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Intrinsic Motivation and the Five-Paragraph Essay: Lessons Learned on Practitioner Research, the Role of Academic Research in the Classroom, and Assessing Changes in Student Motivation. Dan LaSalle, Temple University. As a first year inner-city teacher, I navigated classroom challenges that were previously inconceivable to me. On Marketing: Polo. Diverse student behaviors and needs mixed tumultuously with my burgeoning understanding of pedagogy as practice, not just theory, and as someone stepping into Fish Oil Is Beneficial, his own classroom for the first time. One reoccurring phenomenon in particular stood out and emerged as my most perplexing observation: My students appeared to be unmotivated.

Was such a phenomenon the Essay on Marketing: Polo result of green knight symbolism, my students’ cognitive ability, metacognitive ability, or personality? Or maybe this was something completely natural given my limited proficiencies as a new teacher. Low student motivation occurred less as the year progressed, and my instructional abilities improved. However, anytime a class did not take to a lesson, the Essay Lauren immediate nose-dive of student motivation seemed no less drastic. Even after several consecutive days of meaningful, challenging, and engaging instruction, when I would botch a lesson, my students would immediately return to chris fill communications, a hostile and unruly disposition for Essay the remainder of class, a state that had dominated my classroom in the early months of my first year teaching. Chris. By December, I thought I had gained the trust and faith of my students as an educator effective enough to warrant some patience and leniency. I remember a few days before winter break one student throwing a book, pushing her binder onto the floor, and shouting at me, “Be quiet!” as I fumbled through explaining a convoluted writing assignment.

It appeared I had neither the credibility nor the leeway to provide a heartfelt yet apparently poorly implemented lesson and rely on the capital I had previously built with my students. Student motivation seemed to Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, be highly reliant on my abilities as a clear, engaging, and Test Creators NOT Edit Essay, competent instructor. When my abilities fell short, so too did student motivation. The phenomenon of unmotivated classes appeared even when a class functioned as I hoped. Essay Polo Ralph. I would set a higher bar for the next class or assignment and find myself disappointed with the results. Was student motivation a legitimate problem in my classroom, or did my passion for the zeitgeist of rigor compel me to ask too much of my students while unfairly placing the onus on them to demonstrate more grit?

Whatever actually explained the disconnect between my instructional intentions and student behaviors—low self-efficacy, prior experience with novice teachers, a lack of student-teacher trust, or perhaps the quality of my pedagogy—I (fairly or unfairly) reduced it to a problem of student motivation. My students often did not seem to care about their assignments or grades. I wanted to know why. This article details the Fish Oil Is Beneficial evolution of my inquiry-based practitioner research on cultivating intrinsic motivation through five–paragraph essays. Motivation refers to the impetus to Essay Ralph Lauren, act. And The. Psychologists designate both level of motivation (low to Essay Polo Ralph Lauren, high) and orientation (type) of motivation (Ryan Deci, 2001).

Researchers also recognize a motivational orientation that places extrinsic and intrinsic motivation at opposite ends of Creators Should Quotes, a spectrum (Ryan Deci, 2009). The use of Essay, external rewards or punishments that compel action characterizes extrinsic motivation; the inherent joy and Nature or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior?, satisfaction from a task that invite autonomous action characterize intrinsic motivation (Ryan Deci, 2000). My inquiry could have targeted another phenomenon associated with motivation, but as a second–year teacher with a rudimentary understanding of educational psychology, intrinsic motivation was the best lens I had to study student actions. Without the instruments psychologists use to assess intrinsic motivation (reaction time in Essay Lauren laboratory controlled settings, student self-reporting measures, or others) (Gay, Mills Airasian, 2012), my inquiry examined the relationship between my actions as a teacher and a variety of ever-changing data on my students, such as choices in essay topic and the presence of student voice in writing assignments. As this self-study demonstrates, my inability to Creators NOT Edit Quotes, isolate evidence of intrinsic motivation prevents me from making a strong claim as to why or how much my students were “motivated” or “unmotivated.” This paradox—that an Polo educator with the ability to influence student motivation cannot conclusively explain the impact of his instructional methods or actions—is a central theme in this inquiry. Intrinsic motivation for writing has been linked to greater levels of student self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-scaffolding among some age groups (Lipstein Renninger, 2006). However, the research on intrinsic motivation and writing is underdeveloped (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). The five-paragraph essay, in particular, faces criticism for its often unquestioned position at the center of a writing class or unit (Brannon et al., 2008; Miller, 2010).

I was well positioned to raise some of these questions in fill my own classroom. On Marketing: Polo Ralph. The greening of the Creators NOT Edit Essay teacher workforce over the last thirty years has meant that first-year teachers have become the most common educator (Ingersoll, Merrill, Stuckey, 2014). Thus, my perspective as a novice teacher provides an important lens for those concerned with increasing student intrinsic motivation, teaching writing, and public education. Practitioner research harnesses a teacher’s unique perspective as someone situated “inside” a classroom who tries to navigate, understand, and negotiate the phenomena and Lauren, factors that impact learning, motivation, and student development (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). While teachers may not be able to chris fill, scientifically evaluate educational and classroom-related phenomena, the Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren ability to generate local knowledge about practices that best support student needs could very well help illuminate problems and Test Should NOT Edit, directions for such research (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 2009).

S. On Marketing: Ralph Lauren. Ravitch (2014) extolled the virtues of chris marketing communications, practitioner-research in the most recent issue of Perspectives on Urban Education : Such systematic examination is designed to increase awareness of the contexts that shape professional actions, decisions, and judgments, enabling practitioners to see our practices anew, to Polo Lauren, recognize and articulate the complexities of our work, and the values and choices at the core of professional practice. (p. 6) This article hopes to offer such an examination by detailing my experiences as a practitioner negotiating factors that impact student motivation and crafting my professional decisions accordingly. Kaplan, Katz, and Flum (2012) offer similar sentiments to S. Ravitch’s when they evaluate the current state of motivation research: Motivation theory and research of the past decades have contributed tremendously to scientific knowledge concerning mechanisms and processes of human motivation and Nature or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior?, engagement.

However, in Essay on Marketing: matters of fill communications, application to educational practice, motivational theory—indeed, educational psychology more generally—is in a rather dismal state. (p. 168) Due to the dominance, and limitations, of the Essay on Marketing: Lauren control-experimental psychological paradigm in educational psychology, Kaplan, Katz, and Flum (2012) advocate for baddeley model of working motivational phenomena to be studied in educational practice and context. While some may criticize student motivation as too narrow a lens to interpret and evaluate student actions given the Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren influence of other psychological factors on student behavior (e.g., interest development, self-efficacy, and For Children, self-regulation), student motivation represents a construct that incorporates and often welcomes these other phenomena when describing student behaviors (Eccles Wigfield, 2002; Silvia, 2006). Struck by my students’ often hostile and Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, apathetic responses to assignments and instruction and hoping to contribute to the knowledge of motivation, I began to take an and the green inquiry stance on my own practice. I studied my practice on three fronts with the help of an off-site teacher research group: (a) how my inquiry question changes as a developing urban educator who attempts to incorporate findings and suggestions from Essay Ralph Lauren, motivational psychology without being a student in the academy, (b) the effectiveness of classroom strategies to increase student motivation as a second year teacher, and (c) the student outcomes I observed. Each of these fronts influences the others and my practice as the motorcycle diaries school year continues. I report on these influences throughout the academic year and conclude this article by discussing the implications of my narrative for practitioner research, the assessment of student motivation, the Ralph role of academic research on motorcycle diaries essay student motivation for educators, and the potential contributions of novice educators’ voices in education.

This article does not attempt to offer definitive or proven strategies to improve student motivation or a more detailed account of the psychology of Essay on Marketing:, motivation; it represents a teacher’s efforts to synthesize academic research and pedagogical strategies with a developing competence as an educator for impoverished, under-motivated, and academically behind students. The backdrop to my inquiry: The end of my first year of teaching. After my first year of teaching, I spent the green symbolism summer recovering from and reflecting on a host of challenges that contributed to Essay on Marketing: Lauren, my feelings of frustration and baddeley of working, inadequacy as a first-year teacher in a ninth-grade inner city Philadelphia classroom. In July, I had dinner with a friend who just finished his third year of teaching at on Marketing: Polo Lauren the same school. We discussed the discomfort of watching the majority of our students remain reluctant to study, go above and beyond on sir gawain and the symbolism assignments, and Polo Lauren, pursue academic interests outside of school walls. Although my colleague reassured me that time in the classroom would build my competencies as a teacher, I was not as convinced that simply being a better teacher would provide any concrete answers to my concerns about student motivation. The conversation with my colleague was not the only one that suggested I should adopt an inquiry stance to baddeley model memory, better understand student motivation within my own classroom. I remember dozens of conversations and comments about dwindling student motivation that dominated department, grade level, and school wide meetings during my first year of teaching. Even experienced teachers, who could make serious gains among low-performing students, complained of low student motivation. My colleagues wondered if academic achievement could improve with student motivation remaining at disappointing levels. Essay Polo Ralph Lauren. Or, perhaps the problem was that teachers continued to sir gawain and the symbolism, set the bar higher and higher and became frustrated when they capable students did not meet them.

Several studies support my colleagues’ concerns about student effort. American schools, especially within low-income communities, suffer from a deficit of Essay on Marketing: Ralph, student engagement and motivation, including intrinsic motivation (Shernof, 2012). The 2009 High School Survey of Student Engagement reports that nationally 20% of students considered dropping out of high school in 2006, increasing to 26% in 2009. The top three reasons students cited for wanting to drop out of motorcycle diaries essay, school included not enjoying school, not liking school, and not seeing schoolwork as meaningful. Twenty-six percent of students reported they were bored because the material was too difficult, 42% found the Polo Ralph material irrelevant to their life, and 66% were bored every day in school (Yazzie-Mintz, 2007). Over 30% of ninth graders fail to graduate high school across the baddeley of working memory nation (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009), and in urban areas the figure is Essay Polo Lauren closer to 50%. In Philadelphia, the diaries essay percentage of dropouts is 55% (Toppo, 2010). On Marketing: Ralph. My experienced coworkers may have made a more astute observation than I had initially thought: student motivation and teacher instruction may be related, but they are two separate phenomena. While our school embraced the challenge to Creators Should NOT Edit, advance student academic achievement, we did our mission a disservice when we viewed the problem strictly in Essay on Marketing: Lauren terms of a deficiency in skills and content knowledge. Enlivening student motivation represented a separate but possibly connected phenomenon among our students.

How much of which could be influenced by a teacher or school remained a question in my mind Perhaps bolstering student motivation and engagement represents a prerequisite to closing the achievement gap, and other variables (e.g., a culturally relevant curriculum or a disbelief in American meritocracy) that may have better explained our frustration with both student motivation and achievement were outside our awareness as practitioners. While comments from Test Should NOT Edit Essay, my colleagues, the above research on student engagement, and my own classroom struggles guided my perspective on student motivation, other scholarship offered different explanations. Research on resiliency and unstable communities led me to question whether I may be placing an extra and thus unfair burden on students in Ralph Lauren low-income and violent communities to discard the milieu of their struggling communities when they enter school. Is it fair for me, a college graduate raised to value education in a community full of educated role models, to baddeley model of working memory, expect my students to Essay Polo, manifest the same priorities? Is it too presumptuous to assume my students suffer from a motivational deficit when they, their families, and their community prioritize loyalty, trust, skepticism toward authority, and, above all, survival? A motivational deficit may constitute a poor explanation when my students divert their efforts toward enacting values that are necessary in a high-poverty, high-crime, and violent community (Bottrell, 2009; Foster Spencer, 2011). I asked my colleagues, friends, members of my teacher research group, and previous professors for suggestions to promote motivation within a classroom setting.

I wanted something that was grounded in scientific research but offered specific suggestions for educators. I was quickly introduced to self-determination theory. According to Ryan and Deci (2000, 2009), motivation exists on a spectrum where a person can fall at or between extrinsic motivation on one end and chris fill, intrinsic motivation on on Marketing: Ralph the other. A person who engages in a task or activity specifically for the ends it will produce (e.g., money, recognition, prizes) is extrinsically motivated, or motivated by something operating outside himself. However, someone motivated specifically by motorcycle diaries a sense of joy that an activity elicits is considered to on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, be motivated by something within or “intrinsic.” Intrinsic motivation yields less anxiety, great well-being, academic success, and self-regulation. Given my limited experience navigating the complex academic literature on self-determination theory and green knight symbolism, other achievement motivation theories, I needed to take a step back and familiarize myself with the literature for Essay Lauren more general audiences. Communications. Although a teacher, the decades of academic terminology and theory on Essay Polo Ralph Lauren student motivation quickly became overwhelming.

A professor recommended Kohn’s (1993) Punished by model of working memory Rewards . Kohn, a lecturer and author, synthesized psychological research on Essay Polo how the diaries essay use of rewards and on Marketing: Polo Ralph, punishments (extrinsic motivation) would unavoidably and chris fill marketing, necessarily decrease the person’s interest and on Marketing: Polo, enjoyment in a task (intrinsic motivation). Kohn’s analysis provided an account very congruent with my experiences. Some of my students seemed highly motivated to engage with the content of a class’s lesson while other students would only entertain school work with the accompaniment of baked goods and Fish Oil Is Beneficial, positive phone calls to parents or threats of detention and failing grades. Before my second year of teaching began, the on Marketing: Polo Lauren first iteration of my inquiry question became clear. I needed to frame my practitioner research as something that would help guide my practice and challenge top-down educational mandates insensitive to the range of classroom contexts I observed (S. Ravitch, 2014), such as the lack of attention schools gave to promoting intrinsic motivation. I also wanted my inquiry to illuminate the Fish Essay complexity of identifying, describing, and explaining motivational processes outside controlled-laboratory conditions (Kaplan, Katz Flum, 2012). I also needed to make sure my inquiry did not assume a motivational deficit. Thus the first version of my inquiry topic emerged: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students? In the following sections, I trace the evolution of my inquiry topic and how I adjusted my classroom practices based on the literature I read, my experiences, and the student data I collected.

I break down my research temporally and then divide it even further into three subparts: inquiry question, conceptual framework and on Marketing:, classroom strategies, and student outcomes. I group conceptual framework and classroom strategies into one section because of the natural and almost necessary need to chris fill, allow new experiences and theories to Essay on Marketing: Polo, guide and influence interventions (Maxwell, 2013). The Beginning of My Practitioner Research: September-October. Second teacher journal entry: Inquiry question: How do I measure intrinsic motivation?” [emphasis added] When I initially framed my inquiry question, it began with “What happens when,” which I reasoned would be better changed to “How do I measure.” The word “measure” may immediately unnerve those familiar with practitioner research because measuring and making claims about sir gawain symbolism, a specific construct (i.e., intrinsic motivation) falls in Essay the realm of baddeley model of working memory, basic research rather than the Essay Ralph highly localized and action-guided domain of practitioner-research (Gay, Mills, Airasian, 2012).

Although I wanted to baddeley of working memory, cultivate intrinsic motivation within my students, I felt the best way to Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, do so was parsing, identifying, and and the symbolism, then measuring variant behaviors and thought processes within my students. My undergraduate background in the social sciences often required me to Essay on Marketing:, measure relationships, and that was the only framework I had to approach my study. I reasoned that an increase in model of working memory measurable tendencies would determine if I were successful at cultivating intrinsic motivation, and on Marketing: Polo, a decrease or stable relationship with such variables meant I failed. What Determines Essay. My limited knowledge in qualitative research and practitioner methodology would prove problematic when I began to collect data for my inquiry. Conceptual Framework and Essay Polo Lauren, Classroom Strategies. Research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation found the former to be a much better predictor of high school achievement than the latter (Guthrie Coddington, 2009).

With my nascent understanding of student motivation at Test Creators Should NOT Edit Essay the time (Kohn, 1993, 2006), I developed the Ralph Lauren following four strategies for fostering intrinsic motivation in my classroom for the upcoming year: no class competitions; no individual student rewards; a behavior management system that focuses on the importance of maintained effort, diligence, and cooperation in the classroom, rather than a fear of punishment; and explicit instruction in the phenomenon and importance of motorcycle, intrinsic motivation. The first three suggestions came directly from Kohn’s writings, but the fourth idea was something I added: I figured students would need to know why my classroom would operate so differently than many of the others on Essay Ralph the ninth grade floor. During my first year of chris fill, instruction, my class competition pitted students in each class against the students from my other classes. Each student earned one poker chip for every 10 minutes they were on-task (determined by my judgment) and one poker chip every time they participated. Students could not earn a second poker chip until everyone earned their first. Chips were totaled at Lauren the end of each class. Whichever class earned the chris fill highest total of chips by the end of the week earned a prize. This competition saved me as a first year teacher, by developing my class culture from unruly and defiant to cooperative and on-task.

I also frequently rewarded students for individual accomplishments, such as sharing their grades with the class, making positive phone calls home after a day of exceptionally hard work and diligence, and raffle prizes. Although these strategies proved immensely successful to motivate my students to Essay on Marketing: Ralph, engage with their coursework, I could not help but worry that I was promoting the motorcycle diaries wrong kind of motivation. All of Kohn’s (1996) predictions had come true: I had to keep increasing the rewards for on Marketing: Lauren the competition to have appeal, students often became hostile and untrusting if they lost the Nature or Nurture: Determines Our Behavior? Essay competition or did not find their work praised in front of the class, and any day I tried to suspend the class competition or other incentives, my classroom immediately reverted back to the fractious culture that dominated the first few months of year. I abandoned both class competition and individual student rewards for my second year of teaching based on my understanding of Kohn. He asserts that motivation is not singular. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations represent two very different forces with different long-term effects on students. Extrinsic motivation occurs when a person strives to accomplish a task for a reward or the avoidance of a negative repercussion from failing to succeed. Intrinsic motivation occurs when a person strives to accomplish a task because of the enjoyment and pleasure of Polo, engaging in the task itself.

Kohn also showed that motivation is diaries essay not additive; using reinforcements to encourage or discourage particular behaviors in students decreases curiosity, academic risk-taking, creativity, and intrinsic motivation. It became clear that my first step toward fostering intrinsic motivation was to eliminate my explicit attempts to boost extrinsic motivation. I also planned to reform my behavior management system. I would explain to my students the rationale behind both assignments and the class discipline system (such as why students could not speak during independent reading), and even explain my sympathy when such directions were undesirable. I would also decrease my reliance on detentions and reflect with a student when he/she earned one (see Kohn, 2006). At this time, I was only Polo a weekend away from students entering my classroom for the first day of chris communications, my second school year as a teacher. I hoped my repertoire of tools to enhance intrinsic motivation would work. Given my quantitative inquiry question, I created a variety of metrics to measure the intrinsic motivation in my students—metrics that I now see as misguided. The metrics were not only cumbersome and on Marketing: Lauren, unhelpful, but did not meet the standards of quantitative methodology to withstand evaluation. My metrics are outlined below: I recorded any time I attempted to baddeley model, motivate a student, whether through extrinsic or intrinsic means.

This meant recording any time I administered a threat or a piece of academic feedback that could impact motivation. After several lessons on how to annotate a text, I administered a rather dull short story during the Ralph fifth week of school and told the students: This assignment is completely optional. Read this short story and annotate it as many times as you want using any of the four annotation symbols we learned. If you do not do it or finish early, I have crossword puzzles for you. If you don’t finish early, put an X next to where you stopped reading. During and after students read and annotated the story, I recorded who participated, how much of the story each student read, how long they read, how many annotations they made, and the quality of each annotation. I compared these figures across students to determine a baseline level of intrinsic motivation and administered a similar exam at the middle and end of the year. Administering both metrics was challenging. Nature What Essay. For the first metric, besides the Essay Polo Ralph sheer difficulty of recording what I communicated to each student over What Determines Our Behavior? Essay, the course of a class, I could not easily distinguish between what might constitute a prompt for intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. Essay Polo Ralph Lauren. If I said, “It looks like you are enjoying this assignment.

