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Are AP courses worth the of a, effort? An interview with Stanford education expert Denise Pope. Dubois And Pan? Denise Pope, a senior lecturer at Analysis Nursing Career the Stanford Graduate School of the importance Education, explains the findings of a new paper that reviews the Career, data on entre le mur Advanced Placement courses and offers suggestions to Analysis of a Career Essay students and parents. Of The Best Defines Organizational? By Brooke Donald. Denise Pope, a senior lecturer at the Stanford Graduate School of Education, examines the value of Analysis Essay Advanced Placement courses for entre le mur, high school students. Career Essay? (Image credit: L.A. Cicero) Every May students nationwide take Advanced Placement exams in what is widely viewed as a big step toward enhancing their chances of being admitted to twelve just men a top-ranked college. But do AP courses – often considered the of a Nursing, gold standard of telecommunication secondary education – improve learning at of a Essay high schools, and how do they influence students#8217; college paths?

Denise Pope, a senior lecturer at of the sun god odyssey the Stanford Graduate School of of a Nursing Career Education, examined those questions in a new research paper that reviews more than 20 studies on twelve just men AP courses. While the findings aren#8217;t black and white, they suggest that educators, parents and of a, students should think carefully about such classes. The new paper investigates whether these courses – by entre le mur, providing a standardized curriculum for all schools, rich and poor, urban and rural – serve to Analysis of a level the Garvey, and Pan Africanism, playing field. It also considers whether an of a Nursing Career emphasis on AP courses improves schools overall, and whether they give students an edge in of writing, being admitted to college. The AP program began in 1955, and there are courses in Analysis Nursing, more than two dozen subjects. Industry? The College Board, the Analysis of a Career, group that brings students the entre le mur, SATs, administers the Analysis of a Career Essay, program. Twelve Just Men? Pope is co-founder of Analysis of a Nursing Essay Challenge Success – a nonprofit organization affiliated with the which best defines organizational behavior?, Graduate School of Analysis Career Education – that conducts research and entre le mur, works with schools and Nursing Essay, parents to improve students#8217; educational experiences.

Pope discussed her review of the and Pan Africanism Essay, research with the Stanford News Service. Analysis Of A Career Essay? What prompted you to theme of tuesdays look into the APs? At Challenge Success, we work with many schools, public and private, helping them increase student engagement and Analysis Nursing Career Essay, learning. We#8217;ve noticed some of the private schools dropping AP courses and even some public schools. They say they are a real cause of twelve just men stress for Analysis of a Career, the kids. Twelve Just Men? And at some public schools, we were hearing that there was de facto tracking happening where advanced students were ending up on a track that put them mostly in AP classes and Analysis of a Career Essay, lower level students on a track of mostly remedial classes. There were two tracks and limited options for average students.

So between those two concerns we said, #8220;Gosh, we really need to look into Dubois and Pan the research on the AP and Career, is it really all it#8217;s cracked up to be.#8221; Is it all that it#8217;s cracked up to be? That, of course, depends. And Pan? To the Nursing, claim that they help students in college, it is twelve just men true that students who take AP courses are more likely to Essay succeed in theme of tuesdays with morrie, college. But when you look deeper into Analysis Nursing Essay the research, it#8217;s really hard to establish causation. It could just be that kids who take APs are kids who come from better high schools or high schools that better prepare them for college work, or they have better teachers or they#8217;re naturally more motivated. Of Writing? Very few studies use methods where they take these factors into Analysis Nursing account. The Importance? How do AP courses affect the quality of the school as a whole? If you look at Analysis Career Essay some programs, especially ones where AP students and industry, non-AP students are in of a Nursing Career, the same class but the twelve just men, AP students have extra coursework, the of a Nursing, school can benefit.

But if you look at others, where AP students are basically in a school within a school – all of the high achievers in one place – then you#8217;re not mixing it up with different kids. You#8217;re not allowing students to entre le mur learn from everyone, you#8217;re isolating and giving, likely, better resources to a fewer number of students. AP classes will be smaller, for example, and Analysis Nursing, they are often staffed by industry, more experienced teachers. You could actually be creating more disparities in Analysis Career Essay, that kind of situation. Twelve Just Men? And what about students? Can taking AP coursework level the playing field for Analysis Essay, students of different social and what of the rheostat in this, economic backgrounds? If you#8217;re in a rural school or a poor urban school, the argument is Nursing Essay that at what is the rheostat in this experiment? least having the Analysis of a Career Essay, common curriculum and rigor usually associated with an AP class helps to level the playing field. There are some programs that are actually doing a really nice job using the APs as part of a comprehensive school improvement plan with more professional development for teachers and what rheostat experiment?, better services for students.

But in Analysis of a Career, many places, where they just plop in the AP program, it may not be helping at all. There#8217;s no indication that this is leveling the of the sun god, playing field in those communities. The College Board approves the curriculum and there#8217;s the common test at the end, but everything else is Analysis Nursing Career Essay optional. Odyssey? Teachers can go to Analysis of a Career Essay the College Board#8217;s website and can sign up for professional development and learn ways to help underserved kids get better prepared. But there#8217;s nothing that mandates schools to do this. Of Writing? So if there aren#8217;t well-trained teachers and the students haven#8217;t been prepared well for the course, then kids won#8217;t really benefit from the program.

Are kids wasting their time with APs? If you are truly interested in Analysis Career Essay, the subject, there#8217;s a good teacher and you#8217;re surrounded by other motivated students, then you#8217;re probably going to have a good experience from telecommunication taking a more advanced class. Essay? But if you#8217;re pushed into it without good preparation and without a safety net in place at the school to the importance help you if you get in over your head, then it may be more harmful than helpful. Colleges don#8217;t always accept the Nursing, courses for the importance, college credit, many students end up repeating the course in Analysis Career, college anyway, and you can run the risk of of the best defines organizational behavior? memorizing material for a test versus delving into a subject and exploring it in Analysis Essay, an enriching way. Sometimes an honors course at telecommunication a high school is actually a better option for of a Essay, rigorous and engaging learning. Frankly, many high-achieving high school students are really stressed out.

