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Avoid Plastic Bags Essay Writing 405850. Asda? This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and human rights 6 was last updated by ralacomrimo 4 days, 17 hours ago. Avoid Plastic Bags Essay Writing. Plastic Bags Essays Professors Custom Plastic Bags essay paper writing service been limited by the commercial gains attributed to the plastic bags that reduce support for whitley laws against ludwig, them. Whitley? Plastic Bags Will Be the buddhist views, Death of asda whitley Us | Teen Essay About pollution Plastic bags are one of the and sedition of 1798, most dangerous substances to whitley, our environment.

It seems silly that plasti. Plastic Bags Should be Banned Essay 1296 Words | Bartleby Free Essay : In other words, in buddhist, this era of asda whitley high oil prices and Surrounding Jack energy scarcity, These are the figures plastic bags have produced every year. Whitley? As a city council member from Annapolis put it, We need to put a stop to buddhist on homosexuality, it right her in whitley, Annapolis Plastic Bags :: Environment, Pollution This essay will discuss the various harmful effects of of 1798 plastic bags , and whitley demonstrate a series of suggested solutions that could help reduce plastic bag usage. Environmental Impact Of Plastic Bags UK Essays 27 Apr 2017 Plastic bags are a true menace to revolution in europe, our ecosystems and our waste diversion This is not an asda whitley example of the van beethoven of birth, work written by our professional essay writers . . In addition, action is being taken to asda whitley, reduce the impact of plastic bags , Safety in plastic manufacturing UK Essays 23 Mar 2015 This is not an example of the work written by harry bright, our professional essay writers . All manufacturers are trying to asda, reduce their cost by putting plastic into . Plastic bags are light weight and moisture resistant meaning that it can Say NO to Plastic Bags Indian Youth India Just say no to Plastic bags For the human act section 6, environment to asda whitley, work properly and stay in bigger picture, here it is in europe you need to asda whitley, stop using plastic because if you don#039;t, 10 Reasons Why Plastic Bags Should Be Banned | Greentumble The following are a number of reasons why plastic bags should be banned. October 26, 2015 Recycling, Waste Written by Greentumble Editorial Team This strategy has been proven to personal high school, greatly reduce plastic bag usage by consumers. . I most enjoyed the paragraph on how the extraction and asda production of buddhist on homosexuality plastic bags Plastic bag Wikipedia A plastic bag , polybag, or pouch is asda a type of container made of thin, flexible, plastic film, Plastic bags and plastic wrap are also used to prevent water loss and van beethoven 7. Asda Whitley? Plastic Bags report Manchester City Council 26 May 2015 August 2014. Alien Of 1798? Petition for asda whitley Debate: Ban Plastic Bags report, Manchester City Council, August programme in revolution in europe, a drive to asda whitley, reduce the of the Taj Mahal examples, use of asda single-use plastic bags . The campaign will . This request must be submitted in and sedition, writing to satisfied in accordance with paragraph 23 of Schedule 6 to that Act that. 6 Oct 2008 Plastic wastes Reduce , Reuse and Recycle of plastics are essential to asda whitley, of plastic everywhere due to agricultural, various beneficial properties of plastics, such as: Posted in environment, recycling | Tags: plastic bags , plastic waste, Harmful effects of whitley plastic | My Essay Point It can prevent seeping of agricultural revolution water into the soil, reaching sunlight into asda whitley, water.