Keep up the good work,” I was both encouraging intrinsic motivation by recognizing a student’s interest in baddeley an assignment as well as reinforcing extrinsic motivation by offering verbal praise. Even worse, I was not focusing on my students’ behavior (were they deeply immersed in a writing assignment and losing track of time?) but instead focusing on Lauren quantifying what I, the motorcycle teacher, was doing. Such misguidance in Essay Ralph my inquiry could be attributed to my quantitative lens indicated by chris fill the word “measure” in my inquiry question. For the second metric, I hardly made it through analyzing data from the first test before I realized how misguided my method was. I had all of these numbers, but I could not say they reflected any inherent mental qualities of my students, let alone that they were a fair measure of intrinsic motivation (since, of course, intrinsic motivation is not a singular phenomenon that is invariant across all contexts and situations). For example, the content of the story naturally appealed to some students more than others. Polo Ralph Lauren. Information on my student’s reading levels were not yet available, so the difficulty of the reading passage was a barrier for some but not for others. Even the very idea of thinking I could teach annotation and use it as a proxy for such a dynamic and multifaceted phenomenon as intrinsic motivation became an obvious error in model of working memory my framework: Could the on Marketing: Lauren frequency and quality of a student’s annotations, even if a base-rate were established (Gay, Mils, Airasian, 2012) say anything about a student’s motivation while literacy, previous exposure to annotation strategies, and a host of other factors influenced such data? . I designed my inquiry stance to embrace S. Ravitch’s (2014) call for practitioner research to explore new dimensions of educational practice, namely greater attention to motivation in the classroom. I also wanted to respond to Kaplan, Katz, and or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior?, Flum’s (2012) call for a better bridge between academic research on achievement motivation and classroom practices. My inquiry was doing neither. My misguided idea came from a groundbreaking 1971 study by the psychologist Edward Deci, who discovered that subjects would play with a puzzle longer if they were not tempted with extrinsic motivators (e.g., monetary compensation).

Iterations of this experiment with different variables (e.g., higher pay, competition, different age of subjects) yielded similar results (Deci, 1997; Kohn, 1993; Wilson, 2011). Essay Polo. Inspired by this study, I developed an inquiry that attempted to remove extrinsic motivations from my classroom. It is not that I thought a teacher could do the job of a psychologist, nor that I had the baddeley model memory skills to create a perfectly controlled environment to Lauren, assess intrinsic motivation in my students. I just could not think of how else I could study intrinsic motivation or make conclusions that would better my practice without the What use of number crunching, coding of behaviors, and quantitative data analysis. Psychologists, not teachers or administrators, discovered the importance of intrinsic motivation, I reasoned. I cannot recall a time I saw intrinsic motivation discussed in professional development, printed on a poster in a classroom, or accounted for in a lesson plan. Essay Polo Ralph Lauren. So I did the only thing I thought I could. I did as the psychologists did and quantified. I shared this quantitative data with my teacher research group and baddeley model of working, quickly became embarrassed by their struggle to understand the numbers and codes I provided in carefully colored and Essay Polo Lauren, coded Excel spreadsheets.

At that point it became blindingly clear that my methodology was fundamentally confusing, unfocused, and inappropriate for a practitioner. Oil Is Beneficial For Children And Adults. I could not speak to a single student outcome, observed classroom phenomenon, or way my classroom benefited from my inquiry. My inquiry was failing at every level. The study struggled to provide an on Marketing: Lauren account of classroom dynamics justified by a teacher’s unique and quasi-anthropological perspective being an observer and agent “inside” a classroom (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). The study also struggled to generate local knowledge to improve classroom instruction about student motivation (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 2009).

I may very well have been fostering intrinsic motivation in my classroom, but my quantitative and inappropriate lens prevented me from knowing so. I needed to readjust my inquiry question. A needed development in my inquiry came from the teacher research group when one of the facilitators commented: “Why not get rid of the Test Creators Should word ‘measure,’ from your inquiry question and return to the first form of your inquiry question that begins with, ‘What happens when…?’” This was the direction I needed. I was back to my initial inquiry question: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students? I needed to stop parsing student behavior into components to Ralph, code, track, and analyze. Instead, I needed to embrace my unique perspective and role as a teacher, develop the best strategies I thought appropriate to improve my instruction given my inquiry, and take an approach from within my classroom to observe and marketing communications, record any classroom occurrences relevant to my inquiry (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). This point represents the transition in my approach from quantitative to qualitative, the latter constituting a much more appropriate option given my perspective and experience as a practitioner. Maxwell (2013) delineates these two types of research based on the worldview each method implies. Quantitative research sees and studies the world in terms of variables. Such scientists believe that a phenomenon can be understood best by analyzing how much influence each constituent variable exercises. For example, if I wanted to understand the phenomenon of on Marketing: Ralph, my immune system, I would go to a doctor to anatomize this entity into a white blood cell count, vitamin levels, and and the green knight, my history of illnesses.

Qualitative research, on the other hand, sees a phenomenon as something that needs to Essay Polo, be studied holistically. Sir Gawain And The Green Symbolism. If an entity can indeed be broken into different variables, their integration into the subject of study may take on extra dimensions that cannot be understood by simply understanding its parts. With my change to on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, a qualitative approach came a shift in priorities. My new directive became: Develop and implement instructional strategies to chris marketing communications, cultivate intrinsic motivation within my students first; make sense of the data later. Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. At this point, several months into Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, the school year, I developed and implemented strategies to foster intrinsic motivation in my students. I offered more choice in assignments and how I presented information to baddeley of working, the class (Cordova Lepper, 1996); provided more academic feedback to promote self-regulated learning (Zimmerman, 2008); differentiated reading, writing, and other curricular assignments based on student interests (Guthrie Coddinton, 2009; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Schiefele, 2009); and I allowed students time to identify their own strengths and weaknesses and set goals accordingly (Zimmerman Cleary, 2009).

Some students opted for Essay on Marketing: Polo independent reading assignments to engage with particular topics they found most interesting in the unit. Other students requested projects that allowed them more creativity to interpret and diagram the reading skills we practiced. However, one tendency reoccurred with alarming frequency: No one was opting for writing assignments. One day in October I asked my ninth graders, “How many of you have written a five-paragraph essay?” I was shocked to learn that only about a dozen students across all five of my classes had ever written one. Most of the students shared that they had never been asked to write more than a paragraph at a time. Although five-paragraph essays have been criticized as overly formulaic by model prioritizing structure over content (Johnson, Smagorinsky, Thompson, Fry, 2003), they were the only tool I was aware of that could bridge the gap between paragraph writing and longer analytic writing assignments. I quickly shared my students’ comments with my colleagues in the English department and the social studies teachers on the ninth grade floor. To my amazement, most social studies and English teachers were well aware of the little attention lengthy writing assignments were given in Philadelphia public schools. Perhaps more alarming, my school’s English and social studies curricula included few writing assignments that required more than a page. Ralph. The only consistent writing requirements were occasional constructed response questions (CRQ) to prepare for green symbolism Keystone Exams, standardized tests required for graduation in Pennsylvania.

CRQ responses are typically one to two paragraph responses to a prompt that follows a reading passage. According to Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (2014), a standardized test for composition has not yet been developed for high school students. Although the benefits of lengthy writing assignments, from personal narratives to research papers, have been well argued (Fitzhugh, 2006; McConachie et al., 2006), I felt compelled to help cultivate an interest and value in longer writing assignments. Sir Gawain Knight. Philadelphia has some of the highest poverty rates of all major US cities (The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2013), with 4th and 8th grade scores on Ralph Lauren the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) well below the national average (Mezzacappa, 2013). With school funding tied to performance on state standardized tests, and lengthy writing assignments not covered on any of them, a lack of attention to fill marketing, writing is certainly understandable. With an interest in on Marketing: Lauren requiring lengthy writing assignments of baddeley memory, students, my inquiry into Polo Ralph, intrinsic motivation was infused with an extra sentiment: I wanted my students to engage in longer writing assignments, but also to find some joy and value in the process.

If my students were not intrinsically motivated to develop their formal writing, how else could I expect my students to seek improvement for their writing once they left my classroom? At this point in chris fill my inquiry, my research question proved to be very broad, focusing on on Marketing: how I could adopt strategies to promote intrinsic motivation without any attention to a particular context. Now I had found a great reason to green symbolism, narrow it down: I wanted to focus my inquiry on the intersection of intrinsic motivation and five-paragraph essays. S. Ravitch (2014) and Polo, Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2009) position teacher research as something that not only has the ability to generate local knowledge and advocate for new directions in research, but also to criticize top-down educational best practices. In an era of high-stakes testing, in which test scores determine school funding, longer analytic writing assignments have not yet found their place in essay Pennsylvania’s high school state-administered exams. Yet, as a practitioner fervently committed to the proven connection between college-readiness and writing proficiency (see Conley, 2007), I adjusted my inquiry accordingly.

I hoped to on Marketing: Polo, provide an environment for Oil Is For Children And Adults Essay intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays to emerge (and ideally flourish). Five-paragraph essays do not constitute the lengthy analytic writing assignments I often envision, such as research papers. However, with classes in Polo Ralph Lauren which the majority of students had never written more than a paragraph for an assignment before ninth grade, I reasoned that the five-paragraph essay should be my focus. My inquiry question evolved to: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation for marketing communications five-paragraph essays? Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. With my inquiry aligned to qualitative methodologies and refocused on formal writing, I was ready to give some much-needed attention to the nexus of intrinsic motivation and five-paragraph essays. I wanted my students to be able to write a research paper by the end of the year, and I would use five-paragraph essay assignments to prepare my students for Polo Ralph that assignment. From November to January, I assigned three five-paragraph essays with more intentional strategies to foster intrinsic motivation. Conflicts naturally arise when educators negotiate classroom structure and consistency while also promoting autonomy and choice to further intrinsic motivation (Ames, 1992; Blumenfeld, 1992; Deci Faste, 1995; Reeve, 2009).

However, research has shown that specific strategies can facilitate intrinsic motivation within a structured classroom (Urdan Turner, 2005). Table 1 outlines each assignment and communications, the strategies implemented that have been shown to promote intrinsic motivation in other studies. While no specific set of practices has proven to reliably produce intrinsic motivation, key strategies have been linked to the emergence of intrinsic motivation in some students. Devised Strategies to Promote Intrinsic Motivation in Five-Paragraph Essays Title. Five-Paragraph Essay Assignment Date. Prerequisites for Essay Assignment. Intrinsic Motivation Strategies. Academic Origins of Intrinsic Motivation Strategies. How is the novel The Hunger Games similar to the real world? Completion of out-loud and Lauren, independent reading assignments, culminating in the completion of the Nature What novel.

Completion of all nonfiction articles and class exercises detailing current and past historical events similar to The Hunger Games. Knowledge of Polo Ralph Lauren, grammar and writing skills (attention-grabbing line, thesis statement, etc.) that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. Complete freedom in model choice of Essay on Marketing: Polo Lauren, thesis statement. 2. Some choice in supporting evidence (students could choose three nonfiction articles from the six we read in class to argue if the real world and The Hunger Games were similar) 3. Teacher explanations, class activities, and Fish Oil Is Beneficial For Children And Adults Essay, class discussions about the importance of Essay on Marketing:, strong writing skills for high school, college, and chris fill communications, professional success.

4. Checklist for Essay Polo the components of persuasive and analytic writing (thesis statement, topic sentence, embedded quotation, etc.) to What Our Behavior?, provide both self-regulation and structure. 12. Polo. Provide students choices in assignments and content to promote student autonomy and interest development (Kohn 1993, 2006; Deci, 1997; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Reese, 2009) 3. Sympathize with students when they express apathy or hostility toward an assignment and explain the importance of the task for college, jobs, and applications outside the Determines Our Behavior? Essay classroom (Deci Ryan, 2009) 4. On Marketing:. Provide structure to encourage self-regulation (Deci Ryan, 2000; Zimmermann Schunk, 2008; Zimmermann, Cleary, 2009;) What is the cause of violence? Completion of reading and writing assignments on theories of violence.

Mastery of all writing and Oil Is Beneficial For Children Essay, grammar skills that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. On Marketing: Lauren. Class-generated essay topic (violence) 2. Choice in and the green symbolism thesis statement. 3. Choice in supporting evidence (Students could choose any of the nonfiction articles we read in Essay Ralph class) 4. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the importance of strong writing skills for high school, college, and Determines Our Behavior?, professional success.

5. Checklist for the components of persuasive and Essay on Marketing: Polo, analytic writing. 6. Class brainstorming activities for essay topics. 7. Personal discussions with each student about their growth in formal writing to promote a sense of competence. 1-3. And The Symbolism. Provide students choice in content and assignments to promote autonomy and interest development. 3. Provide choice in student reading materials so students can find the reading material personally meaningful (Guthrie Coddington, 2009) 4. Sympathize and explain the importance of Essay Lauren, unappealing tasks. 5. Sir Gawain And The. Provide structure to encourage self-regulation. 6. On Marketing: Polo. Allow students to generate topics for assignments with class discussions (Kohn, 2006) 7. A student’s sense of competence strongly correlates with intrinsic motivation (Deci Ryan, 2000)

Should Mr. Smith teach this short story next year? Complete reading for at least one of the three short stories. Mastery of all literary terms (tone, theme, symbolism, etc.), writing and grammar skills that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. Choice in sir gawain and the knight symbolism thesis statement. 2. Choice in supporting evidence (Students could provide a literary analysis of the story based on Polo Ralph Lauren any of the 7 literary terms learned in class.) 3. Choice in short story to write about (three story options)

4. Ability to memory, change short story if desired. 5. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the importance of strong writing skills for high school, college, and professional success. 6. On Marketing: Polo. Students can use peers for advice, editing, and suggestions when gathering evidence and constructing outlines and rough drafts. 12. Provide students choice in content and assignments to promote autonomy and interest development. 3. Provide choice in reading materials to increase the likelihood a student will find the text meaningful (Guthrie Coddington, 2009) 4. Provide students with the opportunity and supports for academic risk-taking (Ryan Deci, 2009) 5. Sympathize and Fish For Children, explain the importance of Polo, unappealing tasks. 6. Collaborating with classmates fosters “relatedness,” the ability to feel valued, safe, and Test NOT Edit Quotes Essay, connected in a community, a prerequisite for intrinsic motivation (Deci Ryan, 2000)

Note. The number assigned to the Intrinsic Motivation Strategies category corresponds to the number for Essay Polo the Academic Origins of Intrinsic Motivation Strategies category. Below, I closely analyze three of my students’ essays to get a better sense of how their writing developed given the strategies I used to promote intrinsic motivation. An artifact analysis of the three five-paragraph essays written by Test Creators NOT Edit Essay my students did demonstrated a deeper understanding of the material, more passion and interest in both the writing topic and writing itself, and Essay on Marketing: Lauren, more time and Test Creators Should Quotes, effort committed to the activity. It may be too bold to argue that such strategies increased students’ intrinsic motivation in a semi-autonomous classroom, but certain characteristics in each student’s essays suggest greater competency, interest, and effort, all of which are necessary conditions for intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1995; Deci Ryan 2000; Ryan Deci, 2000). For the first essay, I asked the following question: “How is the novel The Hunger Games similar to the real world?” Students were required to have a central thesis, and the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion were graded on criteria taught in Essay on Marketing: Polo the previous weeks. The Hunger Games (Collins, 2008) describes Katniss, an essay impoverished citizen in a futuristic dystopian world who is forced to battle other “tributes” to the death as entertainment for the country’s population. The government plans this annual competition to keep its people obedient out of fear.

For the second essay, I asked, “What is the cause of violence?” and in the third essay, I asked, “Should Mr. Polo Lauren. Smith teach this short story next year?” The details of each assignment are listed in Table 1. Again, although I used strategies to promote autonomy, choice, and Our Behavior?, appropriate scaffolding and guidance for each student, my classroom has unavoidable structures that can be seen as extrinsically motivating. Students must complete essays to Essay Ralph, pass the quarter, all assignments are graded, and classroom disturbances are addressed promptly, with consequences if necessary. Of Working. However, as stated earlier, classroom structures do not preclude the use of certain strategies to Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph, promote intrinsic motivation (Ames, 1992; Blumenfeld, 1992). I chose to analyze Student A’s progression through the Nature What Determines Our Behavior? Essay writing assignments because of her explicit interest in becoming a better writer. She, like the vast majority of the on Marketing: students who attend the and the symbolism charter school where I teach, performs at a lower grade level in Essay Ralph math, reading, and writing according to the most recent results of the Pennsylvania State Standardized Assessment (PSSAs), a state-administered standardized test. Before my class, the most she could remember writing was a creative short story and the occasional paragraph. While her grammar, fluency, and chris communications, ability to incorporate evidence improved across her assignments, another phenomenon began to emerge that also suggested greater intrinsic motivation.

She connected with the text and began to Essay Polo, formulate and sir gawain and the green symbolism, defend ideas passionately. She also began to weave in Essay Polo her experiences and opinions to back up her arguments. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #1. The real world and Oil Is And Adults, The Hunger Games are similar because they both have people who murder each other. For example, in The Hunger Games people murder each other in Ralph the arena to stay alive in order to Our Behavior?, be the person who wins and goes home to their beloved home. In the real world people murder each other because they are crazy and need help or prefer revenge over a past time.

Furthermore the real world people get murdered by Essay Ralph Lauren other people and go to jail or is to be slaughtered [ sic ] it depends on the case. In The Hunger Games they kill tributes in Creators Should NOT Edit Quotes the arena for entertainment. A quotation that proves this is, “Haymitch tells Katniss and Peeta to forget getting weapons and Polo Ralph, run and find water.”[1] This quotation proves that running and getting a weapon will get you killed easily and it’s better to run and motorcycle diaries essay, find water than to risk your life for Polo Ralph the weapons and food that is out there for the tributes to fight over. Sir Gawain And The. This is how The Hunger Games and real world are similar. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #2. Although many people are criminal acts [ sic ], it’s not their fault people introduced them to drugs and alcohol as a child. This makes them do more serious crimes. On Marketing: Polo. My first piece of evidence that can show this is when you are young and model, introduced to alcohol it messes with your head and doesn’t make you think clearly as you normally do.

Furthermore in a child’s childhood they shouldn’t be introduced to alcohol anyway so who ever introduced it to them should be in the slammer. My second piece of on Marketing: Lauren, evidence is drugs shouldn’t be introduced to kids in young stage of life. That will simply damage a lot of or Nurture: What Essay, body parts in a young person. Essay Polo Ralph Lauren. Later in life they will most likely commit crimes from how messed up their brain is. A quotation that supports this is,” About one-third of all violent offenders are alcoholic, and the earlier an adolescent starts to drink, the Test NOT Edit Quotes Essay more likely that teen will be violent as an Essay Polo adult”. This quotation clearly explains being introduced to alcohol is very bad and makes the person capable of being more violent. What Essay. In conclusion, all drugs and alcohol is bad for a child and also when their [ sic ] older it makes them want to be more violent.

Because the Essay Polo person drank alcohol when they were younger, now as an adult they are capable of being more violent due to less intelligence in the brain. A lot of Oil Is For Children Essay, people drink, but people who are violent already will most likely become more violent. Although the excerpt from on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, Student A’s first essay cites more credible sources, she relies heavily on the class readings we unpacked as a class. In the second essay, she relies much more on Fish Oil Is Essay her own opinions and experiences. In fact, I chose to analyze Student A’s work in large part due to her avid participation in the class discussion of an essay on violence, which was unusual given her usually reserved and quiet disposition. Her second essay excerpt is filled with more passion, indicated by Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren the use of words like “should” and “bad.” She makes more evaluative statements, with comments like “not their fault” and “this quotation clearly explains being introduced to alcohol is very bad and makes the person capable of being more violent” [emphasis added].

Student A’s first writing essay only includes analyses and NOT Edit Quotes, details explored in class discussions, while her second essay becomes much richer with her own opinions and quotations she found herself. Perhaps these data suggest an increase in her competence and Essay Polo Lauren, interest in argumentative writing, two prerequisites for intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1995; Deci Ryan, 2000; Ryan Deci, 2000). I also cannot help but question if my observations can translate to a meaningful understanding of intrinsic motivation. Student A demonstrates a stronger voice and a willingness to incorporate evidence not provided by motorcycle the teacher in her second essay. But statements like “My first piece of evidence” and “My second piece of evidence” speak to Essay on Marketing: Polo, the artificial audience created by the instruction I provided. Such phrases were on a list of common sentence starters I provided to students. Could I make any meaningful claims about Student A’s intrinsic motivation given the context of a semi-structured writing assignment whereby she may be also motivated by the extrinsic factors of grading and discipline? Although my inquiry provided a context-specific examination of Nature or Nurture: What Our Behavior? Essay, education-related complexities (S.

Ravitch, 2014), I did not feel my examination allowed me to make any specific claim about the interaction of on Marketing:, intrinsic motivation, writing, and my practice. I felt stumped anytime I tried to fill communications, articulate any thought specifically about a change in Essay Lauren Student A’s motivation or the worthwhileness of my instructional strategies. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #3. I will tell you that if a story has many settings you would stay interested in the story. This will, “suck you into the words of the story”, which means keep your attention. For example, “The Sound Of Thunder[2],” only has one setting which is the jungle. They also have to baddeley model of working memory, go through the time machine, but that doesn’t really count as a setting. On Marketing: Polo Lauren. Furthermore one setting is boring and won’t really grab your attention as many settings would. Although some stories can be interesting with one setting, I believe many settings will make a story more interesting to read. Reading helps your brain mature into being smarter when you have many settings, but not all authors want many settings to work with when writing a story.

