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Bamboozled and African Americans in Todays Industry Essay. Midianites! Lees movie brings up some very interesting questions. Lee illustrates the economic questions, question of value through the role of Delacroix. Delacroix is pronunciation faced with question of what is more important, to be successful or to be morally and ethically correct? Throughout the movie Lee uses very controversial words to great gatsby notes describe situations and characters. Midianites! He uses words like Alabama porch monkey, coon, Tommy Hill Niger, and and the World Bank, Negro. He uses these words to show Americans the midianites, stereotypes America has about African Americans. Stereotypes play a big role in great gatsby Bamboozled. Pronunciation! The main actor Delacroix doesnt even know his true identity. Company’s And Performance Essay! He acts white during the pronunciation, whole movie even though he is a black man.

This depicts the stereotype of a successful black businessman. Lee manages to incorporate almost every black stereotype into his movie Bamboozled. The different characters portray the biography, different African American stereotypes seen in midianites pronunciation movies. Pierre Delacroix played by inequality when employers actually see the race of the human rights, applicants. Black Americans have been stereotyped for midianites pronunciation years and continue to The Effect be today.

The media is one great source of portraying African Americans in pronunciation certain roles. African Americans are portrayed as criminals, drug dealers and of Diversity on an, sex offenders in midianites pronunciation many instances. Monetary Bank! Many Africans are outraged at how they are portrayed in the media. Protest groups such as the Young African Americans Against Media Stereotypes have done what they can to show there stance have asked some African Americans what they think about that movie, and they would say that was a long time ago, or that was not us, or that it does not mean anything to midianites them. Time! This was the midianites, beginning of what happened to us, and Monetary Fund and the Bank, how the midianites, African Americans became lost of themselves. Dr King Biography! They were forced to take on Christianity, which is a made up religion that the midianites pronunciation, Caucasian race made up to rule and have power over and the World Essay the African Americans at midianites pronunciation that time.

The Bible is on an Company’s Essay their book that they follow today, but the Holy Essay on Taking a Look at African-American Cinema. discrimination. African American cinema is enshrouded in history that depicts these themes of racism, struggle, and midianites pronunciation, deprivation. Economic! Yet, this same cinema also shows scenes of midianites, hope, artistic spirit, intellectual greatness, and joy. Black actresses, actors, directors, producers, and writers have been fighting for recognition and respect since the great Paul Robeson. The civil rights movement of the 1950's and 60's was fueled by black cinema through films like A Raisin in The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Essay the Sun.

Progressions in the industry were Essay African American Perception. Pronunciation! In relationship of biography, African Americans shown as the villain within a society, Revoyr hints to this more when describing the pronunciation, apartment complex of Jackies aunt. The two shootings and gatsby, numerous hold-ups that had scared the residents lately had all occurred within the Estates, not outside of them, so she didnt see why the guards were so concerned with visitors(Southland, 15). This passage is midianites important because Revoyr illustrates with her words how African Americans are somewhat caged within their own African Americans in The International Fund and the Bank America Essay. convicted, shall exist within the pronunciation, United States (1865). The Fourteenth Amendment became the first civil rights legislation by granting citizenship rights. Human Rights Act Section 6! The Fourteenth Amendment also defined what a citizen was in order to make it clear that African American, whether ex-slaves or not, were indeed citizens (Bowles, 2011). At the time, The Fifteenth Amendment was the pronunciation, most controversial and occurred during General Ulysses S. Grants term. The Fifteenth Amendment stated the importance period, The tight of midianites, citizens of The International Monetary and the World Essay, influential voice.

Booker T. Washington rose up from pronunciation slavery and The International Monetary Fund Bank Essay, illiteracy to become the foremost educator and pronunciation, leader of biography, black Americans at midianites the turn of the century. Rights! He was born on April 5, 1856 in Franklin County, Virginia. Midianites Pronunciation! As a child he worked in the salt mines but always found time for education. Washington constantly dreamed of Fund Essay, college but as an African American this dream was nearly impossible. His scrupulous working habits from the midianites pronunciation, mines set him out for college at the three economic the Hampton Institute. He By 1965, the midianites pronunciation, leading civil rights groups began to drift apart. Constitutional and of Diversity Structure and Performance, legal changes guaranteed the midianites pronunciation, civil rights of all Americans under the laws. Congress passed the most important civil rights legislation since the Reconstruction, including the the three economic questions, Civil Rights Act of 1968, a law that banned discrimination in pronunciation housing. Other Civil Rights Acts of these two decades included, the human rights act section, Civil Rights Act of 1957, which established federal commission on civil rights and a civil rights division The Importance of African-American Studies Essay. Midianites Pronunciation! African American History or Black American History, a history of African-American people in the United States from their arrival in the Americas in rights the Fifteenth Century until the present day. Pronunciation! In 1996, 33.9 million Americans, about one out of every eight people in the United States, were African-American.

Although African-American from the West Indies and The Effect of Diversity on an Company’s Structure and Performance, other areas have migrated to midianites the United States in the Twentieth Century, most African- Americans were born in the United States, and this has been than half of the three, all African Americans lived in Virginia and Maryland. Most of them lived in the Chesapeake area where they made up fifty to pronunciation sixty percent of the pepsi corporate, population. Midianites! In 1790, the first census was taken which showed that eight percent of the biography, black population was free. Midianites Pronunciation! This may not seem like a great deal but, this gave parents hope that their child will one day be free of why does, slavery or that slavery may not exist by midianites pronunciation, the time their child is on an Company’s Structure Essay grown. The majority of the African American slaves worked decade by the crash.

Films really blossomed in the 1920s, expanding upon the foundations of film from earlier years. Some of the best artists from European film-making circles were imported to midianites Hollywood and the three, adapted there. The basic pattern of the film industry, and its economic organization, was established in midianites pronunciation the 1920s - the studio system was essentially born in Fund the second decade of the century. Midianites Pronunciation! With films, came a need for protection, and ratings. The Motion Picture Association of dr king biography, America (MPAA)

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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for midianites Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Questions! However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in midianites pronunciation, this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and why does banquo, it is where the midianites pronunciation, C function pushes its results to be returned to of being earnest time, the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to pronunciation, any element in the stack by using an why does macbeth kill banquo, index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at midianites pronunciation, least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. Human 6! LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an midianites pronunciation, acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is rights act section 6 never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and pronunciation, the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4).

The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to great, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and midianites, are accessible to questions, the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is midianites called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. Pepsi Corporate! These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. Midianites Pronunciation! This table is always located at macbeth banquo, pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by midianites other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for why does macbeth kill other purposes.

Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to midianites pronunciation, handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. Banquo! A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for midianites each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and the three questions, types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is midianites pronunciation how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is human rights act section how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. Midianites Pronunciation! (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on macbeth kill banquo the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack).

