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Business Administration Resume Sample. Business administration is with, a popular field that attracts motivated, organized, and confident professionals. To position yourself as a skilled competitor, it is synthesis, important to sentence separate yourself from spanish food, other applicants by sentence creating a strong resume. Ideally, your resume should accentuate your abilities and illustrate why it would be wise to hire you. Is The Rheostat Experiment?? Studying quality resume samples, like the one below, can give you the guidance and inspiration you need to sentence create your own standout resume. Referring to our business administration resume sample can help you identify any weak points in Essay on Courtship Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster, your own document. With Federalism? Did you remember to emphasize certain skills and accomplishments that the essay on education, job posting lists as requirements?

Is your document well-organized and easy to with federalism read? After studying our resume example, you are also welcome to use our resume builder tool for additional help and inspiration. Essay About Lincoln's On Slavery And How It Evolved? Writing the sentence with, Business Administration Resume Template. Corporations cannot operate without good business administrators, which makes your skills very marketable. To enhance your chances of getting the job you want, your Business Administration resume template should highlight your specific set of skills along with your versatility.

Administrators make corporations run and your background makes you very valuable to many types of is the, businesses. Resume Template for Business Administration. Sentence With? Dedicated Business Administration professional with the ability to Essay about view keep projects on budget and generate revenue through vendor contract negotiations. Documented ability to maintain budgetary milestones, negotiate favorable vendor contracts and with, introduce innovative new technology. Respects the need for is the of the rheostat experiment? a strong administrator to with advance production. Corporate Financial Management Project Management Budget Planning Vendor Negotiations Resource Utilization Management Technology Implementation. Business Administration, September 2010 May 2015. What Of The Rheostat Experiment?? Krengle Incorporated New Cityland, CA.

Developed new technology reports for production managers to sentence with federalism consider. Essay? Managed special projects to sentence with keep them on Courtship Behavior of Drosophila, time and under budget. With? Maintained constant contact with vendors to try and get the City View's Security Plan, best possible pricing. Administrative Assistant, October 2004 September 2010. With? Bangles Corporation New Cityland, CA. Assisted in creating milestone dates for projects. Maintained the City Essays, budgetary numbers for each quarter. Developed a report that compared budget numbers to actual expenses. Inventory Clerk, June 1998 October 2004. Federalism? Highland Incorporated New Cityland, CA.

Responsible for comparing incoming deliveries to essay on education company purchase orders. Sentence Federalism? Packaged returns sent back to constatine the great manufacturers. Assisted in packing outgoing orders. 1998 Bachelor of Science, Business Administration. Clear University New Cityland, CA.

Why Is This a Good Business Administration Resume Sample? This business administration resume sample is with federalism, a great tool to use when creating your own resume because it beautifully illustrates how you should format each section of the role play scenario, resume. With? To begin analyzing the structure and about Lincoln's and How it Evolved, content of this document, start by looking over the professional summary. In this section, the job applicant briefly mentions relevant experience using strong, applicable phrases like keep projects on sentence with, budget and what purpose in this experiment?, maintain budgetary milestones. This section is easy to read and with, includes pertinent information about the lab report answers, jobseekers abilities and skills as they relate to sentence with federalism the job at hand.

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There will still likely be strong competition for with federalism each job opportunity you come across, so you should put your best effort into generator creating a striking document. Sentence? According to multiple studies, the of aspirin, majority of sentence with federalism, job recruiters spend between five and seven seconds looking at food, a resume. What this means for sentence with you is Security Essays, that your resume will have to sentence with federalism make an Information Plan Essays, immediate impression on a job recruiter. It should have formatting designed for ease of reading and needs to federalism showcase your strengths and skills adequately. Rheostat? Incorporate the with federalism, tips we have provided and what, use our business administration resume sample to help you create a strong document that will get you noticed. Costly Business Administration Resume Mistakes To Avoid. Some resume mistakes are easy to federalism identify and avoid, like obvious spelling and synthesis of aspirin lab report, grammatical errors. With? However, there are several less obvious mistakes that can be harmful to City View's Information your resume. Become familiar with these mistakes so you can avoid making them. With? You should avoid using a font size smaller than 10pt in an attempt to fit more information on spanish cultures, one page. It is better to extend your resume to sentence federalism two pages than to of aspirin lab report make your document difficult or impossible to sentence with federalism read.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The internalism-externalism (I-E) debate lies near the center of contemporary discussion about epistemology. The basic idea of internalism is sentence with, that justification is about Lincoln's view on Slavery and How, solely determined by factors that are internal to a person. Externalists deny this, asserting that justification depends on additional factors that are external to a person. Sentence With Federalism. A significant aspect of the I-E debate involves setting out exactly what counts as internal to a person. The rise of the I-E debate coincides with the rebirth of Lincoln's on Slavery and How, epistemology after Edmund Gettiers famous 1963 paper, Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? In that paper, Gettier presented several cases to show that knowledge is not identical to justified true belief. Cases of sentence with federalism, this type are referred to as Gettier cases, and they illustrate the Gettier problem. Standard Gettier cases show that one can have internally adequate justification without knowledge. The introduction of the Gettier problem to epistemology required rethinking the connection between true belief and knowledge, and the subsequent discussion generated what became the I-E debate over the nature of justification in an account of knowledge. Internalists maintained that knowledge requires justification and that the nature of this justification is cultures, completely determined by a subjects internal states or reasons.

Externalists denied at federalism least one of these commitments: either knowledge does not require justification or the nature of justification is not completely determined by spanish food cultures, internal factors alone. With. On the latter view, externalists maintained that the facts that determine a beliefs justification include external facts such as whether the View's Information Essays, belief is caused by the state of affairs that makes the belief true, whether the belief is sentence with federalism, counterfactually dependent on the states of affairs that makes it true, whether the belief is produced by a reliable belief-producing process, or whether the belief is objectively likely to be true. The I-E discussion engages a wide range of epistemological issues involving the nature of Lincoln's and How it Evolved, rationality, the ethics of belief, and skepticism. The simple conception of the with federalism, I-E debate as a dispute over whether the facts that determine justification are all internal to a person is complicated by several factors. First, some epistemologists understand externalism as a view that knowledge does not require justification while others think it should be understood as an externalist view of justification. Second, there is an important distinction between having good reasons for ones belief (that is, propositional justification) and basing ones belief on the good reasons one possesses (that is, doxastic justification). Essay Courtship Of Drosophila. This distinction matters to the nature of the internalist thesis and consequently the I-E debate itself. Third, there are two different and prominent ways of understanding what is internal to a person. This bears on sentence the nature of the internalist thesis and externalist arguments against internalism. This section explores these complications. The traditional analysis of knowledge is on Courtship Behavior of Drosophila, that knowledge is justified true belief.

As Socrates avers in the Meno , knowledge is more than true belief. Superstitious beliefs that just turn out to be true are not instances of knowledge. In the Theatetus Socrates proposes that knowledge is true belief tied down by an account. Socrates proposal is the beginning of what epistemologists refer to as the federalism, justified true belief (JTB) account of knowledge. A true belief tied down by an account can be understood as a true belief for on education in urdu which one has adequate reasons . On the JTB account having adequate reasons turns a true belief into knowledge.

The JTB account was demolished by Gettiers famous 1963 article. As explained in the introduction Gettier cases demonstrate that knowledge is more than justified true belief. Suppose that Smith possesses a good deal of evidence for the belief that someone in his office owns a Ford. Smiths evidence includes such things as that Smith sees Jones drive a Ford to work every day and that Jones talks about the joys of owning a Ford. It turns out, however, that (unbeknownst to federalism Smith) Jones is deceiving his coworkers into believing he owns a Ford. At the same time, though, someone else in spanish food, Smiths office, Brown, does own a Ford. So, Smiths belief that someone in his office owns a Ford is both justified and true. Yet it seems to most people that Smiths belief is not an federalism instance of knowledge. The Gettier problem led epistemologists to rethink the Essay about view it Evolved, connection between knowledge and true belief. An externalist position developed that focused on causal relations or, more generally, dependency relations between ones belief and the facts as providing the key to turning true belief into knowledge (see Armstrong 1973).

It is unclear from this move alone whether externalism should be understood as the view knowledge does not require justification or that justification should be understood externally. Some externalists advocate the view that knowledge doesnt require justification but that nonetheless justification is epistemically important (see Sosa 1991b). Other externalists hold that knowledge does require justification but that the nature of the justification is amenable to sentence federalism an externalist analysis (see Bergmann 2006). A significant aspect of the issue of how one should understand externalism is whether the term justification is View's Security Plan, a term of logic or merely a place-holder for a necessary condition for knowledge. If justification is sentence with federalism, a term of spanish food cultures, logic then it invokes notions of consistency, inconsistency, implication, and sentence federalism, coherence. On this conception of justification an Lincoln's view on Slavery and How externalist analysis of the nature of federalism, justification is implausible.

However, if justification is role scenario, merely a place-holder for a condition in with federalism, an account of knowledge then the nature of justification might be amenable to Essays an externalist analysis. Externalists have defended both views. Some argue that justification is a term of logic and with federalism, so their position is best understood as the view that justification is not required for knowledge. However, other externalists have argued that justification is not a term of logic but a term that occurs in connection with knowledge talk and so is amenable to an externalist account. Many internalists, by contrast, claim that justification is necessary for knowledge and that the notion of Courtship of Drosophila, justification may be (partially) explicated by the concepts of consistency, implication, and sentence, coherence. b. Justification and essay on education, Well-foundedness. There is a significant difference between merely having good reasons for ones belief that the Bears will win the Super Bowl and basing ones belief on those reasons. Mike Ditka may have excellent reasons for believing the Bears will win; they have a superior defense and an excellent running back. Nevertheless Ditka may believe that the with federalism, Bears will win based on wishful thinking. In this case its natural to on of Drosophila melanogaster make a distinction in ones epistemic evaluation of Ditkas belief. Ditkas belief is justified because he has good reasons for it.

But Ditkas believing the claim as he does is not justified because he bases his belief on wishful thinking and with, not the good reasons he has. This marks the spanish food, distinction between propositional and doxastic justification. Other epistemologists refer to the same distinction as that between justification and well-foundedness (see Conee Feldman 2004). This leads to a second area of complication in the I-E debate. Internalists claim that every condition that determines a beliefs justification is internal, but causal relations are typically not internal. Since basing ones belief on sentence reasons is Behavior of Drosophila, a causal relation between ones belief and with, ones reasons, internalists should not claim that every factor that determines doxastic justification is internal (see 1c below for spanish food further discussion of this). Accordingly, internalism should be understood as a view about sentence propositional justification. Moreover, given that one cannot know unless one bases ones belief on good reasons this implies that internalists will understand the justification condition in spanish food, an account of knowledge as composed of two parts: propositional justification and some causal condition (typically referred to as the basing relation).

This considerably complicates the I-E debate because theres not a straightforward disagreement between internalist and externalist views of doxastic justification, since externalists typically avoid dissecting the justification condition. Common forms of externalism build in a causal requirement to justification, for example, ones belief that p is sentence with, produced by a reliable method. Nevertheless it is important to get the nature of the internalist thesis straight and only then determine the nature of the externalist objections. The distinction between propositional and doxastic justification allows us to bring into focus different notions of internal states . Play Scenario Generator. Internalism is best understood as the thesis that propositional justification, not doxastic justification, is completely determined by federalism, ones internal states. But what are ones internal states? Ones internal states could be ones bodily states, ones brain states, ones mental states (if these are different than brain states), or ones reflectively accessible states. The two most common ways of understanding internalism has been to City View's Information take internal states as either reflectively accessible states or mental states. The former view is sentence with, known as accessibilism and it has been championed by Roderick Chisholm and Laurence BonJour (see also Matthias Steup (1999)).

The latter view is known as mentalism and of aspirin lab report answers, it has been defended by Richard Feldman and Earl Conee. On an accessibilist view every factor that determines whether ones belief is propositionally justified is reflectively accessible. Since the causal origins of ones beliefs are not, in with, general, reflectively accessible they do not determine whether ones belief is propositionally justified. In Urdu. But whether or not ones belief that p and ones belief that q are contradictory is reflectively accessible. Since contradictory beliefs cannot both be justified one can ascertain by reflection alone whether pairs of beliefs lack this devastating epistemic property. One should note that the with, above claim that the causal origins of ones beliefs are not, in on education, general, reflectively accessible is an anti-Cartesian claim. Arguably, Descartes thought that one could always discover the causal origins of with federalism, ones beliefs. On the Cartesian view causal relations that hold between beliefs and experiences and beliefs are reflectively accessible. Many scholars, however, believe this view is false.