That is understandable. My second piece of motorcycle essay, evidence is that when you only Ralph have one setting the knight story ends very shortly. When the story ends very shortly, you understand the story and Essay on Marketing: Polo Lauren, won’t be excited reading it. The quotation that supports this is, “TIME SAFARI, INC., SAFARIS TO ANY YEAR IN THE PAST.” This quotation means that the sir gawain and the green setting only focuses on settings such as safaris. In conclusion, that’s why we need more settings and why Mr.

X shouldn’t teach this next year. Student A’s emerging voice and Essay Ralph Lauren, rhetoric as a passionate writer continued to fill marketing, develop in her third essay. She offers a more challenging and bold premise for this body paragraph. Essay On Marketing: Ralph Lauren. I, the teacher, should not teach this short story next year because the marketing communications singular setting of the story makes the narrative boring. Essay Ralph Lauren. She routinely elaborates on her ideas. Until this assignment, Student A’s writing did not contain as many deliberate attempts to express her own opinion, cite evidence she read herself, or form original arguments that I or other students had not already expressed.

Student A may be an example of knight symbolism, a student taking greater academic risks. Additionally, about a month after this assignment, Student A expressed to Polo Ralph Lauren, me that she wants to become a writer. Considering her developing voice as an opinionated essayist and recently revealed career goal, the classroom strategies may certainly have boosted intrinsic motivation. While I studied Student A’s essays for evidence of greater intrinsic motivation because of her explicit desire to improve as a writer and Fish Oil Is Beneficial, argumentative essayist, I approached Student B’s essays with a different lens. Many of Student B’s teachers described him as curious, creative, and overflowing with academic potential. However, his classroom behavior would often land him in detention or the Essay on Marketing: Lauren dean’s office.

Student B and symbolism, I (luckily) had a strong relationship. Polo Ralph. He committed himself passionately to Nature or Nurture: Determines Essay, reading and on Marketing: Lauren, writing, and he consequently excelled. Marketing. I think such success resulted because Student B would readily seek out trouble when lessons were easy and boring to Polo Ralph Lauren, him, so I made sure he felt adequately challenged. For each of sir gawain and the knight, Student B’s essays, I provided him with more challenging readings and essay guidelines. I also required him to Essay on Marketing: Lauren, explain his essay outline to me in greater detail than his classmates so that I could give him feedback solely on Creators Should NOT Edit Essay how to enhance the rigor and scholarship of his work. Below are excerpts from three of his five-paragraph essays. Excerpt from Student B’s five-paragraph essay #1. The real world and The Hunger Games are similar because they both have poor and rich sides. The poor people don’t have medicine and food. The same for the real world.

Furthermore the rich people they have everything. They don’t understand how people are suffering on the poor sides. “In [West] Berlin there is happiness. There are good jobs, plentiful amounts of food, and the streets are clean”. The poor don’t have that but they should. The Real World [ sic ] and Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, The Hunger games are similar because they both have poor and rich sides. Excerpt from Student B’s five-paragraph essay #2. While beatings form parents create violent teenagers, they still have the choice of chris marketing communications, doing it or not. Essay On Marketing: Polo. My first piece of evidence is that there are 2 basic conditions; one is that the person has been hurt.

Therefore, that is model of working memory why they do violent things. On Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren. My second piece of evidence is the second condition is and the green symbolism if the person has not been allow to Essay Ralph, let emotions out then it will hurt them more. A quotation that explains this is diaries essay “be the victim of Polo, violence creates violence in the child only when the emotions out [ sic ] are blocked or repressed.” This quotation is try to say that if a child has not been able to express their self then the stuff they think about is violence. So that means everybody should have someone to talk to. If you don’t listen they will commit a crime, but then they still have a choice.

Although it not your problem you should still listen because everyone needs somebody, included [ sic ] yourself. From the first to the second essay, Student B takes many more risks with his writing. Knight Symbolism. In his first writing assignment he tries to select appropriate pieces of Essay on Marketing: Polo Lauren, evidence to compare the disparity in wealth between East and West Berlin, Germany to Oil Is, the communities or “districts” in The Hunger Games . His argument stems from a class reading and discussion comparing the income and resource disparity in the city of Panem in Ralph The Hunger Games to East and West Berlin, Germany. In the second writing assignment Student B uses evidence to defend his own causal theory of violence in teenagers. He makes intentional efforts to heighten his diction and how he explains the nexus between his opinion and diaries, his evidence.

Just like with Student A, I am again hesitant to attribute the changes in Student B’s writing to a change in intrinsic motivation. On Marketing: Polo Lauren. The strategies outlined in Table 1 may very well have helped Student B find his writing more important and enjoyable resulting in For Children Essay greater effort. However, the very structure of the second essay prompt could be said to elicit more emotive writing from the author. In Student B’s third essay, his thesis asserts that I should teach the short story “The Sniper” by Liam O’Flaherty (1923) to my students next year. “The Sniper” describes a soldier in the Irish Civil War who tricks an on Marketing: Polo Lauren enemy by green knight symbolism placing a hat on his gun. Once his hat is Polo fired upon, the fill soldier pretends to die.

When the Essay Polo Ralph Lauren enemy approaches, the soldier successfully fires a pistol only to discover his enemy is also his brother. I offered “The Sniper” to Student B and chris marketing, a few other students as a more challenging story. Essay On Marketing: Lauren. Although the following excerpt demonstrates atypically confusing writing from Student B, he attempts to chris fill communications, unpack the symbolism present in the story. Student B refused help with his analysis. While his analysis of the symbolism in on Marketing: Polo the story may be underdeveloped, his pursuit to marketing, understand the author’s use of a challenging literary device in a challenging story, without any teacher aid, could represent greater intrinsic motivation. The symbolism is good, and it stands out in the story. My first piece of Essay on Marketing:, evidence is that in the story, the hat means that the hat is him but then it is not. Therefore that why [ sic ] he got to kill his enemy. My second piece of evidence is motorcycle diaries essay that the smoke means where the guy is. A quotation that provides [ sic ] this is, “When the smoke cleared out I fire back.” This quotation is trying to say that the Polo smoke showed him where the guy was. There is sir gawain knight a lot of symbolism in the story.

Since the story is Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph so good, then teach it next year. He kills his brother, but he did not know it was him. Nature Our Behavior? Essay. A boy, in war, killed his brother. Out of all my students, Student B was one of the Polo Ralph Lauren few who tackled symbolism in his essay, something I described to the class as one of the trickiest things I would ever teach them. I find myself struggling to negotiate two very opposing observations. On one hand, Student B’s continued attempts to motorcycle diaries essay, delve into increasingly challenging topics suggest greater effort and engagement with writing. On the other hand, Student B’s knowledge of sentence starters and the formulaic components of five-paragraph essays stymie his ability to clearly articulate a more holistic textual analysis (Wesley, 2000). I am left to Essay Lauren, wonder if my assignments both facilitated and impeded intrinsic motivation, obfuscating any relationship between my writing strategies and intrinsic motivation. Conclusion: Implications for Practitioner Research, Assessing Student Motivation, and the Role of Creators NOT Edit Quotes, Academic Research for Teachers. Research has continuously demonstrated a strong relationship between intrinsic motivation and Essay Polo, student achievement (Ryan Deci, 2009).

In low-income schools, struggling students need to work especially hard to memory, graduate high school and college, perform at Essay Polo Lauren competitive levels in the work force, and excel wherever their academic interests and pursuits take them given the additional risk-factors that poverty begets (Bottrell, 2009). Yet, a huge problem remains. The bridge between academic motivation research and implementation of motorcycle diaries, strategies to promote motivation remains partially constructed and rarely traveled. This article detailed my attempt to help build this bridge. I researched intrinsic motivation, including both theories and Polo, recommended strategies to develop this quality in students. I implemented and altered the suggested practices based on both the context of my school and fill, my continued study of existing research. Scholars often identify the importance of Essay on Marketing:, practitioner research as its ability to describe problems, inquiries, and classroom occurrences for further study by researchers (Berliner, 2006; Kaplan, Katz, Flum, 2012). I can only hope this article does this in some small way. In more specific terms, this article raises several important considerations: A paradox in practitioner research . As D. Ravitch (2013) points out, many teachers enter the work force with a desire not just to instruct, but also to baddeley model memory, inspire. It is challenging to speak precisely about an inquiry topic as amorphous and complex as intrinsic motivation outside of a controlled environment and within the dynamics of a classroom.

Table 2 below summarizes the different iterations of my inquiry question. Changes in inquiry questions represent a natural element of practitioner research (Hubbard Power, 2003). The Evolution of Inquiry Question over the Academic Year. What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to on Marketing: Ralph, promote intrinsic motivation in my students? How do I measure intrinsic motivation? What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students?

What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays? The challenges of this inquiry speak not only to Test Creators NOT Edit Quotes Essay, the difficulties of a practitioner contributing to the academic literature on psychological phenomena, but also to the greater challenge of accurately commenting on Essay on Marketing: Polo such topics within a classroom setting. Since schools represent a dynamic environment whereby factors that influence academic motivation (peer-influence, interest-development, relevance, and more) share complex and possibly non-linear interactions with each other (Kaplan, Katz, and Flum’s, 2012), the very people positioned to influence these factors (teachers) remain uncertain how to accurately understand, intervene, and even comment on these factors. This challenge is worth recognizing. Although researchers have the sir gawain green knight tools and Essay on Marketing: Polo Lauren, skills to generate general knowledge on such phenomena like motivation, practitioners have the local knowledge of navigating and responding to such phenomena alongside students, even if they are not aware of precisely how they are doing it. I find myself very sympathetic to Kaplan, Katz, and Flum’s (2012) call for practitioners and Oil Is For Children And Adults Essay, researchers to collaborate. Ralph Lauren. As a teacher, I am part of the environment that can positively or negatively effect intrinsic motivation in students on chris fill marketing a daily basis, but I struggle to interpret, describe, and explain the data I encounter. The role of academic research in the classroom . Educators’ ability to effectively incorporate strategies to cultivate intrinsic motivation is an additional challenge.

While the Polo Ralph research I outline in Table 1 is very clear on marketing what teachers can do to increase intrinsic motivation, knowing how to accurately execute their suggestions is an entirely different matter. Many researchers advocate providing students with choices (Deci, 1997; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Kohn 1993, 2006; Reese, 2009). In a classroom with a predetermined discipline philosophy, a nonnegotiable grading system, and on Marketing:, a unique, ever-evolving culture, how many and diaries essay, what kind of on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, choices can I offer my students to claim I’ve met the threshold of Test NOT Edit, promoting intrinsic motivation? Researchers also advocate for opportunities for students to practice self-regulation (Deci Ryan, 2000; Zimmermann Schunk, 2008; Zimmermann Cleary, 2009). In a school that uses grades to motivate truant students and consequences for disciplinary infractions, how can I separate self-regulation strategies from the school’s student regulation strategies?

The research on Essay on Marketing: Polo Lauren what teachers can do to Nature or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior? Essay, nurture intrinsic motivation may be clear, but the knowledge that a teacher has implemented the intervention represents a very different challenge. Assessing student motivation in Essay on Marketing: Lauren a complex environment . While I cannot argue that my research helped provide a more rigorous or even accurate picture of intrinsic motivation, I have demonstrated the diaries challenge of recognizing if and when a teacher can nurture or even identify intrinsic motivation in a classroom. Psychologists and educational researchers can argue when and how intrinsic motivation has changed based on data from surveys and controlled laboratory conditions. As a teacher inside a classroom, I struggle to make any such claim without training in Essay Polo Ralph Lauren a research methodology that accounts for both a specific context and student motivational forces. If educators should be concerned about fostering passion, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation (and I believe they should), the model memory ability to accurately explain changes in student outcomes can be a very challenging enterprise. While I saw Student A and Student B demonstrate greater risk-taking, a stronger voice, and more effort toward their writing, I felt incapable of using the proper terminology from educational psychology to explain their behavior.

I could not see the Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren world through the lens of a psychologist. Was this because I am not a psychologist, I am not studying a controlled environment, or a little of both? A likely common narrative across early educators . According to the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (2010), teachers with less than five years of experience have continued to comprise a greater proportion of the teacher workforce over the last 20 years. Additionally, the most common teachers in American public schools are in their first year of teaching (Ingersoll, Merrill, Stuckey, 2014). While my self-study and Nature What Determines Our Behavior? Essay, inquiry proved to Essay Polo Lauren, be riddled with the challenge of accurately defining, intervening, and even speaking about motivation in a classroom, such a narrative may not be uncommon among the current teacher workforce and marketing communications, the growing national interest in non-cognitive skills and student motivation (Rosen, Glennie, Dalton, Lennon Bozick, 2010). My narrative speaks to an unavoidable cognitive dissonance when attempting to Essay Ralph Lauren, interpret and chris fill communications, act on Polo Ralph the knowledge of my practice, pedagogy, and academic motivational forces. Perhaps this voice represents a common one across the nation. S. Chris Fill. Ravitch (2014) argues: Practitioner research enables practitioners to engage in Essay on Marketing: Ralph structured inquiries that are directed towards knowledge generation; it helps practitioners to gain formative insights into baddeley model memory, what concerns or confuses us, what aspects of on Marketing: Polo Lauren, practice are most challenging and motorcycle essay, rewarding, about our roles as supporters, advocates, collaborators and change agents, about the parameters, possibilities, and on Marketing: Ralph, constraints of our work settings. (p.

6) In this article I have explored the evolution of my inquiry into cultivating intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays. Responding to S. Ravitch’s (2014) invitation to gain insight into a matter that concerns, confuses, challenges, and rewards me, I attempted to generate knowledge about the results of a teacher adopting strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in five-paragraph essay instruction. My concluding considerations reflect on practitioner research, the role of educational academic literature, assessing student motivation, and the possible congruence between my perspective and model of working memory, other early educators. I may not speak to a successful increase in intrinsic motivation, but the narrative of my shifting inquiry question, framework, and data collection offers challenges and insights for others trying to understand and Essay Polo Lauren, promote student motivation within the classroom. [1] This is not actually a quote from Test Should Quotes, The Hunger Games . Student A struggled with embedding quotations at this point in Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren the year. [2] “The Sound of Thunder” by Ray Bradbury (1952) DAN LASALLE is a Teach for America alumnus and graduate student at Temple University. Test Creators NOT Edit Quotes. He runs the blog and Essay, currently teaches 8th grade composition in a low-income public charter school in Philadelphia. Ames, C. (1992).

Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology , 84 (3), 261-271. Alliance for Excellent Education. (2009). Green Knight Symbolism. Fact sheet: High school dropouts in America. Essay. Retrieved from Berliner, D. C. (2006). What. Educational psychology: Searching for essence through a century of influence. In P. Essay Lauren. A. Alexander P .H. Test Creators NOT Edit Essay. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed., pp.

3-27). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Blumenfeld, P. C. (1992). Classroom learning and motivation: Clarifying and expanding goal theory. Journal of Essay Polo Lauren, Educational Psychology, 84 (3), 272-281. Bottrell, D. (2009). Essay. Understanding ‘marginal’ perspectives: Towards a social theory of Resilience. Essay On Marketing: Polo Lauren. Qualitative Social Work, 8 (3), 321-339. Brannon, L., Courtney, J. P., Urbanski, C. P., Woodward, S. V., Reynolds, J. M., Lannone, A. E., Haag, K. D., Mach, K., Manship, L. A., Kendrik, M. (2008). The five-paragraph essay and the deficit model of Determines Our Behavior? Essay, education. The English Journal, 98 (2), 16-21.

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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18 , 105-115. Deci, E. L., Flaste, R. Diaries. (1995). Why we do what we do: Understanding self-motivation . Essay On Marketing: Ralph. New York, NY: Penguin Books. Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53 (1), 109-132. Fitzhugh, W. (2006). Where’s the content? Educational Leadership, 64 (2), 42-46. Foster, K. R., Spencer, D. Green Knight. (2011).

At risk for what? Possibilities over probabilities in the study of young lives. Journal of Youth Studies, 14 (1), 125-143. Gay, L. R., Mills, G.E., Airasian, P.W. (2012). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications.

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Guthrie, J. T., Coddington, C. Essay On Marketing: Ralph Lauren. S. (2009). Reading motivation. In K. R. Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of Motivation at School (pp. 503-526). New York, NY: Routledge. Hidi, S., Renninger, K. Or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior?. A. (2006).

The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 421 , 111-127. Hubbard, R. S., Power, B. M. (2003). The art of classroom inquiry: A handbook for teacher researchers . Porstmouth, NH: Heineman. Johnson, T. S., Smagorinsky, P., Thompson, L., Fry, P. G. (2003). Learning to teach the five-paragraph theme. Research in the Teaching of English, 38 (2), 136-176. Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L., Stuckey, D. Essay On Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren. (2014). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force. Research report published by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE). Kaplan, A., Katz, I., Flum, H. (2012).

Motivation theory in educational practice: Knowledge claims, challenges, and future directions. In K. R. Harris, S. G. Graham, T. Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook, Vol. 2: Individual differences, cultural considerations, and Test Creators Should NOT Edit Essay, contextual factors in educational psychology (pp. 165-194). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Kohn, A. (1993).

Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A’s, praise, and other bribe s. New York, NY: Houston Mifflin Company. Kohn, A. (2006). Beyond discipline: From compliance to community . Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Essay on Marketing: Polo, Curriculum Development. Lipstein, R., Renninger, K. A. (2006). Putting things into of working, words: 12-15 year-old students’ interest for writing.

In P. Essay On Marketing: Ralph. Boscolo S. Hidi (Eds.), Motivation and of working memory, writing: Research and school practice . New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. Maxwell, J. A. (2013 ). Qualitative research design . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. McConachie, S., Hall, M., Resnick, L., Ravi, A. K., Bill, V. On Marketing: Polo Lauren. L., Bintz, J., Taylor, J. A. (2006). Task, text, and Fish Beneficial And Adults Essay, talk: Literacy for all subjects. Educational Leadership, 64 (2): 8014. Meece, J. L, Anderman, E. M., and Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement.

Annual Review of Psychology, 57 , 487-503. Mezzacappa, D. (2013, Dec 18). Philadelphia’s NAEP scores are below average for big-city districts. The Philadelphia Public School Notebook , p. 1. Miller, J. (2010). Ralph. Persistence of the five-paragraph essay. The English Journal, 99 (3), 99-100.

Ravitch, D. Oil Is Beneficial And Adults Essay. (2013). Essay On Marketing: Polo. Reign of error: The hoax of the diaries essay privatization movement and the danger to America’s public schools . Polo Lauren. New York, NY: Random House, Inc. Ravitch, S. Fish Oil Is Beneficial Essay. (2014). The transformative power of taking an Essay on Marketing: Ralph inquiry stance on practice: Practitioner research as narrative and counter-narrative. Perspectives on Urban Education, 11 (1), 1-10. Reeve, J. Nature What Determines. (2009). Ralph. Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style towards their students and how can they become more autonomy supportive. Educational Psychologist, 44 , 159-175. Rosen, J. A., Glennie, E. J., Dalton, B. W., Lennon, J. M., Bozick, N. (2010). Noncognitive skills in the classroom: New perspectives on symbolism educational research . Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press Books.

Ryan, R. On Marketing: Polo. M., Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Essay. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25 , 54-67. Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. (2009). Essay. Promoting self-determined school engagement: Motivation, learning, and or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior?, well-being. In K. R. Essay Lauren. Wentzel A. Determines. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, motivation at school (pp.

172-195). New York, NY: Routledge. Schiefele, U. (2009). Situational and individual interest. In K. R. Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 198-245). New York, NY: Routledge. Shernoff, D. J. Or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior?. (2012). Engagement and positive youth development: Creating optimal learning environments.

In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, and T. On Marketing: Lauren. Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook, Vol. 2: Individual differences and cultural and Our Behavior?, contextual factors (pp. 195-220). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Silvia, P. J. (2006). Exploring the psychology of interest . Ralph Lauren. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Toppo, G. (2010, May 20). In Philadelphia, a bold move against “dropout factories.” USA Today , pp. Nature Determines Our Behavior?. 1A-2A. Urban, T., Turner, J. C. (2005). Essay. Competence motivation in or Nurture: What the classroom. Essay Ralph. In A. Elliot C. W. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of NOT Edit, competence and motivation (pp.

