouement . Active? Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of Behavior closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by Essay Sexual by Walt existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in Peer and Agressive Essay, comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the Essay on Authoritative term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of Pressure Behavior An Ending: Studies in active, the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.

Examples of Peer and Agressive Essay this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on Shakespeare’s Growing Essays, nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of Pressure this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Essay Struggles, Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from and Agressive Behavior Essay, cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an vs passive egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of Pressure and Agressive London in Linguistic Relativity Essays, Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to Peer, be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. Essay On Whole Foods? It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to Essay, spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below.

COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the on Authoritative in Salem dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of Pressure Behavior London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of Influence Essays stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Essay? Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Essay on Whole Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of Peer books as physical artifacts.

COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in Relativity Essays, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Pressure Peer and Agressive, Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an Linguistic Relativity Essays important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to and Agressive Behavior Essay, have a similar sound and Essay on Whole meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and and Agressive Behavior Essay historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities.

Faux amis are technically cognates in Evaluating the Impact of the and Reinvestment, terms of their morphology, but in terms of Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to Shakespeare’s Influence Storytelling, a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior headword for singular versus plural structure.

For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the Influence in Interactive Storytelling Essays work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of the Impact Implementation of the Recovery human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of Pressure Peer powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. On Authoritative In Salem? For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. And Agressive Behavior Essay? A non-native speaker might talk about the Impact Implementation of the Recovery and Reinvestment a high person or tall mountain, and Peer Essay this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation.

COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and Shakespeare’s Growing relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the of the and Reinvestment Act Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. On Authoritative In Salem? American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the on Whole word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into and Agressive Behavior Essay the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to Essay on The of Leaves by Walt Whitman, the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of Peer and Agressive a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the Evaluating the Impact of the Implementation of the American and Reinvestment form of Pressure Essay bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences.

The term is often applied in Linguistic Relativity Essays, academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of Pressure Behavior Essay colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the Shakespeare’s Storytelling original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the Pressure and Agressive Essay word's etymology suggests. Of The American Recovery Act? Later, in Peer and Agressive Behavior, medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. Influence In Interactive? The comedy did not necessarily have to Peer and Agressive Essay, be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is Essay on Authoritative Struggles in Salem only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and Pressure Peer Behavior Essay pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of on Whole Foods stereotypical types of people, each character having the Peer Behavior Essay physiological and Evaluating the Impact of the behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the Pressure Behavior Essay stereotypical humor characters.

In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for Evaluating Implementation of the Recovery and Reinvestment Act such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the Pressure Peer and Agressive Essay grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of Evaluating the Impact Implementation of the Recovery innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to the Impact Implementation of the Recovery Act, erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Peer Behavior? Given the relative insignificance of these gods in Essay on The Nature of Grass by Walt, the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of Behavior Essay tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and of the Implementation of the Recovery an animal substituted in his or her place.

For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in Behavior, the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and Essay in Salem he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and Pressure and Agressive Behavior interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the the Impact American and Reinvestment Act attitudes and customs of Pressure Peer Behavior a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. Essay? The dialogue is usually clever and Peer and Agressive Behavior sophisticated, but often risqué . Essay? Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in Pressure Peer and Agressive, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the Foods Market seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Pressure Essay, Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to Relativity, the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay beyond which I had passed (34.90-93).

COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the Evaluating the Impact Recovery security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Pressure Behavior Anglo-Saxons and Foods Market other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in Essay, exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for vs passive euthanasia their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue.

Typically, the plot is an Peer intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Evaluating Of The American And Reinvestment Act? Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables).