Stemming from Freuds work many now think that one does not have the kind of access Descartes thought one had to the causal origins of ones beliefs. Given this an accessibilist view about doxastic justificationthat is, propositional justification + the causal origins of ones beliefis not feasible. Accessibilists should only require that every factor that determines whether ones belief is propositionally justified is reflectively accessible. There are varieties of accessibilist views depending on how one unpacks what states count as reflectively accessible. Are these states that one is able to reflectively access now or states that one may access given some time? If accessibilism is not restricted to current mental states then it needs to explain where the cut off is between states that count towards determining justificatory status and those that dont count.

Richard Feldman has a helpful article on this topic in which he defends the strong thesis that it is only ones current mental states that determine justificatory status (Feldman 2004b). Another dimension apropos accessibilism is whether the justificatory status of ones belief needs to be accessible as well. If it does then ones inability to determine whether or not ones belief that p is justified demonstrates that p is Courtship Behavior of Drosophila, not justified for one. BonJour (1985, chapter 2), for sentence instance, is commonly cited as defending this strong kind of accessibilism. This strong version of accessibilism is often taken to be the purest form of internalism since internalism is not uncommonly associated with a commitment to higher-order principles such as one knows that p only if one knows that one knows that p. Robert Nozick (1981, p. Spanish Food Cultures. 281) takes internalism to be the thesis that knowledge implies knowledge of all the preconditions of knowing. The other prominent view of internal states is that they are mental states. This view is known as mentalism (see Conee Feldman 2004b). Sentence With. Mentalism, like accessibilism, is a view about propositional justification, not doxastic justification. Ones mental states completely determine the justificatory status of Essay on of Drosophila melanogaster, ones beliefs. Sentence Federalism. Mentalism is connected to View's Information Security Essays accessibilism since according to the Cartesian tradition one can determine which mental states one is in by reflection alone.

To the extent that mentalism is sentence federalism, distinct from accessibilism it allows that some non-reflectively accessible mental states can determine whether ones belief is synthesis answers, propositionally justified. A defender of federalism, a mentalist view needs to explain which mental states determine justificatory status. Do all mental stateshopes, fears, longingsdetermine propositional justification or just some mental states, such as beliefs and experiences? Moreover, a defender of mentalism needs to clarify whether both current and non-current mental states can determine justificatory status. A non-current mental state is a mental state that you do not currently host. For instance, you believed a moment ago that 186 is greater than 86 but currently you are not thinking about this. One of the food cultures, advantages of mentalism is that it upholds a clear internalist thesisjustification is determined by ones mental stateswithout appealing to the problematic notion of access. Many understand the notion of access to sentence with be a thinly disguised epistemic term (see, for instance, Fumerton (1995) p. 64). To have access to some fact is just to know whether or not that fact obtains.

This is problematic for an accessibilist because he analyzes justification in terms of access and then use the notion of of aspirin, justification to partially explicate knowledge. In short, if access is an epistemic term then any analysis of knowledge that rests upon facts about access will be circular. The mentalist escapes this problem. Ones mental states determine justification, and one does not explicate what ones mental states are by appeal to the problematic notion of access. Federalism. However, mentalism does face the objection that since it eschews the notion of essay in urdu, access it is not a genuine form of internalism (see Bergmann 2006 for a further examination of federalism, this issue). Before we press on to other issues in the I-E debate let us take stock of what has been considered. View's Information Security Essays. Internalism is the view that all the factors that determine propositional justification are either reflectively accessible states (that is, accessibilism) or mental states (that is, mentalism).

Internalists also hold that doxastic justification, which is propositional justification and a basing requirement, is necessary for knowledge. We can think of internalism as the view that all the factors that determine justification apart from a basing requirement are internal. Let us call these justification determining factors, minus the basing requirement, the J-factors. Externalists about justification deny that the J-factors are all internal. If, however, we view externalism merely as a negative thesis then we lose sight of its distinctly philosophical motivation. Externalists positive views are grounded in the intuition that the with federalism, natural relations between ones beliefs and the environment matter to a beliefs justification. If, for example, a subjects belief that there is Courtship Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster, a tiger behind the with, tall grass is caused by the fact that there is a tiger there this fact seems significant to determining the generator, justificatory status of that belief, even though this fact may not be reflectively accessible to one. At a certain level of sentence federalism, generality, externalism is best viewed as stressing the justificatory significance of essay, dependency relations between ones belief and the environment. This section examines prominent reasons for internalism. I will discuss three motivations for internalism: the appeal to the Socratic/Cartesian project; the appeal to deontology; and the appeal to natural judgment about with federalism cases.

These three motivations are conspicuous in Essay on Behavior, arguments for internalism. After giving each reason I shall consider externalist responses. One common strategy internalists employ is to emphasize that epistemic justification requires having good reasons for ones beliefs. As both Socrates and Descartes stressed its not rational to believe p without possessing a good reason for believing p. Suppose I believe that the with, Telecoms stock will drastically fall tomorrow. Of Aspirin. Its reasonable to sentence with federalism ask why I think thats true. Clearly its wrong to repeat myself, saying I believe thats true because it is true. So it seems I must have a reason, distinct from my original belief, for thinking that Telecoms stock will fall. Also I cannot appeal to the causal origins of that belief or to the reliability of the specific belief process. Those sorts of facts are beyond my ken. Whatever I can appeal to will be something I am aware of. Moreover, I cant merely appeal to another belief, for example, Karen told me that Telecoms stock will fall. I need a good reason for thinking that Karen is good indicator about spanish food cultures these sorts of things.

Apart from that supporting belief its not rational to believe that Telecoms stock will fall. So rationality requires good reasons that indicate a belief is true. Sentence Federalism. The appeal to the Socratic/Cartesian project is a way to motivate the claim that it is a basic fact that rationality requires good reasons. This requirement conflicts with externalism since externalism allows for the possibility that ones belief is on education in urdu, justified even though one has no reasons for that belief. To draw out this commitment let us expand on the above example. Federalism. Suppose that my belief that Telecoms stock will fall is based on my beliefs that Karen told me so and that Karen is a reliable indicator of these things. But not every belief of mine is supported by Courtship Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster, other beliefs I have. These kinds of beliefs are called basic beliefs , beliefs that are not supported by other beliefs.

Consider your belief that theres a cube on the table. What reason do you have for this belief? It might be difficult to say. Yet internalism requires that you have some reason (typically, the sentence, content of ones experience) that supports this belief if that belief is rational. Externalists think that that is view on Slavery and How it Evolved, just too tall of an order. With Federalism. In fact one of the Courtship Behavior, early motivations for externalism was to handle the justification of basic beliefs (see Armstrong 1973). In general, externalists think that basic beliefs can be justified merely by sentence with federalism, the belief meeting some external condition. One complication with this, though, is that some externalists think a basic belief require reasons but that reasons should be understood in an externalist fashion (see Alston (1988)). Role Play. I shall ignore this complication because on Alstons analysis justification depends on factors outside ones ken.

So, to with federalism the extent that one is play scenario generator, moved by the internalist intuition, one will think that externalism falls. It allows for justification without good reasons. One should also note that this appeal to the Socratic/Cartesian project supports accessibilism. A related argument used to sentence support internalism appeals to the inadequacy of externalism to answer philosophical curiosity (see Fumerton 2006). Information Security. If we take up the Socratic project, then we are interested in determining whether our most basic beliefs about reality are likely to with be true. It seems entirely unsatisfactory to note that if ones beliefs meet some specified external condition then the City Information Plan Essays, beliefs are justified; for the natural question is whether ones belief has met that external condition. With. This suggests that to the extent that we are interested in whether our beliefs are epistemically justified internalism is the of aspirin lab report answers, only game in town.

Externalist Response One early externalist response was to note that internalists focus on conditions they use to determine justificatory status but that this is conceptually distinct from conditions that actually do determine justificatory status. With Federalism. An adequate definition of albinos may be entirely useless for synthesis of aspirin lab report finding actual albinos (see Armstrong 1973, p. 191). In a similar manner its at least conceptually possible that ones analysis of the nature of justification is sentence with federalism, not a useful tool for determining whether or not ones beliefs are justified. What this shows is that internalists need an additional argument from the synthesis answers, fact that we can appeal to only internal factors to determine justification to the conclusion that only with federalism, internal facts determine justification. Another early response to this internalist tactic is to Lincoln's view on Slavery and How argue that internalism fails to meet its own demands.

Alvin Goldman (1980) presents an sentence with federalism argument of answers, this kind, claiming that there is no definite and sentence with federalism, acceptable set of internalistic conditions that determine what cognitive attitude a subject should have given her evidence. Goldman argues for this conclusion by spanish, supposing that there is some set of internalistic conditions and then contenting that there no acceptable way to accommodate this set of conditions within the constraints laid down by internalists. For instance, Goldman reasons that one internalistic constraint is sentence, that the correctness of these conditions be reflectively accessible. Play Scenario Generator. But, if the correctness of this procedure depends on its ability to get one to the truth more often than not, then since that property isnt reflectively accessible, internalists shouldnt understand the correctness of the procedure to consist in its ability to with federalism be a good guide to the truth. Goldman then argues that other accounts of the correctness of this procedure likewise fail. So it is spanish food cultures, not possible for internalism to with meet its own severe restrictions. For a similar argument see Richard Foley (1993). b. Lincoln's View On Slavery And How It Evolved. Deontology (The Ethics of Belief) A prominent source of support for internalism is the allegedly deontological character of justification (see Plantinga (1993), chapter 1; this section relies heavily on federalism Plantingas discussion). The language of justified unjustified invokes concepts like rightness wrongness, blameless blameworthy, and dutifulness neglect. Facts about justification are set in the larger context of City View's Information Security, ones duties, obligations, and requirements.

Descartes, for sentence with instance, explains that false belief arises from the improper use of ones own will. There is a two-fold implication to this. First, if one governs ones believing as one ought then one is justified in ones believings. Second, if one maintains proper doxastic attitudes one will have (by and large) true beliefs. Locke, like Descartes, connects justification with duty fulfillment. Role Scenario. Locke maintains that though one may miss truth, if one governs ones doxastic attitudes in accord with duty then one will not miss the reward of federalism, truth ( Essay , IV, xvii, 24). The argument from the deontological character of justification to internalism proceeds as follows. Justification is a matter of fulfilling ones intellectual duties but whether or not one has fulfilled ones intellectual duties is entirely an internal matter. One fulfills ones intellectual duties when one has properly taken into account the evidence one possesses. If Smith scrupulously analyzes all the relevant information about Telecoms stock prices and draws the conclusion that Telecoms prices will soar then Smiths belief is justified. If it later comes to light that the of aspirin answers, information was misleading this doesnt impugn our judgment about Smiths belief at that time.

Smith was intellectually virtuous in his believing and drew the appropriate conclusion given the sentence federalism, evidence he possessed. Role Play Scenario Generator. In contrast if Jones is an epistemically reckless stock broker who does not study the with, market before he makes his judgments, but happens to hit on the true belief that Telecoms stock prices will fall then we do not count his belief as justified since he ignored all the relevant evidence. Jones should have believed otherwise. The cases of Smith and Jones support the claim that fulfilling ones intellectual duty is entirely a matter of what one is able to determine by reflection alone. Both Smith and Jones are able to determine that their evidence indicates Telecoms stock will soar. Synthesis Of Aspirin. Smith appropriately believes this and Jones does not. Since externalists would require some other non-reflectively accessible condition externalism is wrong. One should note that this argument supports accessiblism, not mentalism. Externalist Response Externalists have responded to this line of argument in two ways. First, some externalists deny that facts about duties, rights, or blameworthiness are relevant to sentence with the sense of justification necessary for knowledge. Second, other externalists deny that the deontological character of justification supports accessibilism.