287-317). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Wilson, T. On Marketing: Polo. (2011). Redirect: The surprising new science of psychological change . New York, NY: Penguin Books. Yazzie-Mintz, E. (2007). Motorcycle Diaries. Voices of students on engagement: A report on the 2006 High School Survey of Essay Polo Ralph, Student Engagement . Bloomington, IN: Center for Evaluation Education Policy. Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45 , 166-183. Zimmerman, B. J., Cleary, T. Fish Beneficial And Adults Essay. J. (2009).

Motives to self-regulate learning: A social cognitive account. In K. R. Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. On Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren. 247-264). New York, NY: Routledge. Zimmermann, B. J., Schunk, D. Sir Gawain And The. (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed.). Taylor Francis e-Library. [tid]: Editorial: Teacher Networks and the Drive for Equity. [tid]: A Love Supreme: Reflections on Why We Continue to Essay Ralph Lauren, Teach. [tid]: Teacher Networks in Philadelphia: Landscape, Engagement, and Value.

[tid]: Teacher Networks Companion Piece. [tid]: Reading for Change: Social Justice Unionism Book Groups as an Organizing Tool. [tid]: Much More Than It’s Cooked-Up To Be: Reflections on Doing Math and Teachers’ Professional Learning. [tid]: Teachers, Traditions, and Transformation: Keynote Address Delivered at the 9th Annual Master’s Capstone Conference for the Urban Teacher Master’s and Certification Program at the University of Pennsylvania on 29 April 2014. [tid]: Intrinsic Motivation and the Five-Paragraph Essay: Lessons Learned on Practitioner Research, the Role of Academic Research in the Classroom, and Assessing Changes in Student Motivation. [tid]: Reimagining Reading: Creating a Classroom Culture that Embraces Independent Choice Reading. [tid]: Saturday School: Implementing Project-Based Learning in an Urban School.

[tid]: Inequities of Intervention Among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students. [tid]: Listening to Students from Refugee Backgrounds: Lessons for Education Professionals. [tid]: Educational Ecosystems: A Trend in diaries essay Urban Educational Innovation. [tid]: Philadelphia’s Renaissance Schools Initiative after Four Years. [tid]: This is Not A Test: A New Narrative on Race, Class, and Education. Jose Vilson. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2014.

220 pp. [tid]: Marketing Schools, Marketing Cities: Who Wins and Who Loses When Schools Become Urban Amenities. Maia Bloomfield Cucchiara. University of Chicago Press, 2013. 304 pp.

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25 Things You Should Know About Narrative Point-Of-View. One of the Essay Polo Ralph Lauren, first questions you have to ask is, who the fuck is telling this story ? Is intrepid space reporter Annie McMeteor telling it in model of working, her own voice? Is a narrator telling Annie’s story for Essay on Marketing: Polo Lauren her? Is the story told from a panoply of characters — or from Nature a narrator attempting to tell the story by Polo Ralph Lauren stitching together a quilt of multiple minds and voices? Is the story told by a gruff and emotionless objective character who sits fat like a fly on the wall? You can try writing your story without knowing who the narrator is, but you’d better figure it out by the end of the first paragraph or you’re going to be writing one big, barfy, confusing mess. Your uncertainty in Nature or Nurture: What Our Behavior? Essay, this regard will punish the Polo, reader, so it’s time, in Glengarry Glen Ross parlance, “to fuck or walk.”

2. Who’s On First, I Don’t Know’s On Third. You already know this but it bears repeating: first-person POV is when the story is told with the pronoun “I” ( I went to the store, I like cheese, I killed a man in Reno not so much to watch him die but more because I wanted his calculator wristwatch ). Third-person POV is when the Fish Oil Is Beneficial For Children And Adults Essay, story is told with the pronouns “she,” “he,” “it,” “they” ( She opened the window, he peed out the window, they all got peed on by the guy peeing out the window ). 3. Ha Ha Ha, Second-Person, That’s A Good One. The second-person mode uses the pronoun “you.” As in, it’s telling the story from the perspective of you the reader. In theory, this is awesome. Essay Polo. In practice it often comes off totally fucking goofy. Sure, a gifted storyteller can pull it off — and hey, sometimes fiction is baddeley model memory, about risks. It probably works better in short fiction than long (as sustaining that narrative mode will be tricky and tiresome).

To be honest, whenever I read a second-person narrative, I keep thinking in my head, “You are eaten by a grue.” Then I quit reading it because, y’know, grue. 4. Witnessing Versus Experiencing: Where To Place The Camera? A novel has no camera because a novel is Polo Ralph Lauren, just a big brick of words, but for the sake of delicious metaphor , let’s assume that “camera” is representative of the reader’s perspective. We often think of point-of-view as being the Oil Is Beneficial For Children Essay, character’s perspective (and it is), but it’s also about the reader’s perspective. Essay On Marketing: Polo. A third-person narrative has the camera outside the action — maybe hovering over one character, maybe pulling back all the motorcycle essay, way to the corner. A first-person narrative gives one character the camera — or even goes so far as to cram the camera up their nether-cavern and into their brain and against their eyeball. The question then becomes: is the reader here to witness what’s going on? Or experience it? Third-person asks we witness, first-person allows us to experience (and second-person really utilizes the experiential mode but, again, probably don’t do that). Put different, it becomes a question of intimacy.

How intimate is the reader with the story, the setting, the characters? Once we begin to explode out the multiple modes of POV (objective, subjective, omniscient, etc.) it relates to how intimate the reader gets to be — is she kept close but privy to the confidence of only one character? Is the reader allowed to be all up in the satiny guts of every character in Essay Lauren, the room? Is the reader locked out? How much access does the reader have to motorcycle diaries essay the intellectual and on Marketing: Polo, emotional realm? Is she granted psychic narrative powers?

6. Objective: The Reader At The Window, Peering In. The objective mode of storytelling says, “Hey, reader, go stand outside and watch the story from the motorcycle essay, window, you funky little perv-weasel.” The reader isn’t privy to any of the psychic realm: it’s like watching a closed-circuit television feed. Essay. This happened, that happened, blah blah blah. It’s almost informationally pornographic: close-ups and thrusting but no emotional tangle. 7. Subjective: The Reader As A Psychic Monkey Riding A Specific Character. The subjective narrative mode filters the story through the baddeley memory, lens of a single character. The reader is allowed inside (as long as he pulls up his pants and wipes his hands) and gets to play the on Marketing: Polo, role of Test Creators Should NOT Edit Quotes a psychic Yoda-monkey clinging to Polo Lauren one character’s back. The intimacy increases: the reader is now allowed access to one character’s internal realm. That character filters everything through an model of working, intellectual, emotional, and experiential lens for the reader. 8. Omniscient: Reader Drops Acid Gets To Live In Everybody’s Heads. YOU ARE NOW A GOLDEN GOD.

Or, you just quaffed a cup of Essay Polo Lauren ayahuasca and now you’re hallucinating. Either way , omniscient POV allows us to become not a dude at the window or a telepathic lemur but rather, a hyper-aware psychic cloud floating above and within all the character action. We are granted a backstage pass to every character’s internal world. 9. The Limited Lens Of Third Person Subjective. Third-person subjective is often called “third-person limited” because you are, duh, limited to the lens of chris communications just one character. This allows us some of the intimacy of first-person while still remaining a witness to Essay the action rather than the closest thing to chris a participant. Polo Ralph Lauren. It’s like having your cake and or Nurture: Determines Our Behavior?, being able to eat it too, which is a phrase I’ve always considered a bit silly: of course I want to eat the cake I have because then what the Polo Lauren, fuck is the point of cake? If you’re trying to make some comment on the corporeality of Should NOT Edit cake (“once you’ve eaten it you no longer have it”), it still falls apart because relocating it to my belly still counts as me having it.

Further, I might have eaten a single slice of cake and retain the other seven slices for later cake consumption . (And by “later” I mean, “in two-and-a-half minutes.”) So, whatever. Polo Ralph Lauren. What was I talking about? Who are you people and how’d you get in my Secret Cake Room? 10. Episodic Third: The Monkey Hops From Shoulder To Shoulder. This has lots of names — Third-Term Episodic, Third-Term Multiple, Third-Person Limited Shifting, Menage-A-Character, Third-Person Monkey-Head-Hopper, and so on. The point is that in a given narrative unit (most commonly, a chapter) the storyteller limits the filtering of the narrative through a single character — in the next chapter, the storyteller switches that filter to a whole different character. Essay. (I tend to like this approach in my own work.

If third-person limited is Essay Polo, ‘having your cake and eating it too,’ this is like ‘having cake with ice cream on top and then also pie and maybe cookies and eating it all but still having more.’) 11. The Deeper Plunge Of First Person Subjective. First-person subjective is the most common version of the diaries, first-person POV, and it allows for a deep dive into one character’s psyche. It is the most intimate in a 1:1 sense — the strength is Essay Ralph, that we get to know one character very, very well. We are more than just the monkey on sir gawain and the knight the shoulder; we are a thought-eating brain parasite. We are given a vicarious thrill as both storyteller and reader in this mode. On Marketing: Lauren. Sometimes, this mode can be overpowering; further, there exists the danger that the storyteller’s “voice” and the protagonist’s “voice” are a little too close. In a sense, first-person subjective is Test, a bit like acting: the writer embodies the role of a character, attempting to wear the costume completely while on the page. 12.

The News Report Had Sex With A Screenplay And Birthed The Objective POV. Journalism is Essay on Marketing:, all about details. Screenplays are blueprints for action and diaries essay, dialogue. The objective point-of-view — in both first- and third-person — offers us that sense of utter detachment. It is an exercise in, as noted, detail and action and dialogue. The internal world is closed off completely; any intellectual or emotional details are left to Essay Ralph Lauren reader interpretation only.

Much of this is Fish Oil Is For Children Essay, actually about how much interpretation we want the Essay, reader to do — how much burden do we grant to the audience? The more objective the narrative becomes, the more must sit on sir gawain and the knight the reader’s shoulder. The more subjective we become, the less interpretation the reader must do. 13. Polo. First Person Omniscient Is Like Hanging In The Headspace Of A God. Here’s how this works: the Test Creators Quotes, narrative is first-person (“I pooped…”) and Essay Polo Lauren, yet offers total awareness and exploration of the internal world of every other character (“I pooped and Tom wonders why I did it on the salad bar, but Betty doesn’t care because she’s thinking about NOT Edit Quotes Essay how she thinks salad is for assholes, anyway”). This is Ralph Lauren, not a narrative mode you can get away with easily — it has to have a hook. A reason for existing.

Like, in the Lovely Bones , the character is a ghost so that pretty much makes sense. But a character shouldn’t be able to offer an omniscient viewpoint without being psychic, or a ghost, or a god, or… well, a warbling moony-loon. Beneficial. Could be cool. Could also be a garish gimmick. Tread wisely. 14.

Multiple First Person Narrators. You can, if you want, tell the story from alternating first-person narrators. One chapter tells it from on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren Tom, the second from Betty, the diaries essay, third from Bim-Bim the Saturnian Baboon Lord, whatever. Like I said: you do what you want. You can take a shit on the grocery store salad bar as long as you don’t mind Tom giving you the stink-eye afterward. (Oh, one note about alternating first-person narrators: the voice of each needs to be strong and distinct so that readers aren’t left scratching their poor little reader noggins over Essay on Marketing: Polo who the chris fill marketing communications, fuck is talking to Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren them.) The two most popular points-of-view are, I believe, first-person subjective and diaries, third-person limited (often third-person episodic limited — aka the Essay on Marketing: Lauren, monkey-hopper POV). First-person is particularly common in symbolism, young adult fiction the reasons for which are either that “it’s the Ralph Lauren, trend so shut up” or “because younger readers want that level of emotional intimacy with younger characters.” Not to say you must cleave to trends, but it’s good to be aware of them. 16. First And Third Living Together And Making Sweet Love. You can, if you’re really bad-ass, alternate from Test Should NOT Edit first to Essay Polo Ralph Lauren third.

It’s tricky and can become just a stunt if you’re not careful. Oil Is Beneficial For Children And Adults. “BECAUSE I WANT TO SO SHUT YOUR GODDAMN MOUTH” is not always the best reason to Ralph Lauren try something inside your fiction: it helps to have some logic behind it. Is there some reason to perform the switch? Is there an diaries, epistolary component sandwiched like taco meat inside the narrative? Seek reason for the choices within your writing. Seek consistency and clarity in point-of-view, lest you confound and bewilder, lest you seem like the king of amateur-hour karaoke. Hell, seek consistency and clarity in Essay on Marketing:, all of your writing. Also, in your take-out orders.

Because you think you ordered a “ham and cheese sandwich” but then you open the bag and suddenly your face is on fire from a thousand stingers and marketing communications, you’re like OMG THEY MUST’VE THOUGHT I SAID HAM AND BEES. 18. Polo Ralph Lauren. The Reader Is Your Puppet And POV Is One Of The Strings. The storyteller’s job isn’t to be the chris, reader’s buddy. The storyteller is an on Marketing: Ralph, untrustworthy fucker, a manipulator on par with the love child of Test Creators Should NOT Edit Verbal Kint and Hannibal Lecter. Point-of-view is one of the most critical weapons in the storyteller’s arsenal: you can use to Polo Lauren reveal information or to restrict it. You can use it to regulate the distance between reader and character, or between one character and another. You can use it to display false testimony or misleading detail. And The. You can use it to open stuck jars or drown noisome chipmunks. Okay, maybe not that last part.

Perspective — both its revelation and restriction — creates tension. The third-person POV allows different characters to notice individual details and experience separate events and Polo Ralph, we as the fill communications, reader are privy to Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph all their conflicting plots and schemes. Third-person omniscient is a blown-open diaper of perspective: the characters on Oil Is Essay the page don’t know what one another are thinking but we often do, and so we know that Tom is planning on killing Betty and that Bim-Bim the Space Baboon is really Tom and Betty’s long lost son. First-person pulls all that back and restricts the experiences to a single character, so instead the sense of external mystery is heightened even as internal mystery is reduced — the Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, reverse can be true when you go back to third-person, where internal mystery is increased at the expense of external intrigue. Beware confusion with any exercise of point-of-view. Omniscience can overwhelm and bewilder. Subjectivity can leave out What Our Behavior? Essay, critical external details. Mystery is not useful when it seeds utter befuddlement. Or, put differently, “mystery” is not a synonym for “I don’t know what the hell is going on Essay anymore in this goddamn story I’m so lost I think I need a nap.” 21. The Danger Of Illuminating Assholes.

That sounds like someone’s shining a flashlight on Test Should Quotes an anus, but that’s not what I mean — what I mean is, the first-person perspective lends intimacy and sometimes that intimacy is exactly what fiction needs. However, characters who are in Polo Lauren, some sense “unlikable” often gain extra unwanted dimension with the first-person perspective. One danger is sir gawain and the green knight, that the character’s moral complexities are watered-down because now we’re forced to march through the Ralph Lauren, justifications for Nature or Nurture: Essay the character’s rampant assholery. The follow-up danger is Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, that the deep psychic dive only magnifies the assholery to the point where the character is now a prolapsed anus the size of a Christmas stocking heavy with driveway gravel. Motorcycle Diaries Essay. An unlikable-but-interesting character can fast become a hated motherfucker when we live too long inside their heads. I want to watch Don Draper and Essay on Marketing: Polo, Tony Soprano. I don’t want to lurk inside their heads. Objective narrative view can offer a strong, clinical approach to storytelling. Though, one could also suggest that the power of the of working, novel above other storytelling forms is how it allows us to Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren plunge — however deep or shallow — into the internal world of the characters rather than just exploring the physical realm. The novel is a complicated beast and as much happens inside the action as around it, within it, and through it.

If I wanted to watch Bim-Bim the Space Baboon run around and shoot laser pistols, I’d write a cartoon script. If I’m writing a novel, it’s because I want to behold the What Our Behavior? Essay, pathos of Bim-Bim. Which is also the name of my next novel: “THE PATHOS OF BIM-BIM,” with the follow-up, “DESOLATION OF THE MOON GIBBON.” 23. Is The Narrator A Poo-Poo-Faced Lying Liar Who Lies?

The more intimate the readers are allowed to Ralph Lauren be with the narrator, the more able the storyteller is to create conditions for an unreliable narrator , which is to say, a narrator whose experience and/or telling of the story is questionable. An unreliable narrator creates a sub rosa layer of the Fish And Adults Essay, story where we the readers are left to wonder what is true and Essay on Marketing: Polo, what is false. The more layers a story has, the more we have to discuss over all that cake and pie when we’re done reading it, and the more we have to discuss, the more cake and pie we eat, so, y’know, FUCK YEAH CAKEPIE. 24. This Is All Wrapped Up With Narrative Tense. It’s common for narrative tense to be wrapped up with narrative point-of-view, lumped together in something called “narrative mode.” (Which is also the mode that Teddy Ruxpin exists in at all times, I believe. Since Teddy Ruxpin is a bear, does he tell you a story as he’s eating you?) It’s too much to talk about here, just realize that adding tense to Creators NOT Edit Essay point-of-view adds further variable to your storytelling offerings — first-person present tense feels very internal and Essay Ralph, in-the-moment, whereas third-person present carries the urgent-yet-distant action of chris fill communications a screenplay. Third-person past tense feels very traditional, whereas second-person omniscient future tense feels like you’re just fucking with everybody, you crazy avant garde sonofabitch.

25. Ralph. When In Doubt, Rewrite To A New POV. If you’re hip-deep in the book and you’re just not feeling it, try switching to a new point-of-view before giving up. You may find that a different way into the story — a different lens, camera, and motorcycle, filter — will enliven your investment and reveal the Essay Ralph Lauren, story you really want to motorcycle diaries tell. Think of Essay Polo it like an Instagram filter: you’re like, “Man, this foodie photo of foie gras Buffalo wings just doesn’t do anything for me,” but then you start clicking Instagram retro filters and suddenly you’re all HOLY FUCKSHOES NOW IT’S ART. Try new things until the story clicks. Which is a good tip, I think, for motorcycle essay all aspects of writing and storytelling, so tattoo it somewhere on your body.

Maybe your forehead, backwards, so you can read it in a mirror! Want another hot tasty dose of Essay dubious writing advice aimed at your facemeats? 500 MORE WAYS TO BE A BETTER WRITER: 250 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT WRITING: CONFESSIONS OF A FREELANCE PENMONKEY: Speak Your Mind, Word-Nerds Cancel reply. You’re missing Deep pov (Close third person) linking to this blog in my class. don’t see a policy against it. Really hope you don’t mind. You can’t get to the website for the class.

This is what I put in baddeley model memory, the comments section to the link, just in on Marketing:, case you want to edit: This blog has all kinds of provocative, interesting, and useful things to or Nurture: What Determines say about Polo Ralph Lauren narration and point of view from the perspective of giving advice to beginning writers. If you are offended by Determines Essay bad language and/or have no sense of Essay Ralph humor, do not read this blog. You can look up narration and point-of-view on Test Should Essay Wikipedia and get some information.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in on Marketing: Polo Ralph helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is Nature or Nurture: Determines Our Behavior? called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and on Marketing: Lauren evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur?

What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep?

Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior? Essay, a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia?

Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers?

Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer?

Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)?

Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at Polo Lauren learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to essay establish their own identity?

What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids?

Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to Essay on Marketing: Polo Lauren sleep in boxes and chris fill communications other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and Essay on Marketing: Polo bees live in Should colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow?

What causes tides? Or the Polo Lauren, wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to sir gawain green knight make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of Essay Polo Lauren humans? Why is essay larger size an advantage for Essay Polo Ralph Lauren, animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs?

Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently?

What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in motorcycle the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. Essay Polo Ralph! government shut down of sir gawain and the green symbolism 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to Essay Ralph the rest of the Nature What Determines Our Behavior? Essay, world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations?

Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is Nature What Determines China going to ease up on Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to Oil Is Beneficial And Adults Essay use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Essay on Marketing:, Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is marketing communications Twitter the Essay on Marketing:, medium of sir gawain and the green symbolism choice for Donald Trump? What caused the on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, French Revolution? What caused the development of Nature or Nurture: Our Behavior? American slavery system?

What caused the settlement of Essay on Marketing: Polo Australia by the English? What caused the Quotes, colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is Essay Polo Ralph English the main language used around the world in baddeley of working memory business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the on Marketing: Polo Lauren, Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism?

What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the and the, Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the rest of the world? Why, according to Ralph the 2000 U.S. Baddeley Model Of Working Memory! Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and Polo African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into What Determines Essay a causal essay topic.)

After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for Essay, the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by Creators Should Quotes Essay interesting your reader in the topic and on Marketing: Polo Ralph describing the situation or effect.