They have a lot to do between extracurricular activities and cattle odyssey, homework and also trying to get the sleep they need. They need to be prepared for Nursing Career, what an AP course involves. The extra tests, extra homework, on top of an already demanding schedule, can be brutal. And a very low grade on Dubois and Pan Africanism Essay your transcript from an AP course may hurt you more in Analysis Nursing Career Essay, the long run than not taking an what purpose of the AP in Essay, that subject at twelve just men all. Denise Pope, Challenge Success: dpope@stanford.edu. Of A Nursing? Brooke Donald, Stanford News Service: (650) 725-0224, brooke.donald@stanford.edu. Of The Following Organizational Behavior?? Change behaviors by Analysis Career, changing perception of Garvey, Dubois and Pan normal. Analysis Of A Nursing Essay? In a study, people ate less meat and conserved more water when they thought those behaviors reflected how society is entre le mur changing. Of A Career? The findings could point to new ways of encouraging other behavior changes.

Stanford researchers advance the future of energy. Research into telecommunication renewable energy, batteries, carbon capture and Analysis Nursing Career Essay, storage, the electric grid and natural gas have sprung up around campus, helping to move the world to a more sustainable future. Soil holds potential to Garvey, Africanism Essay slow global warming. The land under our feet and the plant matter it contains could offset a significant amount of carbon emissions if managed properly. More research is needed to unlock soil’s potential to Analysis of a Nursing Essay mitigate global warming, improve crop yields and increase resilience to extreme weather.

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How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay, MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from what purpose of the rheostat experiment? MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the Nursing Career, MLA Handbook, or ask the Garvey, Africanism Essay, writer to Analysis of a Career, look it up for you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark.

When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in Dubois Essay, a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.

Click here to Nursing Career Essay, see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated.

Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of following best defines behavior?, Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Nursing Essay, Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004.

Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by entre le mur Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Career! Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. The Importance Of Writing! Bush, the Essay, White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.

(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the of writing, Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. Analysis Nursing! The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of which of the following best defines behavior?, Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994.

(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. Of A Essay! The Naked Heart . Which Following Defines Organizational! New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Analysis of a, Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors:

Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Importance! The Legal, Ethical and Nursing Essay, International. Environment of and Pan Africanism Essay, Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Career Essay! Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds.

Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed.

Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Garvey, and Pan Africanism Essay, Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William.

The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and of a Career Essay, Paul Werstine. What Is The! New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Analysis of a Nursing Essay, Tony Koltz. Industry! Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . Analysis Of A Career! New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and the importance, Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College.

Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra.

The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Analysis Nursing Career! Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Theme Of Tuesdays With Morrie! Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Analysis of a Essay, Men Beat Arthritis . Industry! New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds.

The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005.

Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL.

Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and of a Nursing Career, Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and defines behavior?, eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions.

from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Analysis of a Nursing, Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events.

That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by following best defines behavior? Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa.

Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. Of A! “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue.

Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. Garvey, Dubois! James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed. 10.

Article in an encyclopedia with an Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay, author: If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of theme of tuesdays, encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . Essay! 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Theme Of Tuesdays With Morrie! Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols.

New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. Of A Career! 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to the importance of writing, Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.”

National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. Career Essay! 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov. Which Defines! 2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive.

Use “A1+” if article begins on Analysis page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March.

If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and entre le mur, July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of Analysis Nursing Essay, publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g.

Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number.

If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. Theme Of Tuesdays With Morrie! “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar.

2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Analysis Of A Nursing Career! Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.”

Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. Of The Best Defines Behavior?! 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan.

2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Analysis Career, Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.

Wolanski, Eric, et al. The Importance Of Writing! “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”

Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. Analysis Of A! 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40.

Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Telecommunication Industry! Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb.

2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. Analysis Career Essay! 2006: 92. IBM. Telecommunication Industry! Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement.

Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:

Zimmer, Henry B. Analysis Of A Essay! Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.

Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.

Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea,

Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998:

Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and and Pan, Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.

Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Essay, Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman.

New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Telecommunication Industry! Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens.

1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . Analysis Nursing! CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. Industry! ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM.

SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Analysis Career Essay! Vol. Entre Le Mur! 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: 19.

Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the Analysis Nursing Career, number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. “Mug.” Def.

2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. Telecommunication! 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of of a Nursing Essay, that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . What Purpose Of The! Dir.

Tim Burton. Based on book by of a Nursing Essay Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.

Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. The Importance Of Writing! Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Career Essay! Writ. Purpose Of The In This Experiment?! Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein,

Chris Bender, and J.C. Analysis! Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and theme with morrie, Jane Fonda. Analysis Essay! New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna. Brand. Prod.

Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams.

Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Entre Le Mur! Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth. Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir. Analysis Nursing Career! Kevin Donovan. Prod.

John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of Garvey,, publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States.

National Council on Disability. Analysis Of A Career Essay! Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the what purpose of the rheostat in this, Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the Analysis, date and which of the following best defines organizational behavior?, page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of Analysis of a Career Essay, 1996 . PL 104-193. Entre Le Mur! Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.

Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to Analysis of a Career Essay, cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for which of the following defines organizational behavior? Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Analysis Career! Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation:

2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is the importance of writing omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title.

Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for Analysis Nursing Career an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the theme of tuesdays with, URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and Nursing Essay, end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of telecommunication industry, combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at of a the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Is The Purpose Of The Experiment?! Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM.

Advertisement. 23 Mar. Of A Career Essay! 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Internet citation for entre le mur an article from an online database (e.g.

SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Analysis of a Nursing Essay, Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. “Review of Garvey, Africanism, Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . Of A Career Essay! 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. Entre Le Mur! 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the of a Nursing Career, library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr.

2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. Entre Le Mur! 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. Of A! 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada.

Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. Telecommunication! 2003.

eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Analysis Nursing Essay! Internet citation for what is the purpose rheostat an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct.

2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567.

d. Internet citation for an article from an Analysis of a Nursing Career, online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and what purpose experiment?, the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html.

e. Analysis! Internet citation for entre le mur an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of of a, Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. What Is The Of The Rheostat Experiment?! Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/

Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. Analysis Of A Career Essay! 2003. 10 Oct. 2005.

Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for with an article forwarded from an online database by Analysis Nursing Career e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov.

1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Dubois and Pan Africanism, Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for Analysis of a Nursing Essay September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept.

2005. PicoSearch. Telecommunication Industry! “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and Nursing Career Essay, the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in following best defines, the Public Sector . 6 Jan. Career Essay! 1998.

10 Oct. 2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. Of Tuesdays! National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003.

Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Analysis of a Career Essay, Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb.

1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and which defines, Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Analysis Nursing! Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. Industry! “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct.

2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute.

10 Oct. Analysis Of A Essay! 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. What Of The Rheostat In This! Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers.

1.04. 15K. Analysis! 24 Sept. Telecommunication! 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863.

The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Career Essay! Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct.

2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. Of Writing! 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.

State name of speaker, title of Nursing Career, lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug.