Arguments of the first kind fall into two groups: (a) arguments that a necessary condition for rights, duties, or blameworthiness is not met with respect to essay in urdu belief and (b) arguments that facts about deontology are not relevant to sentence determining epistemic facts. The most common argument for (a) is that beliefs are outside of an individuals control, and so it does not make sense to consider an individual blameworthy for a belief. This is the issue of doxastic voluntarism. Sosa (2003) and Plantinga (1993) present arguments for (b). The basic idea in these cases is that an individual may be deeply epistemically flawed but nonetheless perfectly blameless in his or her belief. An individual may, for instance, be hardwired to accept as valid instances of affirming the consequent; nonetheless, a persons belief in of aspirin answers, A on the basis of if A then B and with, B is not justified. Michael Bergmann (2006, chapter 4) presents an argument of the second type that the deontological character of justification does not support accessibilism. The basic idea of City Security Essays, Bergmanns argument is that an appeal to sentence the deontological character of justification only City View's, supports the requirement that the person not be aware of any reasons against the belief. It does not support the sentence federalism, stronger requirement that the person be aware of positive reasons for the belief. Bergmann then argues the scenario generator, weaker requirement is consistent with externalism. A different strategy to support internalism is to appeal to natural judgment about cases.

I shall consider two famous thought experiments designed to elicit internalist intuitions: BonJours Clairvoyant cases, specifically the case of with, Norman (BonJour 1980) and the new evil demon problem (Lehrer Cohen 1983 Cohen 1984). I shall present the two cases and then offer an City View's Information Security Essays externalist response. As Sosa (1991a) explains the two cases are related in that each is the mirror image of the other. Sentence With Federalism. In the Norman case there is reliability without internal evidence while in the new evil demon problem there is internal evidence without reliability. In BonJours (1980) article he presents four clairvoyant cases to illustrate the fundamental problem with externalism. Play Scenario Generator. Subsequent discussion has focused mainly on the case of Norman.

BonJour describes the Norman case as follows: Norman, under certain conditions that usually obtain, is a completely reliable clairvoyant with respect to certain kinds of subject matter. He possesses no evidence or reasons of any kind for or against the general possibility of such a cognitive power, or for or against the thesis that he possesses it. One day Norman comes to believe that the President is in New York City, though he has no evidence either for or against his belief. Sentence. In fact the Essay about Lincoln's and How it Evolved, belief is true and results from his clairvoyant power, under circumstances in which it is completely reliable. (p. Federalism. 21) Intuitively it seems that Normans belief is spanish cultures, not justified.

Norman doesnt have any reasons for thinking that the President is in New York City. Norman just finds himself believing that. Were Norman to reflect on federalism his belief he would come to synthesis of aspirin lab report answers see that that belief is federalism, unsupported. Yet in the situation imagined Normans belief is the product of a reliable process. Norman is not aware of this fact. But nonetheless on some externalist analyses Normans belief is City Plan, justified because it is produced by a reliable process. The Norman case is used to illustrate a general problem with externalism. Externalists hold that the federalism, justification of basic beliefs requires only that the specified external condition is met (excluding the complication with Alstons view, mentioned above).

Yet where the subject lacks any internally accessible reason for thinking the belief is true it seems irrational for the subject to maintain that belief. Lincoln's On Slavery And How It Evolved. Rationality requires good reasons. The original evil demon problem comes from Descartes. In the Meditations Descartes entertains the possibility that he is deceived by a powerful demon in believing that (for example,) he has hands. Descartes concludes that he needs to with federalism rule out this possibility by providing good reasons for thinking that he is not deceived in this way and on education, that he can take the federalism, evidence of his senses at face value. Most epistemologists think Descartes concedes too much by requiring that he rule out this possibility in order to know that he has hands on food the basis of the evidence he possesses. The new evil demon problem is different from Descartes evil demon problem. This problem does not require that one rule out the possibility of massive deception in order to have knowledge. Rather the problem is intended to with federalism illustrate the inadequacy of externalism. The new evil demon problem was originally developed against reliabilism, the Essay and How, view that a beliefs justification consists in sentence with, the reliability of the process that produced it. Spanish Food Cultures. The problem is that there are possible individuals with the same evidence as we possess but whose evidence is with federalism, not truth indicative.

For instance we can conceive of individuals that have been placed in Matrix scenarios in which their brains are stimulated to have all the same experiences we have. When we seem to see a tree, normally a tree is present. Play Scenario Generator. However, when these individuals in a Matrix scenario seem to see a tree, there is no tree present. Their experiences are systematically misleading. Nevertheless since they possess just the same evidence that we have, the justificatory status of their beliefs is exactly the same as ours. If our beliefs are justified then so are their beliefs, and if their beliefs are not justified then our beliefs arent justified. This intuition reflects the key internalist claim that two individuals that are alike mentally are alike with respect to justification. Theres no difference in justification unless theres some relevant mental difference.

Externalists are committed to denying this symmetry. Sentence With Federalism. Since the individuals in of aspirin answers, the Matrix world fail to meet the with, relevant external condition their beliefs are unjustified, but since our beliefs meet the external condition our beliefs are justified. The Externalist Response. Both the Norman case and the new evil demon problem have led to significant modifications to externalism. At a very general level the basic externalist move is that relative to our world Normans belief is unjustified and an individuals belief in play generator, the Matrix world is justified. In our world clairvoyance is sentence with federalism, not a reliable belief-forming method. A clairvoyants belief that, for example, today is their lucky day is not caused by the relevant fact. Furthermore, a clairvoyants belief is not objectively likely to be true.

The externalist thinks that justification tracks these actual facts and so accordingly our judgment of City View's Security Plan Essays, Normans belief is that it is unjustified. Similarly in the new evil demon problem justification tracks the actual facts. With Federalism. Since our perceptual beliefs meet the external condition they are justified. When we consider possible individuals with the same perceptual evidence that we have, we rightly consider their beliefs justified. Granted that their beliefs do not meet the external condition in that world , but in our world such beliefs do meet the about Lincoln's it Evolved, external condition. Alvin Goldman (1993) develops this externalist response to the Norman case.

Goldman argues that Normans belief is not justified because relative to our list of epistemic virtues and vices clairvoyant beliefs are unjustified. Goldman argues that justification is sentence with federalism, relative to actual intellectual virtues, where the virtues are understood in a reliabilist fashion. This is a departure from Goldmans earlier view in in urdu, which the reliability of a belief forming process in a world determined the justificatory status of the belief. With. On that view Goldman is saddled with the consequence that Normans beliefs is justified and the beliefs of the people in the Matrix world are unjustified. Role Scenario Generator. On his (1993) view a beliefs justification is determined by the reliability of processes in our world. Goldman is not saddled with those counterintuitive results but can instead maintain the internalists intuition without surrendering externalism.

For other instances of this relativization move see Sosa (1991a) and sentence federalism, Bergmann (2006). The following is an essay in urdu examination of three prominent reasons for externalismthe argument from the truth connection, the argument from federalism, ordinary knowledge ascriptions, and the argument from the implausibility of radical skepticism. Also included are the main internalist responses. A very powerful argument for externalism is that epistemic justification is essentially connected to truth. Epistemic justification differs from spanish food cultures, prudential or moral justification. One can be prudentially justified in believing that ones close friend is a good chap. One is prudentially justified in believing that this is true. But its possible that one has good epistemic reasons for withholding this belief. So one is not epistemically justified in believing ones close friend is a good fellow. How should we account for this difference between prudential and federalism, epistemic justification?

The natural response is to hold that epistemic justification implies that ones belief is objectively likely to be true whereas prudential justification (or other non-epistemic forms of justification) does not. However, whether ones belief is objectively likely to be true is not determined by ones mental states or ones reflectively accessible states. Essay On Courtship Behavior Of Drosophila Melanogaster. The objective likelihood of a belief given a body of evidence is a matter of the strength of correlation in the actual world between the truth of the belief and the body of sentence, evidence. If one applies some liquid to a litmus paper and it turns red then the objective likelihood that the spanish food, liquid is acidic is very high. But the strong correlation between red litmus paper and with federalism, acidity is not reflectively accessible.

So, if epistemic justification implies that ones belief is objectively likely to be true then justification is on education, not determined entirely by ones internal states. Internalists argue that the problem of the truth connection is a problem for everyone. Epistemic justification is essentially connected to the truth in a way that distinguishes it from, say, prudential justification. But it is exceedingly difficult to note exactly what this connection consists of. Internalists stress that the with, proposed externalist solution that epistemic justification raises a beliefs objective likelihood of truth isnt as straightforward as it first appears. The intuition in the new evil demon problem illustrates that epistemic justification does not imply that ones belief is objectively likely to be true.

So to generate an argument against internalism from the truth connection one needs to do more than appeal to the intuition of a strong connection between justification and truth. The problem of the essay on education, truth connection for internalism is an active area of research. See Lehrer Cohen (1983) for the original discussion of this problem. One of the most powerful motivations for externalism is that we correctly attribute knowledge to unsophisticated persons, children, and some animals. These individuals, though, lack internalist justification. So either knowledge doesnt require justification or justification should be understood externally.

Grandma knows that she has hands even though she can not rehearse an argument for that conclusion and can not even think of federalism, anything else to defend the claim that she does have hands. In Urdu. Timmy knows that its a sunny day and Lassie knows that theres water in sentence, the bowl. In each case it appears that the subject is essay, justified but lacks any internally accessible reason for the belief. Reflection on these cases, and with federalism, many others like them, supports the spanish food, externalist central contention that internalism is too strong. Persons can know without possessing internalistic justification. The main problem with appeal to cases like Grandma, Timmy, and Lassie is that the details of such cases are open to interpretation. With. Internalists argue that when the Essay about on Slavery and How, cases are properly unpacked either these are not cases of justification or there is internalist justification (see Internalist Response immediately below). In an attempt to strengthen the sentence with federalism, argument for externalism some externalists appeal to non-standard cases.

One non-standard case is the chicken-sexer case. Chicken-sexers are individuals that possess the unique ability to reliably sort male from female chickens. City View's. As the case is described chicken-sexers do not know how they sort the chickens. They report not being able to offer the criteria they use to federalism sort the chickens. Nonetheless they are very good at sorting chickens and essay, their beliefs that this is sentence, a male , this is a female, etc., are justified even though they lack internalist justification. Another non-standard case is the case of quiz-show knowledge. The case envisions a contestant, call her Sally, on a popular quiz show that gets all the answers right. When a clue is offered Sally rings in with the generator, correct answer. Shes quite good at this. Intuitively Sally knows the with, answers to the clues; yet from Sallys perspective the answers just pop into her head.

Moreover, Sally may believe that she does not know the answer. What should we say about synthesis this case? Sally is very reliable. Her answers are objectively likely to be true. We can fill out the case by stipulating her answers are caused in part by sentence federalism, the relevant fact. She learned the answer either by direct experience with the relevant factshe was in Tiananmen Square during the famous protests of 1989or through a reliable informant. Yet Sally lacks any internal phenomenology usually associated with remembering an Essay on of Drosophila answer. The answers just seem to come out of the blue. Moreover, Sally doesnt take herself to know the answer. Yet given her excellent track record it certainly seems right to with federalism say that Sally knows the answer. This is a problematic case for Information Security Plan Essays internalists because it appears that no relevant internal condition is present.

The argument advanced by externalists above is sentence with federalism, a conjunction of role play, two claims: (i) these individuals have knowledge and (ii) no internalist justification is present. In the cases of Grandma, Timmy, and Lassie one response is to with deny that these individuals have knowledge, but that strikes many as incredibly implausible and too concessive to skeptical worries. A much more plausible response is to Essay on argue that an internalist justification is with, present. Information. In the case of Grandma, for with federalism instance, she has experiences and memories which attest that she had hands. Though she doesnt cite that as a reason, it is nonetheless a good reason for essay her to believe that she has hands. Similar points can be made with respect to Timmy and Lassie. To the extent that our judgments that Timmy and Lassie have knowledge are resilient we can find appropriate experiences that indicate the truth of their beliefs. In the chicken-sexer case internalists respond by either denying that the subject has knowledge or claiming that there are features of the chicken-sexers experience that indicate the sex of the chicken. Sentence With Federalism. The quiz-show case is more interesting.

Given the description of the case its difficult to find a reason available to Sally that will meet internalist strictures. The options for the internalists seem limited. Courtship Of Drosophila Melanogaster. Since its not plausible that theres a relevant internalist justification present, internalists are saddled with the result that Sally lacks knowledge. How plausible is this result? Richard Feldman (2005a) argues that its not apparent from the case that (for example) Sally even believes the answer. Sally is encouraged to answer and she goes with whatever pops in her head. Moreover, Feldman observes, the with, contestant seems to lack any stable belief forming mechanism.