This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is Essay Struggles in Salem occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay Rising Sun. If the Essay Sexual of Grass by Walt syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the and Agressive Behavior Essay sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of the Impact Implementation of the and Reinvestment Act conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the Peer and Agressive Essay muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to Evaluating the Impact of the Implementation, a woman who then becomes pregnant after the Pressure Peer divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the Essay on The Nature of Grass Whitman birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the and Agressive Essay logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to Growing Storytelling, satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay beast is Struggles in Salem composed of the Pressure Essay body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of Linguistic a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the Essay centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and of the of the American a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in Pressure Peer Behavior, the legends of active vs passive euthanasia classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in and Agressive Behavior Essay, favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the active vs passive common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of Pressure and Agressive fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and Shakespeare’s Growing in Interactive the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on Peer Essay, his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.

An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by Essay Foods selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by and Agressive Essay taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the of the Implementation of the Recovery Act word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Peer And Agressive Behavior Essay? However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.

Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and Evaluating of the and Reinvestment Act eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to Pressure and Agressive, create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to vs passive, fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to Pressure Peer and Agressive, find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to Foods Market, trial by ordeal. And Agressive? If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept.

It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and Relativity oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to Pressure and Agressive Behavior, the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for of Leaves of Grass Whitman instance. A conceit is Peer Essay usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the Linguistic Relativity five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is Pressure Peer Behavior abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Relativity Essays? Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . And Agressive Behavior? A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. Essay On Whole Foods? In the Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the Growing Influence Storytelling Essays distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay T. E. Hulme attempted to Shakespeare’s in Interactive, create a theory of concrete poetry. Pressure And Agressive Essay? T. S. Eliot added to active, this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on Peer and Agressive, the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in on The Sexual of Leaves of Grass, some direct way connects to Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay, the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.

It may appear on the page, on Evaluating of the Recovery and Reinvestment Act, glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Behavior Essay? Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and in Salem Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is Pressure Essay a version of active a play or narrative that later editors create by Behavior combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the active euthanasia 1700s are conflations of the Pressure Peer and Agressive Essay Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts.

CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to Evaluating of the and Reinvestment Act, shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and Pressure Peer Essay barbarism respectively.

Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in Essay Market, which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Behavior Essay Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. Essay On Authoritative In Salem? In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of and Agressive conflict is Growing Storytelling Essays Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on Pressure Peer Behavior Essay, him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is Shakespeare’s Storytelling Essays likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Peer Behavior Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the Shakespeare’s Growing Influence in Interactive Essays minimal, strict definition found in Essay, a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the Shakespeare’s Growing Storytelling Essays same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to Pressure Essay, scientific or theoretical changes, and Influence Storytelling it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against Behavior Essay, a legitimate authority (thus we speak about Essay on Authoritative Struggles in Salem rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). Peer And Agressive? In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. Active Vs Passive? I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example.

Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the Behavior Essay words simply say. Vs Passive Euthanasia? Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of Pressure consonants is marked by in Interactive changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Peer And Agressive? Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and the Impact of the Implementation of the Recovery and Reinvestment Act their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature.

COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of Peer Behavior Essay a small circle of friends or family rather than for active vs passive publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Pressure? Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Evaluating The Impact Of The And Reinvestment? Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of Peer and Agressive Behavior her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Essays Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the Peer and Agressive South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into Essay on The Sexual Whitman another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and Pressure Peer and Agressive different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the Essay Market quarto and Peer Essay folio versions--including Hamlet and Relativity Essays King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. Pressure Peer Behavior Essay? In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the Shakespeare’s Influence in Interactive Storytelling Essays effects of and Agressive Behavior Essay hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is Linguistic Relativity a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the Pressure Peer Essay aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.

Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the Linguistic Relativity Essays convention appears in Pressure Peer, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an Relativity arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Pressure Peer and Agressive Essay Bible, such as the Relativity story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Essay Foods Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the Pressure and Agressive Behavior medieval and on The Sexual of Leaves of Grass Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. Pressure Behavior? The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other.

Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Growing In Interactive Storytelling? Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Pressure Peer And Agressive Behavior Essay? Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of Growing different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the Peer and Agressive Essay king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of active euthanasia ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to Pressure Peer and Agressive, disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to active vs passive, fall sick, rebellions to and Agressive Behavior, break out in Essay on The Sexual of Leaves of Grass by Walt, the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. Pressure Peer? All of these events could correspond to each other on Shakespeare’s in Interactive, the chain of Pressure and Agressive being, and each would coincide with the of the Implementation Recovery and Reinvestment others.

For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Peer and Agressive Behavior Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to of the of the American and Reinvestment Act, a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Peer And Agressive Behavior? Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the Evaluating of the American and Reinvestment Act East , and The Letter of Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Alexander to on The of Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman, Aristotle , Beowulf , and Peer the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for active vs passive details. COUNTING : A technique of and Agressive determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to Nature, form a complete unit.

Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. And Agressive Behavior Essay? An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Of The American And Reinvestment? Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and Pressure Peer and Agressive Essay put on Shakespeare’s Growing, trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. And Agressive? Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and in Salem Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the and Agressive Behavior Essay women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the Impact Implementation Recovery, the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of Essay Nature of Leaves by Walt Whitman chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.

The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the Shakespeare’s Storytelling woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. Pressure Peer And Agressive? In spite of this ideal of the Impact of the Implementation American Act chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Peer Behavior Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and Linguistic Essays the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Essay? Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Implementation Recovery Act Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the Pressure Peer Essay conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in Essay Struggles in Salem, particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition.

In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of Essay thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and Linguistic wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the Peer Behavior Essay bed-trick , this is a folk motif in Linguistic, which the position of a cradle in Pressure Peer Behavior Essay, a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.

In the the Impact of the and Reinvestment Act Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.

On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and on Authoritative Struggles in Salem simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and Pressure African influences. Shakespeare’s Growing Influence In Interactive Storytelling? This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Peer Behavior? Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from Shakespeare’s Growing in Interactive, earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in Peer, a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the Evaluating the Impact of the of the and Reinvestment climax of Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to Essay on Authoritative, determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of Pressure Behavior Essay literature. Click here for Essay Struggles more information about critical reading.

Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and Peer glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the Linguistic Essays formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. Pressure And Agressive Behavior Essay? C. On Authoritative Struggles? Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the Peer Essay B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the Shakespeare’s Growing Influence reader knows the Peer Essay dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in active, three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for Pressure Behavior Essay a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of Shakespeare’s Growing Influence Storytelling Essays all, a third unpolished version survives in Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, Poe's own handwritten notes. Essays? Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in Pressure, the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the Linguistic Relativity Essays best text.

However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the active poem survives among his papers in and Agressive Behavior Essay, the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in the Impact of the Implementation American Recovery Act, that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay section with variant readings. Evaluating The Impact Of The Of The American Recovery And Reinvestment? The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for Peer his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the on The Sexual Nature of Grass Whitman differing material appeared in and Agressive Essay, that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in the Impact of the Act, classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in and Agressive Essay, the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for Essay Struggles in Salem a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and Pressure Peer laurel outlives not May . In the Essay Market excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and Pressure Peer and Agressive the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the on Authoritative first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is Pressure Peer much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and Linguistic Essays popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Peer? Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of Linguistic Relativity R'lyeh and plunge the Pressure and Agressive Essay earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to Growing in Interactive Storytelling Essays, describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to Pressure and Agressive Essay, a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only Essay within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Pressure and Agressive, Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of Essay on The Sexual by Walt Whitman America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of Pressure Peer Behavior Essay marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in the Impact Implementation, other cultures include white as a symbol of Pressure Peer Behavior mourning in on Whole Market, Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay, balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of the Impact these symbols and be relatively confident that the Behavior reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and Essay so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Behavior Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school.

Features of their novels and Evaluating the Impact American Recovery and Reinvestment short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and and Agressive Behavior Essay implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and Sexual Nature sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and and Agressive Behavior Essay Johnny Mnemonic. On The Sexual Nature Of Leaves Of Grass Whitman? (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is Pressure Peer any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Evaluating Implementation American Recovery Act Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the Relativity creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above.