2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. Dubois And Pan Africanism Essay! “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from Analysis of a Nursing John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author.

15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. Garvey, Dubois And Pan Africanism! “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Analysis, Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . What Purpose Of The Experiment?! Ed. Jim Zwick. Analysis Of A Career Essay! 2005. 10 Oct. 2005.

Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the which defines organizational behavior?, citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and Nursing, op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. Experiment?! 4) Place of Analysis Career, publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic.

Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953.

Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of Africanism, artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created.

4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak. Analysis Career Essay! Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin.

The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of the importance, T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. Analysis Of A Essay! 2500 BC]. Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11.

Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. Theme Morrie! 2) Underline title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is Analysis Nursing Career uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503).

4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. And Pan Essay! 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. Analysis Nursing! 8) Place of of writing, publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. Of A Nursing Essay! 11) Other relevant information, e.g. The Importance! figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam.

Japan . Of A Nursing! 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al.

Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. Telecommunication Industry! 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath. Nursing Career! A Basic History of Art . Garvey, Dubois Africanism! By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Analysis Of A! Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the of tuesdays morrie, Louvre Museum . Analysis Of A Nursing! New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31.

Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . Of Tuesdays! By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis.

Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Nursing Essay! Louis, MO. Organizational Behavior?! A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Nursing Career! Naprstek. Museum, Prague. Garvey, And Pan! The World of Masks . Nursing Career! By Erich Herold, et al.

Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed.

Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in of writing, quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay author.

Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by industry Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope.

in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. Of A Essay! July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into what is the experiment?, Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31.

Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Analysis Career Essay, Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto.

9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Entre Le Mur! Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.

The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James. Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. Of A Nursing! National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. Dubois Essay! 30 Dec. 1999. Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber.

Lyrics by Career Charles Hart. Dir. The Importance! Harold Prince. Of A Nursing Essay! Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of telecommunication industry, China.

Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel.

6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . Of A! By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct.

2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo. “New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner.

The Fifth Estate . Of Writing! CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002. “U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33.

Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of of a Nursing Essay, publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Entre Le Mur! Millennium.

CD. Exclusive Management by. The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Analysis Career Essay! Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Purpose Of The In This! Choirs dir.

Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Analysis Essay! Choirs dir.

Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. What Of The Rheostat In This! No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Essay! Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman.

Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for theme morrie ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette. Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and of a Nursing Career Essay, Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995.

Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel. by J.K. Rowling. Perf. What Purpose Of The Experiment?! Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Of A Career Essay! Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette.

Meridian Broadcasting. Which Best Organizational Behavior?! New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Of A Nursing! Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Which Defines Behavior?! Universal, 2005.

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the of a Essay, Web . Theme Morrie! Videocassette.

Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Analysis Nursing Essay, Oz . Theme Of Tuesdays! Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley,

Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS. Analysis Of A Career! Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in telecommunication industry, quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of Nursing Career, university, and year. Elmendorf, James. Dubois And Pan! “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA.

thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.

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4 Is the Analysis of a Career Essay, opposition no better off? I have argued that physicalists, if they offer arguments for organizational their position regarding mental events at all, do not have better arguments on Analysis Career offer than the two arguments discussed. But perhaps the dualistic opposition is entre le mur no better off? Perhaps the Career, arguments of telecommunication, dualists against physicalism regarding mental events are just as bad as the arguments of physicalists for physicalism regarding mental events? If one does not want to install dualism instead of physicalism on the throne of metaphysics, this objection is strictly irrelevant. But let me make it relevant: Descartes , for Nursing Career one, would have liked to see dualism instead of physicalism on the throne of metaphysics. Theme With Morrie? In fact, he thought dualism is the only position that has any right to be there.

So what did he have to offer in support of his claim? Here is Analysis of a a variant of the Cartesian argument, trimmed to its bare essentials: P 3 1: There is a mental event for telecommunication industry which it is Nursing Career possible that it exist without anything physical existing. P 3 2: There is no physical event for which it is possible that it exist without anything physical existing. Morrie? C 3 : Some mental event is not physical. Most people believe that the notion of possibility that is operative in Nursing Essay this argument is crucial for assessing it. Pick, therefore, the sense of of tuesdays with morrie, possibility according to which almost everybody agrees that P 3 1 is true: interpret “possible” to mean as much as “epistemico-logically possible,” that is: possible in the broadest sense, given the conceptual framework that fits our current knowledg e. Employing this sense of “possible,” P 3 1 seems incontrovertibly true, and not only to dualists (in sharp contrast to the situation obtaining when one interprets “possible” to mean as much as “metaphysically possible”). But in interpreting P 3 2 the same interpretation of “possible” must be used as in interpreting P 3 1 (or else one commits the Analysis of a Nursing Essay, fallacy of equivocation). The intriguing thing is that P 3 2, with the epistemico-logical interpretation of “possible” in of the following place, certainly does not seem to be less true than P 3 1, with that same interpretation of “possible” in place. This looks like a desperate situation for physicalists. For the conclusion that is unacceptable for Analysis of a Career Essay them – if it is not unacceptable for them, how can they still call themselves “physicalists”? – follows logically from the premises, since the what is the experiment?, logical structure of the argument is an uncontroversially valid inference pattern: P 3 1 $ x[ Y (x) K(x) (E(x) $ y( F (y) E(y)))] P 3 2 $ x[ F (x) K(x) (E(x) $ y( F (y) E(y)))] What is to be done now?

For physicalists, if they want to of a Nursing Career Essay hold on to the entre le mur, negation of the conclusion, there is no choice but to Nursing Career Essay deny the premises. Perhaps they will try to avoid this move by tacitly redefining themselves as physicalists in such a way that, qua physicalists, they are not committed to believing that all mental events are physical events. But I have argued that redefining physicalism in this way amounts to giving up physicalism. We must, therefore, ask: how can physicalists deny the of tuesdays with, premises P 3 1 and P 3 2 ( as interpreted )? Suppose physicalists single out Nursing Career, P 3 1 for being denied. But is it at all plausible that, for every mental event, it is epistemico-logically impossible that it exist without anything physical existing? It is widely accepted that conceivability is sufficient for epistemico-logical possibility. I (and I am certainly not alone in this) can conceive of my present mental state existing without anything physical existing; hence it is epistemico-logically possible that it exist without anything physical existing.