Since knowledge entails belief it appears then that Sally lacks knowledge because she lacks belief. Furthermore, as another option, since Sally may take herself not to know the answer she possesses a reason that undermines her knowledge (see Feldman (2005a) for the role of higher-order knowledge to defeat object-knowledge). The upshot is that the Information Security, case of quiz show knowledge is indecisive against internalism: either Sally lacks the sentence, relevant belief or she possesses a reason that defeats her knowledge. Another main motivation for externalism is its alleged virtues for handling skepticism in at least some of its varieties. One powerful skeptical argument begins with the premise that we lack direct access to facts about the external world. For any experiential justification we have for believing some fact about the external worldfor example, theres a magnolia treeits possible to on education have that same justification even though theres no such fact. The experience one has is sentence federalism, caused by a state of ones brain and it is possible that science could develop a method to induce in one that brain state even though there are no magnolia trees for City Plan hundreds of miles.

The skeptic continues to argue that since we lack direct access to facts about the external world we lack non-inferential knowledge (or justification) for believing those facts. The final step of the skeptics argument is that we do lack sufficient evidence for inferential knowledge (or inferential justification) for believing those facts. Federalism. Here the skeptic argues that the evidence we possess for external world beliefs does not adequately favor commonsense over a skeptical thesis. Any appeal to play generator experiential evidence will not decide the case against the skeptic and the skeptic is happy to enter the with federalism, fray over whether commonsense beats skepticism with regard to the theoretical virtues, for example, coherence and simplicity. Berkeley, for instance, argued that commonsense decidedly lost the contest against a kind of skeptical thesis (Berkeley Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous ). Internalists find this kind of City View's Information Essays, argument very difficult to rebut. With. Internalists tend to focus on the final step and argue that even though experience does not imply that skepticism is Lincoln's view on Slavery it Evolved, false it nevertheless makes skepticism much less probable than commonsense.

This response is intuitive but it brings with it a number of controversial commitments. The ensuing debate is too complex to summarize here. The upshot though is that it is no easy task to maintain this intuitive response. Consequently externalists think they have a distinct advantage over internalism. Externalists tend to think internalism lands in skepticism but that we have good reason to suspect skepticism is false. Externalists eagerly point out that their view can handle the with federalism, skeptical challenge. Externalists typically address the skeptics argument by denying that lack of direct access with a fact implies lack of non-inferential knowledge (or justification).

In terms of an early version of role scenario, externalismD.M. Armstrongs causal theory (Armstrong 1973)if ones perceptual belief that p is caused by the fact that makes it true then one knows that p. With Federalism. Other externalists unpack the externalist condition differently (for example, reliability or truth-tracking), but the core idea is that a lack of direct access doesnt preclude non-inferential knowledge. Externalists press this virtue against internalist views that are saddled with the claim that lack of direct access implies no non-inferential knowledge (or justification). Assuming that the first and final steps of the skeptical argument are good (a very controversial assumption), internalism would imply that we lack knowledge. Externalists thus see their analysis of Essay on of Drosophila, knowledge as aligning with commonsense (and against the skeptic) that we possess lots of knowledge. One internalist response to this reason for favoring externalism is to challenge the claim that internalism lands in skepticism. Some internalists develop views that imply one does have direct access to external world facts (see entry on direct realism). Federalism. Another internalist move is the abductivist response which challenges the claim that we lack inferential knowledge or justification for believing commonsense.

The abductivist response gets its name from Charles Sanders Peirces description of abduction as a good form of Courtship Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster, inductive reasoning that differs from standard inductive inference (for example, enumerative inductionthis swam is white, so is the next one, so is this one as well, , so, the general rule that all swans are white). The abductivists argues, to put it very roughly, that commonsense is the best explanation of the available data that we possess. Sentence With. Accordingly, we do possess inferential justification for believing that skepticism is false. A different response to this alleged virtue of externalism is to argue that externalism yields only a conditional response to skepticism. If externalists maintain that some external condition, E, is sufficient for non-inferential knowledge or justification then we get the result that if E then one has non-inferential knowledge. For instance, if, for of aspirin lab report answers example, perception is reliable then we have perceptual knowledge. But, the federalism, internalist argues, we are not able to derive the unconditional claim that we have perceptual knowledge. In order to conclude that we would have to know that E obtains, but it seems all the externalist can do is role generator, appeal to some other external condition, E1, and argue that if E1 then we know that E obtains. This strategy looks unpromising (see Stroud 1989). 4. The Significance of the I-E Debate. What is the I-E debate all about?

Why has the debate garnered so much attention? This section considers several proposals about the significance of the I-E debate. Most everyone sees the I-E debate as metaepistemological. The I-E debate concerns fundamental questions about epistemology: what is nature and goals of epistemological theorizing. The three proposals I examine in this section need not be exclusive. Each proposal reflects facets of the I-E debate. a. Disagreement over the Significance of the federalism, Thermometer Model.

D.M. Armstrong introduced the thermometer model in epistemology as a way of grasping his externalist theory (see Armstrong 1973). On Education. The thermometer model compares non-inferential knowledge with a good thermometer. A good thermometer reliably indicates the temperature, that is, the temperature readings reliably indicate the actual temperature. In a similar manner non-inferential knowledge is federalism, a matter of a belief being reliably true. On the thermometer model a belief that is reliably true need not meet any internalist conditions; if the belief stands in the right relation to essay on education the truth of what is believed then the belief is an item of knowledge. The significance of the sentence with, thermometer model is whether one should understand non-inferential knowledge purely in terms of external conditions. The driving motivation behind this model is that non-inferential knowledge should be understood in just the same naturalistic sense in which one understands a good thermometer. The model aims to Essay on of Drosophila melanogaster remove questions about non-inferential knowledge from what might be called a rationalist framework in with federalism, which all forms of knowledge are explicated in terms of reasons . Given the rationalist approach to noninferential knowledge one looks for some fact, different from the original belief, that one is aware of and that makes probable (or certain) the truth of ones belief. The thermometer model cuts to the heart of this rationalistic project. It is not at all surprising that the play scenario, thermometer model met heavy resistance.

Laurence BonJour argued that stress on the thermometer model would imply that Norman knows that the president is in sentence with federalism, New York. BonJour observes that the thermometer model has us view epistemic agents merely as cognitive thermometers. If they reliably record the facts then they have noninferential knowledge even though from their own perspective their beliefs have little by role play scenario generator, way of federalism, positive support. The metaepistemological issue about what to make of the thermometer model is closely related to the issue of what to make of ordinary knowledge ascriptions. It is a common practice to ascribe knowledge to Essay Courtship Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster individuals that are in many respects like reliable thermometers. The significant question is sentence federalism, what to make of this fact. Do such individuals meet internalistic conditions? Are our ascriptions of on Courtship Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster, knowledge correct in with federalism, cases in role play generator, which individuals dont meet any internalistic conditions?

These are areas of ongoing research. Sentence With. The issues here are discussed in the contextualism literature. b. Disagreement over the Guiding Conception of Essay about it Evolved, Justification. Another way to view the I-E debate is sentence federalism, a disagreement over the guiding conception of justification. Alvin Goldman (1980) distinguishes between the regulative and theoretical conceptions of justification. City Information Security Plan Essays. The regulative conception of justification takes as its aim to offer practical advice to cognizers in order to improve their stock of beliefs. Sentence Federalism. This epistemological aim, Goldman notes, is prominent in Descartes. The theoretical conception, by contrast, aims to essay in urdu offer a correct analysis of justification, that is, to specify the features of beliefs that confer epistemic status.

Goldman sees our interest in a theory of justification as driven by sentence with federalism, these two different conceptions. One way of explaining the Essay Behavior of Drosophila, significance of the I-E debate is over the role of regulative considerations in an account of justification. The access internalist can be seen as stressing the significance of some regulative conditions for federalism a correct account of justification. This is most clearly seen in the stress on the ethics of belief. Essay About And How. If a subjects belief is justified then, in some sense, the subject has regulated her doxastic conduct appropriately. Externalists, by sentence federalism, contrast, want to draw a sharp distinction between regulative and theoretical considerations to get the result that regulative considerations do not enter into ones account of the in urdu, nature of justification. c. Disagreement over Naturalism in Epistemology. Another proposal about the significance of the I-E debate is that it is over the issue of with, whether to naturalize epistemology (see, for instance, Fumerton 1995, p. 66). As we saw above with the thermometer model a thread that runs through externalist analyses is the Information Plan, idea that epistemic conceptsjustification, evidence, and federalism, knowledgecan be understood in terms of nomological concepts.

Armstrongs account of noninferential knowledge invokes the idea of a natural relation that holds between a belief and the true state of affairs believed. When a belief stands in this natural relation to the true state of affairs believed then the belief is an instance of noninferential knowledge. Moreover this natural relation is similar to the relation between a thermometer reading and Essay on Courtship Behavior of Drosophila, the actual temperature in a good thermometer. Other externalist analysis invoke different nomological concepts: Goldmans (1979) account makes use of the idea of reliability; Robert Nozicks (1981) account appeals to the idea of truth-tracking which he unpacks in terms of causal concepts; and Fred Dretskes (1981) account makes use of a naturalistic concept of sentence with federalism, information processing. Its important to stress the context in which these externalist accounts arose. As we have seen the recognition that the traditional justified true belief (JTB) account of on Courtship, knowledge failed led epistemologists to rethink the connection between true belief and knowledge. It is widely recognized that the traditional JTB account was largely explicated within a rationalist understanding of with federalism, justification. Justification, on this tradition, invoked concepts such as implication , consistency , coherence , and more broadly, reasons of which the subject was aware . The introduction of the Gettier problem led epistemologists to question whether this traditional assumption was correct. Cultures. Externalist analyses attempted to explain how natural relations like causation and with, reliability could provide the key to understanding noninferential knowledge. Internalists, by contrast, stress the synthesis, significance of mental concepts to understanding noninferential knowledge or basic justification. These concepts need not be irreducible to physical concepts.

But the key idea for internalism is that mere external facts which a subject lacks awareness of are not sufficient for analyzing epistemic concepts. As Fumerton stresses (Fumerton (1995) p. 67) the key epistemic concepts for federalism internalist are concepts like Descartes clarity and distinctness, Russells notion of direct acquaintance, ormore elusivelyChisholms basic notion of more reasonable than . There are wide ranging issues with respect to naturalism in epistemology. One main issue is whether the evidential relation is contingent or necessary. Internalism can be understood as the view that the most basic evidential relation is necessary and consequently the theory of evidence is an a priori matter. Externalism, by contrast, can be understood as affirming that evidential relations are contingent (see, for example, Nozick (1981) Chapter 3 section III). Another issue with respect to naturalism in epistemology is its connection to naturalism in the philosophy of mind. The naturalist aims to understand the mind as a physical system. View's Information. Since physical systems can be explained without invoking mental concepts a naturalist in epistemology is weary of using questionable mental concepts to elucidate the nature of epistemic concepts.

Internalism in epistemology is not necessarily at odds with naturalism as a metaphysical view but the internalists preferred concepts tend to come from commonsense psychology rather than the natural sciences. Externalists, by contrast, tend to stress natural concepts like causation, reliability, and tracking because these set up better for a naturalist view in the philosophy of mind. The I-E debate develops out of the with federalism, ruins of the traditional justified true belief account of knowledge. As Edmund Gettier famously illustrated knowledge is more than justified true belief. Generator. Attempts to answer the federalism, Gettier problem generated the I-E debate. This debate centers on a diverse group of issues: the significance of ordinary knowledge attributions, the nature of rationality, the ethics of belief, and the role of naturalism in epistemology.

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Sylvia Plath: Poems Essay Questions. How does Plath view nature in with federalism, Edge and Sheep in Fog? In both of these poems, Plath recognizes nature's capacity for inspiring transcendence. However, the particulars of her representation are distinct between them. In Edge, nature is Essay on Slavery and How it Evolved evoked with the image of the moon, who has nothing to be sad about, / Staring from her hood of bone. / She is used to this sort of thing. / Her blacks crackle and drag. The moon is untroubled by the seeming human tragedy of a dead woman, and sentence federalism Plath seems to role play scenario generator relish this type of federalism, comforting disassociation. In Sheep in Fog, nature is a bit more explicitly ominous; the hills step off into whiteness and people as well as stars regard [her] sadly. Nature mirrors her depression, but also offers a thick blanket of fog to envelop her. It has the capacity to bring her to a heaven, but she fears what this heaven might hold.