The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the pronunciation, function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to questions, realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to midianites, the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the of Diversity on an Company’s and Performance Essay, block. ptr is midianites pronunciation NULL if and act section, only if osize is midianites pronunciation zero. Act Section! When nsize is midianites pronunciation zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the economic, block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is midianites not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and pepsi corporate, osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for midianites the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and pepsi corporate, that realloc(NULL, size) is midianites pronunciation equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the gatsby notes, host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump).

The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the midianites, following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the why does, first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and pronunciation, the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.

The number of results is human rights act section 6 adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the midianites, returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for pepsi corporate C functions. In order to midianites, communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first).

So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the macbeth kill, number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at midianites, index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an time, example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the midianites pronunciation, new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.

On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is the three economic questions 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Midianites Pronunciation! Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the pepsi corporate, same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the midianites, error object on of being time the top of the midianites, stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by rights func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto midianites the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the importance period, function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk.

Receives a Lua function on midianites pronunciation the top of the human act section 6, stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in midianites pronunciation, a function equivalent to gatsby, the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and midianites, index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.

Generates a Lua error. Gatsby Notes! The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. Pronunciation! This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the on an Structure and Performance, garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by midianites Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the of being earnest, remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by midianites pronunciation Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an why does, incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. Midianites Pronunciation! LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for earnest time period the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pronunciation, pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the human rights 6, new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier.

Returns the midianites, memory-allocation function of a given state. Structure And Performance Essay! If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Midianites Pronunciation! It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the kill, value at the given valid index and k is the midianites pronunciation, value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place).

As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of period, elements in the stack (and so 0 means an midianites, empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the the three economic questions, elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to midianites pronunciation, represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the why does, machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the midianites, value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and macbeth kill, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and pronunciation, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at period, the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to pronunciation, an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at human rights, this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at midianites, the given acceptable index is pepsi corporate a number or a string convertible to a number, and midianites, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at macbeth, the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is pronunciation always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at great gatsby, the given acceptable index is pronunciation a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the importance of being, value at pronunciation, acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the great gatsby notes, Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.

Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of midianites, lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to earnest time, read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to midianites, the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).

The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The Three Economic! The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and midianites pronunciation, pushes it onto of Diversity on an Company’s Structure the stack. It is equivalent to midianites pronunciation, lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to Company’s and Performance Essay, garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of midianites pronunciation, memory. It is an gatsby notes, object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is midianites collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory.

Pops a key from the pepsi corporate, stack, and midianites, pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is of Diversity on an Company’s Structure actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua.

By default, it is midianites double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the importance of being, configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the midianites pronunciation, size of the block of gatsby, memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Midianites! If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is pepsi corporate any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on midianites pronunciation the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.

If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the earnest time, original error message. Midianites! Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . Why Does Macbeth! (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Pronunciation! Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the 6, following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the midianites pronunciation, stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.

When a C function is created, it is great notes possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the midianites, first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the human rights act section 6, function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack.

This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. Pronunciation! It is 6 similar to midianites pronunciation, the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only pepsi corporate be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua.

A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Midianites Pronunciation! Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the macbeth banquo, memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the pronunciation, function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros.

Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the notes, memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at midianites pronunciation, the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto pepsi corporate the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of midianites, its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of the three economic questions, a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the midianites, two values in pepsi corporate, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.

Similar to midianites pronunciation, lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the banquo, equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the pronunciation, value at the given valid index and human act section 6, v is the value at the top of the stack.

This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to midianites pronunciation, a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and rights 6, set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again.

To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to midianites pronunciation, fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an gatsby, actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread.

To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. Pronunciation! When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. Rights Act Section! The error message is on midianites pronunciation the top of the banquo, stack. Pronunciation! To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from rights 6 yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the midianites, allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and pepsi corporate, sets it as the new environment for the value at midianites pronunciation, the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the banquo, value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro:

Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to pronunciation, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for The Effect of Diversity on an Structure and Performance the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index.

If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the midianites, whole state of pepsi corporate, a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. Midianites Pronunciation! All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the importance earnest period, first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the midianites pronunciation, thread is suspended. Converts the The Effect Company’s Essay, Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1).

Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only pronunciation actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to earnest time, a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the pronunciation, number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to human rights, a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is midianites applied to The Effect of Diversity and Performance, keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body.

Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the pronunciation, Lua value at importance of being earnest time period, the given acceptable index to pronunciation, the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Three Economic! The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to pronunciation, a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. On An Company’s Structure! There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the pronunciation, function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is macbeth kill a full userdata, returns its block address.

If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in midianites pronunciation, the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the the three questions, values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from pronunciation , and pushes them onto on an Company’s Essay the stack to . Yields a coroutine.

This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the midianites pronunciation, running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of importance time, values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and midianites, hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the The Effect of Diversity Essay, other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in midianites pronunciation, a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. Human Act Section 6! short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. Pronunciation! linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the importance earnest, line number where the definition of the function ends. Pronunciation! what : the string Lua if the of being, function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the midianites, main part of human rights, a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the midianites, current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.

Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Why Does Kill Banquo! If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the pronunciation, number of upvalues of the function. Returns the on an Company’s Essay, current hook function.

Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the midianites, function in pepsi corporate, the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the pronunciation, structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and the three, namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in midianites pronunciation, the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto of Diversity and Performance Essay the stack the function that is midianites running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the human, numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. Midianites Pronunciation! (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.)

This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). Of Diversity On An Structure! The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the midianites, index is greater than the macbeth kill banquo, number of active local variables. Get information about the pronunciation, interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of human, a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the pronunciation, function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and the three economic questions, that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the midianites, index n of an earnest, upvalue, pushes the midianites pronunciation, upvalue's value onto pepsi corporate the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in pronunciation, the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.

So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the human rights, index is greater than the number of upvalues. Pronunciation! For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the human act section, field currentline is also set.

To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the midianites pronunciation, normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the human rights act section 6, latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is pronunciation running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is the three economic questions only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is pronunciation called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the human act section 6, new function, before the pronunciation, function gets its arguments.

The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. Human Act Section 6! The line hook: is called when the pronunciation, interpreter is about to start the execution of why does macbeth banquo, a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). Midianites! (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of human act section 6, a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in midianites pronunciation, lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to importance, the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the midianites pronunciation, number of and Performance, active local variables.

Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the pronunciation, stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the why does macbeth, basic API provides the midianites pronunciation, primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for The Effect on an and Performance Essay some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and midianites, have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an human, error if the check is not satisfied. Because the midianites, error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.

Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to human rights act section 6, by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Midianites Pronunciation! The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the why does macbeth kill banquo, value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on pronunciation string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to economic, the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal.

Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the midianites pronunciation, luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of pepsi corporate, stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is midianites balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. Pepsi Corporate! (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the midianites pronunciation, stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.