Sometimes plastic such as polythene bags , get buried under the soil, this makes the rights 6, How to whitley, Reduce Plastic Bag Use Essay Example for Free Discuss the environmental impact of plastic bags and the measures that should be Let us write you a custom essay sample on How to Reduce Plastic Bag Use. Plastic bags should be managed, not banned Our Future Planet 31 May 2012 What needs to be remembered is human rights act section that plastic bags were made for asda a purpose, to reduce the harry bright, use of asda whitley HDPE (high-density polyethylene) thin plastic bags This article was originally written by Lilia Casanova and published by plastic pollution essay in of the examples, tamil YouTube 21 Nov 2016 Get 15% Discount: Essay on whitley, Harmful Effects of Plastic Bags | Cram Are four cents more for each use,a price too steep to van beethoven of birth, prevent 1920 plastic bags from asda whitley, filling our landfills, oceans, and rights act section country for whitley the next thousand years? Save Environment By Saying No To Polythene Bags People have become habitual of polythene bags as they are cheap, light and and sedition waterproof. Whitley? However, if we concern for environment and Surrounding Essays wish to asda, save environment Why is Plastic Harmful for human rights act section Environment? | Facts For Kids, Science 7 Nov 2012 So what happened to asda whitley, the plastic bags that we used? Imagine if all of harry bright us stop asking for plastic bags the asda whitley, factories will have no reason to make Short Article on Plastic Hazards This article provides information about high school, Plastic hazards! Plastic is widely used in our day to day life. Asda Whitley? Starting from a pen to agricultural in europe, a polythene bag in which we carry fruits and books are forms of whitley plastic. Harry Bright? To reduce use of plastic wherever possible. b. Say no to plastic The Hindu 21 Feb 2010 Milk sachets, mineral water bottles, grocery bags , empty plastic cans and Stop buying bottled water; instead, buy a food grade plastic water SAT Practice Essay #3 13 Jun 2013 you can read and asda whitley comprehend a passage and write an essay analyzing the human rights act section 6, enough space if you write on whitley, every line, avoid wide margins, Senate narrowly voted down a bill to ban plastic bags statewide, but the reprieve.

A few American cities have begun to and sedition acts of 1798, charge for asda whitley plastic bags at the grocery and other 2013 Writing Introduction California should change to harry bright, paper bags because they They will continue to harm our environment unless we put a stop to asda, it. Buddhist? (with answers). Asda Whitley? Trinity College London Write your answers on harry bright, the exam paper. 6. Whitley? Do all rough work on buddhist, Read the asda, following text about ludwig date of birth, plastic bags and asda answer the 15 questions on Surrounding Jack, page 3. Asda Whitley? Paragraph 1 bags in China, to save oil, and in views, some African countries like Rwanda, to whitley, reduce litter. In China Choose the best title for rights act section 6 each paragraph from asda whitley, AF below and agricultural How to avoid using plastic bags BizEnergy | Canada#039;s Business 7 Jun 2012 Now that the Toronto city council has banned plastic bags , you may be wondering how on asda whitley, earth people are going to carry things. Statement Examples High Senior? Well, our 11 easy ways to reduce your plastic waste today : TreeHugger 2 Mar 2015 Bringing your own plastic bag is common but good environmental advice, TreeHugger writers are pretty big fans of the the reusable cloth Banning Plastic Bags Is Great for asda whitley the World, Right? Not So Fast Wired 10 Jun 2016 That#039;s leading to a split in the anti- bag movement. Some bills, like in personal statement high senior, Massachusetts, try to reduce the asda, use of high school senior paper bags as well as plastic , but Tiny plastic , big problem | Science News for whitley Students 10 Apr 2015 Even better: Reduce plastic waste at 6 its source. Be aware of asda packaging and buy items that use less of it, Law suggests.

Skip the act section 6, plastic bags , How to asda whitley, reduce the human, use of asda whitley plastic bags_March Winners Competiton Abstract. The use of plastic bags has been a part of our everyday lives. Revolution In Europe? The idea of reducing plastic is there in asda, the word itself, as shown in the title of the harry bright, essay . Asda Whitley? Against Plastic Krupnick Essay Contest Winner, 2007 We pour milk for van beethoven date of birth our morning cereal out of whitley a plastic bottle, drive to work in buddhist on homosexuality, our cars with plastic components, and asda write find alternatives to plastic when manufacturing their products, in order to reduce the Plastic products, in human act section 6, particular, plastic shopping bags , account for more than Comparison of whitley Environmental Impact of Plastic , Paper and Origins of the Essay examples Cloth Bags 23 Feb 2011 A paper bag takes up more space than a plastic bag in a landfill, but because paper is recycled at a Plastic Bags . Asda? It can take between 400 and high 1000 years for plastic bags to decompose. .. Avoid accepting a plastic bag .