Though both poems present nature as capable of Information Security Essays, inspiring transcendence, she is more skeptical of that transcendence in the latter poem. Should Sylvia Plath be considered a confessional poet, or does her work challenge that designation? Plath is federalism almost always grouped into the confessional poetry movement. M.L. Rosenthal was the first critic to use this term, and to place Plath within its confines.

As evidence for his classification, he pointed to her use of herself at the center of the poems, and the psychological vulnerability that she evinced. However, others have challenged this categorization, including Ted Hughes, who believed that her poems were more emblematic than personal. Robert Lowell, the paragon of confessional poets, used specific details from his life, but Plath generalized her persons. Synthesis Of Aspirin Answers! Her speakers are not confessing and describing their misery, but rather giving vent to it; they want to contain it rather than to understand it. Plath herself explained that while her poems may have been born from her sensuous or emotional experiences, she was able to manipulate them with an informed and intelligent mind. She wanted to demonstrate how the mind responds to sentence terrible or extreme circumstances, oftentimes by about Lincoln's view exaggerating or manipulating things.

Thus, Plath's speakers are not trying to confess anything or breakthrough into sentence with federalism, life again; they remain firmly ensconced in their situation, and avoid self-revelation. Her poems are much more than catalogs of her life, and in this way they are not as emblematic of play scenario, confessional poetry as is often believed. In what way are Plath's poems elegies? An elegy is defined as a lament for sentence, the deceased or the permanently lost. In earlier centuries, many poets explored the about Lincoln's on Slavery and How, elegy as a specific literary form. Though Plath's poetry does not seem too akin to this genre at first glance, there are many poignant similarities. She discusses her grief through semi-fictive selves, much like Spenser and Yeats did, and demonstrates aggression toward the dead, which is also seen in Yeats as well as in Auden. Some of her works are indicative of self-destructive mourning, also common in elegies written by Emily Bronte and Tennyson.

Plath helps form the conception of the 20th century elegy; as critic Jahann Ramazani writes, she [helps] shift the genre's psychic work from consolatory mourning to the violent, contradictory, and protracted work of melancholia. She is with a wrathful mourner, as seen in poems like Daddy. Play Generator! Daddy also uses another trope of with, elegies - the chorus of mourners. At the end of the poem, the villagers dance in spanish, madness and giddiness over Daddy's death. Sentence! Plath's poetry, while fully a product of the City View's Information, 20th century, is federalism very much indebted to the poets of centuries past.

Explain Plath's debt to Anne Sexton. How does an understanding of this relationship help to Courtship Behavior of Drosophila understand her work? Anne Sexton was a friend of Plath's, and another of the confessional poets. Her poetry was even more frank, violent, and personal than Plath's, dealing with masturbation, incest, pregnancy, and domestic ennui. In fact, Plath may have used one of her earliest poems as a model for Daddy. My Friend, My Friend was a poem from 1959 that Plath may have seen in the Lowell poetry workshop, or in its final form in The Antioch Review . Plath explained in a 1962 BBC interview how she was influenced by the craftsman-like quality and psychological intensity of Sexton's poem. Daddy borrows and sentence with federalism slightly alters the rhythms, rhymes, and words of Sexton's poem. Plath also compares herself to a Jew, which recalls Sexton's line, I think it would be better to be a Jew. There are other similarities as well. What this debt shows is that Plath was as much a literary as confessional writer, as interested in influences and models as in role play scenario generator, expressing her pain. How does the concept of purity manifest in Plath's poetry?

Three of Plath's most famous poems, all from her late period, deal with the concept of purity as achieved through exorcism. With! Lady Lazarus, Daddy, and synthesis of aspirin lab report Fever 103 are all concerned with ridding the self of its demons, rather than simply reforming the self. Rebirth, an achievement of purity, can only be reached once the sentence with federalism, demons are exorcised. Purity for Plath is not an easy-to-define concept; it instead has a dual nature. It is firstly an integrated and Essay on Courtship holistic self that is unspoilt, perfect, and beautiful. This happens when the sentence federalism, self is transformed and reborn. However, purity is also, as critic Pamela Annas writes, absence, isolation, blindness, a kind of autism which shuts out the world, stasis, and death, and a loss of self through dispersal into some other. Courtship Of Drosophila! Lady Lazarus allows the with federalism, speaker to achieve purity through suicide, while Daddy reflects purity achieved by exorcising the world of the demonic and synthesis lab report answers the unpure (her father). With! These fantasies of retaliation all have the desperate and violent aim of purification, and see the cleanliness of purity only achievable through the violence of exorcism. What are the major elements/images/styles of about Lincoln's on Slavery and How it Evolved, Plath's middle and late stages? In Plath's middle stage, largely comprised of sentence with federalism, poems published in The Colossus and Other Poems , Plath gave vent to her tremendous imagination, focused on food social and political issues, and delved into her consciousness.

Some of her figures are immensely powerful and disturbing; she created both paternal and federalism maternal figures of ominous and spanish oppressive natures. Her female subjects search for sentence, identity and meaning. Cultures! Many of her works are set in a domestic arena, and outside events seep through to sentence with permeate that arena with their horror. In the late stage of about Lincoln's on Slavery it Evolved, her writing, centered on the Ariel poems, Plath's poetic language grew furious and glorious, manifesting itself in elegies, nature poems, and intense dramas. She writes in sentence with, a way that evokes tremendous emotion for the reader, by disturbing, terrifying, and provoking them to pity. Essay Courtship Behavior Of Drosophila Melanogaster! She produced poems of intimacy and domestic nightmare, while also exploring issues of minorities and historical tragedies. Her poems focus on the process of their own creation, and the search for her creative voice.

They are mournful, passionate, and violent, and tend toward the excising of a flawed and victimized self in the quest for transcendence. How does Plath use the setting of a hospital in her poetry? Two of the poems discussed in this study guide are set in a hospital room: Tulips and federalism A Life. Both poems treat a hospital room as a location of both great limitations and synthesis lab report great peace. Both are about sentence with federalism, a woman recovering after an operation of some sort, or perhaps a suicide attempt (Plath attempted suicide in her early twenties). In Tulips, the woman is bereft of any external attachments, and seems to delight in Essay Lincoln's view on Slavery, that fact. In A Life, the situation is similar - the woman walks around listlessly in a circle and lives quietly.

In both poems, life outside the hospital room is always impending. Sentence! In Tulips, she welcomes it more willingly, though she even there has a sense of despair that more characterizes her attitude in A Life. Essay Lincoln's On Slavery It Evolved! In the latter poem, future life is depicted as a squawking seagull and a dead man risen from the sea. The hospital, then, seems to serve as the ultimate refuge; it is a place of purity, of serenity, of independence from the tragedies and toils of life. It is an in-between space, and can even be conceived of as a heterotopia, Foucault's designation of sentence federalism, a space that has dual layers of meaning, like a utopia nevertheless corrupted by undesirables. When compared to earlier poems, how do Contusion and Edge reveal a shift in Plath's attitude toward life and City Information Security Plan Essays death? These two poems are among the final ones that Plath wrote before her death, Edge being the very last poem written. With! Both of them are extremely bleak and lack any sense of hope for or faith in of aspirin lab report, the future and humanity.

However, though this theme is manifest throughout Plath's oeuvre, these poems do not show the ambivalence towards such feelings that the earlier poems do. They simply accept this bleakness as unalterable fact. Contusion describes a bruise made on the skin and sentence with ends with a series of images that suggest futility and finality: The heart shuts, / The sea slides back, / The mirrors are sheeted. Edge begins with the image of a dead woman being perfected, smiling in her triumph. Both of these poems are bereft of the energy and vitality of a poem like Ariel, the final lines of which suggest a violently beautiful rebirth. Lady Lazarus is role play scenario generator about suicide, but lacks the same hopelessness; the sentence federalism, suicide seems to be a powerful purgative. Daddy is also a violent and terrifying poem, but there is also catharsis, thrill, and rejuvenation in the speaker's exorcism of her father. The two late poems, however, do not seem to View's Information Security Plan possess any sense that death or even suicide have the potential of hope, rebirth, or meaning. Death is simply closure, an end. These two poems are some of the with federalism, most depressing in Plath's oeuvre. What do Metaphors and Child suggest about Plath's view on pregnancy and Essay on of Drosophila motherhood?

Both of these poems reflect the deep ambivalence that Plath felt about pregnancy and motherhood. Metaphors is a short riddle that expresses her discomfort with pregnancy. With Federalism! By viewing herself as merely a means towards delivering a child, she challenges the traditional social expectation of women as childbearers. City Essays! She does not express resentment towards the child, but rather towards her implicit acceptance of this role. Sentence With Federalism! In Child, the ambivalence is play generator clearer, as she both expresses joy and anxiety for her child.

Overall, Plath is extremely honest in her assessment of sentence federalism, what pregnancy and cultures motherhood can really be like; she avoids stereotype and platitudes. How does Plath approach the subject of her father in Full Fathom Five, Daddy, and The Colossus? Plath's father, who died when she was eight, looms large in her poetry. He is the major topic in the above-mentioned poems, and is treated differently in each even if his legacy produces great ambivalence for sentence, her on each occasion. In Full Fathom Five, he is conceived of Essay on Behavior melanogaster, as a larger-than-life sea god whose memory Plath reveres and ruminates upon. She marvels at his immensity and hopes for his rebirth. Yet she is equally resentful at having been exiled from him; she can now only sentence with federalism, watch him from afar. There is also a suggestion of an incestuous relationship in this poem. She expresses a similar ambivalence in The Colossus; she works on Information Security Plan Essays the huge statue she has erected of him, trying to make him speak to her. She longs to federalism piece him back together, but is fatigued and troubled by his refusal to help her in the effort. Daddy is markedly different in tone from essay on education these two poems.

Her voice in this latter poem is vitriolic, mocking, bitter, and crazed. Her goal is not to rescue him, but to destroy him. He becomes here, more than in sentence federalism, the other two, a representation of larger patriarchal figures. No matter how Plath tried to deal with her father's legacy, she was torn between both violent and creative impulses in her remembrance. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/sylvia-plath-poems/study-guide/essay-questions in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Sylvia Plath: Poems Sylvia Plath: Poems Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Metaphors The Colossus A Life Mirror Daddy Ariel Lady Lazarus Child Contusion Cinderella Tulips Edge Full Fathom Five Cut Sheep in Fog Confessional Poetry Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store Sylvia Plath Biography. Sylvia Plath: Poems Questions and Answers. The Question and role scenario Answer section for Sylvia Plath: Poems is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. The mirror first describes itself as silver and exact. It forms no judgments, instead merely swallowing what it sees and reflecting that image back without any alteration.

The mirror is not cruel, only truthful. It considers itself a. The narrator of Mirror is the looking glass. Sentence! a full length wall mirror. Mirrors cannot lie, they can only show the truth. Study Guide for Sylvia Plath: Poems. Sylvia Plath: Poems study guide contains a biography of poet Sylvia Plath, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis of select poems.

Sylvia Plath: Poems essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Sylvia Plath's poetry.

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2015 Ohio Arts Council Individual Artist Fellowship. Spanish Food Cultures? 2013 Marie Walsh Sharpe Art Foundation Studio Program Fellowship. 2004 Greater Columbus Arts Council Individual Artist Fellowship. 2002 Ohio Arts Council Individual Artist Fellowship. With Federalism? 2000 Greater Columbus Art Council, Dresden/Saxony Residency. 1996 Ohio Arts Council Individual Artist Fellowship. Lincoln's It Evolved? 1990 The Greater Columbus Art Council Individual Artist Fellowship. 1988 Ohio Arts Council Individual Artist Fellowship. 1986 The Greater Columbus Art Council Individual Artist Fellowship. 1985 Ohio Arts Council Individual Artist Fellowship.

1984 Ohio Arts Council Individual Artist Fellowship. 1983 National Endowment for with the Visual Arts Fellowship/Painting. 1982 Ford Foundation Grant. SELECTED ONE TO THREE PERSON EXHIBITIONS. City Information Essays? 2016 Alan Crockett-Looney Tunes 2731 Prospect Gallery, Cleveland, OH. 2015 The Space Between/Alan and Clara Crockett, New Work, Southern Ohio Museum of Art, Portsmouth, OH. Howl, Alan Crockett, Clara Crockett, Alicia Gibson Novella Gallery, New York, NY. 2014 Made in New York: Alan and Clara Crockett, Paintings, Drawings and Other things, Art Access Gallery, Bexely, OH. 2013 Funnies: Alan Crockett Recent Paintings and Drawings Springfield Museum of sentence Art, Springfield, OH.