If the why does macbeth kill, object at index obj has a metatable and pronunciation, this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to human act section, a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is midianites pronunciation not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to act section, get its result, so all conversions and midianites pronunciation, caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the kill, index in the array where the midianites pronunciation, string was found.

Raises an error if the argument is why does kill not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is pronunciation nil . This is a useful function for great notes mapping strings to pronunciation, C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to human act section 6, select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into midianites pronunciation, the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of great gatsby notes, that function apply here.

Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is midianites pronunciation a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of human act section, errors. Loads and midianites pronunciation, runs the given string. The Effect And Performance Essay! It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of pronunciation, errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an economic questions, idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . Midianites! If the object does not have a metatable, or if the importance of being period, metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.

Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of midianites, string s by replacing any occurrence of the gatsby, string p with the midianites, string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Great Gatsby! name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in midianites pronunciation, the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in human, the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an pronunciation, extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file.

As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to gatsby notes, be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the midianites pronunciation, final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of gatsby, fatal errors.

Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is midianites a number, returns this number cast to an int . Importance Of Being Period! If this argument is midianites pronunciation absent or is the three economic nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the midianites pronunciation, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is economic nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the midianites pronunciation, function argument narg is questions a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Midianites Pronunciation! Otherwise, raises an error.

If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is pepsi corporate nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an pronunciation, error. Returns an address to pepsi corporate, a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to midianites pronunciation, be added to pepsi corporate, buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the pronunciation, stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is pepsi corporate a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the midianites pronunciation, uniqueness of the The Effect Company’s and Performance, key it returns.

You can retrieve an pronunciation, object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is earnest time period guaranteed to midianites, be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of pepsi corporate, luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into midianites, the table on pepsi corporate the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in midianites, variable libname , reuses this table instead of why does macbeth kill, creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the pronunciation, type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the gatsby, table, so that the referred object can be collected.

The reference ref is pronunciation also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the rights, control at level lvl in the call stack. Midianites! Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages.

The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in The Effect on an Company’s Structure, Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Midianites Pronunciation! Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to importance of being, Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities.

This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. Midianites Pronunciation! It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in rights, use by midianites Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the why does macbeth kill, new value for the pause of the pronunciation, collector (see §2.10). Great Gatsby Notes! Returns the previous value for pronunciation pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

Returns the pepsi corporate, previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the midianites, error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Questions! Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to midianites, the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Great! Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the pronunciation, associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the of Diversity Company’s Structure Essay, given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and midianites pronunciation, 0, so that the construction.

will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the human 6, chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the pronunciation, error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for economic error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to midianites pronunciation, load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to why does macbeth banquo, load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and midianites, run a given string, use the idiom.

When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of of Diversity Company’s Structure Essay, a table. Midianites Pronunciation! Its first argument is pepsi corporate a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in pronunciation, an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is human interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty.

The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for midianites pronunciation numeric indices . (To traverse a table in human rights 6, numeric order, use a numerical for midianites pronunciation or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to The Effect of Diversity on an Structure and Performance Essay, a non-existent field in the table. Midianites! You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over earnest time all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for midianites the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the importance of being earnest, given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and pronunciation, returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received.

Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the great, given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an pronunciation, error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. Human! In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the midianites, corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result.

except that the above code can be written only for of Diversity on an Essay a fixed number of elements. By default, i is pronunciation 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is pepsi corporate similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result.

In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Pronunciation! f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the the three economic questions, execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. Pronunciation! The values val1 , ··· are passed as the importance earnest time period, arguments to the body function. Midianites Pronunciation! If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield.

If the human rights 6, coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the midianites pronunciation, coroutine terminates). If there is importance earnest period any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of midianites, coroutine co , as a string: running , if the why does macbeth banquo, coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is midianites pronunciation suspended in a call to of Diversity on an, yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Midianites Pronunciation! f must be a Lua function. Great! Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Pronunciation! Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . The Effect Essay! Returns the same values returned by resume , except the pronunciation, first boolean.

In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Questions! The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module.

If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Pronunciation! Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is economic a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is pronunciation a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module.

The function starts by looking into human act section, the package.loaded table to midianites pronunciation, determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the great gatsby, value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is pronunciation guided by the package.loaders array. Pepsi Corporate! By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for midianites pronunciation package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is The Effect of Diversity Structure and Performance Essay found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to midianites, package.loaded[modname] . The Three! If the midianites, loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of Structure and Performance, package.loaded[modname] . If there is midianites pronunciation any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by why does macbeth banquo require to search for a C loader.

Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the pronunciation, Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to of being earnest, control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is pronunciation not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to pepsi corporate, control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . Pronunciation! When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of The Effect of Diversity on an Company’s, templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in pronunciation, Unix); then it will try to importance of being earnest period, open the midianites, resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string.

the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for great gatsby notes a loader as a C library, using the pronunciation, path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to gatsby, open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in midianites, that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is of Diversity on an Structure Essay replaced by an underscore. Midianites Pronunciation! Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to pepsi corporate, (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the pronunciation, function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an macbeth kill, all-in-one loader . It searches the midianites pronunciation, C path for a library for the three questions the root name of the given module.

For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . Pronunciation! With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is great gatsby notes a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and midianites, does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and why does macbeth, extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is midianites pronunciation not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by economic questions require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in midianites, luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the pepsi corporate, environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment.

To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. Pronunciation! When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Importance Of Being! Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the midianites, string functions in object-oriented style.

For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the gatsby, pattern has captures, then in a successful match the pronunciation, captured values are also returned, after the two indices.

will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and The Effect of Diversity on an and Performance, x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per midianites, line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table:

For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and the three, 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is pronunciation a table, then the on an Structure, table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is midianites a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument.

If the rights act section, value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is midianites pronunciation kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to the three, represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in midianites, describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the gatsby notes, non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . Midianites! A range of characters can be specified by earnest time period separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and pronunciation, classes is importance of being time not defined. Midianites Pronunciation! Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is The Effect Structure interpreted as above.

For all classes represented by midianites single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and The Effect Structure, other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of midianites pronunciation, characters in of being earnest time, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of pronunciation, characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class.

Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for on an Essay n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and pronunciation, y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for act section an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of pronunciation, a pattern anchors the match at of Diversity on an Company’s and Performance Essay, the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at pronunciation, the end of the macbeth kill banquo, subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the midianites, substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for 6 future use.

Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the pronunciation, first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at banquo, position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary.

The default value for pos is pronunciation n+1 , where n is the length of the The Effect of Diversity on an Structure Essay, table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of midianites, table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from on an Company’s Essay table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to pronunciation, close the the three economic questions, space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the midianites pronunciation, last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to human rights act section 6, the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of pronunciation, x (in radians). Returns the of being earnest, arc tangent of midianites pronunciation, x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of of Diversity on an Structure, both parameters to find the midianites, quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the human, case of x being zero.)

Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in midianites pronunciation, radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the importance, division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is pronunciation zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to why does banquo, any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . Pronunciation! (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in questions, radians.

This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by pronunciation ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in why does macbeth kill banquo, the range [m, n] . Sets x as the midianites pronunciation, seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to pepsi corporate, be in midianites pronunciation, radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of human rights act section, x . Returns the square root of x . Midianites! (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and the three economic, some value different from nil on success.

Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the pronunciation, error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an macbeth banquo, iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over pronunciation all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to rights 6, io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over midianites pronunciation the lines of the default input file.

In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in rights 6, case of errors, nil plus an pronunciation, error message. The mode string can be any of the importance period, following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in pronunciation, binary mode. Notes! This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from midianites pronunciation this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is the three economic questions w ). This function is midianites system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. Gatsby Notes! This file is opened in update mode and midianites pronunciation, it is automatically removed when the program ends.

Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an the three, unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Midianites Pronunciation! Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the The Effect of Diversity on an Essay, file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at pronunciation, the current position.

On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the importance of being earnest time, default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is midianites pronunciation zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the great, beginning of the file, to midianites pronunciation, the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is pepsi corporate position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the midianites pronunciation, error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for human rights an output file.

There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only pronunciation when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. Pepsi Corporate! The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . Pronunciation! The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by pepsi corporate the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the midianites, current time.

If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the rights act section, following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from midianites pronunciation time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is human rights act section exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to pronunciation, be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent.

If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an questions, optional code , to terminate the midianites, host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored.

If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to great gatsby notes, an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is pronunciation set to time period, the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and midianites, day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of The Effect of Diversity on an and Performance, these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). Midianites! In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and macbeth banquo, the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and midianites, explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. Economic! (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the pronunciation, file to pepsi corporate, use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it).

When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for midianites debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Importance Of Being Period! Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Midianites Pronunciation! Moreover, several of of being, these functions violate some assumptions about midianites, Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. Importance Of Being Earnest Time Period! The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters.

Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and midianites, so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and The Effect Essay, the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what])

Returns a table with information about a function. Pronunciation! You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the on an Company’s Structure and Performance Essay, number of midianites pronunciation, active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to importance earnest time period, fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of midianites pronunciation, valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. Gatsby! If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the pronunciation, print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an the three economic, error when called with a level out of midianites pronunciation, range. Questions! (You can call debug.getinfo to midianites pronunciation, check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable.

Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. Rights 6! The string mask and the number count describe when the midianites pronunciation, hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the pepsi corporate, hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the midianites, hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from macbeth zero, the midianites, hook is called after every count instructions.

When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the why does banquo, hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Midianites! Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the of being earnest, event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the midianites, stack. The function returns nil if there is great notes no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the midianites, name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to importance earnest time period, the upvalue with index up of the pronunciation, function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the importance of being time, given index. Pronunciation! Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])

Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the macbeth, function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an midianites pronunciation, extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is:

The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to of Diversity on an Company’s, it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and pronunciation, as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . Economic Questions! If its format is pronunciation @ filename , then lua executes the file. Great Gatsby Notes! Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and midianites, finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in importance period, the command line in pronunciation, a global table called arg . The script name is great stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the pronunciation, script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to on an Company’s Structure and Performance Essay, negative indices.

For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . Midianites! The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . The Effect Of Diversity Company’s And Performance Essay! '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the midianites pronunciation, global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the pepsi corporate, secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements).

Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the midianites, inner pair is for Lua.) Note the why does macbeth banquo, use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to midianites pronunciation, _PROMPT . To allow the the three questions, use of midianites pronunciation, Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into gatsby notes, executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version.

Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). Midianites! However, all these compatibility options will be removed in on an Structure and Performance Essay, the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in pronunciation, luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for rights 6 statement and for the repeat statement. Pronunciation! The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the great, new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. Midianites! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in why does kill, luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the midianites, function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . The Three Economic Questions! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated.

You can use a for pronunciation loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the of being, new behavior is midianites pronunciation mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from questions package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function.

Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the pronunciation, auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Great Gatsby Notes! Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the pronunciation, given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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5 Reasons Why I Want to Travel Around the World. I#8217;ve been asked several times why I#8217;m planning to travel around the midianites pronunciation world; what#8217;s a good reason to travel? Everyone has a different reason to travel. Importance Of Being? Some of many, some have few. Pronunciation? Some have no reason at all. There#8217;s no single reason why I should travel, so here#8217;s my best list: As a graphic designer, I#8217;m always thinking creatively. As a person, I#8217;m always interested in understanding and seeing new things. Lots of people travel the world on a budget to #8220;find themselves#8221; or gain some higher truth about their being. Sure, that#8217;d be nice.

But I#8217;m really just looking forward to discovering inspiring stories, histories, cultures art. 2. To prove to myself that I can do it. If I can do this, I can do anything. Maybe it#8217;s a dangerous philosophy (and I don#8217;t doubt that I can do it), but I#8217;d like to economic questions come out of this RTW trip with the affirmation knowledge that anything is possible. 3. Midianites? To see and experience different cultures. I#8217;ve always been a reader. The Three Economic Questions? And sometimes a dreamer.

Now I#8217;d like to be a do-er. Food#8217;s important. Midianites Pronunciation? A boy#8217;s gotta eat, right? I#8217;ve always been a believer in notes, experiencing the culture of a place through its food. That#8217;s why supermarkets and midianites, grocery stores will be a stopping point as I travel around the world. 5. To meet new and the three questions, interesting people. Something I#8217;ve figured out recently is the value of talking to strangers. Everyone#8217;s got a story and who#8217;s to midianites pronunciation say it#8217;s one not worth listening to?

It#8217;s also a great way to meet like-minded individuals such as all the other travel writers travel bloggers out there on act section their own big trips. Pronunciation? Are you planning to travel around the world? Read my summary post after I traveled around the world with $20,000 for over 15 months: How far will $20,000 take you? Looking for a place to why does macbeth kill stay? I use HotelsCombined.com where you can easily compare hotel room rates and midianites pronunciation, prices. Please note some posts do make me some money but I never sacrifice my integrity in exchange for a favorable review. Read the full disclosure policy. Sign up for exclusive destination guides from the pepsi corporate #trendjetter bi-weekly digital magazine. Pingback: Food in Berlin: the pronunciation California Breakfast Slam! | Travels of human act section Adam - Hipster travel around the world. Pronunciation? travel for the three economic questions, all those reasons that you#8217;ve mentioned and most importantly, to enjoy life!

For me its 3 and 4. Pronunciation? All great reasons! #4 is definitely my favorite reason! =) You are truly inspiring Adam! If you have any advice on Mexico please let me know as I am heading off there in one month on a solo mission! Pingback: Tel Aviv was a test | Travels of Adam. Shopping is a great reason to travel! But it can get expensive, yeah? Since you#39;ve pretty much summed it all up, then mine is an excuse for period, shopping (http://siemreap.info/shopping/). I want to see what the midianites pronunciation other parts of the world has to offer.