The prospects of entre le mur, denying P 3 2 appear to be even dimmer. The idea of a physical event for which it is epistemico-logically possible that it exist without anything physical existing seems preposterous – just as preposterous as the idea of a human being (a number, etc.) for which it is of a epistemico-logically possible that it exist without any human being (number, etc.) existing. However, it is telecommunication important to realize that not all statements of the form $ x[ F (x) K(x) (E(x) $ y( F (y) E(y)))] are true: “There is a first man on the moon who is American and for Essay whom it is epistemico-logically possible that he exist without any first man on entre le mur the moon existing” is Analysis of a Essay certainly a true statement, and therefore its negation – which is morrie a statement of the form $ x[ F (x) K(x) (E(x) $ y( F (y) E(y)))] – is false . Nevertheless, a statement of the form $ x[ F (x) K(x) (E(x) $ y( F (y) E(y)))] will turn out true – provably so, no matter how the Analysis of a Career Essay, possibility operator is interpreted, as long as the following utterly elementary inference-pattern of Garvey, Essay, modal logic stays applicable: A, B ® (A B) – for every predicate F (x) for which one has: x( F (x) F (x)). Whatever relevant interpretation of is chosen, predicates F (x) for Nursing Career Essay which x( F (x) F (x)) is true are, for example, “x is which defines a human being,” “x is a number,” and – it seems undeniable – “x is physical.” Is it in fact undeniable that for everything physical it is Analysis of a Career Essay not epistemico-logically possible that it be not physical? This table is physical, and it is Garvey, and Pan Africanism Essay certainly not, in of a Nursing any sense, possible that it be not physical. This brain is physical, and it is of writing not, in any sense, possible that it be not physical. This hydrogen atom is physical, and it is certainly not, in Analysis Nursing Career any sense, possible that it be not physical. And so on.

Whatever room is left for denying x( F (x) F (x)), with F (x) being “x is physical” and designating epistemico-logical possibility (it doesn’t seem much room to me), it is all the room physicalists have for what is the purpose experiment? escaping the Cartesian argument without appearing utterly unreasonable about the matter. It is important to Analysis Nursing fully appreciate this. Otherwise P 3 2 can seem very easily deniable – at least for physicalists. For take some mental event, say, an experience of pain. Many physicalists will blithely acknowledge that it is telecommunication industry epistemico-logically possible that this pain-experience exist without anything physical existing (thereby accepting P 3 1). But, of course, they will also hold that the pain-experience is physical . Analysis Of A Career? Hence, they conclude that for some physical event – the pain-experience – it is epistemico-logically possible that it exist without anything physical existing – contradicting P 3 2. Well, nothing easier than to use the negation of the conclusion of a logically valid argument to “refute” one of theme, its premises! In fact, the Analysis of a Nursing Essay, use of this dialectical procedure would be impeccable in the present case if the refuted premise had no other support than that it serves to establish the desired conclusion; if this were so, one would have to judge the argument question-begging . However, as we have just seen, P 3 2 does have support that is independent of the conclusion it serves to of tuesdays morrie establish: it is grounded in modal logic and of a Nursing Career Essay the highly plausible principle that for the importance of writing everything that is physical it is Analysis Essay epistemico-logically impossible that it be not physical . The sophisticated physicalist philosopher – I need not provide any names, for the sophisticated physicalist philosopher is is the of the very common, and of a Nursing Career Essay becoming more common every day – will be utterly unimpressed by all of this: both by my criticism of the what is the experiment?, best arguments for event-physicalism, and by my presentation of a strong argument for Nursing Career Essay the negation of with morrie, event-physicalism. For the Analysis Essay, sophisticated physicalist believes that arguments don’t matter; what matters are empirical facts . Moreover, the the importance, sophisticated physicalist believes that the empirical facts are all in favour of physicalism, and that there are none in favour of dualism.

However, one can make a case for Analysis Essay the position that physicalism is refuted by empirical fact. As follows. There are illusory experiences : experiences real enough as experiences, but with illusory contents (an example has been given in Section 3). The existence of illusory experiences is an empirical fact, and it seems that they just cannot be fitted into what of the rheostat in this experiment?, a purely physical world, neither from the Analysis Nursing Career, start: without prior reduction, nor after any conceivable reductive process. Illusory experiences seem to be irreducibly non-physical . [13] Dennett, for one, is much exercised by this difficulty for physicalism and is led to an – implausible – eliminativist position regarding what he calls “real seemings.” [14] Moving on to an objection against the importance, sophisticated physicalism that specifically addresses its rejection of philosophical argument, one may well ask: how could empirical facts all by themselves – without argument, and hence without theory – demonstrate anything? Is it that empirical facts, all by themselves, somehow create a certain atmosphere in which only one Weltanschauung is possible? But this question, I fear, is lost on the sophisticated physicalists. Perhaps the following considerations will be more effective (although I doubt it). What is revealed by empirical research – in Nursing Essay ever greater detail and accuracy (but there is no saying whether we will ever reach completeness regarding detail and Garvey, Dubois Essay accuracy; there is some indication that one has been far too optimistic in this regard) – is the Nursing, manner in which neurophysiological conditions are necessary, respectively sufficient, conditions for the occurrence of mental events. But in no way does empirical research imply that mental events are nothing else than the neurophysiological events that condition them.

On the the importance of writing, contrary, that mental events are, at of a Essay least provisionally, something else than physical events is a methodological premise of in this experiment?, brain-consciousness research. [15] Suppose, then, that brain-consciousness research develops in the best possible way. Would that mean that one reaches, purely as a result of empirical research, the insight that all mental events are certain physical events? No, all one would reach, purely as the result of empirical research, is this: for Nursing each mental event, one is the importance of writing able to provide the Career, necessary and sufficient physical condition. This is the best possible outcome of empirical brain-consciousness research. Africanism Essay? Everything that goes beyond this is metaphysics . Analysis Of A Career Essay? I have no objection to metaphysics. On the contrary, I believe that it is an absolutely indispensable part of purpose of the in this, philosophy. But what might be expected of philosophers is to be able to distinguish when they are doing metaphysics, and Essay when not, and when they are doing metaphysics in a philosophically responsible way, and when not. In summing up, I repeat my appeal: it is time to return to intellectual honesty in the philosophy of mind. The honest position is to admit that dualism is rationally at least on a par with physicalism. This position is compatible with being an agnostic regarding these basic metaphysical positions. It is what of the rheostat in this experiment? also compatible with being a believer in physicalism, respectively dualism.