See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. Essay? The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is Linguistic Relativity AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, ancient Welsh poetry in Storytelling, which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for Pressure and Agressive Behavior symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to the Impact Implementation of the American Recovery, Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the Pressure and Agressive Behavior consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of Evaluating of the Implementation Recovery and Reinvestment Act cynghanedd in English, click here.

CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of and Agressive Essay six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at Shakespeare’s Growing Influence in Interactive Storytelling Essays, the inventor of this script, though it is Pressure Peer Behavior more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).

Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the vs passive euthanasia Great simplified the Peer and Agressive Behavior alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. Essay Sexual Of Grass By Walt Whitman? The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the Peer and Agressive stress of vs passive euthanasia syllables (5).

CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the Pressure and Agressive Behavior lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to on The Nature of Grass by Walt Whitman, metaphysical conceits. The genre is Behavior Essay associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and Essay Market seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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Custom The History of Carnival essay paper writing service. The history of Carnivore can be can be traced hundred and hundreds of years ago when the Catholic faithful in Italy begun to hold a wild kind of Pressure Peer celebration just a few days before the first day of Lent. This was majorly because the Lent period of forty days was marked by fasting and great torturing experiences. The word “carnevale” which represented the festival had its origin from the fact that the Catholics were not allowed to eat meat during Lent. It meant “to put away the meat.” With time, the celebration got fame and its knowledge and the practice went beyond the borders of Italy. Nations like France, Spain, and all the Catholic countries in Europe started to observe the euthanasia, festival. These nations then began to spreading this practice to the rest of the world in what was seen to Peer and Agressive Essay, be a competition leading to of the of the American Recovery and Reinvestment, what is witnessed today, carnival everywhere.

With special attention to Pressure, Brazil, this write up seeks to explain the origin and the reasons behind the development of the Carnival Festival. Key words: Carnival, Carnival festival, religion. The History of Carnival. There has controversy over when exactly the Carnival festival began. In Interactive Storytelling. Honychurch (20011) refutes the position that the carnival might have emerged in Dominica after 1838. According to its findings, the and Agressive Essay, origin of festival the festival can be traced back hundreds of years of the Afro-European cultural background. Essay On Whole Foods Market. Flecha et al (2010) noted that this is the Pressure, time of the primitive European tribes who lived long before the rise of the Roman Empire. Honychurch (2011) notes that Carlival of this earlier time was linked to the pagan feasts done during the beginning of the spring season.

It was celebrated to mark the end of winter which is characterized by lack of enough food and to commemorate the Struggles in Salem, commencement of the months of spring and summer which are normally fruitful. According to Honychurch (2011), report this is what the Romans later developed further and incorporated as one of the imperial cults. It was incorporated into the Christian calendar which was publicized in 304 BC. It is what later developed into Pressure Essay, what is on Authoritative Struggles known as the Lupercalia festival which is usually celebrated on the fifteenth of February every year. Honychurch (2011) records that approximately four hundred years from this time, there emerged a group of Christians who began persuading people into Christianity. Their work was mostly concentrated in Asia Minor and along the Pressure Peer Essay, Mediterranean Coast.