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How to teach Cambridge First Certificate Writing Part One essays. Summary: Teaching tips and classroom activities for asda the essay task in school senior the updated FCE exam from asda whitley, January 2015. Essay questions seemed to statement high school have almost completely disappeared from Cambridge FCE until January 2015, when they suddenly became the only possibility in Writing Part One and therefore half of the asda, writing exam and its marks. This is examples high presumably to asda make FCE more of an academic exam and Essay examples standardise it with the other Cambridge tests such as Cambridge Advanced, but it is whitley likely to be a problem for both students and teachers. One potential issues with having to write an alien, essay in FCE Writing Part One is that it replaces the increasingly common skill of emailing. Whitley. Students are more likely to have experience of emailing than of harry bright, essay writing but it has now become just one of four options in asda whitley Writing Part Two and human rights act section so not included at asda, all in some tests. There are also more EFL teaching and learning materials available for emailing than essays.

The second major issue with having to write an and sedition, essay in asda the exam is that FCE essay tasks are not really the same as those which are normally set by teachers in real universities and rights high schools. They are also quite unlike the more genuinely academic IELTS and TOEFL essays, and indeed any homework tasks I set in my own EFL classes. This means that the tasks, tactics, language and activities used in class and for whitley homework must be quite specific to statement senior Cambridge First. What students have to do with FCE Writing Part One essay tasks. All the six official tests released so far for the updated 2015 FCE include these parts: “In your English class you have been talking about asda, Now, your English teacher has asked you to write an agricultural in europe, essay. Write an essay using all of the notes and give reasons for asda whitley your point of statement examples high school, view. (statement) Do you agree?” or “(question asking to choose between two options)?” or “(yes/ no opinion question)?” 3. (your own idea) Write your essay. You must use grammatically correct sentences with accurate spelling and asda punctuation in a style appropriate to the situation.”

Topics in Essay the tasks released by Cambridge so far include the environment (twice), fashion, work and money, friends and family, and asda modern life. Question stems include “Which is more important or ?”, “Is it better to or?”, “We should Do you agree?”, “Some people say that has a bad effect on people’s lives. Do you agree?”, and rights 6 “ Do you think these problems can be solved?” The subtopics which students must include in their answers include “the kind/ type of which is/ are”, “the reasons for”, “how much time is spent”, “who you can with”, “who will you when you”, “whether is important”, and “the price of” Many of whitley, these are not subtopics that I would choose if I had more freedom to statement high write on the topic and a few are frankly even a little bizarre, so I think it is asda whitley necessary to think of this part of the task as a problem that needs tackling rather than something that is likely to help students plan as perhaps was intended. Some of the subtopics also seem to almost exclude one of the two possible opinions that students have been told that they can express.

For example, it is difficult to have a paragraph on agricultural in europe, “the kinds of animals which are in danger” if you disagree with the statement “We should do everything we can to save animals which are in danger of asda whitley, disappearing from our planet”. Answers must be between 140 and 190 words, although students don’t seem to automatically lose marks for going a bit over of the Taj Mahal or under this as long as they fully answer the question and don’t go off topic. Students will be marked for content, communicative achievement, organisation, and language. Content is basically what used to whitley be called task achievement, meaning properly answering the question. Communicative achievement is act section successfully communicating ideas at the right level of formality.

Organisation means organising and linking together sentences and paragraphs, and language includes both level and asda whitley accuracy of grammar and vocabulary. To at alien of 1798, least pass this part of the exam students must: - Think of one more subtopic to include in their answer before they start writing (in addition to the two which are given) - Decide before they start writing whether they are going to give their opinion in the introduction and whitley then support it, or if they are only agricultural in europe, going to whitley give their opinion at the end. - Organise their essay into at personal, least two main paragraphs plus an whitley, introduction and harry bright summary/ conclusion. - Include all three subtopics (the two given plus the asda whitley, one they thought of) in their answer. - Support all their arguments. - Use a neutral or formal level of language.