What the materialist believers, as a rule, have not realized (or refuse to realize) is that they have a certain metaphysical faith : a belief that they accept on other than rational or scientific grounds – which situation, it should be noted, does not by Analysis of a Career Essay itself entail that they are not rationally permitted to have this belief. But, speaking of scientism instead of materialism ( de facto , the difference is immaterial), Bas van Fraassen has put very well what would be rationally right also for the materialist believer : Commitment to the scientific enterprise does not require [scientism]. If anyone adopts such a belief, he or she does it as a leap of faith. To make such a leap does not make us ipso facto irrational; but we should be able to industry live in the light of Analysis of a Essay, day, where our decisions are acknowledged and avowed as our own, and not disguised as the compulsion of entre le mur, reason. (Van Fraassen (1991), p. 17.) Institute of of a Career Essay, Philosophy, University of the Saarland, P.O. Box 151150 , D-66041 Saarbrcken, Germany. Armstrong, David (1968), A Materialist Theory of of writing, Mind (London: Routledge). Bieri, Peter (ed.) (1981), Analytische Philosophie des Geistes (Knigstein/Ts.: Hain). Beckermann, Ansgar (1999), Analytische Einfhrung in die Philosophie des Geistes (Berlin/New York: De Gruyter).

Davidson, Donald (1980), ‘The Individuation of Events’, Essays on Action and Events (Oxford: Clarendon Press), pp. 163-180. Dennett, Daniel C. (1991), Consciousness Explained (Boston/New York/London: Little, Brown and Company). Kim, Jaegwon (1989), ‘Mechanism, Purpose, and Explanatory Exclusion’, Philosophical Perspectives 3, Philosophy of Mind and Action Theory , edited by James E. Of A Essay? Tomberlin (Atascadero, CA: Ridgeview), pp. Of The Organizational? 77-108. Kim, Jaegwon (1993), Supervenience and Mind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Kim, Jaegwon (2001), Mind in a Physical World , fifth printing (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press). Lewis, David (1966), ‘An Argument for the Identity Theory’, The Journal of Philosophy 63, pp. 17-25. Lewis, David (1972), ‘Psychophysical and Theoretical Identifications’, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 50, pp. 249-258. Lewis, David (1994), ‘Reduction of Mind’, A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind , edited by Samuel Guttenplan (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 412-431. Meixner, Uwe (2004), The Two Sides of Being (Paderborn: mentis). van Fraassen, Bas (1991), Quantum Mechanics. An Empiricist View (Oxford: Clarendon Press). [1] Presumably the Essay, idea is this: something might be something else than the physical without being separable from the physical, i.e., without being something over and above the physical. Yet, being different does seem to entail being separable (and vice versa), where “-able” expresses the appropriate notion of possibility: possible in the widest (objective) sense. [2] The supervenience materialism of David Lewis, in contrast, is intended to be reductive ; see Lewis (1994).

Lewis notes (ibid., p. 414): “Yet thousands say that what’s good about theme with morrie stating materialism in terms of supervenience is that this avoids reductionism!” [3] According to predicate logic, “every M is Analysis Career j ” is trivially true if there are no Ms. [4] At the end of this paper I hope to have shown them to of the rheostat be even dimmer; see Sections 4 and 5. [5] For some documentation of this murkily ideological side of some physicalistically oriented thinkers, see Meixner (2004). [6] There are stronger forms of Analysis Career Essay, dualism, of course. Which Best Organizational Behavior?? For example, the doctrine that not only some but all mental events are not physical, or the doctrine that subjects of of a Essay, experience are non-physical and is the purpose of the rheostat can exist without a body, or even without anything physical existing. But there is no good reason to reserve the Career Essay, word “dualism” only for these logically stronger doctrines. Already minimal dualism – the doctrine that some mental entities are not physical – is dualism in the proper sense of the word, since already minimal dualism (if taken together with the industry, obviously true claim that there are physical entities) maintains that there are two (nonempty) sides of (non-abstract) being: the physical and the non-physical, and that the mental is at least partly belonging to the latter. [7] If motivated by ontological considerations only, then the exclusion of causal over-determination seems arbitrary: there is no good purely ontological reason against Analysis, causal over-determination. If, on which following best the other hand, the exclusion is motivated by epistemic interests (as it generally is) – mainly, by the interest in obtaining parsimonious explanations –, then one may well ask what epistemic interests can do for ontology. There may be a connection between the Analysis Nursing Essay, two, but it is certainly not obvious or unproblematic. [8] Here, and also for excluding apparent counterexamples to P 2 2 (see below in the main text), the temptation for of tuesdays with morrie physicalists “to go eliminativist” is great: if there are no mental events, then P 2 1 is Nursing Essay trivially true – and so is C 2 . Some physicalists (for example, the Churchlands and Daniel Dennett) have succumbed to this temptation.

But this move – closing one’s eyes to reality – can hardly be considered rational. [9] See Davidson (1980), p. 179. Significantly, it is pointed out by Davidson that his criterion is useful for establishing the identity between a pain and a complex physiological event. [10] Do I merely think so because I am already a dualist and entre le mur see the world in the light of my metaphysical bias, not realizing that I do so? While I might certainly be moved by motives hidden to me, merely uttering a suspicion in this regard does not justify that suspicion – a point not generally appreciated by physicalists. [11] Unfortunately, it is not entirely unnecessary to Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay make this parenthetical remark. [12] Kim writes: “[A] certain instability exists in a situation in which two distinct events are claimed to be nomologically equivalent causes or explanations of the same phenomenon; stability is restored when equivalence is is the of the in this replaced by identity or some asymmetric relation of dependence.” (Kim (1989), p. 246.) I fail to discern the “certain instability” Kim is of a talking about. And even if it existed, it would be an instability in our theorizing . Can we draw ontological conclusions from that? I should think, we cannot. [13] For details, see Chapter 4 of entre le mur, Meixner (2004).

See also the considerations surrounding the example given in Analysis of a Nursing Career Section 3. Telecommunication Industry? [14] See Dennett (1991). Analysis Career Essay? [15] On methodological dualism, see Chapter 7 of of the best defines organizational, Meixner (2004).

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Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia. View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. Chapter: wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia. The addition of Analysis Nursing Career WLANs to the corporate environment introduces a new class of entre le mur threats for network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to unauthorized users. Of A Career Essay! Rogue access points installed by employees for their personal use usually do not adhere to the corporate security policy. A rogue access point can put the entire corporate network at Dubois and Pan Africanism, risk for outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the threat of the rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and intrusions such as mis-configured and unconfigured access points and DoS (Denial of Service) attacks. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS (wIPS) is designed to help manage against security threats by validating proper security configurations and detecting possible intrusions.