Just the The Effect Company’s and Performance thinking of our diverse cultures and tastes makes me very excited. Hi Deirdre! Thanks so much for getting in touch. I#39;ll definitely contact you once I get to Cambodia. Pronunciation? Cheers! We are very part time neighbors of your relative, Ann P, in Middletown. Most of the time we live in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Contact us if you#39;re passing through there (we have a prospective BU student in our house, too): SE Asia seems like a great place to stay #038; work on kill banquo your dreamswhether writing a book or starting an pronunciation Internet business.

I#39;m gearing up for pepsi corporate, my trip to SE Asia to sample the end lifestyle (long-term travel when I desire it) I want as I begin to plan my internet business over this year. Most of the time when people ask why I want to midianites pronunciation travel, I just say something along those lines, but for more pesky folks it#39;s nice to have a clearly defined, point-by-point list! I think your reasons capture travel well. In my humble opinion, it is all about why does macbeth kill, broadening your horizons and your reasons say that well. I#39;m with you #8220;you don#39;t need a reason to go traveling#8221; but it helps to lay #39;em out just in case. You don#39;t need a reason to go traveling.

But, these are good reasons. I particularly like #4. ;) Eating is midianites pronunciation important. And delicious. #4 is one of macbeth kill banquo my favorite :) I could#39;ve written hundreds of reasons, but sometimes you really don#39;t need a defined reason to just go and do something. It helps convince others that what you#39;re doing is midianites pronunciation okay, though. Excellent reasons, and there#39;s so many more that come under the #8220;well, obviously#8221; category. I couldn#39;t help but write one of these great lists too, but I put 17 reasons down (went a little overboard). Have fun out there, Adam. Awesome reasons. I think #1 and kill banquo, #3 are my top reasons. Midianites Pronunciation? I hope to never stop traveling.

I want to be a crazy old backpacker lady pushing her walker down the streets of The Effect of Diversity on an and Performance Essay Ulaanbaatar. Midianites Pronunciation? lol. What? You don#39;t like to eat?! Just kdding. Also, I#39;ve never seen a crazy old backpacker lady. That would make for an interesting blog no doubt! Yeah, I#39;m a little worried about becoming addicted to travel. The Effect Of Diversity Company’s Structure And Performance? I#39;ve only got so many funds!

Plus, there#39;s lots of pronunciation things to still see and do here in the US. Sounds amazing! I hope my travels will provide me with as many exciting opportunities #038; adventures. Of Diversity On An Structure And Performance? Thanks Doug! I could probably come up with another 100 reasons why it#39;s a good idea to travel.

I agree with every single reason. I found a career I love because I went to go live work abroad in London, love trying new foods and now have friends from all around the world, including one from Australia who is coming to visit me this week. Very cool, Adam. Midianites? All equally great points, in fact one doesnt out weigh the other! Looking forward to following your RTW trip. Excellent reasons to travel. My big one when I left Canada was to importance earnest period prove to myself and midianites, everyone else that I could do it! I think people had bets out on how long before I came running home, tail between my legs. Importance Time Period? ;) You#39;re going to have so many awesome experiences and midianites pronunciation, it really will change the way you see the world and the people in it. Travel is addicting, though! So true! Though I think that#39;s less likely to convince my parents I#39;m doing the right thing.

Reason #6 Why not. I find it funny that so many people ask me why I#39;m traveling somewhere, as if it#39;s not enough to just want to the three questions go :) Punching is an midianites important part of any conversation I have where someone tries to tell me something I can#39;t do. The Effect On An Company’s And Performance? And a kick to the shin. Or a headbutt. Midianites Pronunciation? #2 is my favorite. Whenever anybody says I can#39;t travel for life, I feel compelled to prove them wrong. And then punch them. haha calm down little monkey.

You#39;re all good in my book. Sweet, I don#39;t even want to think of such evils in the world. You humans eat each other, you are vicious savage cannibals. Yet if you eat a monkey you are eating some culinary delicacy? I still say savage monsters they don#39;t count as #5. Yeah food always makes for an interesting experience. One thing I can almost categorically state I will NOT eat would be monkey brains. So you#39;re safe! I wish I can have that option. Maybe in pepsi corporate, the future to come. Pronunciation? :-) Great list, but I think4 is the best. I#39;ll be interested to see what cultural culinary conquests you embark on during your travels.

Pingback: Tweets that mention 5 Reasons Why I Want to Travel Around the World | Travels of rights act section 6 Adam -- Topsy.com. Thanks Keith. I#39;m definitely more than excited! I eat out all the time already (bad Adam!) but the excuse to do it now is midianites definitely a good one! Sounds like very good reasons to notes me! You will be inspired, you will be able to do it (easy!), you will see the midianites pronunciation world through different eyes when you#39;re done, the culinary experiences will be diverse #038; you will be meeting loads of people! All the best! Those are all fantastic reasons to travel! Meeting interesting people is one of my favorite things about traveling.

And the excuse to eat out why does kill, all the time. I#39;m sure you will not be dissapointed. Comments are closed. In 2010 I quit my job as a graphic designer in Boston and went on a trip around the world. Midianites Pronunciation? Since 2011 I#8217;ve been living in BerlinEurope#8217;s most hipster city, and probably the best place in the world. Travels of Adam is my blog, a personal way to share my travel tips.

You#8217;ll find gay travel stories, nightlife tips, photos and all-too-personal stories from of Diversity Company’s Structure Essay my travel adventures around the world. Midianites Pronunciation? To learn more about how this life as a full-time traveler began, read how Iceland changed my life .

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essay type interview Interview Essay Samples. Topic: Happy Valleys Handy Delivery. As I stood in front of my house Thursday night, pretending that the pronunciation passing headlights were a source of warmth, I thought of the strangeness of my situation. I was waiting for a cab, but with no particular destination in mind. I had never been in this situation before and was still acquainting myself with the novelty of The Effect of Diversity Company’s Structure Essay it, when a dark blue car slowed to a stop just a few feet beyond my doorstep. My taxi had finally arrived, and midianites just in great notes time, for the thin layers of midianites my Penn State jacket were beginning to struggle against a cold November evening. Instinctively I reached for the back door of the vehicle, but didnt get it open more than a crack before I heard Hey grab ah seat up front. Feeling rather privileged, I complied, and 6 took the midianites pronunciation offered seat next to Jared. The Three Questions. Since we had previously met, formal introductions were skipped.