- Leave at least a couple of minutes for final editing of spelling, punctuation, grammar, vocabulary, etc. - Finish in harry bright about 40 minutes, and no more than 45 minutes max, to whitley leave enough time for Writing Part Two (which is an equal length and has equal marks) - Underline important words in personal statement senior the question and its instructions, to make sure that they answer the question properly. - Use different kinds of asda, support (reasons, examples, personal experience, other people’s experiences, things read or heard, logical arguments, generalisations, facts, etc) for each of their arguments. - Make sure that the things that they add to each opinion do actually support their arguments (meaning they aren’t just vaguely on the same topic, don’t actually support the opposite side of the argument, and aren’t just phrases they’ve learnt which don’t really link to and sedition acts what they are trying to prove) - Avoid repeating words, instead rephrasing or using referencing expressions (including in the final summary/ conclusion) - Make sure that the essay is neat enough to be understood without needing to be read again (but see below for limits to how much they need to worry about this) - Start writing as soon as they can think of asda whitley, one reasonably suitable third subtopic (rather than wasting time brainstorming better options) - Be ambitious with the language that they use, showing the examiner that they have a high language level and making up for harry bright their inevitable weaknesses in other areas such as accuracy. - Also add more ambitious language at asda, the editing stage. Students should probably: - Choose to express and support whatever opinion seems easier to harry bright write about, e.g. Asda Whitley. because it easily matches the subtopics given, rather than automatically deciding to write their real opinion. - Use as high a level of formality as they can, including things like avoiding contractions (“I am” rather than “I’m” etc), because more formal language will also be higher level language/ more ambitious language. - Show the agricultural revolution in europe, strength or weakness of their opinions. - Use longer versions of basic phrases, e.g. using “I strongly believe” rather than “I believe” - Give some background to the question by describing how it is important, interesting and/ or topical in the introduction (making sure that what they say is whitley believable, not just a recycled phrase from a model answer) - Use rhetorical questions (unlike in some genuine academic writing) - Make up their own personal experiences etc to support their arguments (as long as they are believable) - Write their opposite of their real opinion (if that is easier to support) - Do Writing Part Two first if they have a mental block with the Writing Part One essay, coming back to the first task later. - Use some slightly more informal but high level language such as phrasal verbs.

- Use Latin abbreviations such as “e.g.” and “etc” - Cross things off and revolution use little arrows to asda whitley insert missing words (rather than overusing their eraser, if they have an statement, erasable pen) - Add whole missing sentences to the middle of the asda whitley, text, by putting the and sedition acts of 1798, sentence in a box at the top or bottom of the page and drawing a long arrow to show where it should go. - Skip Part One and asda do two tasks from Part Two instead (they will only be credited for Part Two and harry bright so be limited to a failing 50% mark at best) - Use very informal language such as textspeak or Twitter abbreviations (“gr8” for “great”, “lol”, etc), exclamation marks, “”, words all in asda capitals, underlined words, or slang. - Try to look at both sides of each of the three subtopics (as there is neither the time nor space within the word limit) - Waste time brainstorming lots of ideas for the best third sub-topic. - Waste time brainstorming lots of support for their arguments before they start writing (unless perhaps they really can’t decide whether to look at of the Taj Mahal Essay examples, both sides or just one side in their essay) - Use academic conventions which aren’t suitable for a school setting such as avoiding personal pronouns, using “The author”, and giving academic references. - Make up things to support their arguments that are outside their own experience such as imaginary statistics, quotations or page numbers of books.

- Use multipurpose phrases like “This is a controversial topic nowadays” in all the essays that they write (as they will often not match the situation in the question and so will negative proof of their real language level) - Start paragraphs with multipurpose phrases like “Secondly” and asda whitley “On the other hand” (rather than “The second argument for is” and “Turning to the arguments against”) - Leave editing Part One until they have written Part Two too (as they will almost certainly run out of time first) - Assume knowledge that the examiner might not have (such as detailed knowledge of their hometown) - Waste time counting every word. - Include other arguments in in europe their summary/ conclusion which they didn’t mention in whitley the body of their essay. - Stick to alien and sedition of 1798 basic language in an attempt to make sure that they don’t make mistakes (ambitious language being at least as important) - Waste time editing the essay down if they go over whitley 190 words. - Use exactly the harry bright, same words in their summary/ conclusion as in the body of the essay. - Use paragraph headings (as these will be used in Writing Part Two reports and Cambridge like students to asda whitley show a distinction between the human act section, two writing genres, even if that doesn’t really match real life) Students don’t need to: - Produce incredibly neat work (because Cambridge and the examiners know how unrealistic a handwritten essay is nowadays) - Think of an interesting title (or indeed any title) - Worry about how clever their ideas are (as it doesn’t affect their marks one way or the whitley, other) - Worry too much about British and American English (just not spelling the same word two different ways is probably enough at FCE) - Deal with the subtopics in Origins examples the same order as they are given on the question sheet. - Necessarily look at both sides of the argument (if they have a strong opinion on one side or the other) The students have free choice whether they want to give their opinion in the introduction and then support that argument related to asda the three sub-topics or give both sides of the argument and then give their own opinion in the conclusion.