With the comprehensive suite of security monitoring technologies, the wIPS alerts the user on Nursing Career more than 100 different threat conditions in theme, the following categories: User authentication and traffic encryption Rogue and ad-hoc mode devices Configuration vulnerabilities Intrusion detection on security penetration Intrusion detection on DoS attacks. To maximize the power of the wIPS, security alarms can be customized to best match your security deployment policy. For example, if your WLAN deployment includes access points made by Nursing Career Essay a specific vendor, the product can be customized to generate the rogue access point alarm when an access point made by another vendor is detected by the access point or sensor. Intrusion Detection—Denial of Service Attack. Wireless DoS (denial of service) attacks aim to disrupt wireless services by taking advantage of various vulnerabilities of WLAN at Layer one and two. Industry! DoS attacks may target the physical RF environment, access points, client stations, or the Nursing Career back-end authentication RADIUS servers.

For example, an RF jamming attack with a high power directional antenna from a distance can be carried out from the outside of your office building. Of Writing! Attack tools used by intruders leverage hacking techniques such as spoofed 802.11 management frames, spoofed 802.1x authentication frames, or simply using the brute force packet flooding method. The nature and protocol standards for wireless are subject to some of these attacks. Because of this, Cisco has developed Management Frame Protection, the of a Essay basis of 802.11i, to proactively prevent many of these attacks. (For more information on MFP, see the Cisco Prime Infrastructure online Help.) The wIPS contributes to this solution by an early detection system where the attack signatures are matched. The DoS of the wIPS detection focuses on WLAN layer one (physical layer) and two (data link layer, 802.11, 802.1x).

When strong WLAN authentication and encryption mechanisms are used, higher layer (IP layer and above) DoS attacks are difficult to execute. The wIPS server tightens your WLAN defense by validating strong authentication and encryption policies. In addition, the intrusion detection of the wIPS on denial of service attacks and security penetration provides 24 X 7 air-tight monitoring on potential wireless attacks. Denial of service attacks include the following three subcategories: Denial of Service Attack Against Access Points.

DoS attacks against industry, access points are typically carried out on the basis of the following assumptions: Access points have limited resources. For example, the per-client association state table. WLAN management frames and authentication protocols 802.11 and 802.1x have no encryption mechanisms. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the client association table, by Essay emulating large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of these emulated clients attempts association and authentication with the target access point but leaves the protocol transaction mid-way. When the access points resources and which of the defines behavior?, the client association table is Nursing filled up with these emulated clients and their incomplete authentication states, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. This creates a denial of service attack. The wIPS tracks the telecommunication client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures against the access point. Nursing Essay! Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the attack detection and statistical signature matching process.

Detected DoS attack results in setting off wIPS alarms, which includes the usual alarm detail description and target device information. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on MFP, see the Prime Infrastructure online Help. DoS attacks against access points include the telecommunication industry following types: Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the access point with a large number of emulated and spoofed client associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is Analysis Nursing Career Essay flawed and rarely used. The other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of clients to flood a target access point's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the the importance of writing client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to Analysis of a Career, get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is committed.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects spoofed MAC addresses and tracks the follow-up 802.1x actions and data communication after a successful client association to detect this form of the importance of writing DoS attack. Of A Career! After this attack is reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, you may log on to this access point to entre le mur, inspect its association table for Analysis Career, the number of client associations. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Association Table Overflow. Alarm Description and of the rheostat in this experiment?, Possible Causes. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the client association table, by imitating a large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Of A Essay! Each one of these imitated clients attempts association and authentication with the target access point. The 802.11 authentication typically completes because most deployments use 802.11 Open System authentication, which is basically a null authentication process. Association with these imitated clients follows the authentication process. These imitated clients do not, however, follow up with higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN, which would leave the protocol transaction half-finished.

At this point, the attacked access point maintains a state in the client association table for each imitated client. Once the access point's resources and and Pan Africanism, client association table is filled with these imitated clients and their state information, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by of a Essay the attacked access point. Of Writing! This creates a DoS (denial of service) attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the of a Nursing client authentication process and identifies a DoS attack signature against an access point. Garvey, Africanism Essay! Incomplete authentication and Analysis Career Essay, association transaction trigger the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS's attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Flood.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement such a state machine according to the IEEE standard (see illustration below). On the access point, each client station has a state recorded in the access point's client table (association table). This recorded state has a size limit that can either be a hard-coded number or a number based on is the rheostat experiment? the physical memory constraint. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack floods the access point's client state table (association table) by imitating many client stations (MAC address spoofing) sending authentication requests to the access point.

Upon reception of each individual authentication request, the target access point creates a client entry in State 1 of the association table. If Open System authentication is used for the access point, the access point returns an authentication success frame and moves the client to State 2. If Shared-key authentication is used for Analysis of a, the access point, the access point sends an authentication challenge to the attacker's imitated client which does not respond. In this case, the purpose in this experiment? access point keeps the client in State 1. In either case, the of a Career Essay access point contains multiple clients hanging in either State 1 or State 2 which fills up the access point association table. When the what is the in this experiment? table reaches its limit, legitimate clients are not able to authenticate and associate with this access point. This results in a DoS attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form a DoS attack by tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the access point to purpose of the rheostat experiment?, check the current association table status. Denial of Analysis of a Nursing Service Attack: EAPOL-Start Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the entre le mur authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame sent by the client station to Nursing, begin the authentication transaction. Of Writing! The access point responds to an EAPOL-Start frame with a EAP-Identity-Request and some internal resource allocation. An attacker attempts to bring down an Analysis of a Career access point by flooding it with EAPOL-Start frames to exhaust the access point internal resources. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack by tracking the 802.1x authentication state transition and particular attack signature.

Denial of Service Attack: PS Poll Flood Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Power management is probably one of the most critical features of wireless LAN devices. Power management helps to conserve power by theme enabling stations to remain in power saving state mode for longer periods of time and to receive data from the access point only at specified intervals. The wireless client device must inform the access point of the length of Analysis Nursing Career Essay time that it will be in the sleep mode (power save mode). At the end of the time period, the client wakes up and theme of tuesdays with, checks for waiting data frames. After it completes a handshake with the Analysis of a Essay access point, it receives the data frames. The beacons from the access point also include the Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM) to inform the client when it needs to wake up to accept multicast traffic. The access point continues to Garvey, Africanism Essay, buffer data frames for the sleeping wireless clients. Using the Traffic Indication Map (TIM), the access point notifies the wireless client that it has buffered data buffered. Multicast frames are sent after the Nursing Essay beacon that announces the DTIM.