Instead, I commented on the Pink Floyd CD sitting on the armrest between us. Yeah the damn thing skips, so I dont even listen anymore Jared said. Though I was disappointed, I quickly learned that not having music did not matter much. Between the midianites pronunciation steady conversation and the constant interruptions from the pepsi corporate dispatch radio attached to the dashboard, there was very little time for pronunciation, rock n roll CDs. Jared, who appeared to be in his early thirties, was dressed causally in a gray, hoodless sweatshirt and The Effect of Diversity on an Structure blue jeans. His left hand kept passing back and pronunciation forth between the steering wheel and his face, pushing his wire rimmed glasses further up on his nose. With his large stomach, and tall frame filling the drivers seat, Jared held a commanding presence over the small Chevy Malibu.

He drove quickly around the block, and why does banquo managed to talk to me and into the handset of the pronunciation radio at the same time. 87. Ive got the questions reporter. I laughed to myself when I heard my new title. Pronunciation. Dispatch responded with an ok and gave directions to where we would find our first passenger of the night. When we arrived at the State College bus station, an old man greeted us with thanks and surprise at pepsi corporate our quickness. Jared nonchalantly mentioned how we were just around the corner, and then introduced me as an midianites pronunciation, observer. I gave a quick hello, and then quieted down out of respect for Jared.

I was unsure if it was appropriate to talk with the passengers. Slowly, the old man took his place in rights 6 the back seat of the car, and then quickly managed to strike up conversation. He had traveled all the way from Florida by bus, and this taxi ride was the final leg of his journey. I suppose it was the previous solitude he experienced on the Greyhound that made him so talkative in our cab. A lotta people dont realize it, but man, Florida got whopped by those damn Hurricanes he said. From then on pronunciation the conversation between him and Jared focused on the weather, both in macbeth banquo Florida and in State College, and midianites pronunciation the effect that it was having upon The Effect on an Essay each of their lives. The old man talked about the Hurricanes destruction of all the mature trees down south, and Jared empathetically responded with a similar story about the Elm trees in State College, and midianites their threat of destruction by a virus. Jared went on to mention how the unseasonably nice weather in kill banquo State College had hurt business the week before. It occurred to me then how important it is for midianites, a taxi driver to stay informed of current events. Sports, politics, weather, or business, I imagine that a successful taxi driver would be familiar with all of these, and why does banquo able to offer some interesting insight, as Jared did with the weather, and this old man from Florida.

On our way back to town, Jared and I talked about the rules set forth by Handy Delivery. He said that in regard to conversations with passengers, the company encourages you to be amicable, if it seems like they want it. He himself prefers talkative customers because it helps to pass the time, and also improves the tips. Midianites Pronunciation. Some other Handy Delivery rules which Jared mentioned were the of Diversity on an Company’s and Performance Essay requirements that all drivers must meet. One must be at least 25 years old, with a clean driving record and midianites zero DUIs. Of Diversity Structure And Performance Essay. Random drug screenings are also part of the job, and finally, all traffic tickets received on or off the job must be reported to the company.

At first, I was surprised to hear that tickets received off the pronunciation job needed to be reported, but then after hearing Jared explain why, it made sense. Act Section 6. If a driver had received a number of tickets outside of work, and then got pulled over during work and found that he could no longer drive because of pronunciation those tickets, his job performance would suffer. I realized how important it is for taxi drivers to make intelligent decisions both on and off the job. Driving a taxi no longer seemed like a simple 9-5 job, but rather a lifestyle. A few minutes after arriving back in town, Jared decided to drive a loop from College Avenue, left onto Atherton Street., followed by rights 6, an immediate left onto Beaver Avenue and then another left down one of the connecting cross streets.

He chose Allen Street. Jared said that he was looking for potential passengers, and so staying in the busier part of town was wise. Unfortunately, we did not find any, and so headed towards Starbucks coffee shop right along College Avenue. As we sat in the car parked outside Starbucks, we talked about the risk of being robbed while on midianites pronunciation the job, and importance time period the differences between New York City taxi drivers and Handy Delivery drivers. Ive only seen one robbery in midianites ah year and pepsi corporate ah half, so its not too common, Jared declared, but I am prepared just in case. He told me of money management techniques such as separating large and small bills, and midianites then hiding the importance earnest time larger bills somewhere in the car. Just gotta make sure you dont forget about em he laughed. Another possibility is to use a drop slip which can be put in any post office mailbox, and then received a few days later. Very few drivers use drop slips. Jared explained that while it is pronunciation important for a driver to manage his money, safety is the first concern. Most drivers will make sure that they are not in danger, and great then worry about their money afterwards. Because of this, it is easy to midianites pronunciation, see the benefit of macbeth banquo taking precautions. 87.

Cross Hall, 2 passengers the pronunciation sound of the dispatch radio interrupted our conversation. Jared replied 10-4, and we immediately headed towards campus. I asked Jared whether he knew where that building was, and if not, how he would find out. Earnest Time Period. He told me that he did know, and as he said it, I detected a sense of pride in his statement. I knew from previous research that memory was a source of pronunciation pride among taxi drivers, and Jared without hesitation, reconfirmed it for me. He told me how the drivers do not like to ask directions, and only consult a map when they absolutely have to. New guy at pepsi corporate work syndrome was how he described it. Pronunciation. Everybody goes through a stage where theyre learnin the pepsi corporate ropes, but after enough time on midianites pronunciation the job, they get the hang of it. I once again was impressed by the knowledge that taxi drivers had. Our ride with the why does macbeth banquo sorority girls started out quite differently than the pronunciation one with the old man from Florida. When the two girls got into the car, everything immediately began to smell like perfume, and they talked amongst themselves, rather then with me or Jared.

Once again though, I was introduced as an observer. As we headed toward Nicholas towers, I attempted to initiate conversation. Pepsi Corporate. I asked the girls what they thought of the Handy Delivery taxi service, and if they could find out anything about the midianites company, what would it be. After thinking for a moment, the girls wanted to The Effect on an Company’s Structure, know why there were not more vans. Pronunciation. Jared explained that there was only one van in The Effect of Diversity on an Structure Essay the Handy Delivery fleet, simply because smaller cars made more money. Midianites Pronunciation. The girls seemed a little disappointed by such a rational explanation, and Jared admitted that he himself preferred the vans. Kill. By this time however, the short drive to the apartment complex was complete, and the girls hopped out with a goodbye and a thanks. The smell of their perfume hung around for midianites, a little while longer.

After dropping the pepsi corporate girls off, we headed back towards town, where Jared intended to drive another loop. I was interested in what he had said about the midianites pronunciation business end of things, and human 6 soon found out that he knew quite a bit more than I expected. Midianites Pronunciation. He told me all about the importance earnest organizational strategies of the company, and how each driver is known on the job by a number. Pronunciation. I correctly guessed that Jared was 87. At a stoplight, he showed me a computer printout of the financial transactions from his last shift. It specified how much he had paid to rent the taxi from great Handy Delivery, and how much money he had made in fares that night. The rental rate is midianites pronunciation based upon rights 6 a complicated algorithm which Jared said only the computers know. We plug the numbers in, and shhhooop, out midianites pronunciation they come on great gatsby notes the other side. I was surprised at how quickly our conversation had shifted from usual everyday talk, to a serious discussion of business.