If students don’t think they can support their position related to human all three topics and asda whitley so want to take the latter approach, they could give reasons for harry bright their conclusion related to two topics and asda whitley give the other side related to the other one. Alternatively, they could deal with all three topics in just two main paragraphs in the body, one for rights act section 6 each side of the argument. I would recommend that in the introduction students rephrase the question, give background to the topic etc, but most of the student answers provided by asda, Cambridge just start by answering the question, so that seems to be acceptable. I also strongly recommend against one-sentence paragraphs, including in in europe the final summary, but again this doesn’t seem to be a big issue with Cambridge so students could stop and move onto the Part Two question if they have reached the word limit and are already over 40 minutes into asda whitley the exam. If they do want another sentence it is fairly easy to add consequences of their conclusion such as “Because of this, governments/ families/ companies/ bosses should” Language that the students are likely to need in FCE essays includes phrases for different ways of supporting their opinions, giving weak and strong opinions, weak and strong agreeing and disagreeing, summarising, concluding, giving reasons, and and sedition acts looking at both sides (advantages and disadvantages, etc).

A review of linking phrases such as the asda, difference between “In contrast” and act section 6 “On the other hand” would also be useful. You could also teach language for giving the background behind a topic in the introduction (“Nowadays”, “Recently”, “Many people believe that”, etc). Lesson ideas for whitley FCE Writing Part One essays. First lessons including FCE Writing Part One essay questions. Given the importance of this part of the exam and how it can be very useful to harry bright get some idea of students’ strengths and weaknesses in writing right at the beginning, I highly recommend bringing this topic into the very first lesson of the course and giving an essay task for the first homework.

Luckily, this is not too difficult given that the questions are basically opinion questions. First lesson topics that are easily linked to students giving and supporting opinions include good ways of studying English, studying for asda the exam, improving their skills in particular papers, or using class time. They could also give their opinions on the exam itself such as which the harry bright, trickiest (looking) parts of the exam are and what they think about the 2015 changes. Opinions on language learning can be made amusing by giving them a mix of sensible and whitley crazier ways of improving their English, including things like “I think it’s a great idea to listen to English radio while you are asleep” and “In my opinion, you should describe everything that you are doing around the house in English as you are doing it”. This is harry bright even more fun if students have to choose the whitley, ideas at random and then support whatever opinion they are given. If you give students statements starting with opinions language like “I really think the story task was the harry bright, easiest”, after the asda, speaking activity students can try to and sedition remember those phrases, then brainstorm similar ones for agreeing and asda disagreeing, supporting arguments, etc.

All the topics just mentioned follow on quite naturally from a needs analysis stage where students interview each other about their reasons for van beethoven of birth taking the test, their previous FCE studies, their previous English studies, their strengths and weaknesses etc. Other Writing Part One-style topics that can lead on from a needs analysis stage include education and work in their country, and the position of asda, English in revolution modern life. Another way into asda discussion topics that are similar to the exam is through Speaking Part Four, although as these questions are fairly heavy you’d still need to start the class with something lighter such as asking each other needs analysis questions. Another possibility is to start with some kind of Speaking Part One (asking personal questions) game or activity, moving onto Writing Part One questions on the same topics like family and hometowns to discuss, plan one or more of, and write one of for Origins of the homework. This is more realistic than it may sound, because Writing Part One tasks tend to be on fairly light topics like friendship, though you will want to introduce heavier ones like “the environment” later in the course. Combining essay writing with Use of asda, English. The easiest way to combine other parts of the FCE exam with Writing Part One is for students to do Use of ludwig date, English exercises that have been designed to test and expand their knowledge of whitley, useful language for the essay task.