2012 Painting Drawing and synthesis answers Other Things : Works by Alan and Clara Crockett Weston Art Gallery at the Aronoff Art Center, Cincinnati, OH. Sentence With Federalism? 2012 Abstraction: Alan Crockett, David Cooke, Sharon Dougherty, Art Access Gallery, Bexely, OH. 2011 Alan Crockett: New Work , Rays Living Room Gallery, Columbus, OH. 2010 Heights Arts, Cleveland Heights, OH. 2009 Art Access Gallery, Bexely, OH. 2008 Alan Crockett, Mark Making, A Retrospective, Urban Arts Space, Columbus, Oh.

2008 Art Access Gallery, Bexely, OH. Role Generator? 2008 Rosenberg Fine Arts, NY, NY (featured painter for gallery at Palm Beach 3 Art Fair, West. With Federalism? Palm Beach Florida) Catalogue. 2006 Art Access Gallery, Bexley, OH. 2005 Art Access Gallery, Bexley, OH.

2005 Davis and Essay about Lincoln's and How it Evolved Cline Gallery, Ashland OR. 2004 Zaks Gallery, Chicago, IL. 2002 Barth Galleries, Columbus, OH. 2001 Zaks Gallery, Chicago, IL. 2001 Gallerie WIJK, Groningen, Holland (with Martin Tissing) 2001 Fur Bildende Kunste Dresden (with Clara Crockett) 2000 Barth Galleries, Columbus, OH.

1999 Marshal University, Huntington, WV. 1999 Barth Galleries, Columbus, OH. With Federalism? 1997 Zaks Gallery, Chicago, IL. Essay On Education? 1995 Ohio Wesleyan University Gallery, Delaware, OH. 1994 Peabodys Art Factory, Columbus, OH.

1994 Zaks Gallery, Chicago, IL. 1993 SPACES Gallery, Cleveland, OH (3 person show) 1992 Gallery 181, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. With? 1992 Zaks Gallery, Chicago, IL. 1990 Acme Art Gallery (Invitational) Columbus, OH. Scenario Generator? 1989 Zaks Gallery, Chicago, IL. With? 1988 Denison University Art Gallery, Granville, OH.

1987 Arts Center Gallery, College of Behavior of Drosophila Du Page, Glenn Elyn, IL. 1987 C.A.G.E. Sentence? Gallery, Cincinnati, OH (2 person show) SPACES Gallery, Cleveland, OH (3 person show) 1986 Belmont Gallery, Columbus, OH. 1983 Rike Gallery, The University of Dayton, Dayton, OH. SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS. 2017 Drawn Out, Drawn Over: Mapping The Territory of Experience, Brentwood Arts Exchange, Brentwood, MD. View's Essays? 2015 Art Beyond Category 15 Contemporary Artists, Matera, Italy. A Century of Ohio Watercolors, Riffe Gallery, Columbus, OH, Southern Ohio Museum of Art, Portsmouth, OH.

Heroes Satellite Contemporary Gallery, Las Vegas, NM. 2014 Apollonian/Dionysian: The Restraints of sentence federalism Freedom, Painted Bride Art Center, Philadelphia, PA. 2014 Marie Walsh Sharpe Art Foundation: Open Studios Exhibition, Brooklyn, NY. 2012 Little Languages/Coded Pictures Leslie Heller Workspace, New York, NY. 2010 Ten Year Anniversary Exhibition Art Access Gallery, Bexely, OH. Lab Report Answers? 2008 Celebration of Creativity: OAC Fellowships 1980-2006, Weston Art Gallery, Cincinnati, OH.

2007 Mapping the with Terrain, New Directions in Abstract Painting Southeastern Louisiana Contemporary Art Gallery, Hammond, LA (Catalogue) 2007 Celebration of Creativity: OAC Fellowships 1980-2005, Riffe Center Gallery, Columbus, OH, Kay Koeninger, Dennis Harrington, Kitty Zurko, co-curators. 2005 Rosenberg and food Kaufman Fine Arts, New York NY, Summer Group Show. 2005 Gallery Kunsthaus Raskolnikow 15 th Anniversary Exhibition, Dresden, Germany. 2005 Rosenberg and Kaufman Fine Arts, Panel, Paper, Canvas New York, NY. 2004 Zaks Gallery, Gallery Artists, Chicago, IL. 2003 Barth Galleries, Columbus OH. 2001 Gallerie WIJK (Summer Show) Groningen, Holland. 2000 Color , Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, OH. 1998-0 Ohio Artists at sentence, Roosevelt House, U.S. Ambassadors Residence, New Delhi, India. On Behavior Of Drosophila? 1997 Barth Galleries, Cleveland, OH.

1993 6-Person Inaugural Show, Peabodys Art Factory, Columbus, OH. With Federalism? Spiritual Concerns in City View's Information Essays, Contemporary Art, Lee Hall Gallery, Northern Michigan, Univ., Marquette , MI. 1991 The Painters Eye , Ft. Hayes Visual Arts Center, Columbus, OH. Federalism? 1991 Overseas Trade Office Exhibition, Toronto, Canada. Essay About View And How It Evolved? Ohio/USA, Butler Institute of American Art. GCAC Individual Artists Fellowship Exhibition , Vern Riffe Center Gallery, Columbus, OH. With Federalism? Ohio Painters, Indiana University School of Fine Arts Gallery, Bloomington, IN. 1990 A Vision of Their Own , Roberta Kuhn Gallery, Columbus, OH.

Gallery Artists, Gallery 200, Columbus, OH. The Artist at Mid Career, a Dialogue Between Cincinnati and Columbus, Katz Dawgs Gallery, Columbus, OH. 1985-90 Chicago International Art Exposition, Navy Pier, Chicago , IL. Zaks Gallery. 1989 Retrospective/Introspection, Gund Gallery, Ohio Arts Council, Columbus, OH. Survey, San Francisco Art Institute, San Francisco, CA.

All Ohio, Canton Art Institute, Canton, OH. 1986 Ten Painters , Dennison University, Granville, OH. 1985 Inaugural Exhibition , Belmont Gallery, Columbus, OH. Artists Space Collaborate , The New Harmony Gallery, New Harmony, IN. Detroit FOCUS Gallery, Detroit, MI. Of Aspirin Lab Report Answers? SPACES Gallery, Cleveland, OH. Contemporary Art, 1985, Oglebay Institute, Oglebay Park, Wheeling, WV.

Holiday Invitati onal, A.I.R, New York, NY. 1984 Critics Choice, 7 from sentence federalism, Columbus, Hoyt Sherman Gallery, OSU, Columbus, OH. Barbara Haskell, Curator, Whitney Museum of synthesis of aspirin American Art, juror. Federalism? 1983 Canton Art Institute All Ohio Show , Canton, OH. Invitational 83, Longview Museum and synthesis of aspirin answers Arts Center, Longview, TX. 1982 Invitational 82, Longview Museum and sentence with Arts Center, Longview, TX. 1981 The Canton Art Institute, Canton, OH. Essay In Urdu? Invitational 81, Longview Museum and Arts Center, Longview, TX.

1980 Oregon State University Gallery, Corvallis, OR. Sentence With Federalism? 1979 Artists of View's Plan Oregon , Portland Art Museum, Portland, OR. Eccentric Abstractions, Open Gallery, Eugene, OR. 2008 to present, Emeritus Associate Professor of Art, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. 1986-2008 Associate Professor of Art, The Ohio State University, Columbus,OH. 1980-1985 Assistant Professor of Art, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. 2007 Juror, Illinois Arts Council Individual Artist Fellowship Panel. 2007 Visiting Artist, Southeastern Louisiana University. 1992 Visiting Artist, Art Academy, Tilburg, Holland. Sentence With? 1990 Visiting Artist, Minerva Academy of in urdu Art, Groningen, Holland. With? 1989 Visiting Artist-Critic, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, IL.

1987 Visiting Artist, Illinois State University, Normal, IL. 1983 Visiting Artist, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC. 1979-80 Visiting Assistant Professor, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. 1978-79 Visiting Studio Instructor, Lane Community College, Eugene, OR. Art Beyond Categories, 14 Contemporary Artists, Catalogue: Carol Heft and Pino Nicoletti. Lab Report Answers? Los Vegas Weekly, #8220;Art Exhibit Satellite Contemporary#8217;s #8216;Hero#8217;s Taps Into Art Mentors From Around the World#8217;, March,2015. Gorkys Granddaughter, Vimeo Interview, October 5, 2014. With? Dayton City Paper, Remembering the Essay Lincoln's view on Slavery it Evolved Funnies, by Kate E. Lore, April 30, 2013. Columbus Dispatch, Abstracts manifest exuberance by Jacqueline Hall, April 13, 2008.

Design Basics, Seventh Edition 2008, color print of sentence with federalism painting, Doodle de Do. Columbus Dispatch, Intriguing pieces delight both eye and City Information Security Plan Essays brain, by Jacqueline Hall, Chicago Tribune, Alan Crockett at Sonia Zaks Gallery by Alan G. Sentence? Artner, Tribune art critic, Published December 3, 2004. Design Basics, Sixth Edition 2004, color print of cultures painting, Funny Farm . 1997, p60. Sentence? 2002/THE YEAR IN REVIEW/ Best Exhibits, Columbus Dispatch, December 29,2002. GCAC artists in Lincoln's view, residence presents: Alan Crockett , Deliberate Spontaneity , video.

2002. Kohles, Jeanne Fryer, Columbus Dispatch, May 5,2002; Works of Great Energy Catalogue, Artist Exchange, Free State of sentence with Saxony (Dresden)-Columbus, OH, 2002. Kohles, Jeanne Fryer, Columbus Dispatch, March 5, 2000. Illus. Courtship Of Drosophila Melanogaster? Hall, Jacqueline, For at least one painter, beauty still reigns, Columbus Dispatch , April 20,1997.

Illus. Catalogue, GCAC Individual Artist Fellowships l986-1998. 1998, Catalogue, Ohio Artists at Roosevelt House, U.S. Sentence? Ambassadors Residence, New Delhi, India. Hummer, Tracey, Colorful party lanterns dominate playful series, Columbus Dispatch. Role Play? Litt, Steven, A Breath of Abstract Life, Cleveland Plain Dealer , January 1993. Kohles, Jeanne Fryer, Alan Crockett, Acme Art Co. New Art Examiner, January 1991,p 44.

Illus. DePasquale, Susan, Curator, Catalogue, Ohio/USA 1991, Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, OH. Griffith, Denny, A Vision of sentence with Their Own, Dialogue , Jan/Feb 1991. Farmer, Jane, Curator, Catalogue, 1990 GCAC Individual Artists Exhibition in the Visual Arts , Riffe Center Gallery, 1990. Synthesis Of Aspirin Answers? Bremner, Ann, New Art Examiner , February 1989,p59. Illus. Constable, Lesley, Vibrant, Columbus Dispatch , June 12, 1988. Illus.

Culliman, Helen, Facts Spark Fantasy for Art, The Cleveland Plain Dealer , February 4, 1987. Sentence Federalism? Hall, Jacqueline, Artists Serve Up Art With Wit, Columbus Dispatch , May 25, 1986 Illus. Hall, Jacqueline, Physical Paintings Throb at role play, Belmont, Columbus Dispatch, May 25, 1986. Bloomfield, Maureen, Sacred Landscapes: The Encounter and After, Dialogue , May/June 1985, pp 66-69. Illus. In the Arts , October 1985,Interview: Alan Crockett. Cover and federalism illus. pp18-20. On Education? Miro, Marsha, Ohio Sends Its Best Work to Visit, Detroit Free Press , May 5, 1985. Illus. Colby, Joy, Alternative Space Work Hits the Road, The Detroit News , April 28, 1985.

Hall, Jacqueline, Crockett Demands Attention for Bold Contemporary Works, Columbus Dispatch , 1982. With? Thornburn, Ray, Columbus Art , Vol. 2, No.1, Fall 1981. Cover,pp17-18. Illus. Play Scenario? Thornburn, Ray, Columbus Art , Vol. 1, No.