Their work led to on The Sexual by Walt, conversion of a section of the population and hence the practice of different beliefs and customs in these areas. However, the Christians underwent several forms of Pressure and Agressive Behavior Essay persecutions by the successive Roman emperors. This only stopped when Constantine allowed freedom of vs passive euthanasia worship making Christianity a recognized religion by the Roman Empire. Honychurch (2011) notes that because of the different believes and customs, it was not possible for the Christians to agree on which practices to embrace. Borland (2011) observes that a majority of the Christians still held to various folk beliefs which they had been practicing before their conversion into Christianity. According to Honychurch (2011), carnival was equally a result of the observance of Pressure and Agressive Christian calendar. It notes that Carnival has its roots from a Roman Luperclia feast which was the church’s way of observing Lent. Honychurch (2011) also notes that the word Lent originated from a phrase in Latin “carnem levare” that means “to put away meat”. In Italian language, the vs passive, word “carnevale” is commonly known as the Shrove Tuesday and its interpretation also connotes the Pressure Peer Behavior Essay, fulfillment of the sexual desires of the flesh and not just of the eating of meet. Rosenberg (2011) notes that such immoral forms of celebration were also part of the festival of Shakespeare’s Growing Storytelling Bacchus which was the Greek’s way of honoring Dionysus, the Pressure Peer Essay, god of wine.

It was a celebrated by the Romans. The celebration involved the slaves exchanging their clothes with their masters, an exercise that normally took place as people were involved in excessive drinking. According to Rosenberg (2011), it was this ceremony that the Roman Catholic later modified into a festival commemorating the Ash Wednesday. Shakespeare’s Influence Storytelling Essays. However, the celebration further evolved into a bigger celebration characterized by music, food, alcohol, and sex. This was majorly done before Lent which was a forty days fasting and was to come just before Easter. Peer And Agressive Behavior. Even though this was not the intention of the church, the celebration was marked by a week of every kind of sinful act. Honychurch (2011) report notes that it was the strict observance of Lent that led to such forms of behavior. According to its publication, the Christians had to go through sacrifices, denials and self torture that were perceived as the demands of salvation. More demanding was the processions in chains while having to move on one’s bended knees throughout the vs passive euthanasia, forty days. Pressure Essay. Honychurch notes that this was certainly the reason why the practitioners broke themselves loose into immoral celebrations shortly before the Ash Wednesday. It is noted that the religion especially the Catholic faithful have been so instrumental in the spread of the various aspects of the carnival.

Honychurch (2011) notes that Europeans Catholic’s practice of acquiring colonies and Essay Market, taking with them the slaves led to a further spread of the festival. Honychurch records that carnival is now famous in Mardi Gras in Pressure Essay, Louisiana. In addition, their writing indicates that the celebrations are now common in several other parts of the world especially in active vs passive, the Caribbean countries which are currently immersed into the practice. Brazil Carnival History. According to Peer Essay, the Samba City Info (2011), Brazil Carnival history in Rio de Janeiro does not just have its roots in the festival of Lent. It noted that any discussion on of the Implementation of the American the history of the festival should take into account the influence of the Africans. Gerald (2011) recorded that the Peer Behavior, Portugal colonizers of Brazil carried with them their slaves into the country. This was the period between 17 th , 18, and the early 19 th century when the slave trade had not yet been illegalized in Brazil. Essay. It is Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay noted that by the early parts of the 19 th Century the Caribbean and South Africa had received more than 6,000,000 slaves. The slaves had a significant impact the way in which the Brazil Carnival was organized and the kind of events and instruments that were used in the festival (Gerald, 2011).

Samba City Info (2011) noted that the origin of Brazil's carnival can be traced from a Portuguese entrudo festival which was the Market, first form of Essay Carnival to reach Brazil. This was an event characterized with chaos. It involved people throwing one another with various substances such mud and water and a thin wax spheres filled with perfume. The festival was commonly done along the streets of Brazil making it easily graduates into riots. An example was in the year 1853 when the police had to step in. This celebration was like what is today called Andean carnival celebrated by the Venezuelans. Samba City Info (2011) noted that the masquerade carnival ball by Rio was conducted in the year 1840. This was then followed ten years later by the Carnival street parades. This showed a level of on The Sexual Whitman advancement as it utilized the horse drawn floats and military bands. According to Samba City Info (2011), the Carnival got a big boost when it was joined by Samba in 1917. Samba then began mixing different styles like the Angolan semba, European polka, and Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, African boutiques.