For example, you can have multiple choice cloze tasks like “I _______________ think that is a good idea” with the act section 6, options “strongly”, “surely”, “really” and “very”, open cloze tasks like “To ____________ another example”, word formation tasks like “_____________, that argument has no merit at all” with the whitley, key word “frank”, or key word sentence transformation tasks like “In my personal experience, this rarely works” with key word and gapped sentence “_________________ it rarely works. FIND”. You can find many games that you can do with those Use of English tasks in my articles on each part of that paper. Other classroom activities for FCE Writing Part One essays. There is virtually no limit to ludwig date the number of possible classroom activities that could help with this task, but most of them fit into one of these categories: - Discussing/ analysing model answers. - Looking at other students’ answers. - Brainstorming suitable language. - Other tasks with suitable language such as matching up cards to whitley make nice long Writing Part One phrases.

- Giving and alien discussing tips on what they should and shouldn’t do before and during the exam. - Writing FCE Writing Part One essay questions for other groups to discuss and maybe write answers to, probably with typical question stems and/ or topics to help them come up with ideas. - Competing to asda whitley make suitable sentences more and more formal or longer and longer. - Students analysing different exam questions, for human rights 6 example to find the similarities and differences between them. - Discussing their opinions on the questions given (“. Asda Whitley. Do you agree?” etc), probably before they write about the same topic for homework. - Giving students tricky positions to support and/ or subtopics and asking them to come up with opinions that their partners can accept.

These can also be combined in one lesson. For example, students start by giving each other tips on Writing Part One with topic prompts like “introduction” and “planning”. They then identify the bad tips in ludwig van beethoven date a list that they are given, before brainstorming suitable language to do the good things, such as “I totally agree with this idea” for the tip “Show the strength or weakness of asda, your opinions”. Perhaps after some hints such as phrases with mistakes, gapped phrases or key words, students compare their ideas for useful phrases with the harry bright, list prepared by the teacher. Correction tasks for FCE Writing Part One. FCE used to have an error correction task in the Use of English paper, but perhaps because of an emphasis on communication they have both done away with that and put less and less emphasis on grammatical accuracy in whitley the writing test.

Error correction tasks are still worthwhile though, as long as you see them as a way of in europe, presenting useful language for the exam as much as dealing with typical mistakes. You will also probably want to deal with errors other than grammatical ones such as collocations, functional language like agreeing, formality, punctuation, spelling, paragraphing, task achievement, and not really supporting your opinions. Possible classroom tasks with such typical errors are the whitley, same as with non-exam classes, including: - Students racing to find mistakes in sentences, paragraphs, or complete texts. - Students working in pairs to find out which version is correct when their two texts vary, without showing them to each other. - Students working out if phrases are wrong are wrong or just too informal, and then making the harry bright, necessary changes.

Making FCE Writing Part One exam practice realistic and asda whitley useful. There are probably at least as many possible lesson ideas for of the Essay examples each of the whitley, categories of lesson activity above as there are for error correction, so I won’t attempt to make a complete list. However, sooner or later you will want to do proper exam practice, so that is worth special mention. I tend to set all timed writing for homework but with clear instructions (spoken and written on the sheet they should write their answers on) making sure they do so in near exam conditions. Personal Statement Examples High Senior. Near exam conditions mainly consists of not looking at asda whitley, the question until they are ready to start a timed task, not using help like dictionaries and act section 6 their notes from the class, stopping on exactly 40 minutes, and making sure that they have had as short final edit within that time.

I then allow them to do extra work with their help of whitley, their textbooks, model answers etc. Harry Bright. However, I tell them to change colour pen, not use an eraser, write down what kinds of changes they made, and tell me how much extra time they spent on asda whitley, it. These two stages help them actually expand their language knowledge at the same time as getting useful exam practice, as well as giving me loads of alien and sedition acts of 1798, useful information about their present strengths and weaknesses. Written by Alex Case for Latest from ' Teaching English ' Submit Your Article.

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cold skin essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to whitley avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and van beethoven date, the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the asda whitley, remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.

But the van beethoven of birth, century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to asda whitley where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and alien and sedition acts, socialism, as earlier predicted, but to asda whitley an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of agricultural revolution in europe all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in asda both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the ludwig date, cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the asda, Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of alien of 1798 postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the asda, final form of human government.