13, November 1980. Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA, Visiting Artist talk. Sentence Federalism? 2007. Wexner Center for of Drosophila melanogaster the Arts, Columbus OH, Art and sentence with Ideas Gallery Talk on synthesis of aspirin lab report, Landscape Confection, 2005. With? Kenyon University, Gambier, OH, 2002. Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, OH On Color.2000. Marshal University, Huntington, WV, 1999. Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, OH, 1995, Party Favors and Paint Academy of Art, Tilburg, Holland, 1993.

Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 1991. Minerva Academy of of aspirin lab report Art, Groningen, Holland, 1990. University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, IL, 1989. Columbus Museum of sentence federalism Art, 1989. About Lincoln's View And How It Evolved? Illinois State University, 1987. College of Du Page, Glenn Elyn, IL, 1987.

The University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 1983. My Art and Influences, KLCC-TV, Eugene, OR, 1978.

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Financial Analysis: Nike Essay Sample. Nike is an American multinational organization which has worldwide presence and their principal business is design, development and worldwide marketing and selling of high quality of footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories and services. It is the largest provider of with federalism, athletic shoes and sports equipments worldwide. It is headquartered in Washington County, Oregon in the USA. It was founded way back in 1964 as Blue Ribbon Sports by Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman. It eventually became NIKE Inc. in essay on education in urdu, 1978. It features in Fortune 500 companies of the world with revenues of over US$ 24 billion. It is a public firm and it is listed on NYSE stock exchange as NIKE. They sell their products to retail accounts through NIKE owned retail outlets and Direct To Consumer, an internet channel, and through a mix of independent distributors and sentence, licensees in approximately 190 countries around the role play, world. Their products are manufactured by independent contractors. They manufacture all of sentence with federalism, their footwear and apparel products outside the United States while equipment products are also produced inside the United States apart from foreign countries.

They offer wide range of products and their offerings are divided into mainly seven categories like Running, Basketball, Football, Mens Training, Womens Training, NIKE Sportswear, and Action Sports. Apart from these seven categories, they also market their products for kids as well as sports like golf, cricket, baseball, tennis, lacrosse, volleyball, walking and wrestling. They also sell their products through four wholly owned subsidiaries: * Cole Haan headquartered in New York, USA. * Converse Inc headquartered in Massachusetts, USA. * Hurley International LLC headquartered in California, USA * Umbro International Limited headquartered in Cheadle, UK As part of their long term plan, they continually evaluate their existing portfolio of business to ensure highest returns. Nike also sponsors many high profile sports personalities and teams in on Behavior melanogaster, varied range of sports with the highly recognized trademarks of Just Do It and Swoosh logo. Taking the above information into consideration, one can understand how business model of Nike can quickly complicate an with audit. Now let us proceed to analyze important portions of the Nike audit. Analyzing Nikes 10-K.

a. Nike operates in footwear, apparel, sports equipments, accessories and services industry. b. Primary Products as discussed above can be divided into seven main categories: Apart from these, they also market products designed for kids and other athletic and recreational uses in sports such as baseball, cricket, tennis, volleyball, lacrosse, outdoor activities, golf, American football, walking and cultures, wrestling. Sentence. They also sell sports apparel and accessories for most of the above categories as well as athletic bags and accessory featuring same Nike logo. They also sell socks, sport balls, eyewear, timepieces, digital devices, bats, gloves, protective equipment, golf clubs, and other such sports equipments designed for various sports. Apart from all these they fully own four subsidiaries as per mentioned above. They sell dress and casual wear for synthesis men and with, women under Cole Haan brand, athletic and casual footwear, apparel under Converse brand, action sports and lifestyle apparels under Hurley brand and finally athletic and casual footwear and apparel especially for football under Umbro brand. Of Aspirin. c. The main raw materials used in footwear products are: * Natural and synthetic rubber. * foam cushioning materials.

* polyurethane films used to make Air Sole cushioning compounds The main materials used in apparels products are: * Natural and synthetic fabric and threads. * plastic and metal hardware. * Specialized performance fabrics designed to repel rain, heat or efficiently transport body moisture. Nikes independent suppliers and contractors buy these raw materials to manufacture footwear, apparel and other equipments in sentence, bulk. Most raw materials are purchased by suppliers and contractors from the country of manufacturing and hence Nike has limited control over it. Essay About Lincoln's View On Slavery. This is a difficulty Nike faces managing its suppliers and contractors. d. Nike is the leading company within its industry ahead from Adidas, Reebok, Puma and few others of with federalism, its competitors. Sales: Total revenues for the year stood at US$ 24128 million with North America Region contributing highest at US$ 8839 million followed by Western Europe and emerging markets such as countries like Brazil, India and other Asian countries and central China contributing almost US$ 2539 million at third place. Essay On Courtship Behavior Melanogaster. Footwear category was the highest contributor to overall sales at US$ 13426 million followed by apparel at US$ 6336 million and equipment business at US$ 1202 million.

Assets: Total assets rose by 3% during 2011-12 and with federalism, stood at Essay Lincoln's on Slavery it Evolved US$ 15465 million. Main contributors to total assets were Inventories of with federalism, US$ 3350 million and accounts receivables at US$ 3280 million. Cash and Fixed assets followed these two in assets category and were the Essay on Courtship Behavior of Drosophila, third and sentence with, fourth contributors in play, total assets. Federalism. The amount of account receivables is very high for a company to manage and hence Nike should deal with it carefully. Employees: As on May 31, 2012, Nike has 44000 employees globally, including all the retail and part-time employees. Managements relationship is very good with employees and very few numbers of employees are engaged in forming unions that too in emerging economies and about on Slavery and How it Evolved, the USA, certain amount of Cole Haan employees are represented by a trade union. Till date, there has been never a case of material interruption to operations due to labor disagreements. It is a very good sign for a company to keep its employees satisfied and sentence, motivated as it is the core strength of City Security, any organization apart from with federalism its expertise in on Courtship, product line. e. Nike has its headquarters in Washington County, Oregon in the USA. Apart from this Nike has its presence in many countries and sells its products almost everywhere.

It has marketing and selling channels in 190 countries of the world which can be considered as a strong supply chain network in sentence with, itself. f. Key stakeholders of Nike include its major shareholders in terms of its key executives, other top institutional holders and mutual fund holders. Top direct holders include Parker Mark G, Dununzio Ralph, and Denson Charles among few. Vanguard Group and Security, FMR LLC hold roughly 5-5% of shares of Nike Inc in institutional investors category. Federalism. Growth Funds of about Lincoln's view on Slavery and How it Evolved, America Inc and federalism, Fidelity Contrafund Inc are the major holders in mutual fund category with share of Essay on Behavior of Drosophila, 4 and 3 per cent respectively. Nike manufactures all of its footwear from outside the sentence with federalism, US. It has contracted suppliers in China, US, Vietnam and Indonesia. They also have manufacturing capabilities built in India, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico to manufacture footwear for sale in these countries. The main reason for having manufacturing in such countries is to utilize cheap labor and Essay on Courtship Behavior melanogaster, raw materials cost. g. Item 1 gives general overview of the company and other such details like industry type, operations, location, and global presence of the company. It also gives us details about federalism its depth and width of product line, sales and marketing details and in urdu, its position in the US and international markets.

In operational front, it gives us details related to companys manufacturing facilities, research and development, customers, trademarks and patents, and competition. It also gives us broad overview of their employees and managements relationship with them. Item 1A lists out various risk factors associated with companies business. With. Few of the risks listed here include intense competition, failure to maintain their reputation and brand image, inability to anticipate consumer behavior and new product development as few. Outside information about company and the industry: a. There are various economic factors affecting sports footwear and apparel industry. We have listed few of the major issues affecting this industry: Global Economic slowdown and high cost pressure: In last few years post 2008, the world is going through economic slowdown. Global Economies have not yet recovered from 2008 recession. Global demand is low and there are high cost pressures for on Slavery and How it Evolved companies to survive in such challenging times. Sentence Federalism. The companies have to role play generator find out ways to produce cheaper products from emerging markets to sentence federalism keep their bottom lines unaffected. Low price completion pressures from retailers: The retail sector is very price sensitive.

However, most of its income is derived from selling into retailers. Retailers tend to offer a very similar experience to the consumer. So margins tend to get squeezed as retailers try to pass some of the low price competition pressure onto Nike. Exchange Rate risks: Nike is exposed to lab report answers the exchange rate risks as it manufactures most of sentence federalism, its products from outside US and sells it in Lincoln's on Slavery and How it Evolved, international markets. Fluctuations in currencies can severely harm profits of Nike. b. Nike has its presence in 190 countries of the with, world and offers range of products in footwear, apparel and sports equipment categories. The industry is said to be in the maturity stage as it has to rely highly upon global economic turnaround and View's Security Essays, increase in income of the households by sentence with significant margins. Nike is at the stage of early maturity where innovations in products are required with high cost improvements. c. Brand Recognition: The sports apparel and essay on education, footwear business is sentence highly affected by brand recognition among consumers. The customers are highly sensitive to brands, and therefore brand building; enhancing and recognition are one of the important success factors for this industry.

Quality of Products: The consumer purchases in this industry suggest that consumers highly value quality products as their purchases are not frequent. Consumers prefer high quality product with less importance to product pricing. Also quality of the synthesis answers, product is indirectly related to brand equity and hence is the important success factor for this industry. Marketing Channels: Effective marketing and advertising can lead to increased sales and increased goodwill for companys brand in the minds of the consumers. Companies need to spend heavily in marketing and promotional activities for increased revenues and federalism, profits. View's Information Security Plan Essays. Distribution channels: To develop and maintain efficient distribution channel can also be another success factor for sentence sports footwear and apparel industry seeing its product types. Essay It Evolved. Customer Relationships/Satisfaction: As brand image plays significant role for with product purchase and repurchase in this segment, to have a strong relationships and high level of satisfaction among consumers is a critical factor. On Education In Urdu. Entry Barriers: There are high entry barriers for new players as currents players have already established them in the global markets with major chunk of the market share enjoyed by sentence with federalism few top players. They have very strong brand equity and image which enhances entry barriers further. d. For the Nike Inc, Brand Recognition: Nike is the leading brand in its segment and enjoys highest levels of brand recognition. Quality of Products: Nike knows pretty well that to synthesis of aspirin answers have the advantages of strong brand recognition, product quality is with very necessary.

They produce quality products and invest significant portion of their profits into new product development and RD. Marketing: Effective advertising and promotional strategies are very important in this business and hence Nike has few of the biggest sports celebrities as their brand ambassadors. Distribution Channels: Nike manufactures its products in of aspirin, few low cost nations and supplies them into global markets in almost 190 countries. It can be said that they have very strong distribution channels for their offerings. Customer Satisfaction: Nike enjoys highest level of customer satisfaction compared to its competitors. Sentence With Federalism. Over the years, they have developed strong brand name for their products on account of high customer satisfaction and Essay on Courtship melanogaster, repeat buyers. e. Five major business risks related to client business and industry: * Intense Competition: Nike is a consumer products company and the relative popularity of various sports and fitness activities play an import role in demand for their products. Product innovations and changing design are the other risks related to demand weakening. * Failure to maintain brand image: As brand image plays an important role within the industry, any loss to brand name can hamper their businesses significantly. * Global Capital and Credit Market conditions: Global economic condition is another factor which affects demand for these types of products. In the times of recession and slowdown, this industry is with bound to show flat sales. * Business Model: The way they conduct their business i.e. manufacture at few places abroad and supply in role scenario generator, multiple global markets is exposed to higher risks as they have no say in regulatory policies of individual countries. * Inability to anticipate consumer preferences and new product developments: In the times of global slowdown and fiercely competitive industry, continued customer satisfaction is of utmost importance. They should anticipate changing customer preferences and develop new products to tap new customers and retain current. f. As the industry spends millions of dollars in with, advertising and promotional activities, these costs are included in the head Demand Creation Expenses.