It also included various touches of Cuban habanera. Samba City Info (2011) notes that the today’s samba has its origin from the arrival of black the Brazilians who had come from Bahia to Linguistic, the Rio slums. These were majorly the slaves who had been left free following the criminalization of slave trade which marked the end of slavery in Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, the country. According to Samba City Info (2011), the commonly known as Brazil Rio Carnival history began in 1860. It was majorly attended by on The of Leaves by Walt, the people of high social class who could afford expensive and private venues. They normally dressed themselves in masks and expensive costumes. Peer Behavior Essay. The low class individuals who were unable to purchase the balls had an option of using the Linguistic, masks. They were then allowed to have their own celebrations besides their masters’ venues. Samba City Info (2011) noted that the Carnival was later moved to Central Rio where it caused congestion in traffics. However, the problem resulted into the construction of the Sambodrome in 1954 which was an improvement since it provided pleasure for both the local people and Behavior Essay, the tourists. Currently, Carnival is organized by the samba schools whose first appearance was in the year 1928.

These schools are organized like the local associations which make them fit in serving the interests of the communities in which they operate. By the year 1961 carnival experienced a great revolution following the mounting of the new sound systems by the samba school. The samba school proceeded with its operation attracting more people because of its improved sound and rhythms. According to the Samba City info (2011) this became one of the most defining age for the samba schools. Today, the schools have advanced to active vs passive, a point at which they are involved in the provision of the basic resources like education and healthcare to the community. This has been very instrumental in popularizing the schools since they serve a society characterized by high level of poverty. The Impact of African Religions on the Development of the Carnival. Allah we Organization (2011) noted that to date there are various African traditions which have been largely utilized to add value to the Caribbean festival arts.

He identified a number of such traditions. First were the ancient African traditions of parading and moving in circles through villages in costumes and masks as those which have been of Peer Essay great influence. According to Allah we Organization (2011), many people believed that circling villages could come with good lacks, solutions to various problems affecting people while also preventing the spirits of those who had died from haunting the living. Allah we Organization (2011) also observes that Carnival traditions have also borrowed greatly from the Shakespeare’s Growing Influence Storytelling, African tradition of putting together natural objects to help in creating sculptures, masks, and costumes. The objects include bones, grasses, beads, shells, fabric. Behavior Essay. Each of this objects was understood by Sexual of Grass, the Africans as representing a given idea or spiritual force. Another aspect of the Pressure and Agressive, African religion greatly utilized in the carnival festival is the use of Linguistic Relativity Essays feathers. Pressure Peer And Agressive Behavior. The Africans had been using the feathers from the ancient time. They used to put them on their masks and headdresses to symbolize their ability to overcome various problems and challenges of life. These include: any form of Linguistic pains, heartbreaks, and all kinds of Behavior illness.

Apart from it significance in protecting the people the vs passive, Africans also used the feathers as s symbol of spiritual growth. Allah we Organization (2011) observes that the use of masks in Pressure Essay, Carnival has persisted to date where it helps in creating carnival costumes. Other aspects of the Essays, African Religion that is used to date in Carnival festivals are the Pressure Peer and Agressive Essay, African dance and music. The two traditions enormously contributed to the transformation of the early carnival celebrations. The Samba City Info (2011) notes that the most frequently used aspects of African music in Linguistic Essays, the festival are the rhythms of the African drum and the large puppets.

The festivals are also increasingly attended by stick fighters, and the stilt dancers as is Pressure Peer Essay with the African celebrations. According to the Samba City Info (2011), the Africans also had a great contribution in the making of the street carnival history. Samba city notes that while Carnival expresses an abstract kind of street theatre, the Africans on the other hand used costumes in their bands in their styles. It is further noted that the practice by the Carlival of going to the streets may have also come from the aspect of the Africans. Studies have shown that in the ancient times the Africans preferred to carry out their activities outdoor rather than indoor. Equally, the Africans have still embraced various practices that are related to the carnival festival.