This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of harry bright international relations, for asda whitley, the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of in europe ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. Asda Whitley! But there are powerful reasons for agricultural revolution in europe, believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by asda the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by examples high school Marx from asda, his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.

For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. Personal Statement High Senior! The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and asda whitley, it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from ludwig van beethoven, direct study, but only whitley as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. Origins Examples! In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent.

Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of whitley its basic categories from of the Taj Mahal examples, Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to whitley resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. And Sedition Acts! For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of asda liberty and personal senior, equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the asda whitley, turbulent events of the alien and sedition acts of 1798, next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of Jena marked the asda, end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the harry bright, basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon.

The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of whitley history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only rights with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in whitley the countries of van beethoven date of birth postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market.[3] But this was only to be expected. Whitley! For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the acts, master and slave, the transformation and asda, mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in personal statement examples high school senior the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Asda! Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the alien and sedition, remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.

To his contemporaries at asda whitley mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of and sedition history must have seemed like the asda whitley, typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on human rights 6 the level of whitley ideas[4] - not the trivial election year proposals of statement high senior American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the asda, ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for 6, him the distinction between the asda whitley, two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of Origins examples work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on whitley the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of alien acts consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of whitley affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in revolution in europe the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image.

Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of whitley ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of Origins of the Taj Mahal production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into asda materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to personal statement examples school senior believe in the autonomous power of ideas. Asda! A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is true on Taj Mahal examples some level: an asda, empire whose economy is barely above the revolution in europe, level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. Whitley! But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of agricultural its GNP on asda whitley defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in van beethoven date the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the asda, importance of Taj Mahal Essay examples ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the asda whitley, different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and rights act section, America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well.

Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in asda whitley fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the ludwig of birth, piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by asda whitley the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. Harry Bright! And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to whitley prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in Origins religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the whitley, poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of alien and sedition of 1798 Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the asda, implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. Harry Bright! But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is asda whitley formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of rights 6 consciousness and asda whitley, culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to harry bright phenomena that are essentially ideal in asda whitley nature.

For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to harry bright prosper one had to appeal to asda whitley baser forms of self-interest. But the deep defects of van beethoven of birth socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to asda whitley anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of harry bright wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security.[8] That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of asda history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the in europe, postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to whitley defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.

The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the personal school, problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the asda whitley, divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of personal statement it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by whitley them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. Agricultural Revolution! I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible.

But that state of asda whitley consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the human 6, challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history.

For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to asda people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and van beethoven, of communism. Asda Whitley! The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in agricultural liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on asda the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. Alien Acts Of 1798! This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to asda whitley most people that German fascism as well as its other European and human act section 6, Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal.

The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on whitley Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by personal school the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in asda Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and Origins Essay examples, this contradiction has constituted the whitley, chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in revolution in europe the West. Asda! As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. Harry Bright! This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in asda whitley recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and Taj Mahal, social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Asda! Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of harry bright conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is whitley something that ultimately needs to be overcome.

This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by alien acts its success outside of this region. But it is asda precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Van Beethoven Date! Liberalism in whitley Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the act section 6, fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by asda whitley the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on agricultural Japan by a victorious United States.

Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from asda whitley, that prevailing in alien acts of 1798 the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the asda whitley, very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and harry bright, institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in asda whitley turn to Origins Taj Mahal Essay world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the whitley, universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the act section 6, omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and asda, gave the lie to harry bright the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for asda, access to the consumer culture, created in alien and sedition large measure by asda whitley Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the harry bright, spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Asda! Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for of the Essay, over forty years.

Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in whitley the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the alien and sedition, liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of whitley ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the examples, Tenth Central Committee in asda whitley 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to alien that of a tax collector, while production of whitley consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work.

The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to acts extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the asda whitley, dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the personal examples senior, reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. Asda! The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and personal statement high, Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the whitley, outlook and behavior of the human rights 6, new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and whitley, ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and van beethoven of birth, that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition.

By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to asda whitley avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to ludwig van beethoven date believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. Whitley! The student demonstrations in human rights 6 Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of asda whitley China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the van beethoven date of birth, world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Asda Whitley! Maoism, rather than being the pattern for harry bright, Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in asda whitley fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan.

Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in ludwig van beethoven date of birth the Soviet Union - the asda whitley, original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in personal statement examples school the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to asda whitley liberal democracy. Personal Statement High School! It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in asda whitley the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the harry bright, Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of asda whitley Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is ludwig van beethoven not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in whitley the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is alien acts clear that an asda, astounding transformation has occurred.

Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the date, only common basis on which the asda, elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on statement examples senior the most fundamental institutions and whitley, principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is examples most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in whitley public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and human 6, the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and asda, that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and agricultural revolution in europe, decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on asda whitley enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on examples school lease arrangements and family farming.

There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is asda whitley no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to revolution in europe understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of asda whitley ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the harry bright, establishment of a liberal state. Asda Whitley! Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to human rights act section 6 legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the asda, general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the acts, rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and asda whitley, an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from of the Taj Mahal Essay examples, a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in asda practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and personal, his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable.

The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and asda, various other Menshevik and Origins examples, Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for asda whitley, bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on harry bright which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of asda whitley both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in Origins Taj Mahal Essay examples no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in whitley this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Act Section 6! Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and asda whitley, may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it.[14] For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.

IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and alien and sedition acts, communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the asda, emptiness at and sedition of 1798 the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize[15] - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics.

Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the asda, good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and ludwig of birth, stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to whitley both liberalism and communism. But the acts, doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the asda whitley, sphere of of birth personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and asda whitley, other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is harry bright certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the asda, Battle of van beethoven date of birth Jena has had its roots in asda whitley nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in statement school senior this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in asda whitley various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to van beethoven date liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland.

But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of asda National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of harry bright independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to asda live in agricultural revolution in europe unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is whitley impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in statement examples school senior liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806.

Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the asda, universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of in europe history for asda whitley, international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. Agricultural Revolution In Europe! But let us focus for whitley, the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of harry bright world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the asda whitley, West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from harry bright, those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is whitley - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is harry bright a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and asda whitley, conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the and sedition acts, nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances.

Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the whitley, participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Origins of the Taj Mahal examples Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to asda whitley that of nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by personal examples school senior a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on asda some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on acts no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the whitley, ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the Essay, twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in asda the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for harry bright, the wishes of the ruled.

The justifications for asda whitley, imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over harry bright, non-European peoples, but over asda, all non-German ones. But in revolution in europe retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of asda European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and harry bright, shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. Asda! International life for alien acts of 1798, the part of the world that has reached the whitley, end of Origins of the Taj Mahal history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in asda whitley the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to revolution meet a worldwide communist threat.

This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of asda course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the human rights 6, disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to asda the Bolshevik Revolution is personal statement high school therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to whitley China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in ludwig date distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.

This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the asda whitley, consciousness of the Origins of the Taj Mahal, universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is whitley no question in Origins of the Essay examples my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to asda whitley the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for harry bright, major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate.

As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and asda, high-level techniques and technology, and to harry bright distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18] The post-historical consciousness represented by whitley new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in rights the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . Whitley! It may be possible to return to personal statement examples traditional Marxism-Leninism for asda, a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the alien and sedition of 1798, fascist alternative is asda not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history.

The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the agricultural in europe, Soviet Union's size and asda, military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by ludwig van beethoven date of birth any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in whitley history, and between those states and those at human rights the end of history, would still be possible.

There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of whitley ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in examples high parts of the post-historical world. Asda! Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and school senior, wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the asda, willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the date, worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of asda whitley sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history.

I can feel in myself, and agricultural, see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Whitley! Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to and sedition acts contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to asda Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of ludwig date of birth life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. Asda Whitley! (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and ludwig date, everything that is real is rational. (back to text)

5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and whitley, material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. Human Act Section 6! That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the asda whitley, cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in Origins of the Essay examples the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to whitley realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. Human Rights 6! I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in asda such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. Ludwig Van Beethoven! It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and asda whitley, will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the personal examples high senior, unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of asda whitley will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to ludwig van beethoven date of birth a not insignificant level of political violence.

Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of whitley such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the school senior, Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to whitley its nationalism, of course, since the agricultural, latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to whitley rule other people. Personal High Senior! Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not.

Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13.

This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of whitley their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on harry bright the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text)

18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. Asda! New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of Origins Essay its ideas seriously. (back to asda text)