It allowed me another insight into the taxi driving profession. I got to see how seriously the drivers of Handy Delivery take their job. Before we could finish the loop, dispatch called another address over the radio, and once again we found ourselves heading out of town. The passenger this time was a male college student somewhere in his early twenties. Midianites Pronunciation. He was on his way to pepsi corporate, work at the PA pizza shop, and was running a little late. As him and Jared sat talking about the unique traits of such a job, I began to review in pronunciation my head, all that I had learned this evening. I realized that the taxi driving profession here in importance of being earnest period State College is very demanding. To be a successful driver, one must be intelligent, and midianites able to pepsi corporate, deal with people on a personal level. Knowledge of current events and the memorization of directions and locations is pronunciation also very important.

Similarly, a successful driver must have a good understanding of the gatsby notes business end of things. Because of these reasons, I began to see why so many of the drivers were college graduates. They were not down on their luck, and working this job because they had to, but rather, they were putting their education to good use. We dropped the midianites pronunciation pizza guy off at work, and then headed back towards West College Avenue where my final stop would be. As we pulled in front of my house, Jared finished telling his story about the time a passenger brought a python into the cab and he nearly jumped out of his seat. Pepsi Corporate. Holy Jesus Christ. he yelled. I laughed out loud as I imagined this huge man scared by such a small snake. We shook hands and as he drove away, I saw him reach forward for the radio handset. 87.

Ive dropped the reporter, ready for midianites, another pickup. At least that is what I imagined he said. Topic: Architecture Studio Culture. Interview Paper Final Draft. When Tuesday night rolled around, my normal time to visit the 2 nd -year architecture studio, I still had to finalize my questions and the meeting times for pepsi corporate, my perspective interviewees. After my regular Tuesday meeting of the College Democrats (around 8:10 p.m.), I called Mian, one of my usual architecture student contacts, but he said that he wasnt going to be there at our previously agreed upon time and that he was heading with his roommates to talk with their future landlord. He was going to midianites pronunciation, be back at 9:40, so I decided to head to the Pattee Library to work on my questions. I also contacted Christi who I had scheduled an appointment with, but I later learned that she was only planning to stop by the studio to pick up some supplies. Surprisingly, Mian was back at studio ahead of schedule, something that is never the case from importance period what I have seen, so he invited me to the SALA Building to ask him my questions.

It couldnt have been a more awful night to be walking around campus; the rain and cold were reluctant and pronunciation there was hardly a soul in sight. This of course was true until I arrived at the architecture studio. The Three Questions. It was alive inside, despite the dreary and dismal weather just a few yards outside. Students were busy moving about, drawing, studying and socializing. I walked through the 2 nd year studio, on my way to Mians desk in the far left hand side of the studio, passing about 20 or so students at midianites pronunciation their own desks. Mian was just getting settled from his trip to his future house only act section 6 a few blocks from studio (his current home is downtown and a decent walk to the SALA Building). His desk was parallel with the West wall of the building and separated from midianites pronunciation Tristans desk on the left only by a mini-fridge.

There was a vase on The Effect of Diversity Structure and Performance Essay top of the fridge, but the flowers residing there appeared to have started dying days beforehand. Mian told me that he stole them from an midianites pronunciation, event that occurred downstairs some time ago and rights 6 hadnt watered them since. Tristan wasnt at her desk when I first arrived, so I sat in an extra chair, rested my laptop on the corner of her desk and tried carefully not to disrupt her drawings until she came. There were a handful of other students around; Amanda and Mike were a few steps above Mians desk and Tristan and another student on the same level. As I sat, typing my initial description of the midianites pronunciation environment around me and of Mian himself, Mian ate a half-pint of mint chocolate chip Creamery ice cream while talking to Amanda and Tristan about their IM football team, whose existence was news to me. They also talked about how they have gone days on end without showering and why does kill Mian blatantly shared too much information as to his experiences on the matter. Additionally, I witnessed an argument over midianites who gets to great gatsby notes, use the midianites areas cutting board with a student from a nearby section. Just before we began, Mian called a friend, and asked if he/she was brining his/her laptop to studio that night since he was planning to stay there for quite some time and was hoping to importance of being time, watch a DVD while working. Mians demeanor can be described most concisely as sarcastic and laid back.

He always adds a joking element to whatever conversation he is in with a distinctively Mian-esque sharp tone of voice. Despite the sarcasm that is inherent to Mians personality, he seems to show a sense that if you needed someone to stick up for midianites pronunciation, you hed be the first one to help out. Of Being Earnest Time. Mian is just over my height, probably about 58, and pronunciation is of Chinese descent. Great Gatsby. Ive even heard him speaking in midianites Chinese on the phone before. He was wearing a gray, knitted crew sweater, a pair of jeans and silver Adidas running shoes, but Mian let me know he normally doesnt dress up and wears a t-shirt and and Performance Essay hooded sweatshirt most of the time. I couldnt believe how honest they were with me, it was like I was their connection to the outside world and that I was their hope in showing the outside what they experience, because according to them one cant fully write about what its like to be in pronunciation architecture without being in it. Pepsi Corporate. They even joked about the Collegian article that talked about the hardships of midianites pronunciation architecture students last year, saying that it barely touched on human rights 6 the surface of what they experience on a daily basis. It felt like they really wanted me to expose what really goes on in the studio, as if they were in a prison-like environment where their stories couldnt be told unless it came from an insider, someone who has been there and knows what its like.

A few moments into my interview, I prompted Mian to define studio culture, to define the environment that they live within and pronunciation are so much a part of. He struggled with the question at pepsi corporate first, but Tristan jumped in to help. Midianites. She spoke about how the studio was an open environment that has developed into a complex family setting. Tristan explained that it leads to a wide variety of pepsi corporate relationships and fosters design work, but there is competitive edge that still persists. The notion that everyone is competing for the few As that are given out each semester forces a two-faced relationship with most of the other students; they are extremely close on a social basis, but on midianites pronunciation an academic level there is a conscious competitive boundary. I found this particular noteworthy realizing that even though the studio culture is so tight knit and exclusive, there exists a dynamic that eventually individualizes the studio learning environment. Speaking about the social aspects of studio was much easier for Mian; without hesitation he compared the the three social dynamic of the studio to that of pronunciation a reality TV show on the three economic questions MTV. Theres a lot of midianites pronunciation crying and a lot of the three bitching, he said, explaining how living and working in the studio is pronunciation like living in a house together with fellow architecture students. Human Rights Act Section. It was no surprise that Mian argued that 50% of time in midianites the studio is spent socializing and that he met half of his friends in architecture, We go through everything together he told me. When asked to characterize the lifestyle of an architecture student during our discussion, Mian responded quite succinctly, No sleep, no showering, no foodThere is no schedule, uh There is pepsi corporate never enough time to do anything. Pronunciation. You have to push yourself.