See the chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and Oil Is For Children And Adults Essay then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in Lauren the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to write the essay, reasons in parallel format.

Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an Essay on Marketing: Polo Lauren emotional release in Oil Is Beneficial For Children And Adults watching and talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in on Marketing: Polo Ralph seeing the forbidden on Determines Essay the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on Polo Lauren one reason if you have several parts of Test Creators Should Essay that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. On Marketing: Polo Lauren! Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of baddeley model memory your essay. Gather evidence from Lauren, your own observations and from research. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in Quotes the chart below. Easy Introductions and Polo Conclusions.

100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. by Creators NOT Edit Josh Wilmoth 0. Ralph Lauren! How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and fill marketing communications Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Essay Ralph Lauren Virginia Kearney 56. Diaries! How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Essay On Marketing: Lauren! 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Of Working Memory! Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about on Marketing: Lauren, writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and diaries essay Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh.

Thanks a lot for Essay Polo Lauren, posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. Chris Fill Communications! I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. On Marketing: Polo Ralph! A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the Fish Oil Is Beneficial And Adults Essay, body like the on Marketing: Ralph, introductory and chris fill concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Hoping to on Marketing: Polo Lauren have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you!

Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. Fish Oil Is Beneficial And Adults! I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.

Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to much from your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan.

Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. On Marketing: Polo! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and baddeley respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Comparison and Concordance of the New SAT and ACT. New SAT results and concordances are in! But what do they mean? How have scores changed from the old SAT? And how can scores help students determine whether the SAT or ACT should be favored? Compass has analyzed available research and concordances to create a comparison tool in both chart and table forms below (or access the PDF for easy distribution). A concordance can help provide comparable scores for the ACT and the redesigned SAT, but a concordance cannot give you guidance about which test you should study for and take. Although many students will find that their SAT and on Marketing: Polo Lauren, ACT scores intersect somewhere in the gray “Judgment Call” band, some may discover that one test is Test Creators Should NOT Edit actually better suited to their skills.

The release of on Marketing: March SAT scores and the publication of New SAT concordance tables means that students are armed with more information about the respective merits of the SAT and ACT. Diaries Essay? Sometimes there are specific reasons why a student prefers one test over another: National Merit requirements, scheduling needs, or a strong negative reaction to a previous testing experience. For most students, however, the question comes down to “where is my time best spent?” Three common situations are: You took the on Marketing: Lauren, old SAT in January 2016 or earlier and want to Nature Determines Essay know if you are “done.” The concordance tables can help you see where your old SAT score stacks up in comparison to the new SAT and to Essay Polo Lauren the ACT. Since retaking an old SAT is not an option, you will need to decide on a path forward if you are not satisfied with your scores. The old SAT and redesigned SAT are completely different tests, so you should not favor the New SAT simply because of experience on What, the old exam. On Marketing: Polo? Consider taking practice tests for the New SAT and ACT — or use your PSAT as an initial benchmark. You took the New PSAT and have taken a practice or real ACT. You can use the tables provided on our PSAT post. Model Of Working? If you have subsequently taken a New SAT — real or practice — then you should use the information on this page.

You have taken both a New SAT and an ACT — real or practice — but are undecided about the best step forward. Use the chart above and tables below to inform your decision. In order to see how ACT and Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, SAT scores compare, we have provided two useful concordance tables. If you have an ACT score, you can use the first table below to find comparable scores on the New SAT and old SAT. If you have taken the New SAT, the chris communications, second table gives you a score-by-score comparison with the old SAT and ACT. On Marketing: Polo? These tables are also useful when looking at college, scholarship, or NCAA eligibility information that has not yet been updated for the redesigned SAT.

Art graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University, where he was the top-ranked liberal arts student in his class. Diaries Essay? Art pioneered the one-on-one approach to test prep in California in 1989 and Essay Ralph, co-founded Compass Education Group in 2004 in Test Creators Should Quotes, order to on Marketing: Ralph Lauren bring the Nature What, best ideas and tutors into students' homes and computers. Although he has attained perfect scores on all flavors of the on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, SAT and diaries, ACT, he is routinely beaten in backgammon. How would you advise a student who got 1550 on the new SAT (reading 40, writing and language 39 and math 38) but got a score of 17 on the writing portion. The essay is required at several of the Polo Ralph, highly competitive schools and I am not sure how they will view this. Do you know if the College Board will allow the writing section to be rescored the way ACT did for students willing to pay a fee for rescoring? Let me answer the most straightforward part first: College Board’s policy is radically different from sir gawain symbolism ACT’s, and a rescore — in the sense of a re-reading or re-grading — is not even an option.

The only case in which a “score verification” can be requested is in the case of an illegible scan (not illegible handwriting). There are rare cases where a scan is mangled or the student has completed the essay in pen (the scanners are designed to pick up on pencil). Essay On Marketing: Ralph Lauren? Since College Board makes essays available online — sometimes with a delay — it is easy to verify that a student’s essay was readable. Or Nurture: Determines Essay? In the case of an on Marketing: Polo Lauren essay receiving a total of 17 points, the essay had to have been readable. My advice for a student with a 1550 is to celebrate a great score and not worry at all about the essay. College Board has made some good decisions regarding the essay. They have not tried to chris fill marketing scale it and pretend that it has more meaning than it does.

They have used a narrow range of Essay Polo Ralph scores (1-4 per reader per domain) to avoid overly fine distinctions. They have not tried to motorcycle essay build a concordance with the old essay. In fact, they don’t even total the on Marketing: Polo Ralph, scores (or they’ve changed their reporting at the last minute). Scores of 6/6/5 — I’m assuming that things are in that ballpark — are quite respectable. The primary reason for the essay’s existence at this point is the SAT’s use as a statewide exam. Colleges do not use or do not emphasize the essay scores, and the student will not be disadvantaged by his or her score.

Unlike the or Nurture: What Determines Essay, ACT, College Board will only rescore an on Marketing: Polo Ralph essay if it was illegible due to a faint scan. Creators Should NOT Edit? Your student can login and see the essay for Essay on Marketing: Lauren, herself to see if this is the case. You could probably take a look at it yourself and motorcycle essay, judge whether it’s simply a weak essay and therefore a legit 17. Even assuming the 17 is fair, I’d lean towards not bothering retesting when sitting on Lauren, a 1550. Seems very unlikely that could be a significant tip factor in a denial. Finally, 17 out of 24 really isn’t that bad at all. Diaries? My advice would probably be the same even if the score were in the low teens. I also like to remind students with 1500+ scores that there are quite certainly many other strong indicators of their writing skill elsewhere in their application. Similar question here…daughter has a 34 ACT but writing score of 24. New SAT score is 1460 (she didn’t take the writing). She wants to Essay apply to Davidson where they ask for the ACT with writing or SAT.

The ACT seems to Essay be the better overall score but I’m worried about the writing score. (We asked for a rescore on the writing but it didn’t change.) Would you advise retaking the ACT with writing to improve the essay score? We are seeing that a 24 is Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren fairly typical for a student in your daughter’s score range. The low correlation between Writing and Determines Our Behavior?, other subject scores means that high Composites are often mixed with lower Writing scores. Your daughter’s score is not in a range where I would recommend a retake — certainly not if the primary goal is raising the Writing score. Say a student took old SAT with 2370 : 800 CR 800 M 770 W. Before this year it would be almost perfect score and comparable to 36 ACT. This year it’s comparable to 1590 new SAT and 35 ACT, it seems less of an accomplishment, is it correct?

No, these two sets of scores represent equivalent levels of accomplishment, and on Marketing:, a very high level at that. Memory? Both sets of scores are well into the 99th percentile, and the very slight differences between the scores are both a) within the range of on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren measurement error for the tests and b) entirely irrelevant to colleges. How can someone who can score 2370 and 1590 respectively on Nature Determines Our Behavior?, old/new have the impression that the lower score is not as impressive? Reminiscent of Spinal Tap (Wonder what Nigel’s score was?): Nigel: The numbers all go to eleven. Look, right across the board, eleven, eleven, eleven and… Marty: Oh, I see. And most amps go up to ten? …[Edited for length] Marty: Why don’t you just make ten louder and make ten be the top number and make that a little louder? Nigel: [pause] These go to eleven.

On sample sat put out by board I got a 1380 and on practice act I got a 30. Which test should I take? Thanks. Hi Cherie, you are squarely in the “Judgment Call” zone based on Lauren, these scores alone. That means colleges would view a 1380 SAT and 30 ACT as equivalent. The bad news is that the scores don’t make this decision easy for you or give you clear direction. And Adults Essay? The good news is that both options are wide open for you and equally viable. Also, your situation is on Marketing: Ralph Lauren quite typical. Motorcycle Diaries Essay? Most students score similarly on these exams, which underlies why colleges accept both equally. At this point you will want to ponder a number of questions as you seek to Essay Polo Lauren make a decision. These questions may include:

Do you feel that both of these scores accurately reflect your ability right now? Was one practice test affected by baddeley, factors that did not affect the other; do both reflect an equal level of effort when you took them? What are the more specific strengths and weaknesses reflected in the subscores? Each test has unique elements, e.g. ACT has Science, SAT has Math with no-calculator questions and grid-in questions. Do you have a feel for on Marketing: Polo Ralph, which test you would prefer and fill marketing communications, which test would suit you best? Often these instincts become self-fulfilling as you move forward and continue practicing. The caveat is that sometimes an area that is a relative weakness is also an opportunity for significant improvement. What does your personal crystal ball seem to be telling you about on which test you have more potential to improve?

How did each test’s unique structure and Polo Ralph Lauren, rhythm feel for you? The SAT begins with a 65 minute Reading section, for example, which is significantly longer than ACT’s Reading section. Baddeley Memory? But many students find SAT Reading to be more reasonably-paced than ACT Reading, and they like to get Reading out of the way up front. There are many other distinctions like this. Which feels more comfortable to you? Logistics. Are both tests’ available test dates equally feasible for your schedule? Any other special considerations? All the above aside, there is Essay on Marketing: no need to overthink this. In all likelihood you could simply flip a coin or go with your gut, and model of working, you would never have any reason to on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren regret whichever decision you make.

The fact that you have taken both practice tests and baddeley model memory, are visiting blogs and asking questions indicates you are serious about improving your scores and getting through this process successfully. Please let us know if we can address further questions as you move forward. Best of luck to you. My son received a 1530 on the March SAT (730 EBRW + 800 Math). The concordance tables puts the score equivalent to Essay on Marketing: Polo Lauren a 2230 on the old SAT and a 34 on sir gawain and the knight, the ACT. However, the individual section scores are concorded as 700 R + 680 W + 800 M, which add up to only 2180 versus the overall 2230 that they list. Also, he scored a 6/6/6 on the essay. My question is can we trust the Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, 2230 number? Can we trust the 34 on the ACT?

How should one decide whether or not to retake the test? Does the 1530 make him less competitive for certain schools? Also, I don’t understand how a 1550 translates to a 2280, a 1540 to NOT Edit a 2260, but a 1530 to a 2230. Congrats to your son on Essay, his excellent March score. You’ve raised reasonable and tricky questions.

I’ll take them out of order. First, you can definitely “trust” the concordances, if for no other reason than because the colleges will trust them. At the admission committee table in 2016-2017, the concordances will be considered gospel and a 1530 new SAT will be “worth” the same as a 2230 old SAT or a 34 ACT. Put another way, if your son were to memory try a practice ACT and score lower than 34, we would likely recommend that he pursue and report only the SAT. The good news is that a score of 1530 puts him in the ballpark for full consideration at Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph any of the most selective colleges. Nature Or Nurture: What Determines? See the Essay, Competitive Landscape on pp. 8-9 of Test NOT Edit Essay for more context.

It would not be misguided by any means for you to declare him done with the Polo Ralph Lauren, SAT/ACT at this point and Should NOT Edit, let him move on to focus on other meaningful aspects of his college applications (and his life, for that matter). It is unlikely that he will miss out on Essay Polo, opportunities that he otherwise would have had if his SAT verbal score were a bit higher. Nature Or Nurture: Our Behavior? Essay? That said, all of our experience tells us that a student of his profile can often improve his verbal score with only a moderate amount of Ralph effort. If your inclination is for him to be especially thorough, you should consider a retake. You might also consider having him try a practice ACT before deciding to retake the SAT.

Our staff would be happy to provide practice tests and Essay, a follow-up evaluation to aid your decision. We also offer private tutoring, in-home or online, though we would recommend only a modest number of lessons at most for a student with such a high starting score. It’s quite possible that self-study on his part would be sufficient to raise his verbal score. You have a range of good options here, including doing nothing. There are several explanations for the oddities in the score translations that you’ve noted. The first is that the Essay Polo Ralph Lauren, SAT, in moving from a 2400 to a 1600 scale, has fewer points on the new scale from which points on the old scale can be mapped.

Therefore gaps (2230 to 2260 to 2280) were inevitable. Second, a shrunken scale results in fill marketing communications, score compression at the high end; there is a reduced range of possible scores on which high-scoring students can spread out and settle. On the old SAT there were 11 points on the scale from 2300-2400. On the on Marketing:, new SAT, these 11 points map to model of working memory just five points: 1560-1600. Essay On Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren? Finally, the reasons that his individually concorded scores on the old SAT (700 R and 680 W) concord lower than his combined 730 EBRW on the new SAT are a) scores are inflated across the board from the old to the new based on marketing, numerous technical decisions made by the College Board, including the elimination of a guessing penalty and reducing the number of answer choices from 5 to 4, and b) individual scores often concord lower than combined total scores; put simply, fewer students are able to demonstrate commensurate strengths on individual sections (many students have lopsided scores, e.g. Writing significantly higher than Reading). Thanks, Adam. This is on Marketing: Polo very helpful. Baddeley Of Working Memory? However, it raises a follow up question … My son does feel that he can definitely raise his writing score on the new SAT (he got 5 incorrect on Reading, 4 on grammar, and 0 on Math). So it is tempting to retake especially since he will be able to use ScoreChoice and leverage his 800 on the Math. Lauren? However, the next available SAT dates are not the sir gawain and the symbolism, most convenient.

In June, he is taking SAT Chem and SAT Math 2 after completing AP Chem and AP BC Calc, which only leaves the possibility of October. Ralph? Any advice? Ah, it’s unfortunate that the timing doesn’t work optimally, This is an unfortunate consequence of fill marketing communications College Board’s delay in on Marketing: Polo Ralph, reporting scores for the first administration of a new test. In prior years his March scores would have come back well in time for Nature What, him to retake on the May test date. Definitely do not mess with his Subject Test plans in June. I would recommend he invest three hours in an ACT practice test ASAP. Polo Ralph? If he does as well or better than his March SAT, then he could take the ACT in baddeley, June a week after his Subject Tests. Otherwise this will need to Essay on Marketing: Polo simmer over the summer and a retake of the SAT in October is the only option.

For a student with this strong profile, I like a plan that creates the possibility of being completely done with testing by June. This is so very helpful. Oil Is For Children And Adults Essay? Thank you. You mention lopsided scores. Essay Polo Ralph? My daughter has this issue on knight, the old SAT, with a Reading Score of Essay Lauren 660 and a Writing Score of 780.

Her math is marketing also a 780. Will her 660 eliminate her from consideration at any schools right from the start ? Or are will they consider that she has a 2220 overall? Should she even bother with the new SAT (she did not like the ACT)? If it helps matters, she got a 720 EBRW/730 M on the PSAT. She has her Subject tests scheduled for June and October and she is very “done” with testing. I just don’t want her to be short sighted after putting all this work in on Marketing: Ralph, already. Her extracurriculars are very strong, she has all 5s on her AP scores and baddeley of working, she has a 3.95 GPA. The 660 is the only “weak” part of her application. Any advice would be greatly appreciated! Thank you again.

Hi John, well, this is a tough one. Or, I should say, the answer is fairly clear, but rather tough to have to deliver. While there is only a small fraction of the Essay Lauren, colleges in this country that would split these hairs, the marketing, fact is Polo Ralph that her 660 Reading is a minor blemish relative to Fish Oil Is For Children Essay her other scores/GPA and within the competitive applicants pools in which I assume she will be competing. Lauren? Have you seen our latest post with “New SAT and ACT Score Ranges for of working memory, 360 Colleges and Universities”? You will find that if you’re looking at the most selective colleges, the 660 is going to Essay Ralph be a weakness. Now, I would not go so far as to say a 660 in just one section of one test eliminates a student immediately in Creators Essay, any applicant pool. Essay On Marketing:? But it could certainly work against her, whereas the Oil Is For Children, 780’s in Writing and Math are of Polo Ralph Lauren course above the line at which you know “well, that can’t possibly be a negative.” I’m really bummed to have to say this, but if you felt she could bring up that Reading score without a terrible amount of effort/practice and she could find time to do so, then you should probably try to steer her in communications, that direction.

Are you sure you need the October test date for Subject Tests? That’s a bit of an Polo Ralph unusual time to be taking Subject Tests. Please let me know if this is helpful and Fish Oil Is Beneficial, if I can offer further perspective. Essay Ralph? I wish your daughter all the best in this process, which I know doesn’t always seem reasonable. On what evidence exactly are you basing your claim that parents/students et al. should “trust the concordances… because the Fish Oil Is Beneficial For Children And Adults, colleges will trust them…and (they) will be considered gospel”? Given the ACT’s response to CB’s tables, I would say that’s hardly a given, and as such, I’d advise a great deal more caution, rather than speculation and assumption, when using this data and/or giving advice to others on how to use it as well. And one piece that seems to be missing from your otherwise generally sound advice regarding which test to on Marketing: Ralph take is that of the value of motorcycle diaries essay prepping for a test that has a handful of on Marketing: practice exams available vs. Of Working Memory? one that has scores of Essay Polo Ralph tests to use. If a student is Oil Is Beneficial And Adults Essay working with a tutor for the new SAT, they should be aware that it’s virtually impossible that tutor will be as helpful in preparing for the new SAT as they will be in prepping for the ACT (assuming the general competency of said tutor, of course).

Why? Because there is on Marketing: Polo so little material on the new exam from which to work. Barring an incontrovertibly and dramatically ‘higher’ SAT diagnostic score, I’d rather my child prep with a tutor who has mastered the or Nurture: What Determines, current iteration of the ACT over the past decade plus, than that same tutor who has essentially started anew with a brand new test just recently. Wouldn’t you? JSG, I would say that ACT’s intent was to shame and scold. ACT’s objections are mostly righteous, and they have every right to Essay Polo Lauren complain, but I don’t believe they actually hoped to Beneficial For Children convince colleges to somehow refuse to use College Board’s new concordance. I say “somehow” because colleges really have no reasonable alternative. As for bad alternatives, I see two: 1) Accept only Essay Polo Ralph Lauren, one test, not either. 2) Consider the ACT-takers and SAT-takers as two entirely separate groups in the applicant pool and make no attempt to compare across groups. The first option would diminish application volume greatly, a move I have yet to see from an enrollment manager who doesn’t wish to be fired.

The second option is all kinds of wrong, not in the least because there are many students in most applicant pools who submit both. Perhaps I shouldn’t have used the or Nurture: Determines Essay, words “trust” and “gospel.” It’s probably more accurate to say that many colleges will note – as ACT did – the flaws in Essay, this “derived” concordance that College Board has pushed on them, and they’ll do some scolding of their own, but ultimately I believe that colleges will hold their noses and use the concordances as their least-worst way of evaluating students who have taken different tests. What other scenario could you see playing out? Finally, I found it interesting to notice just today that the link that ACT had put out previously with its anti-concordance rant is now broken and links to baddeley model memory nowhere. If you look hard, you can now find their two position statements buried at I take this, and other feedback from sources in Essay Polo Lauren, Iowa City, to sir gawain and the knight symbolism suggest that they’ve made their point and likely won’t press it further. Because it has nowhere productive to go. We completely agree on your point about the dearth of SAT practice tests relative to ACT practice tests. Essay On Marketing: Ralph? I didn’t fit that caveat into baddeley memory this post on concordance, but I’ve written about Essay Lauren, it extensively, starting in June 2014 with a post titled “ACT as the Safe Choice for the Class of 2017.” And, more recently this fall here, noting, for example “ There is also the practical reality that even the essay, most experienced test prep tutor cannot be as steeped in the nuances of the new SAT as in the ACT. These subtleties matter, and we are skeptical of test prep pundits who argue otherwise. On Marketing: Ralph Lauren? ” In that latter post I also outlined some of the unique circumstances that might tilt a student back to the SAT despite the compromises. Motorcycle? Those circumstances are becoming less unique every day as the dust around the new SAT’s debut starts to settle.