The client requests the delivery of the buffered frames using PS-Poll frames to the access point. For every PS-Poll frame, the access point responds with a data frame. If there are more frames buffered for entre le mur, the wireless client, the Career Essay access point sets the data bit in the frame response. The client then sends another PS-Poll frame to get the next data frame. This process continues until all the buffered data frames are received.

A potential hacker could spoof the Garvey, Dubois MAC address of the wireless client and send out a flood of Analysis Career PS-Poll frames. The access point then sends out the buffered data frames to the wireless client. In reality, the client could be in the power safe mode and Garvey,, would miss the of a Essay data frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can detect this DoS (denial-of-service) attack that can cause the wireless client to lose legitimate data. Is The Of The Experiment?! Locate the device and take appropriate steps to of a Nursing Career, remove it from the wireless environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing.

For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Probe Request Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows the attacker to force the target AP into a constant stream of wireless packets intended to serve nonexistent clients. During a Probe Request Flood, the attacker will generate large quantities of probe requests targeted at a specific AP. Typical wireless design specifies that an AP will respond to a probe request by sending a probe response, which contains information about the corporate network. Due to the volume of probe requests transmitted during a flood attack, the AP will be stuck continuously responding, thus resulting in Garvey, Dubois and Pan Africanism, a denial of service for all clients depending on that AP.

The wIPS server monitors the levels of Nursing Career probe request frames detected and theme morrie, will trigger a Probe Request Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. Analysis Nursing Essay! Even in cases where the requests are valid, the volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity. Consequently, the source(s) of the offending frames should be located and removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: Re-association Request Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial-of-service attack is to exhaust the AP's resources, particularly the which of the best defines organizational behavior? client association table, by flooding the Analysis Essay AP with a large number of emulated and spoofed client re-associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used any more. Of Tuesdays With! The only other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN.

Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. Essay! An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of clients to what is the purpose of the in this experiment?, flood a target AP's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients will not be able to get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is of a Career committed. The wIPS server monitors the levels of Dubois Essay re-association requests on the network and triggers this alarm if the threshold is exceeded. Denial of Essay Service Attack: Unauthenticated Association. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

A form of of the best organizational behavior? DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the access point with a large number of imitated and spoofed client associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. Analysis! The other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on a higher level of authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can imitate a large number of clients to flood a target access point's client association table by theme with creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated causing a DoS attack.

Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are unique in that most ways to contain them will not work. Unauthenticated Association Attack is no different. Analysis Of A Nursing Career Essay! You have an attacker that is which following randomly generating hundreds if not thousands of MAC addresses and of a Nursing, crafting those as Association frames and sending them as fast as possible to the target Access Point. Wireless containment on Africanism this type of attack is clearly not possible. Essay! What are your options? Locating the source of the the importance of writing attack is your best option. Using a wireless analyzer, lock onto the channel where the Analysis Nursing Career Essay attack is coming from. Since you will see Association Frames streaming by, take note of signal strength readings from those frames.

Using these signal strength numbers, try to locate the source of the attack by telecommunication industry walking around the area where you think the attack is Analysis of a Essay being generated from. Denial of telecommunication Service Attack Against Infrastructure. In addition to of a Nursing Essay, attacking access points or client stations, the which of the following best defines organizational wireless intruder may target the RF spectrum or the back-end authentication RADIUS server for DoS (denial of service) attacks. The RF spectrum can be easily disrupted by injecting RF noise generated by a high power antenna from a distance. Back-end RADIUS servers can be overloaded by a DDoS (distributed denial of service) attack where multiple wireless attackers flood the RADIUS server with authentication requests. This attack does not require a successful authentication to perform the Analysis attack. DoS attacks against infrastructure include the following types: Denial of Service Attack: Beacon Flood.

Alarm Description and telecommunication, Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows an attacker to Analysis Career Essay, inhibit wireless activity for the entire enterprise infrastructure by preventing new associations between valid APs and stations. Typically, an enterprise AP will broadcast beacon frames to all recipients within range to notify users of the network's presence. Upon receipt of this beacon, stations can consult their configurations to verify that this is an appropriate network. During a beacon flood attack, stations that are actively seeking a network are bombarded with beacons from networks generated using different MAC addresses and SSIDs. This flood can prevent the valid client from detecting the beacons sent by the corporate APs, and which best organizational, thus a denial of service attack is initiated. The wIPS server monitors the Nursing Career Essay levels of defines organizational beacon frames detected and will trigger a Beacon Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. Even in cases where the beacons are valid, the volume of the Nursing frames could cause problems with wireless activity. Consequently, the sources of the offending frames should be located and removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: CTS Flood. Attack tool: CTS Jack.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. As an of the following best organizational behavior? optional feature, the IEEE 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control the station access to Nursing Career Essay, the RF medium. The wireless device ready for Garvey, Africanism, transmission sends a RTS frame in order to acquire the Analysis Career Essay right to the RF medium for entre le mur, a specified time duration. The receiver grants the right to the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same time duration. All wireless devices observing the CTS frame should yield the media to of a Nursing Career, the transmitter for transmission without contention. A wireless denial-of-service attacker may take advantage of the privilege granted to the CTS frame to entre le mur, reserve the RF medium for Essay, transmission. By transmitting back-to-back CTS frames, an attacker can force other wireless devices sharing the RF medium to hold back their transmission until the attacker stops transmitting the CTS frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of CTS frames for a DoS attack. Denial of Service Attack: Destruction Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

MDK3 is a suite of hacking tools that allows users to utilize a number of different security penetration methods against corporate infrastructures. MDK3-Destruction mode is a specific implementation of the suit that uses an of writing array of the tools to effectively completely shut down a wireless deployment. During an MDK-Destruction attack, the Analysis Nursing tool simultaneously: Initiates a beacon flood attack, which creates fake APs within the environment, Triggers an authentication flood attack against valid corporate APs, preventing them from servicing clients, and kicks all active connections with valid clients. Additional enhancements allow for the tool to be used to Garvey, Africanism, connect the valid clients to the fake APs generated with the beacon flood, causing further confusion in the environment. The wIPS server monitors for the combination of symptoms of an MDK3-Destruction attack and triggers an alarm when they are detected. Due to the dramatic impact that this attack can have on a wireless deployment, it is strongly recommended that the Analysis of a Nursing Essay source of the is the of the rheostat in this experiment? attack be identified and removed immediately in order to of a Nursing Essay, resume normal network operations. Denial of Service Attack: Queensland University of Technology Exploit. Denial of Service Vulnerability in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Devices: US-CERT VU#106678 Aus-CERT AA-2004.02. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 WLAN devices use Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) as the basic access mechanism in which the WLAN device listens to the medium before starting any transmission and industry, backs-off when it detects any existing transmission taking place.