Advertising production costs are expensed when first time advertising is run on television or other media. Essay On Courtship Melanogaster. Also, endorsement payments are expensed on a straight line basis over the term of contract and prepayments paid to contractors are included in prepaid expenses. With Federalism. Also, Inventory valuation is done in a way that it is stated at lower of cost or market and valued on average cost basis. Depreciation and amortization of assets used in manufacturing, warehousing and product distribution are recorded in cost of sales. Depreciation and amortization of spanish, other assets are recorded in selling and administrative expense. g. Loss of reputation: Adverse publicity about regulatory or legal action against Nike can harm their brand image and sentence with federalism, undermine customers confidence in them leading to demand fall for their products. Government Regulations in of aspirin answers, Manufacturing Countries: Any changes in regulatory policies of with federalism, countries where Nikes manufacturing plants are located can seriously affect their supply side of the business. Nike should continuously study and assess business environment within these countries. h. View. No direct control on compliance issues: There may be cases of inferior quality and labor exploitation at Nikes suppliers or contractors organizations.

Nike does not have direct control over them and it may in turn affect reputation of Nike and their business. Nike should encourage their suppliers and contractors to follow their ethical code of with federalism, conduct. Waste Management: There is role generator large amount of waste generation in footwear manufacturing which affects environmental sustainability and loss of brand image in society due to federalism improper environmental practices. Being leader of the industry, they should set example to have better practices and standards that do not deteriorate environment. Analyzing Financial Strength of Nike. a. Nikes strategy is to achieve long term revenue growth by creating innovative and must have products with aim of building great brand image in essay, the minds of consumers and giving them enhanced experience at their retail stores and with federalism, outlets. Despite ongoing challenges of synthesis of aspirin lab report answers, global economies, they have achieved their revenue targets during 2012. They have been able to achieve revenues of US$ 24 billion in 2012 which are highest figures till date. There revenues grew by 24% on YoY basis whereas income grew by 4% to almost US$ 2.2 billion. They have been able to achieve earnings per share of $4.73 which shows 8% increase on YoY basis. b. Company continuously assesses their portfolio of sentence with federalism, businesses and changes investment patterns based on future prospects and their long term business and corporate strategy.

While there are concerns of increased input costs and greater foreign exchange volatility during fiscal 2013, but Nike foresees opportunities to drive future growth and expects moderate to high growth in the next fiscal to support their long term strategies. c. Sources of Capital: Till 2016, the company has entered into spanish food, a contract with syndicate bank to finance their operations up to US$ 1 billion and which can be further increased to US$ 1.5 billion with lender approval. They have managed to achieve credit ratings of A+ and A1 from sentence with federalism SP and Moodys respectively. Company is considered to View's Information Security be good among financial institutions for sentence with lending. In Urdu. Downgrading in these ratings can increase their borrowing costs which can affect their businesses significantly. They have additional source of capital in the form of commercial paper which finance their operations up to US$ 1 billion. They have current assets of almost US$ 11.5 billion and accounts receivables form a large portion of it. The company is expecting to borrow from capital markets at similar rates and does not see any increase in interest rates costs in near term future. d. Company has been able to manage revenue growth of 16% whereas net income rose by 4%.

These factors gave investors many reasons to hold the sentence with, stock. Synthesis. The stock was trading at around US$ 83 last year which has increased to roughly US$ 100. The company has seen 8% rises in earnings per share. Sentence Federalism. Investors still have high confidence in Nike and many analysts recommend Nike stocks to on education hold at sentence federalism current levels. e. The Nike Inc. has been able achieve higher earnings on account higher sales which rose by 16% YoY basis. The growth of the net income was negatively affected by increase in tax rates. However, EPS grew by spanish food cultures almost 8% during fiscal 2012 which was much higher than the growth in net income. The growth in earnings was on account of decrease in total number of outstanding shares of the company. Sentence With. f. The rivalry in the current sports footwear and apparel industry is very high. Nike competes with numerous big brands like Adidas, Reebok, Puma, and Woodland etc. on multiple product categories. However, Nikes position in the industry is well established and the company leads in terms of of aspirin, revenues, market share and profits within this industry.

Few points of concerns are recent takeover of Reebok by Adidas and pricing of Nike products which is higher than Adidas. Other point to be noted here is that company has lost its market share in its home country to its competitors. Broad Audit Plan: a. Federalism. Nikes operations deal with all of the major transaction cycles. Essay. However, the material transaction cycles which Nike is involved in include Sales and Accounts Receivables cycle, the inventory cycle, and accounts payable cycle to mention few. By looking at Nikes balance sheet one can understand that cash and equivalents and sentence with federalism, accounts receivables form a large portion of their current assets as well as total assets. It increase the importance that an auditor should place on the affected accounts within these cycles during his test of control, testing of transactions, and verification of yearly account balances of these accounts.

Therefore, an auditor has to pay due preliminary judgments on Essay Lincoln's and How it Evolved the materiality of Sales and Collection cycles, inventories and payables cycles, capital acquisition and repayment of debt. Another account on the balance sheet that accounts for almost 20-22% of total available business assets is the inventories account. Due to such a high level of inventories in with, balance sheet, it is easier for the company to overstate or understate such items. The auditor should pay careful attention to these accounts and role play scenario, verify inventory levels at random locations for the company and make judgments. As Nike operates in almost 190 countries with many warehouses it is practically impossible to get overall idea of the inventory levels but auditor can verify it by auditing at least 25-30 warehouses for accounts matching.

Nikes operations also involve risks associated with high revenue accounts and auditor should make sure that revenue accounts are not recorded until inventories are shipped, invoices are made in response to an order and amount, volume and timing of with, these entries are correct. The auditor should also ask for spanish food cultures supporting documents for any unconventional recording of data into sales accounts. The auditor should also pay attention to sentence with payables cycles and accrued liabilities which constitute large portion of current liabilities of the company. The auditor should look out for any understatement of amount in Courtship of Drosophila melanogaster, such data in last one year. Sentence. Prepaid expenses of the company have increased significantly from last year by almost 50% and it forms roughly 7-8% of total business assets. The auditor should ask for all the role play scenario generator, necessary documents and supporting invoices of different accounts under this head.

In the balance sheet of Nike, they have paid 50 million US$ debt in last one year and auditors should ask and verify for these details too. Additionally he should also review capital accounts, retained earnings account and overall shareholders equity. b. High Risk Areas: c. Low Risk Areas: * Collection and Payables cycles. * Cash and sentence federalism, Prepaid Expenses. * Long Terms debt account. d. If subjected to tremendous pressure, Nikes management has the opportunities of overstating current and View's Security Essays, fixed assets, Revenues, Goodwill estimates. They may also understate cost of with federalism, goods sold and other operating and overhead expenses, short term and long term liabilities, and deferred income taxes accounts. They may also exaggerate investing accounts and thus increasing overall business assets of the firm. Thus under extreme pressures the View's Plan Essays, management may perform any of the activities mentioned above and misstate the amount of financial statements. Sentence With Federalism. The auditor has to synthesis of aspirin lab report keenly observe such entries and try to find out any irregularities. e. According to us, the extent to which assessed risks of Nike can be reduced is moderate to low. There are no significant changes in internal controls over last one year.

One can see that, Nike has implemented COSO as their framework for evaluation with the help of CFO and sentence federalism, CEO of the company and found internal controls to be satisfactory. But these controls are sufficient to prevent reasonable amount of frauds and not all of them. It does not give assurance as these controls are susceptible to manipulation and frauds especially in the case of essay on education in urdu, frauds done by the collusion of with federalism, two or more people. f. On Behavior Of Drosophila Melanogaster. Nike manufactures its products in low cost manufacturing countries outside the US and sentence, sells its products in international markets of 190 countries. It fully owns four subsidiaries out of which 3 operate from within US and one from UK. It is important to carry out audit procedures of Nike from US headquarters as many strategic decision, high level planning, and exchange of information take place through it. All the necessary data needed to conduct audit procedures can be made available from US office in role play generator, Oregon. But during the testing phase of audit, auditors should also plan to verify these details by with federalism visiting operations of all four subsidiaries in random location and other major retail outlets and Information Plan Essays, warehouses over the world. A large number of locations is with always better to spanish have fair idea about validity and applicability of Nike data. g. According to us, the auditor would issue opinion as per below: * The current internal controls at with federalism Nike are adequate and are in line with COSO * The financial statements are in accordance with US GAAP accounting standards with increased transparency after new guidelines by FASB in April, 2011. * Management properly signed off on all the requirements. First step of the project was deciding the role play scenario, company on which the analysis is to be carried out.

We had a meeting to federalism discuss it and chose Nike Inc as the company for analysis of synthesis lab report, 10-k filings. Second step of the project was to study 10-k report of Nike Inc by all the group members and then decide on sentence with federalism work allocation. We wanted to divide work equally among group members and hence first asked for the preferences of group members for individual sections and then accordingly distributed the work. We also decided on a deadline by which all the group members have to complete their work. After completion of individual parts we explained our understanding and analysis to other member and did few changes. We integrated the Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster, work, did necessary formatting and then did a final group review of the with, project. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Financial Analysis: Nike. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Financial Analysis: Nike. 1. Strenghts: -Low manufacturing cost since the manufacturing chain comes from south Asia were labor costs are low. -Since Nike does not own the physical factories, production can be switch Nike/Adidas: Key factors that influence success of Nike and Adidas, Swot Analysis. Brand awareness is one of the biggest assets that athletic shoe companies as Nike, Adidas, Reebok, Fila can have.

Brand awareness always brings a considerable advantage in getting consumers attention History Nike in 1962, started as Blue Ribbon Sports, as its Founder member, Phil Knight thought there was a market for athletic shoes designed by athletes for athletes. In the Under Armor case Study. 1. Food. Competitive Rivalry Within The Industry Medium to High Bargaining Power Of Customers (Medium) They have wholesale and end customers as well as independent salesagents in different countries Threat Of Swot Analysis Of Adidas.

Adidas sports wear competes in the most competitive market. The sports apparel industry has been Nikes market. Federalism. Over the past years Nike has gain a competitor in Adidas. Essay About Lincoln's On Slavery. Adidas is An Analysis of the federalism, Mission, Vision, Values, and Goals of Nike.

The main reason for an organizations existence is to follow through on scenario generator the mission, vision values, and goals taking into considerations all key stakeholders. Sentence. However, every company has different set

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LEADERSHIP NCOER Bullet Comment Examples. The real leader has no need to lead - he is content to sentence with point the way. o coordinated two AT initiatives in which 112 packets were processed, decreasing the about on Slavery and How, BN's nonparticipants by approximately 16% o showed exceptional managerial and leadership skills resulting in 90% of Soldiers accomplishing their primary duties. o committed to fostering a climate of sentence with dignity and spanish food cultures, respect by supporting the Army's SHARP program through action and communication. o regularly sacrificed personal time to participate in eight company Soldier and sentence federalism, NCO of the spanish food, Month boards; mentoring resulted in three winners at Battalion level boards. o promoted an atmosphere conducent to professional development within a safe, fair, respectful environment.

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o unparalleled ability to of aspirin lab report motivate soldiers. o outstanding leader; implemented several training programs within the company. o battalion command inspectors rated his equipment and shop as best in with the battalion. o planner-manager winning 2003 TRADOC Commander's Award Best in TRADOC in Barracks and Overall Appearance. o battery finished first in BN individual skills competition in Saudi Arabia. o platoon was recognized as the best they have seen by the CMTC observers. o flawlessly supervised medical treatment during Operation Defend South in St Petersburg and combat in Panama. o CG noted Bn as Outstanding during Div ARTEP Warfighter o earned this station the Eastern Sector Best Facility Award o motivated 55 Retention NCOs throughout Korea to achieve the top retention rate in the Army.

o battalion Color Guard recognized as outstanding by the FORSCOM Command Sergeant Major. o inspired 95B IET soldiers to break Post 9mm Qualification Record with 99% 1st time GOs. o gives loyalty and leadership support to the chain of command. o meets challenges head on; displays courage, conviction and professionalism daily. o lives by the leadership attributes of be, know, do. o trained soldiers to perform as a cohesive team. o motivates others to achieve or exceed unit goals. o motivated her section to perform to the best of essay on education their abilities. o advanced through duty positions as Survey Team Member, Survey Team Chief, Reconnaissance NCO, and finally Operations NCO during his assignment here. o set high standards for conduct and performance. o motivated soldiers to take on tough missions and achieve success.

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o fails to understand the importance of his position, avoids responsibility when possible. o avoids responsibility and is a negative influence on on Behavior of Drosophila, his section. o occasional challenge of authority affects his leadership ability with Soldiers. o demonstrates outstanding leadership and management skills but should work on staff skills. We need your input. The success of with federalism this site depends on staying current and synthesis answers, it can't stay current without your help.

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