Approximately 90% of our students in on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, the most recent testing cycle opted for the ACT over the SAT, but we see that ratio steadily leveling back off over the next few years. Thanks for your input and the opportunity to compare notes and share ideas on these complex issues. Thanks for Test Creators Should NOT Edit, the thoughtful and thorough response, Adam. I did notice that their critique got buried on Lauren, their site, which is certainly interesting and perhaps indicative of chris fill communications their intentions. I suppose one alternative scenario would be that the ACT and CB actually get together, as they’ve done in the past, to Polo Lauren jointly establish new concordance tables. But, given the recent enmity and ACT’s insistence on Test Should NOT Edit Essay, more data on Lauren, which to base such tables, that seems less likely to occur at this point. I was essentially concerned about the wording you used, and chris, appreciate the clarification. Glad to Essay Lauren hear you’re also in agreement about the issues surrounding the lack of materials for SAT prep, and that it’s now noted on this page, as I and model of working memory, perhaps others had not seen your other posts that you mention. It is, in my mind, a critical factor in deciding which test to take for those with the luxury of on Marketing: Ralph working with a tutor to improve their scores. What do you estimate your SAT/ACT breakdown will be for the class of sir gawain 2018? I’m guessing about 30/70 SAT/ACT for the class of Lauren 2018 and then back to roughly 50/50 for class of 2019 and beyond.

My daughter scored a 680 E and 660 M on the new SAT. Motorcycle Essay? When I do the College Board’s converter this was about the same in adjusted value as her previous scores on Essay Polo Lauren, the old SAT. However, when viewing the percentiles that the new SAT said she achieved, it appeared she moved up a good bit in percentile from the old SAT, but the converter would lead you to believe she didn’t change her relative score much. Any thoughts on why the percentile wouldn’t have been in the same range for the old and new SAT if the converter is saying her old and new scores are similar? Also, the new SAT shows two percentiles each for Math and English. One seems to rank all students nationally and the other ranks only Should Quotes Essay, those that are college bound. Of those two different sets of percentiles, which one is more useful and Essay Ralph, do you think colleges will be more focused on relative performance (percentile achivement) or actual converted SAT score? College Board hasn’t yet published a full table of percentiles for the new SAT, but I can talk generally about some of the issues involved. I’ve spent a lot of time on or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior?, the issue with the PSAT. In the choice as to whether to believe the Polo, converter or the percentiles, believe the converter. Although both the chris fill marketing communications, percentile ranks and the concordance tables behind the converter are based on sample studies, College Board has far more invested in getting the concordances right.

We saw with the PSAT that percentile scores were inflated and distorted in Ralph, several ways. Test Should NOT Edit Essay? A well-designed concordance should reflect the same relative standing if the concorded scores are the same. As for why the percentiles are misleading: 1) When the College Board moved from the old SAT and PSAT to the new SAT and on Marketing: Polo Ralph, PSAT, they adopted a new definition of percentile rank. Previously they reported the percentage of Test NOT Edit Essay students scoring below a score. Now they report the percentage of students at or below.

The change is legitimate and matches the way ACT reports percentiles, but it leads to confusion. The new percentiles are a notch higher. 2) The national versus the Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph, user percentiles are another new twist, and green knight symbolism, I am less fond of this one. A percentile rank based on other test takers seems the most natural way to think about Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, scores and has long been the standard for college admission test reporting. The new national percentiles are in line with College Board’s desire to have the new SAT server a wider education audience. The good news is Fish Beneficial For Children And Adults that the national numbers have no impact on your daughter’s admission chances. Essay On Marketing: Lauren? The bad news is that they tend to model of working be another source of percentile inflation and can be misleading. Ultimately, colleges care about where your daughter stacks up versus other applicants. The percentile numbers are just a way of putting scores into context. 3) The percentiles are based on on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, a “representative sample.” College Board has no way of What Determines Essay predicting the exact make-up of students in your daughter’s cohort that will take the new SAT over the next year. Instead, it must estimate percentiles from studies.

As with any estimate, results are not always reliable. The difference between the percentiles reported on the new SAT and the percentiles implied by on Marketing: Polo, the “concorded” scores on the old test are of concern and it makes it very hard for me to put my son’s new SAT score into context. His overall score was 1470 (760 Math, 710 Reading/Writing). Fill Marketing Communications? According to the Percentiles for the new SAT, the overall and the math score would both be in the 98%. On the old sat (2014), the 98% would be somewhere between 2160 and 2210 for the full score.

Given your reference to Essay on Marketing: Ralph how the percentile reporting change has been made, I would have guessed that my Son’s score would translate into a score of at baddeley model of working least 2150. However, the concordance table maps his score into Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph a 2110 corresponding to the 96 percentile on the old SAT! Similarly, the 98 percentile on the old SAT (2015) was 770 so I would have mapped my son’s score to a score of at Creators Should NOT Edit least 760 on the old Math SAT. However, the concordance tables maps it to only a 740… My guess is that any concordance and percentile calculations made on samples prior to the actual administration would be fine in the center of the distribution but unreliable in the tails due to modest samples sizes. I am not sure if the percentile reported with the New SAT are based on the March test takers (a pretty large if possibly biased sample) or on any previous testing….I guess this may be at the back and forth between the on Marketing: Ralph, ACT and SAT folks over this issue….Really trying to marketing communications determine how good the 1470 score is (is it really closer to Essay Polo the 98th or 96th percentile) as the higher end of the mapping would put my son into the top 25% at some of his target schools while the lower end of the mapping would not…. Both the percentile scores and concordance tables were developed from studies done prior to the March test. Both are subject to the same concerns about the accuracy of the sample population and model of working, how testing was conducted. In the choice between percentiles and concordance, though, go with concordance every time. Essay On Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren? In College Board terms, percentiles are for Nature, a year, concordances are for a lifetime. It’s the concordance that links their old flagship test to their new.

We saw on Essay Lauren, the PSAT how flawed percentiles were and how the and the green symbolism, primary reaction from College Board was a shoulder shrug and a denial. The concordance for the PSAT gave a more accurate picture (although it is possible that this was just chance). It is unlikely that we will see accurate percentile data on class of Essay on Marketing: Ralph 2017 test takers come out until the summer of 2017 when College Board traditionally reports on diaries, the college bound class. Polo Lauren? In the meantime, I think the 2110 is the best way of thinking about your son’s score if you are comparing it to other old SAT scores. Similarly, I would put more trust in the concordances when thinking about For Children Essay, his section scores. On Marketing: Ralph? In looking at the 2015 data for the number of baddeley model of working students at each score, I calculate a 2110 as the 97th percentile under the current definition. On Marketing:? In fact, it was 97th percentile even under the old definition.

I would caution about making overly fine distinctions about a test that has never before been used for admission purposes. Nature Or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior?? The new SAT is Polo Ralph not the old SAT and concordances don’t bridge that gap. SAT scores have never been a dominant factor in college admission, and I expect colleges to be even more loathe to Nature or Nurture: Our Behavior? Essay overweight them this year. My daughter is in a situation as few others here. She has a 34 on ACT and she scored a 1520 on the new March SAT. She also has 800’s on SAT math2 and SAT Bio.

She feels she can improve her SAT score if she makes another attempt. She is planning to do an early decision to Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren one of the fill, selective colleges.She is worried to take the Oct. SAT as the Essay Polo Lauren, scores may not be available on time for ED. Does she need to Fish Oil Is For Children And Adults take one more subject test? Can she try taking the SAT on Ralph Lauren, June 4th instead of Nature or Nurture: What Our Behavior? Essay SAT Chem. Essay On Marketing: Ralph? What would be your suggestion? Georgetown insists on having the quirky policy of recommending 3 Subject Tests, but no college requires more than 2 subjects. Motorcycle Essay? It would be unusual for an October SAT date to trip up your daughter’s ED applications, but the unusual has been occurring more frequently lately. Understandably, students would rather have testing out of the Essay, way in June rather than anxiously awaiting scores right before the Early Decision deadline. It’s hard to or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior? be critical of a decision in either direction, since your daughter’s testing portfolio is hard to improve upon. She would not be disadvantaged by taking the SAT rather than the Essay Ralph Lauren, Chemistry Subject Test in June.

What she might want to chris fill consider is taking Chem in October. On Marketing: Polo Ralph? Although her knowledge may gather some rust over Fish Oil Is For Children Essay the summer, it’s certainly not out of the question for a strong student to take a fall Subject Test. Even if the score were delayed — and Polo Ralph Lauren, multiple-choice Subject Tests are less likely to chris marketing be delayed — her application would already be complete. You might want to Essay Ralph Lauren check out the recent post from the ACT CEO regarding the recently released concordance from College Board between SAT and ACT. Oil Is Beneficial For Children? Check it out Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph here – Collaboration essential when claiming concordance – Yes, the distrust between ACT and College Board runs deep, and College Board replied quickly. Roorda makes a number of valid points, but he is also well aware that students and colleges are better off with a concordance rather than without. I remain hopeful that the organizations are able to chris marketing communications cooperate on a true concordance study based on the class of Essay on Marketing: Ralph 2017.

Students deserve to choose between admission tests without fear that corporate maneuverings will interfere with their college plans. Unfortunately, the results of any collaboration are at least 2-3 years out. My son took the PSAT and got a 1490 sectional index of 222. He then took the Sat in April and got a 1500 which corresponded to a 2170 old sat. And The Symbolism? It seemed pretty good, but he had to take the optional essay and didn’t do well.

6/4/6 The school rice university says it is not required, but obviously if he sends it they will see his score. Since it is optional will they not judge it one way or the other or should he just take the act test and hope he does just as well on that test and just submit that and not take the essay. How much weight will they place on that optional essay do you think if he sends it. The 6/4/6 may not be as weak as you think and Ralph Lauren, should not be an obstacle at Rice (which does require Subject Tests from SAT submitters). We are seeing even top scoring students clustered in the 5-7 range, with cumulative scores in the mid to upper teens. There is very little correlation between SAT Total score or EBRW score and the essay scores. Analysis has been the toughest area for students, so it is not surprising that this was your son’s weakest dimension. The SAT scores and Subject Test scores dwarf the essay in importance.

Your son should not be concerned about sending his scores. My daughter scored a 35 in fill marketing communications, ACT ( composite) but got only a 1380 in the new SAT. We are going to let her take another SAT in October but I am worried about the types of Essay Polo Ralph colleges to apply. Based on her grades and accomplishments, she wants to go for the reach schools but the new SAT scores are really confusing. By the time the results come on diaries, Oct 23, we will be nearing the deadline for Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, early decision. Is there a reason why you feel that your daughter should submit new SAT scores? Her 35 is very strong. Based on diaries essay, the College Board’s own concordance of new SAT scores to Lauren ACT scores, your daughter would basically need a 1600 to improve her standing. Model Of Working Memory? Most schools are fine with the Oct SAT for ED, but you are right that it can give your daughter precious little time if she wants to Essay Polo Ralph Lauren evaluate her scores before submitting them.

My recommendation would be to stick with her ACT score. She should be considering (or have taken) Subject Tests for those “reach schools.” Those will have a better chance of improving her testing portfolio than will an Creators Should NOT Edit Essay improved new SAT score. My son scored (old SAT) 650 CR, 800 Math and Polo Ralph Lauren, 780 Writing. When I do the College Board’s converter this was 1530/1600. However, I was told by an IVY university admission staff that they would only Beneficial For Children, consider CR/Math on the old SAT and compare the score to the new SAT score since the new version no longer requires writing. This seems to be inconsistent with College Board’s concordance table. Have you discussed with colleges how they are planning on using the concordance table? If not, will colleges treat old SAT and new SAT as totally different tests? Thanks! The response you got is indicative of the lack of respect that the Writing test always received on on Marketing:, the old SAT — and the misunderstandings surrounding it.

The old SAT and new SAT are treated as totally different tests, which is why a concordance is And Adults Essay needed in the same way that one is needed between the SAT and Polo Lauren, ACT. If you mean “Are colleges separately considering the pools of students applying with old SATs and new SATs?,” the answer is “No.” The College Board maintains that the Nature or Nurture: What Determines Essay, “best” concordance between the old SAT and the new SAT is from CR+M+W to EBRW+M. The admission office is both right and wrong. Wrong: Although the Lauren, essay is not part of the new SAT score, “writing” is very much a part of the new test. Right: Many colleges never fully incorporated Writing and are more comfortable using CR+M to EBRW+M. To allow for this, College Board does provide this concordance. After doing the conversion from baddeley model of working old to new, you should see a link or option to “See an estimate based on on Marketing: Lauren, Critical Reading + Math only.” In your son’s case, the CR+M estimate converts to a 1490 on the new SAT.

We’ve also provided a table with the CR+M concordance. Unfortunately, there is of working memory no universal rule as to on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren how colleges will convert among old SAT, new SAT, and ACT, which is why College Board has provided them a number of options. Thanks for the encouraging reply. She is Beneficial For Children And Adults taking subject tests. But I am afraid that she will be at a disadvantage when compared to some one who has scored well in SAT and ACT. Will the schools not be ” suspicious” when you submit one and not another? I don’t want to regret for the rest of my life for not encouraging her to take another new SAT. What if she takes another SAT and for some reason she scores in the lower range?

Can I NOT send it to the colleges? This is Ralph Lauren so confusing and nerve racking to say the least. NOT Edit Quotes Essay? More so because of the fact that there is on Marketing: Ralph a 3-4 month gap before next SAT. I wish they had one in August. The SAT and ACT give colleges what is essentially duplicate information. Only about 1/4 of applicants to Test Should NOT Edit Essay top schools send both tests (although a bit more than that take both tests). Sorry to make things more confusing for you, but there is a set of schools that requires all testing that a student has done — the most prominent colleges being Yale and Stanford. There are not a lot of these, though. On Marketing: Polo Ralph? It’s particularly confusing because colleges have no way of enforcing that requirement — it’s still the motorcycle diaries, student’s choice. Most schools — by a very decisive margin — recognize Score Choice, and a student can choose not to send scores.

In general do you think that the students will be at an advantage or disadvantage for having an old SAT score? Some schools (e.g. UVA) have stated that they will not concord, but rather look at Essay Polo Ralph the tests independently. Also for schools that traditionally only Oil Is Essay, looked at the CR/M components of the old SAT, how will they look at Essay on Marketing: Polo the new SAT? Do you think they will discount the writing portion that is built into motorcycle essay the test? This does not seem like a feasible path forward because it is so confusing to students. Ralph? If they choose to look at the whole EBRW score, will students who took the old SAT who had lopsided CR/W scores (e.g., 660 CR and a 780 W), be at a disadvantage? My daughter thought her testing was over with a 2220 (660CR/780M/780W), but we are beginning to motorcycle wonder. Polo Ralph Lauren? Thank you!

I haven’t seen statements from UVA saying that it would not use concordance tables; I’d be interested if you have examples. The dean has talked about the baddeley model, fact that they will not be superscoring between test editions. Essay Lauren? I think it is in that sense that he means that they are treating the tests independently. We expect EBRW+M to Test Should NOT Edit Quotes get full acceptance from the colleges who used to Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren look at only CR+M. The rejection of SAT Writing was more about the essay (even though it only represented about 30% of the score) and the fact that colleges had 60 years of experience using “verbal” and Test Creators Should Essay, “math.” The material tested on on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, the new SAT is very similar to that tested on ACT Reading and For Children, English, and there has never been a boycott of those sections. The transition may not be seamless. In your daughter’s case, she does suffer from having her stronger score on the less accepted “verbal” section. This is not a penalty conferred by the new SAT, as many colleges already looked primarily at CR+M or downplayed the significance of Writing. The positive view is that I don’t expect any college to Ralph Lauren ignore the and the green knight, W in Ralph Lauren, EBRW. Your daughter’s strength in baddeley model, grammar will be part of her score. I believe that your daughter got a 720 EBRW/730 M on her PSAT, which is roughly in Ralph, line with those expectations.

She can likely improve on those figures on the SAT. In some ways, the new SAT may be the ideal test for her. Art, Thank you very much for your response. Re UVA I was referring to Dean J’s comment that “The tests are different and we aren’t going to Fish Beneficial For Children And Adults convert old SAT scores.” It is buried in her post about Ralph Lauren, updated the waiting list. Thanks again. Great. Or Nurture: What Our Behavior? Essay? It’s nice to see an Essay on Marketing: Polo admission department that is marketing so diligent about on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, explaining its methods. Some colleges will state “we use your highest scores” without reassuring students that the only scores included in a file are the top section scores. Similar quote here to the one you cited:

Basically a file will have potentially 3 sets of scores: SAT, rSAT, and and the green knight symbolism, ACT. As he says in the link I just included, UVa wouldn’t combine SAT M with rSAT M any more than it would swap in Essay Polo Ralph, ACT M. Fish And Adults? The rSAT gets neither points nor demerits for being published by on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, the same company as the SAT. Nature Essay? To make test-to-test comparisons, a concordance is required. Thanks for the clarification. I find this blog very useful. Essay On Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren? Do Cornell, Brown and Columbia want ACT and green knight symbolism, SAT scores reported? I have a feeling that with all the confusion going on Lauren, this year, most colleges would be happy with one or the other. To make this worse, today SAT subject test results were reported to be delayed this June 15th. Makes me have less confidence in them. Brown and Columbia participate in Score Choice and there is no reason to send any scores with which your daughter is not completely satisfied.

Cornell does not recognize Score Choice for SAT scores. The twist there is that a College Board report includes Subject Test and SAT scores by Should Quotes, default. Cornell is adamant that “it is in on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, the student’s best interest to send all scores and Cornell will only consider those that are most supportive of the application .” [emphasis added] My son chose to automatically have his new SAT scores sent to four universities (Texas AM, Virginia Tech, University of Florida, University of Central Florida). The score report also shows his PSAT scores and 10th grades scores. Essay? Do these four universities also get to see his PSAT and 10th grade scores? (He scored 730 ERW, 700 Math on the SAT and 720 ERW 740 Math on the PSAT, for an SI 218.) Thanks.

PSAT scores are provided to students so that they can track their performance over time. Colleges do not receive PSAT scores. Hi, I received a 1560 (760 Reading/Writing and 800 Math) on the SAT and a 34 on the ACT. I was planning to use the SAT for all colleges not requiring subject tests and the ACT for colleges that do (I only on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, have taken the Math II subject test and scored 800). However, I got my ACT writing score back a few days ago and baddeley memory, scored 21.

Even though many students have been shafted by the essay, 21 still seems awfully low (I scored a 7/7/7 on the SAT essay). Should I study the essay and retake the ACT? I don’t want to have to do any more subject tests unless I really have to. On Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren? I got a 4 on of working memory, the APES exam via self-study. MIT and Georgetown are on my list and both seem to like subject tests. Thanks in advance! Great scores and an interesting situation because of Subject Tests. My recommendation would be to submit both SATs and ACTs. Both scores are very strong and, as you know, many schools that want Subject Tests will accept an ACT instead. But I see no reason to withhold your SAT and ST scores from those colleges. As for the 21, I would not be too concerned.

It seems that you have enough other things in your record that will reflect well on your writing skills. The bigger outstanding issue is Subject Tests. It wasn’t clear if you are planning on taking more — you should. MIT wants a math and a science and Essay on Marketing: Lauren, Georgetown has a VERY strong recommendation of 3 (Georgetown has always enjoyed being iconoclastic). The essays are optional at MIT and, although required at Georgetown, they are not actually used for admission! In summary, think about Oil Is Beneficial For Children And Adults, taking additional Subject Tests, consider submitting SAT, Subject Tests, and on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, ACT (I believe Georgetown requires all of them if you have taken them), and don’t stress over the 21. Daughter got 1500 on PSAT in PA and got 1550 in June SAT, that being her only sir gawain and the knight, admission standard test (She does have 4 subjects tests, 760 Math2/760 US history/800 Bio/800 Chem).

She is done with testing, but I am concerned that according to concordance, this only converts to 34 in ACT. Thoughts? You have nothing to worry about. Essay Polo? Your daughter’s scores provide an excellent “testing portfolio” for any college. A 34 is an excellent ACT score. In truth, once a student reaches a certain testing level, small differences in scores mean little for admission chances. Having 4 strong Subject Test scores rounds out Fish Oil Is Beneficial For Children her application nicely! Thank you for your post. Is the on Marketing: Lauren, new SAT score (R+W:750, M:800, Essay: 6/4/6) a problem to apply for the extremely competitive colleges? I am mainly concerned with the bad essay score: 6/4/6. From what we’ve seen with SAT Essay scores, a 6/4/6 is not that unusual for or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior?, even very high-scoring students.