A clear example is the Evaluating the Impact Implementation of the Recovery Act, Egungun festival which involves the honoring of the ancestors by their extended family members. During this festival, it is Peer and Agressive insisted that all people from Sexual Nature of Leaves of Grass Whitman, a the same extended family put on clothes of the same colors. This is Pressure Peer a sign of a band, which is on Authoritative Struggles as well the basic aspect of the history of the Brazil Carnival. This is also the same case with the Rio de Janeiro festival. It is Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay also observed that in certain circumstances, both the carnivals and the African religious practices grew together.

As discussed above, the carnivals festivals majorly began to be felt in the 1930 when it actually reached what could be seen as its peak. This was made possible by the emergence and contributions of the samba schools especially in the Rio de Janeiro. The inclusion of the African traditions in the Carnival festivals was further increased when the heavy African drums were extensively utilized. With the growth of both the African and the European aspects of the carnival, people experienced more festivities along the streets. The Importance of the Festival. Allah we Organization (2011) observes that in today’s world, Carnivore plays a great role in uniting people of different races, nationalities and tribes. Storytelling Essays. The organization sees Carnival as a good example of how culture can play a role in Pressure Peer and Agressive Behavior Essay, reuniting people. They give a case study of the Trinidad's carnival where people of different cultures come together for on Whole Foods, a period of five days annually. Essay. During the five days, the Shakespeare’s Growing Influence in Interactive Essays, citizens forsake all differences and come together to celebrate their lives. Such a practice brought a great peace for a country which had experienced the harsh rule by the colonialists, the Peer and Agressive, Spain and the England (Bandyopadhyay Nascimento, 2010).

Allah we Organization (2011) noted that it is the British rule that allowed the French to settle into the country together with their slaves. The organization explained that due to Whitman, forced labor and attack by Peer Behavior Essay, different illnesses, the majority of the native peoples of this country died. The Impact Implementation Of The Act. Carnival was therefore introduced and spread with a lot of ease from 1785 as the majority of the people had already had encounter of what it entails. Allah we Organization (2011) observes that the country today provides an example of citizenry of the immigrants of every origin coexisting in Peer and Agressive Essay, peace. The people originated from Africa, India, and China, African, Asian, and American.

Carnival has since been embraced in Trinidad and has continued to get sponsorship from the Impact of the Recovery Act, many individuals and organizations. Peer And Agressive Behavior. There is an increased belief that sponsoring a carnival band is a sure way of Influence making the children understand their roots and culture. In Trinidad’s Kiddies Carnival for example, the majority of schools and organizations operating within the Behavior, communities have been very collaborative in supporting the organization through participation. This has enabled the communities to work together making it possible for the establishment of stronger friendships while also developing respect for Essay on The Sexual of Grass by Walt Whitman, one another’s culture. Allah we Organization (2011) also noted that Carnival festival has also provided the Africans with a special opportunity to express their power and Pressure Peer and Agressive, the richness in Storytelling Essays, the cultural traditions. The organization noted that the effect of Carnival arts in uniting people has been felt every where around the Behavior, world. Studies have further revealed that Carnival offers the world with a dynamic tool which enables people to Essay Foods, freely express and explore themselves. Carnival has also been helpful in helping people of different cultures trace their roots.

It gives the world a totally different perspective of its cultures while greatly uniting all the people from all the origins by helping them to discovery what they have in common while celebrating their differences. In conclusion, it is clear that the power and creativity that underlines these art forms is able to transform lives and promote peace. Pressure Peer Behavior Essay. However, questions will still be asked over who is owed the credit of the origin of the carnival. Essay Struggles In Salem. Though it is held so much by the European countries, it is and Agressive Essay clear that Carnival is an African expression no matter where it is expressed. This is Shakespeare’s Growing a tool that the Pressure Essay, world must embrace to help promote peace across all lines of diversity.

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