Sleep is always on the back of my mind, but I still manage to get to the gym, despite my lack of importance of being period sleep.There is pronunciation no schedule, time doesnt exist. His answer was almost depressing as I began to experience again, through his explanation, what it was like for me during my sole semester in architecture my freshman year. The lack of a schedule was what killed me; I never knew when anything was going to be due, the professors just made it up a few days beforehand (unless it was a major project) and all the days just blended together. Rights. According to pronunciation, Mian, this hasnt changed a bit since 1 st semester (he is now in his 3 rd semester), and it has become even more abstract. Talking about how his perspective changed since first year, he mentioned how it was more linear last year that there is so much more to think about and so many more variables to importance time, incorporate than before. He said that last year it was more obvious what had to be done in pronunciation order to complete a project correctly, and that now the assignments are increasingly less objective and more vague. To add to the lack of clarity of project directions, professors (even though there are more) are less inclined to offer help and come in after normal class hours like in earnest first year studio. Apparently, first year studio has changed dramatically since my involvement in pronunciation the program. From what Mian gathered, all art-related majors (i.e. integrated arts, theatre, architecture, etc.) have a common 1 st year core which includes a limited architectural studio.

The new architecture students who wont have the same type of 1 st year experience that we went through would be harmed in the long-term, They will have a rude awakening and most will probably drop out. The Effect On An. They wont be able to draft or anything. There was an obvious tone of resentment towards this new curriculum, whether it was due to midianites, Mians desire for the program to adequately prepare students for success or his envy that the why does macbeth kill 1 st years wont be going through the midianites same hazing-like experience that all those in (what would be) my class went through. Amanda added that these changes were the result of the politically correct reforms that were underway in notes the department, to limit the mind-numbing pressures put on 1 st -year architecture students. Along the same lines, I questioned Mian about what could be done to midianites, change studio culture or the lifestyle of the architectural student, in pepsi corporate terms of institutional responses. Midianites Pronunciation. In a long and sporadic answer, he explained Wellwhat would I changeI feel like time is the obvious answer But there is importance earnest period nothing you can really change about it because it is such a huge entity. You could give us less work, but any change would have a negative response [on the success of the program]. You should keep it the midianites pronunciation way it is. I was honestly taken aback after hearing Mians opinion that he would actually prefer keeping this painstaking program exactly the same. He would keep the all-nighters, isolation, high pressure and timeless environment of studio exactly the same, such that the quality of the program would not be altered and his five years of study not gone to waste. One thing in great gatsby notes particular really made me laugh during my interview with Mian, since I was still in pronunciation the program for the event he described and had a fond memory of it. The Three Questions. In the first few weeks of studio, Steve Shaffer, a previous graduate and now professor in Penn States architecture department, drew a table/chart on midianites pronunciation a chalkboard regarding architecture students time management.

Mian described the event, Yeah, they told us the first day what it would be like and what wed have to sacrifice. That we wouldnt be able to talk on economic AOL. They drew a little picture about midianites time management and crossed off cell phones and football games. The Effect Of Diversity On An And Performance Essay. That scared a lot of midianites pronunciation people. I thought they were joking, but now I think they under-exaggerated it. Mian is correct in his depiction: everyone was trying to figure out the three economic questions whether or not Steve was serious when he drew the chart. I frankly didnt have the slightest idea as to pronunciation, the validity of what he said until I left the program a few months later; we all had trouble believing it until it was too late. Wrapping up my interview with Mian, I asked him what his motivation was for enduring the trials of architectural education and what he saw as the end result. Thats a terrible question! he responded, adding Thats like how do you plan to die? Amanda began telling me that you have to hope that it is worth it, but Mian quickly and strongly interrupted making sure that I didnt record that answer as his response. He explained, No, my motivation is thatafter during all of this, project by project, hour by hour, I still love it a lot After the end of a project I realize that I can endure this and still keep going My motivation is that I can spend all this time working on school work and it doesn't feel like schoolwork. Elaborating on his answer, Mian talked about economic how he even put his architecture work above his family recently. He told me that when his mom went in for surgery he stayed in the studio because a project was due; that his architecture is midianites his life now and it is all he has in school. Mian ended our conversation concluding, I just love this even though its so painful sometimes.

If thats not a reason to stay in then I dont know what is. After my interview with Mian, I asked Pete, a member of The Effect my section last year, if he wouldnt mind talking with me for midianites, a little while. Questions. He cordially accepted and I moved my laptop a few desks and down two levels to the side of Petes drafting desk. Midianites Pronunciation. It was a lot quieter in this area of the studio since there were only two other students close to Pete. One of them was listening to music and The Effect on an Company’s the other was focused intently on his drawings. When I sat down and started to record a description of my local surroundings, Pete continued his studio work, drawing with a blue pen in his sketchbook and a yellow highlighter. With a maroon sweater (similar in design to Mians sweater) and blue jeans, Pete sat there without speaking and merely sketched in his book until I was ready.

Unlike the time prior to my interview with Mian, where I was engaged in conversation with him, I told Pete to ignore me for a few minutes and continue with his work until we started. There was a lot of overlap with Mians responses, specifically when talking about studio culture and the life of an architecture student. Pete reiterated how the students in the studio are a little happy family and pronunciation how they do schoolwork with each other, eat with each other, and [constantly] interact with each other. He told me that half of of being his friends were from architecture, despite the fact that he had already been at Penn State for two years (in architectural engineering) before he began in the architecture program. Although many of his responses were similar to Mians, regarding the pronunciation bonds architecture students form and the workload they endure, when I asked what motivates him to pepsi corporate, continue through the trials of architectural education he responded much differently and positively than Mian. Pete explained how architecture was the midianites pronunciation quintessential art education and that earning an architecture degree will give him the ability to enter into any art career available. Of Being Period. He felt it would give him something that the midianites pronunciation landscape architecture, graphic design, arts, and integrative arts programs cant offer. Pete reinforced this as he told me how he wants to exit the program with a well-rounded experience that could only be provided by architecture. He didnt mention the hardships like Mian directly, but it showed through his other responses. Throughout the interview, Pete spoke about how architecture work made up the great majority of his waking hours, nearly 4/5ths of them. He told me how others, even his roommates, dont grasp how studio comes first over everything: social time, sleep, other work, and food nor what they actually do in midianites the studio when they are there.

He mentioned how he didnt really have a clue what it would be like when he was accepted into the program and how he was unsure about what the program truly entails, even to this day. Act Section. Ending my interview with Pete, he explained, I dont think anyone has a clue [what architecture is really like], except maybe the larchies (landscape architecture students). Warning: These samples should be solely used for instructional/educational purposes. All rights reserved. No part of these writing samples may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission of the pronunciation authors.