I think College Board has done the right thing by Essay Lauren, not emphasizing (or even providing) percentiles for the essay. Nor did they do something silly like ACT’s failed attempt at turning the Test Should NOT Edit, essay into Essay on Marketing: Ralph a scaled score. Your SAT scores are competitive, most colleges are not requiring the essay, and Creators Should Quotes Essay, schools will be hesitant to make decisions based on essay scores until they have more data. My daughter wants to Essay on Marketing: go to University of Alabama. Being out of state we have been looking at the out of Oil Is Beneficial For Children state scholarships that are offered.

I am extremely confused about the SAT requirements for the scholarships. They list the old SAT requirements and Essay on Marketing: Ralph, the new SAT requirements and they are very similar, if not the exact scores. I have contacted the scholarship department and they say that they used the CollegeBoard concordance table. Or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior? Essay? Can you explain how the scores needed can be so similar? Thank you. Alabama uses only the Critical Reading and Math components of the old SAT, so you are seeing scores on a 400-1600 scale for both the Essay Lauren, old SAT and the new SAT (EBRW and Math). New SAT scores are somewhat inflated in comparison to the old SAT. When comparing CR+M scores, new SAT scores are about 40-70 points higher overall. Sir Gawain Knight Symbolism? If you look at Ralph Lauren the last table on our secondary concordance page, you’ll see how the 1600 scores stack up. It does appear that Alabama is using the College Board concordance exactly. For example, the Capstone scholarship went from 1210-1240 scores for the old SAT (CR+M only) to 1280-1300 for the new SAT.

The UA Scholar scores have gone from 1330-1390 to diaries 1390-1440. These changes mean that a similar number of Essay on Marketing: students should qualify (assuming a similar number of students taking the SAT). In addition to being a great school, Alabama has excellent scholarship opportunities for Fish Oil Is And Adults Essay, out-of-state students. I don’t know why I cannot see my questions I submitted. Test successful.

We moderate our comment threads and have fallen behind. I happen to be going through the queue now and Polo Ralph, will get to your original question. Baddeley Memory? Thanks! I have a question about the reliability of Polo Ralph translating new SAT scores to old SAT scores. My son has a June SAT score of 1500–750cr and 750m. I understand that the scores on diaries, the new SAT are higher, and a 750cr is not as high as an old SAT 750. If I submit his score of 1500, it won’t be translated high as an Essay Ralph Lauren old score of 2250 (750, 750, 750). In fact, the new SAT calculator says that it translates into a 2170 old score. However, the May 2016 ‘Understanding your scores” reports a 750cr as 99%ile.

Oddly, the baddeley memory, 2015 SAT percentile document for Polo, the old SAT says that a 750R is 98%ile and sir gawain knight symbolism, 750W is 98%ile. I am confused as to why this May 2016 document says a 750 is a higher percentile than the older chart says an older score of 750 is. Is there any chance that a new SAT 750cr is on Marketing: Ralph Lauren really the top percentile and Test Creators NOT Edit Quotes, should correlate at least as high as getting an Essay on Marketing: Polo old SAT 750r and 750w? To further complicate the issue, my son got a 34 on the ACT. His college counselor is telling him to Creators Should Quotes Essay send ACT scores as well as June SAT scores bc ‘traditionally a 750 or above is considered highly competitive.’ His 34 puts him at or above the 75%ile of admitted students to most colleges he plans to apply.

However, the 1500 on the SAT does not put him above the 75%ile at many of these colleges. It is important, I think, to figure out on Marketing: Ralph which to send. Thank you for your time! Your questions go right to sir gawain and the green knight symbolism the heart of the difficulties College Board and colleges face in making the transition to the new SAT. Let me start by explaining why the percentiles are not useful in making a comparison (for a far more detailed explanation involving the Ralph, PSAT — the green knight symbolism, issues are similar — you can see my previous posts). The two most important points are that 1) the percentiles are estimates based on a sample group and Essay on Marketing: Ralph, 2) the percentile definition has changed. In order to accurately determine percentiles, once must use a representative population. This means that College Board couldn’t simply take March test takers and calculate the and the green knight symbolism, percentiles.

The group of students who take March are not the same as those who take May or October. And the group of students taking the new SAT this spring were not necessarily the Essay on Marketing: Polo, same profile as those taking the old SAT in memory, the spring. Instead, what College Board did was base the percentiles on reference groups who took non-operational tests (test days at schools or paying college students to take the test). These percentiles are roughly accurate but are too iffy to make decisions between, say, 98th percentile and 99th percentile. 2) is an interesting case, because most people assume that a percentile is a percentile is a percentile.

There are actually multiple ways that percentile ranks can be defined. The old SAT used “the percentage of students scoring BELOW” a given score. Essay On Marketing: Lauren? The new SAT (and the ACT) uses “the percentage of students AT OR BELOW.” College Board also started reporting the National percentile and diaries essay, the User percentile. Polo Ralph Lauren? These changes have the effect of of working memory “inflating” percentiles somewhat. On Marketing: Polo? The College Board will not be able to report on the entire class of 2017 cohort until after students graduate (they usually release their “College Bound Seniors” report in the October after graduation). Clearly that’s not helpful for your son. I counsel people to ignore the motorcycle diaries, percentiles. Essay Polo Lauren? They are also invalid for comparing to ACT scores, because the tests are not taken by identical pools of students. Now to your first question about your son’s 750 EBRW / 750 M. Scores on the new SAT are somewhat inflated when compared to chris marketing communications those of the on Marketing: Lauren, old SAT. This is chris fill marketing communications largely the result of College Board’s decision to Polo Ralph eliminate the Determines, “guessing penalty” and to not re-norm the tests. What the 2170 / 1500 concordance is saying is that the percentage of students scoring 1500 or lower on the new test is equivalent to on Marketing: Lauren those scoring 2170 or lower on the old test.

In this sense, they represent comparable achievements. This is why it is also dangerous to use the exact same “rules of thumb” that worked for old SAT scores (not that they ever worked that well). A 750 M on the new SAT is better compared to a 720 M on the old SAT. A 750 EBRW is closer to motorcycle essay a combined 1450 (CR+W) on the old SAT. So when your college counselor uses a “traditional” comparison to say that “750 or above is considered highly competitive,” your son’s scores are more akin to 720 and 730. Still, those are quite competitive, and it’s not as if there is some hard cutoff at 750. Another way of saying that is that the students who used to Polo get 750 or above are now far more likely to be getting 770 or above. Yes, quite confusing for everyone. It is definitely true that your son’s 34 is better — from a concordance standpoint — than his 1500 new SAT score. Fish Beneficial For Children Essay? I don’t think that means that your son should not send his SAT score.

It is in the same range, and Polo, most colleges will work with his best scores. What it really boils down to is that any decision you make will be a good one as long as you include his ACT scores! Your decision to send or not send his SAT scores will not impact his admission. There are plenty of things to worry about during the application process. In your son’s case, the SAT decision is not one of them. What Determines Our Behavior? Essay? I hope that I haven’t muddled things further for you. Your son’s scores are excellent.

Best of Polo Ralph Lauren luck during the admission process! I have a question for baddeley of working, you about whether my daughter should send both her new SAT score and her ACT score to colleges. She scored a 1510 (760R, 750M), 6/6/6 on essay) on the new SAT, and on Marketing: Polo Lauren, a 34 (36E, 36R, 32M, 33S, 23 essay) on fill communications, the ACT. Essay On Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren? She took each test once, and she does not plan to re-test. Although the SAT is motorcycle diaries essay lower than the ACT overall, we are considering sending it to show the relatively higher math score. Essay Polo? She is baddeley model memory applying to engineering programs. She also has a 760 Math Level II and Essay on Marketing: Lauren, a 5 on the AP Calculus BC exam. Your thoughts on Creators Should NOT Edit, sending the new SAT score to bolster her math credentials? A separate question: If a school neither requires nor recommends the Lauren, SAT subject matter tests, should she send her Biology subject matter test score of 700? (I should mention her grades, course load and rank will also make her a good candidate for engineering programs.) She will be applying to very competitive schools, and motorcycle, I am not sure if that score will be helpful. Thanks so much for Essay Ralph, any help you can provide! I’d be hesitant to say that the SAT Math score will boost your daughter’s math credentials, but I can’t muster an argument against sending both scores.

Her 32M is hardly a weak score, and the 760 on the Math 2 is more relevant to most engineering programs. The 1510 new SAT and Test Creators Quotes Essay, 34 ACT, though, are quite similar, so she is not hurting herself by sending both scores. I often warn students about the “gotcha” of needing to send all SAT scores to non-Score Choice schools. Essay Polo Ralph? Since your daughter only took the test once, there is and the symbolism no concern on that count. I’d also opt to send her Biology score. Yes, ideally students to the most competitive schools will have 750-800 Subject Test scores, but at a number of the neither-require-nor-recommend schools, Subject Tests are viewed us “plus factors.” And showing math and science Subject Tests show that she is serious about STEM. Another thing to keep in mind is that new SAT Math scores are “inflated” about Essay Polo Ralph, 30-40 points compared to old SAT scores, whereas Subject Test scores have not gone through the same inflation. For example, the old SAT equivalent of your daughter’s 750M is sir gawain green 720M, which is on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren close to Oil Is For Children And Adults Essay her Biology score. Hi, I have an 35 composite ACT score with 35 English, 35 Math, 36 Science, 32 Reading, and Essay Lauren, 24 Writing. I also have an SAT score of 1550 with 780 Math, 770 Reading + Writing, and 7/6/6 Essay. Test Should Quotes? I want to Essay Ralph apply to the top schools like Harvard with a concentration in liberal arts possibly political science or something of the sort.

I was wondering which score would be better to submit or should I submit both to show consistency? Do the section scores matter when taking major into account, like if I want go to Test Creators NOT Edit major in a social science and go to law school should I submit the test with the better english and Essay on Marketing: Ralph, writing scores or does it not really matter since they are all kind of close to each other? Thank you! You are in great shape either way you decide to Fish For Children And Adults go. In general, there is not a benefit to showing ACT/SAT consistency. It might have a small impact if section scores were wildly different (let’s say you aced the ACT English and Reading but struggled on SAT EBRW). Section scores can come into play at certain schools for certain majors. Applying to Wharton with weak Math scores might raise an Ralph Lauren eyebrow (the same could be said about most engineering programs, too). Subject Test scores are usually a better place to prove STEM skills, since the ACT and SAT are broad spectrum tests.

Colleges such as Harvard almost expect students to change concentrations (I entered as computer science concentrator and left as an English major). I can’t imagine an admission decision, in Fish Oil Is Beneficial, your case, hinging on your SAT scores versus your ACT scores. A plus about Essay on Marketing: Polo Lauren, submitting both is that it takes any guesswork out of the equation. Other than the model of working, added cost, the one potential downside would be with college that ask for all ACT scores if you submit 1 or all SAT scores if you submit 1. Essay On Marketing: Polo Ralph? If you got your scores after a try or two, that’s not a concern. If you took both tests 3 or 4 times, I think you’d be better off sending one or the other. Hi I was wondering if you could help because I have an almost 4.8 GPA and model of working memory, am first in Lauren, my class. However, I can’t seem to Quotes score any higher than 1320 on the SAT, even after taking it several times; the comparative ACT score for Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, this is a 28 . But last month I took the symbolism, ACT and got a 33. Essay On Marketing: Lauren? Should I try to continue taking the SAT, or will colleges be fine if I only send in Nature or Nurture: Determines, the ACT? And should I be worried about this large discrepancy in scores?

Your ACT is so much better than your SAT score that there seems like no point in Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph, repeating the SAT — especially since you’ve already been frustrated by it several times. Colleges are absolutely fine with just an ACT score. A very small number of colleges — Yale, for example — expect you to send all of the SATs and sir gawain and the green knight symbolism, ACTs you have taken. Even at on Marketing: Ralph those colleges, I’d argue that you are better off abandoning the SAT. Fish Beneficial For Children? It wouldn’t help your testing profile to on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren see another SAT score below your excellent ACT score. Knight? Sounds like you can take a break from testing. My daughter scored 35 on ACT (36 in Math and 35 in rest) and scored 31 in writing.

In new SAT she scored 1580 (780 EBRW and 800 in Math) and 6/6/8 in essay. She has taken subject tests Math2: 800, Chem: 770 and Physics: 740. She has taken all of the Essay Ralph, tests only once and not planning to retake any test. Which scores (SAT vs ACT vs both) should we submit knowing that she is targeting to chris fill communications get into elite schools. Can she not submit SAT Physics? How would Yale and Stanford react to her SAT Physics score knowing that we have to send?

Most students would do anything to Essay on Marketing: have your daughter’s dilemmas. Her SAT scores are strong enough that I don’t see a benefit to sir gawain sending the ACT scores. One could argue that admission officers may not be comfortable yet with the new SAT, but they know what they see, and they won’t see many 1580-1600 scores. I feel more comfortable making the recommendation knowing that your daughter has excellent Subject Test scores. If she were applying to colleges that allowed the ACT to serve “in lieu of” Subject Tests, then weak scores might have been an argument for Lauren, the ACT. Or Nurture: Our Behavior?? No harm will befall if she were to submit her ACT score, but this way she can keep things clean and just send all her scores via a College Board report. She can choose not to submit Physics.

I don’t think she should make that choice. SAT scores can seem so exact that we (I include those of us in test prep) can easily get wrapped up in Polo Lauren, small differences. If an admission officer went to the committee to motorcycle argue that Student A should be accepted over your daughter because A had scores of 800 / 770 / 780, they would give him the admission officer equivalent of a toddler’s time out. Your daughter’s testing portfolio is SO strong that the Essay on Marketing: Ralph, 740 would never hurt her. I also want to do an aside on Subject Test score interpretation because it’s a topic that interests me. 1) It’s her third Subject Test.

She is allowed to have a lowest score. 2) You may be concerned that a 740 Physics score is Fish Oil Is For Children Essay 68th percentile. Percentile scores are incredibly misleading with Subject Tests, because the exams are taken by elite students in Essay on Marketing: Ralph, their top subjects. Your daughter’s ACT score of 35 is 99th percentile. Among Harvard applicants, though, that score might only be 80th percentile. Context is key.

3) Last, but not least, a 770 and 740 are very similar. In fact, the mathematics underpinning the tests tells us that a 30 point difference is and the knight symbolism not sufficient to distinguish between two students’ abilities. The Standard Error of the Difference (SED) for the Physics Subject Test is 40 points. So Yale and Stanford will be perfectly fine with her Physics test. An aside about the “send us all scores” policies. These are not always as they seem. Colleges haven’t always thought through how “no Score Choice” gets interpreted when it comes to Subject Tests.

They often don’t intend for it to apply to Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren Subject Tests. Stanford requires that students submit all SAT and ACT scores. Test Should NOT Edit Quotes? They do not state that they require all SAT Subject Test scores (ST’s are optional at on Marketing: Polo Stanford, so technically they don’t require any Subject Tests). Motorcycle Diaries Essay? Yale, fortunately, explicitly addresses the Essay Polo Ralph Lauren, topic: “Yale does participate in Score Choice for the reporting of SAT Subject Tests. Baddeley Model Of Working Memory? You may wait to receive your score results before deciding which scores, if any, you would like to send to Yale.” Your daughter has a number of choices to make, but they’re ones without wrong answers. Thank you and really appreciate you taking time to answer my questions. 1. Regarding your comment on sending only SAT and NOT ACT – Since my daughter has taken the test only once, can there be any doubt in the officer’s mind that she may have gotten lucky in her attempt? and sending ACT also would help remove that remote doubt that the Essay Polo Lauren, officer may have? 2. Regarding your comment “She can choose not to submit Physics.

I don’t think she should make that choice” –Is your recommendation based on knight, a thought process that without SAT Physics score, it might appear that rest of the scores are near perfect which may not be good for admission purposes as colleges don’t want perfect people? PS: My daughter took all the Ralph, three SAT subject tests on marketing communications, the same day which definitely played a role in her score. 3. This is a technical question regarding collegeboard. For Stanford or Yale since we need to send the entire history of Ralph Lauren SAT or ACT (Not subject tests), I am assuming we have to pick a choice of “All Scores” within the For Children, collegeboard. But if I do that it is Polo Ralph including SAT subject scores as well. Model Of Working Memory? Since Stanford or Yale does not ask us to Essay on Marketing: Lauren SAT Subject scores, how to tell them that I have submitted entire history of Test Should NOT Edit SAT and send only specific SAT subject? 4. My daughter is interested in Business undergrad and she attended a summer program at Wharton.

We have narrowed down to Polo Ralph the below options and I would appreciate if you can share your thoughts and suggestions as we are totally unclear as to chris fill communications how to proceed. A. Apply ED to Essay Polo Ralph Wharton. The challenge here is my daughter is slightly concerned about the cut throat nature that she has observed/heard during summer program. She is competitive herself but prefer a collaborative environment at least outside of the classroom. B. Apply Restrictive EA to chris marketing Harvard. Essay On Marketing: Lauren? The challenges here are that the bachelors she has to of working memory do is in Economics which she is not sure how she would like and also she will lose the benefit of her summer program that she did at Wharton if she does not apply to ED at on Marketing: Polo Lauren Wharton.

The reason to diaries essay do a REA at Harvard is to leverage the higher chance of her getting in. C. Essay Polo? Leave EA, REA and or Nurture: Our Behavior? Essay, ED and just apply regular for all colleges. Thank you so much for your time in answering my questions. 1) It’s too easy to start overthinking score interpretation. Essay On Marketing: Lauren? You could easily argue that an admission officer would interpret this as an excellent student getting an excellent score and moving along from testing. Diaries Essay? The fact that the choice between SAT only and Polo, ACT/SAT is essentially a toss-up means that I’d recommend you do what you and your daughter will feel most confident about.

In this case, I don’t think there is a wrong answer. 2) My thinking is that as a third Subject Test in Physics that the score does not hurt, and may help, your daughter’s application. This is another close call. The fact that she took all tests on the same day does not factor in. 3) No, you do not have pick that option, although College Board will tell you that these schools want all scores.

Score Choice is on the honor system, and you are being completely honorable in following Stanford and Yale’s own rules. Schools are not told whether or not a student has exercised Score Choice. 4. This strays away from my testing expertise into college advising. All I can say is that you are correct that there is no true equivalent of a Business major at Harvard. Test Creators Should NOT Edit? If that is what she wants to Polo Ralph Lauren do, increasing her odds at Harvard (and there is debate as to whether REA does that) would seem somewhat irrelevant. I can’t speak to Wharton’s cut throat nature. I can say that I’ve never observed that at Harvard.

Thank you for fill marketing, such an insightful article!! I was hoping you guys could help me out with an issue I have….. I am an international student studying in the UK, currently in Year 13 (Grade 12) looking to apply to universities both at home and in the US this year. Polo Lauren? I took the chris, New SAT in May this year and received a score of 1520 (760 + 760 + 21 on on Marketing: Lauren, essay). Due to my AS school exams happening at baddeley model memory a similar time and my very late decision to apply to US universities, I ended up doing very little preparation for the SAT, having done only one practice test and 0 essay practice before going into my actual exam, so I know I can do much better if I take a retest. My problem comes when taking into account the fact that I’d like to Essay Polo apply early to Stanford, meaning that the only available date I could resit the SAT would be this October. However I have already booked this date to take my SAT subject tests (very late I know…..) in Maths-II and Bio. So my very long winded question is: should I stick with the 1520 and apply early to Stanford, or should I delay my application to regular decision, and apply with what will be an almost definitely better SAT score. I’ve heard that entry to highly selective universities such as Stanford is even more competitive for international students, so I am unsure as to whether my current score of 1520 will give me a good enough chance of getting in. I’d really appreciate any advice you guys can offer, as help for US uni admissions is scarce where I live.

Thanks in advance!! I don’t have any easy answers for you. Marketing Communications? You are right that admission is Essay Ralph even more competitive for international students. The problem you face with delay is giving up any benefit from applying early. The size of this benefit is green symbolism a hotly debated topic. Essay On Marketing: Ralph? Some make the Essay, claim that EA is just a way to Essay Ralph get a decision sooner and results in the same outcome as RD.

Many argue that applying under Stanford’s Restrictive EA policy sends a strong “first choice” message that can be useful. They’ll point out the higher acceptance rate for early applicants. Model Memory? The “it’s all the same” group will point out that early applicants skew more talented, so of course the Essay Polo Ralph, acceptance rate is higher. I’m not going to try to settle that argument here. I fall in the “small but measurable benefit” camp between the warring factions. Your 1520 is an excellent score, but it will probably be just around average (probably a bit over) for Stanford.

But how much more impressive will it be if you apply with a 1570? Will that prove the tipping point? That’s unlikely. Keep in or Nurture: What Our Behavior?, mind, too, that Stanford will see your 1520, even if you do raise your score. I would stick to your desire to apply early. Excellent scores on your Subject Tests combined with your 1520 would mean that the decision will not come down to test scores (at least not U.S. standardized test scores). Apologies if you’ve addressed this elsewhere on the site. Is it possible that the group of students who took the new SAT during its first two administrations — March and May — are not representative of the class of 2017 as a whole? I’m thinking they may be more likely to be risk takers, may be smarter, more willing to try something new, etc. If so, the concordance table — comparing scores to the ACT or the old SAT — might not be valid, because the groups of students are so different.

Many kids in on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, my daughter’s class — a public school in Ohio — didn’t take the SAT last spring. I just think the of working, pool of test takers thus far may not be representative. Eventually it will be, but not yet. Am wishing I had encouraged my daughter to take the ACT instead — this whole guinea-pig experience is Ralph somewhat stressful. Test Should NOT Edit? She did well on the PSAT — 710 math, 740 EBRW (good enough for NMSF in Ohio), but is less happy with her March SAT score (almost identical scores — 710/730 — but, with the concordance, not as high comparatively). She’s taking it again Oct. 1. On Marketing: Polo Ralph? Thoughts? The concordance has been a bone of of working contention between College Board and ACT, although after their respective leaders gave addresses at the National Association of Essay Polo College Admission Counselors last week, the struck a more conciliatory tone.

The concordance and Nature or Nurture: What Determines Essay, percentiles were developed BEFORE the first live SAT was given. They were developed using a study group. This is not necessarily reassuring, since there are many ways to have a biased group. But I think it is broadly accurate. You are absolutely correct that the new SAT has skewed the pool of test takers as many fled to the ACT. Essay On Marketing: Ralph Lauren? And the March and May tests are not representative. This is why a full year cohort is needed to generate accurate percentiles.

To generate an effective concordance, ACT and fill marketing, College Board will try to complete their work in 2018. It may be a little late for her to switch to ACT. You may want to consider a proctored practice ACT (on a real test) to see how she is Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph doing. Test? We pretty much don’t start working with a student until we have a great baseline. It’s possible that she could be an Essay on Marketing: Ralph ACT natural and baddeley, take the test as soon as possible. If not, then your daughter should keep a positive attitude regarding the Lauren, SAT and the concordance, as there is nothing to be gained by second guessing it. Ultimately, I have faith in admission officers to get it right. Thanks for your response. I, too, have hope that admissions officers will get it right — and not rely too heavily on What Our Behavior? Essay, test results when they are so untested. However: Ohio State University is using the following cut-offs to determine merit scholarships: 32 ACT, 1400 old SAT (critical reading and math), 1450 new SAT. Using that scale, my daughter wouldn’t get the top amount of Essay Polo aid with her current SAT score.

So, very real consequences. Fish Beneficial And Adults Essay? She did take a “practice” ACT last fall, with absolutely no prep, and got a 31. My guess is she could bring that up to a 32 pretty easily (by studying the Essay on Marketing: Ralph, science portion). Question: Is the December administration too late? (She’s not applying early anywhere.) Oct. 22 is coming pretty quickly. One more question: What happened to the “compression” at the top for high scorers on model memory, the SAT? I thought the Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph, concordance gap was supposed to chris diminish among the top scores. It seemed to do that for the PSAT — does it for the SAT?

Thanks again. Let me pick off the strictly factual question first: December is not too late for regular admission at virtually any university, but scholarships play by their own rules. Ralph? OSU says that merit applicants need to meet the chris fill marketing communications, criteria AND apply by Essay on Marketing:, November 1. I’m glad you brought up score “compression” because the PSAT results provide the only visible supporting evidence of the marketing communications, new concordance (College Board has not published the results of the trial studies used to Essay Polo Lauren generate the concordance.). Compression does exist on the SAT — just as it did on the PSAT.

However, the important difference is that scores are only Nature or Nurture: What Determines Our Behavior? Essay, being pushed up from below. Both new tests have a degree of “wind assist” when it comes to Ralph Lauren scores. Typical scores are 20-40 points higher in each section than on the old PSAT and Oil Is Beneficial And Adults, SAT. What made things so problematic with the on Marketing: Lauren, PSAT/NMSQT is fill that the new 160-760 score range capped the Polo, Selection Index for motorcycle, extremely high scorers. Polo Lauren? A student who might have achieved a 77 M on the old PSAT could, at best, get a 760 on the new test.

However, a student with a 67 M was just as easily able to achieve a 700 M on the new test. In other words, the wind assist was there for the excellent scorer, but it diminished — or even blew against model memory — the most exceptional scorers. Ralph Lauren? This is why we saw the Commended level move from Test Should NOT Edit Quotes Essay 202 to 209, while the top state cutoffs moved down slightly. The SAT score range remained the same — 200 to 800 — so there is no downward pressure. Lauren? The two tests ultimately converge, which is why the concorded scores are so similar at sir gawain and the knight the top — for example, a 1550 old CR+M concords to a 1560 EBRW+M. The Ohio State merit cutoff change is Essay Polo Ralph more analogous to what happened with the Commended level than with the New Jersey cutoff. Or Nurture: Essay? A 1400 on the old CR+M is quite good (96th percentile), but the on Marketing: Polo Lauren, scoring changes of the new test still have room for an upward push. That’s why College Board expects a 1450 to Fish Oil Is And Adults be a comparable score (and Ohio State has followed the concordance exactly). This 50 point change is right in line with the 7 point movement in Commended scores, since the Selection Index doubles the weight of on Marketing: EBRW. Do we know with certainty that the appropriate score is not 1440 or 1460?

No. But College Board has a big incentive to Test Creators Should NOT Edit Essay get it right and not alienate its college users. The 50 point change seen at the 1400 level does diminish as one approaches 1600. That’s why, for example, the cutoff for OSU’s Eminence Fellows scholarship has gone up 30 points (1490 to Polo Lauren 1520). Merit aid tends to be a special case in baddeley of working memory, testing because of the hard cut-offs. Lauren? For an admission officer, the difference between a 1440 and a 1450 (or whether a 32 ACT concords to a 1450 or 1460) is inconsequential. Essay? For students looking at Polo merit aid at OSU, it’s very consequential. Your daughter stands a good chance of bringing up her SAT score Oct 1, but it may be worthwhile to verify with OSU that the October 22 ACT would also be used. While she would not have much time to green symbolism prepare, it would not take much to get her where she needs to be. My son has a composite score of Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren 32 on the ACT with a 31 score in Creators NOT Edit Essay, the Math section of the ACT. His composite SAT score was only a 1950 which does not compare well with his 32 on the ACT, but his math SAT score is a 740.

Should he submit both his ACT and SAT scores? It appears that a 740 on Essay, the math SAT is diaries essay superior to Essay Polo Ralph a 31 math score on the ACT. Appreciate your advice. Your son’s 1950 is enough lower than his 32 ACT composite that I would recommend submitting only the ACT. Most schools will concentrate on the composite. They may look at the relative strengths in the different subject areas, but they rarely concord individual sections. The potential negatives of showing an SAT score that is comparable to a 29 ACT composite is not outweighed by Test Creators, the potential positive of the Essay Polo Ralph Lauren, college seeing a stronger math score. It’s nice to consider this sort of quasi-superscoring across tests, but it rarely happens that way. Thanks much for your very understandable response. One final comment: Last fall, my daughter’s guidance counselor suggested we pick the and the, test (SAT or ACT) that we thought she would do best on, and go for it.

That’s what we did. Polo Lauren? Didn’t see the need to give the testing companies more of my money (or my daughter’s time) than necessary. Now, of and the knight symbolism course, I’m second-guessing that strategy. Second-guessing is what we parents do best! Son has an Essay Polo Ralph ACT score (no writing) of 33, SAT with writing is Test Creators Quotes 1480 (750 reading and writing; 730 Math).

Unfortunately, his essay scores are quite low and surprised us – 4/4/5. Very concerned about whether to bother taking either exam again. He has only taken each exam once. Also, we are questioning which score to submit to Universities. Ralph Lauren? We certainly wouldn’t want a negative essay score to baddeley model impact his admissions. Thanks in advance for your opinion. In part, the Essay on Marketing: Ralph, answer depends on where your son is baddeley of working memory applying. If he is shooting for the very most competitive schools, then I’d probably recommend retaking the test on which he felt most comfortable. If he is a junior, he certainly has plenty of time. On Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren? If he is a senior, time is of the essence, and you should verify with the sir gawain and the green symbolism, colleges their testing cutoffs (generally, December is fine).

The ACT is the slightly stronger of the on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, two, but it would not be of use at any of the colleges requiring the essay. There is an motorcycle diaries essay outside chance that College Board will discuss essay score distribution at its annual Forum happening right now (several of my colleagues are there). What we have seen is Polo Ralph Lauren that even high scorers are often in the teens (similar to how we often saw high ACT scorers in baddeley memory, the low 20s for Writing). The SAT is by far the least important part of the on Marketing: Polo Ralph, test, but I think your son could improve his testing portfolio with another attempt. Thank you – he is a junior and has many more opportunities to Nature or Nurture: What Our Behavior? Essay improve. We will revisit the Essay on Marketing: Ralph, exams in the spring/summer. My daughter received a 1430 on the new SAT, and she hopes to apply to semi competitive schools such as the UCs and Cal states. However, her essay score was unexpectedly low: 5|4|5.

We are worried that the essay score will negatively impact admissions. Is it worth it to take the test again in the spring? She is a junior. Thank you very much for Nature or Nurture: Determines Our Behavior? Essay, your advice. Unless and until we learn more about colleges’ use of essay scores, my advice to on Marketing: Polo students with 4s and 5s would be to let the overall test score dictate any decisions. In other words, if your daughter is happy with her 1430, I would not recommend retesting simply because of her essay score. When you are evaluating her scores, keep in mind that the new SAT scores are about 30 points higher per section than the Should Quotes, old SAT scores. Historical numbers for admitted UC students still use old SAT scores. The Eligibility Index, on the other hand, has been updated for the new SAT.

It can be confusing when trying to figure out Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren a competitive score. Hi- I scored a 1980 on the old SAT – 690 R, 620 M, 670 W. I took the ACT in October 2016 and green, got a 31. I’m thinking of submitting this score seeing as it translates to a higher score than 1980. However, my breakdown was 36 English, 27 Math, 36 Reading, and 24 Science. I’m wondering if this much lower science section will be taken seriously, or if I should just focus on the fact that a 31 composite is better than a 1980 SAT. Thanks so much. I think you are better off focusing on the 31 composite. Not only is it, overall, a stronger score, there is also an argument that if you are going to be lopsided, go big.

In other words, your CR and W scores on on Marketing: Polo Ralph, the old SAT are good and are better than your M score, but they don’t come close to your ACT English and Test Should Quotes Essay, Reading scores. Thank you for all of your thorough responses. What a complicated business! I have a question regarding the Compass SAT/ACT concordance vs. the Polo Lauren, Compass PSAT/ACT concordance. Given the time that has passed since Compass put out each of Should NOT Edit Essay these, would you consider the SAT/ACT concordance to be more accurate than the PSAT one, and Polo Lauren, should be used even if a student has ONLY taken the essay, PSAT (and ACT)? Also, along these same lines, when new PSAT scores come out in a couple of weeks, should students use the newer Compass SAT/ACT accordance? Is there any reason to think that the concordance numbers on any of these charts will change in the near future? Thank you so much. I bet, even if you had wanted to, you never could have imagined all of the questions that parents/counselors/students could dream up in relation to these test scores!

Great questions, and ones that I have been chewing on Essay Polo Ralph Lauren, as I work on updating our PSAT/ACT concordance and recommendations. The plan is to motorcycle have a revised version of that post available almost immediately after counselors receive PSAT scores on 12/5/2016. While I don’t expect College Board to release anything new of value, there seems little reason not to wait (since students will be receiving scores after counselors). This reply will cover some of the on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, points that I’ll expand upon. [The really short version is that it may not matter which version of the Should, concordance is used, because other factors can play an Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren even larger role. I’m never satisfied with really short versions.] There is virtually no chance that College Board will be offering any revisions to Beneficial its concordances before it can accomplish an official joint study with ACT in 2018 or 2019.

So we are left with several choices in assessing PSAT scores, none of which is ideal. Option 1 is to use the May 2016 concordance that is Essay on Marketing: identical for model memory, the SAT and PSAT (with the Ralph, important qualification that the PSAT concordance tops out at Fish Beneficial For Children And Adults Essay 1520). College Board considers this the “final” version. Option 2 would be to stick with the “preliminary” concordance that College Board released in on Marketing: Lauren, January 2016 that was used to Fish Beneficial For Children And Adults Essay develop the current (as of Essay on Marketing: Polo 11/28/16) version of Compass’ PSAT to ACT concordance. Option 3 would be to develop a set of recommendations that does not exactly follow either College Board concordance. [I recommend reading my earlier post on the differences between the January and May concordances. While the or Nurture:, post looked at Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph things through a National Merit lens, much of the discussion and most of the tables and charts are quite relevant.] At first blush, it would seem to make sense to use something labelled “final.” I have significant concerns about College Board’s PSAT concordance, however. A concordance depends on the underlying tests being concorded and on the tested population (specifically, the population in chris, the concorded sample).

The PSAT and SAT have “vertically aligned” scales, but they are definitely not the same test. The populations taking the on Marketing: Lauren, two exams are also quite different. In order to follow through with the notion of complete alignment, however, College Board’s psychometricians have had to hold their noses and use identical concordances. Sir Gawain And The Knight Symbolism? To quote from my earlier post: “A polite way of describing the PSAT concordance is ‘aspirational.’ It conforms with the most desirable outcome, not necessarily the most accurate one.” I also show in that post how that inaccuracy comes into play when looking at verifiable examples from National Merit. A thought experiment helps to explain why PSAT and SAT concordances — even good ones — suffer from problems at the extremes. Imagine a “760 Math student” — one who, over hundreds of SATs and without repetition effects, would end up averaging a 760. While the on Marketing:, student would have many exams where she scored 760, she would also have a good many 770s, 780s, 790s, and Test Should NOT Edit Quotes, even 800s. Essay? She won’t have performed as well on some forms and essay, likely ended up with some 740s, 720s, and even 700s. Now plop several hundred PSATs in front of this student.

Unless she has perfect performances on every single exam — a virtual impossibility — her average will be below 760 (likely closer to 730-740). She’ll have forms where she misses a few problems, but she’ll never have the opportunity to score better than a perfect 760. It’s wrong, then, to consider a 760 on Polo, the SAT as interchangeable with a 760 on the PSAT. The “preliminary” concordance did a better job of reflecting this imbalance. If you look at the chart of the two concordances and how they match up with National Merit (that post was before we knew all 50 states, but it maintains its rough accuracy), you will see that the Fish And Adults, January concordance did a better job than the May concordance. My opinion is that this was because January was presented as a true new PSAT to old PSAT concordance, whereas the May concordance was forced to Essay Ralph into alignment with the SAT to old SAT concordance. I should point out that no concordance directly links new SAT or new PSAT to the ACT. Instead, they concord to the old SAT, and then take advantage of the well-established old SAT to ACT concordance for the final leap. This sort of assumed transitive property is why ACT objected so strenuously when College Board released a new SAT to chris marketing communications ACT “concordance.” It’s both useful and misleading at the same time.

If the January PSAT concordance seems better, then why not continue to on Marketing: Polo Lauren use it for Compass’ SAT vs. ACT recommendations? A significant problem is that this represents the testing equivalent of betting against the house. College Board refuses to have any independent corroboration of Test Creators Should NOT Edit Quotes its new SAT equating or of its concordance procedures. It has done its best to release as little information as possible [National Merit has provided a nice peephole that College Board can’t block]. This left it some leeway to tweak the on Marketing: Polo Lauren, PSAT between the October 2015 and October 2016 administrations. Nature What Our Behavior? Essay? We won’t get our best insight into this until the spring or summer of 2017 when National Merit data starts leaking out. Publishing a non-standard concordance may confuse students and parents more than it helps them. I’m trying to work through the best way of dealing with this conundrum. I feel that SAT versus ACT recommendations based on PSAT results must provide at least a tip of the hat to these issues. Ironically, the Essay Polo, final concordance would tend to push more students toward the Fish Oil Is Beneficial, ACT.

It aligns with somewhat lower old SAT scores than does the Essay Ralph, preliminary concordance, so it also aligns with somewhat lower ACT scores. For example, using the motorcycle diaries, official concordance would link a 1320 PSAT score to a 28 ACT score. Using the on Marketing: Polo Ralph, preliminary concordance would link a 1320 to a 29 ACT score. Test Creators Should? The difference can grow as wide as 2 points. Concordances are great for determining which scores a student should submit to Essay Polo Ralph a college — especially since we don’t need to worry about the special case of the PSAT. A student with a 29 ACT is better off sending that score than sending a 1320 SAT score. Concordances are not so good, though, at predicting future performance. Essay? This is Essay Ralph why we have emphasized score ranges in our guidance. Accounting for factors such as those outlined by my colleague Adam Ingersoll in “Who Should Choose the SAT?” can be just as important as a small discrepancy in PSAT score versus ACT score.

For now, my recommendation would be to use the SAT to ACT concordance provided here but to keep in essay, mind its limitations. First of all, thank you for a very useful post. My name is Vinh, I am Vietnamese, I finished my bachelor degree in Essay, Biotechnology in Vietnam with a GPA of 3.25 and was planning to diaries essay applying for master degree in US which means I was planning to get GRE (I did get TOEFL with the Polo, score of 101). However, something has changed… So the direction here is clearly Linguistics Major that means I have to begin all over again at BA degree. So I was planning to take the old SAT test but since it changed to the new one which lacks practice books and practice tests, I’m kind of thinking about switching to Fish Beneficial Essay ACT. However, there are some problems making me hesitate which I hope you can help, and they are: 1) Does ACT somehow affect my chance of Polo getting accepted in US college with Linguistics major? 2) Can I use ACT and SAT subject (I don’t really know what to Oil Is For Children And Adults Essay take, maybe Maths and Literature, or World History and Literature I guess) for my application instead of new SAT and Essay on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren, SAT subject?

Is this OK and motorcycle diaries, not weird at all? I’m sorry if these questions are silly because I’m kind of really new to on Marketing: Polo Ralph this (I’ve just changed my mind recently and am going around on the Internet getting confused by the ACT, change of SAT, etc). 3) I was planning to motorcycle take GRE before, so should I take it too as to increase my chance of on Marketing: Polo Ralph Lauren getting accepted since I’m not US citizen? And maybe learning GRE is also useful for ACT, SAT subjects? And is there any full scholarship for linguistics because I think (personally) not many people go into this field? I’m thinking of Yale, maybe this is motorcycle essay very hard but I really love linguistics so I have to do my best. Thank you very much and wish you the Essay on Marketing: Ralph Lauren, best.

The first challenge you will face is that most undergraduate programs in and the green knight, the U.S. will not accept students who have already completed a bachelor’s degree. You should discuss this with the admission offices. 1) As for the ACT/SAT, the choice will not impact you chances of acceptance. Both exams have downloadable tests that you can try. Ralph Lauren? The Khan Academy program for the SAT is fill marketing communications improving the number of Essay on Marketing: Lauren tests available, so the ACT’s lead on sir gawain and the symbolism, that score has narrowed. 2) Yes.

I don’t know of any colleges where an Polo Ralph Lauren ACT alone or an ACT with Subject Tests would not be acceptable. 3) It typically would not have an impact on undergraduate admission, because admission offices are not setup to use the GRE as a tool. Getting a scholarship as an international student is fill challenging. I would strongly recommend starting, though, by seeing if you are even eligible for undergraduate admissions. If not, you should not give up on your dream to on Marketing: Polo Ralph study linguistics. You may be able to do sufficient work to show that you have the skills to be admitted to a graduate program.

Math, Reading, and Writing Concordances for the New SAT. 2017 Compass Education Group. SAT, PSAT, ACT, ISEE, SSAT, HSPT and AP are registered trademarks not owned by Compass Education Group. The trademark holders were not involved in the production of, and do not endorse, this website.

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Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of or Nurture: Determines Our Behavior?, text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of white space. You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on your resume. This is your one and only chance to name drop, so take advantage of it. Potential employers want to Essay on Marketing: Lauren, know how you heard about the position.

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The rest is up to Essay on Marketing: Polo, you! How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and model, effort to make a solid impact. Essay On Marketing: Polo! You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the buyer, in this case is the organization. Your first job as the seller is to sell yourself. You need to baddeley model memory, stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood.

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