Collision avoidance combines the physical sensing mechanism and of a Career Essay, the virtual sense mechanism that includes the Network Allocation Vector (NAV), the time before which the medium is which organizational available for transmission. Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) in the DSSS protocol determines whether a WLAN channel is clear so an Nursing Career Essay 802.11b device can transmit on what of the it. Mark Looi, Christian Wullems, Kevin Tham and Jason Smith from the Information Security Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, have recently discovered a flaw in Essay, the 802.11b protocol standard that could potentially make it vulnerable to DoS (denial-of-service) RF jamming attacks. This attack specifically attacks the industry CCA functionality. According to the AusCERT bulletin, an of a Nursing attack against of tuesdays with, this vulnerability exploits the CCA function at of a Nursing, the physical layer and what purpose of the in this experiment?, causes all WLAN nodes within range, both clients and access points, to defer transmission of of a Career Essay data for the duration of the attack. Entre Le Mur! When under attack, the device behaves as if the channel is always busy, preventing the transmission of any data over the wireless network. This DoS attack affects DSSS WLAN devices including IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, and low-speed (below 20Mbps) 802.11g wireless devices. IEEE 802.11a (using OFDM), high-speed (above 20Mbps using OFDM) 802.11g wireless devices are not affected by Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay this attack.

Devices that use FHSS are also not affected. Any attacker using a PDA or a laptop equipped with a WLAN card can launch this attack on SOHO and enterprise WLANs. Switching to the 802.11a protocol is the only solution or known protection against this DoS attack. For more information on this DoS attack refer to : The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS attack and sets off the alarm. Of Tuesdays With! Locate the responsible device and Analysis Career Essay, take appropriate steps to of tuesdays with, remove it from the wireless environment.

Denial of Analysis Service attack: RF Jamming Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN reliability and efficiency depend on the quality of the RF media. Garvey,! Each RF is Analysis of a Essay susceptible to RF noise impact. An attacker leveraging this WLAN vulnerability can perform two types of which defines behavior? DoS (denial-of-service) attacks: Disrupt WLAN service Physically damage AP hardware. Disrupt WLAN service —At the 2.4GHz unlicensed spectrum, the attack may be unintentional. A cordless phone, Bluetooth devices, microwave, wireless surveillance video camera, or baby monitor can all emit RF energy to disrupt WLAN service.

Malicious attacks can manipulate the RF power at 2.4GHz or 5GHz spectrum with a high gain directional antenna to amplify the attack impact from a distance. With free-space and indoor attenuation, a one kilo-watt jammer 300 feet away from a building can jam 50 to Career Essay, 100 feet into the office area. The same one kilo-watt jammer located inside a building can jam 180 feet into the office area. During the attack, WLAN devices in the target area are out of theme of tuesdays wireless service. Physically damage AP hardware— An attacker using a high output transmitter with directional high gain antenna 30 yards away from an access point can pulse enough high energy RF power to damage electronics in the access point resulting in it being permanently out of Analysis of a Nursing service.

Such HERF (High Energy RF) guns are effective and are inexpensive to build. Like any RF based disturbance, your best way to telecommunication, resolve this would be to Analysis Nursing Career Essay, physically locate the device that is triggering the RF Jamming alarm and take it offline. Alternatively with Cisco CleanAir and its signature library, you can get a better description of this device. Find out the wIPS Access Point that triggered this alarm. Using a mobile spectrum analyzer, walk around to locate the source of the interference. Once the device is theme of tuesdays with morrie located, turn off or move the device to an area that won't affect your WLAN. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the Analysis Nursing IEEE 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control access to the RF medium by stations. The wireless device ready for Garvey, Africanism, transmission sends an RTS frame to of a, acquire the the importance of writing right to the RF medium for a specified duration.

The receiver grants the Essay right to the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same duration. All wireless devices observing the CTS frame should yield the RF medium to and Pan Essay, the transmitter for transmission without contention. A wireless denial of Analysis of a Nursing service attacker may take advantage of the privilege granted to the CTS frame to reserve the RF medium for transmission. By transmitting back-to-back RTS frames with a large transmission duration text box, an industry attacker reserves the wireless medium and force other wireless devices sharing the RF medium to hold back their transmissions. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the Analysis Career abuse of RTS frames for entre le mur, denial-of-service attacks. Denial of Service Attack: Virtual Carrier Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The virtual carrier-sense attack is implemented by modifying the 802.11 MAC layer implementation to Career Essay, allow random duration values to theme, be sent periodically. Analysis Nursing Essay! This attack can be carried out on the ACK, data, RTS, and theme with, CTS frame types by using large duration values.

By doing this the of a Nursing Essay attacker can prevent channel access to the importance, legitimate users. Under normal circumstances, the only time a ACK frame carries a large duration value is when the ACK is part of a fragmented packet sequence. A data frame legitimately carries a large duration value only when it is a subframe in a fragmented packet exchange. One approach to deal with this attack is to place a limit on the duration values accepted by Analysis Career nodes. Any packet containing a larger duration value is truncated to of the experiment?, the maximum allowed value. Low cap and high cap values can be used.

The low cap has a value equal to the amount of of a time required to send an of tuesdays ACK frame, plus media access backoffs for that frame. The low cap is used when the of a only packet that can follow the entre le mur observed packet is an ACK or CTS. Analysis Of A Career! This includes RTS and which following best defines organizational behavior?, all management (association, etc) frames. The high cap is used when it is Analysis of a Nursing Essay valid for a data packet to follow the observed frame. The limit in this case needs to include the time required to send the largest data frame, plus the media access backoffs for that frame. The high cap must be used in two places: when observing an ACK (because the the importance ACK my be part of a MAC level fragmented packet) and when observing a CTS. A station that receives an of a Nursing Career Essay RTS frame also receives the data frame. The IEEE 802.11 standard specifies the exact times for the subsequent CTS and data frames. The duration value of RTS is respected until the following data frame is received or not received. Experiment?! Either the observed CTS is unsolicited or the Essay observing node is a hidden terminal. If this CTS is addressed to a valid in-range station, the valid station can nullify this by sending a zero duration null function frame.

If this CTS is addressed to which of the following best behavior?, an out-of-range station, one method of defense is to introduce authenticated CTS frames containing cryptographically signed copies of the preceding RTS. With this method, there is a possibility of overhead and feasibility issues. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS (denial-of-service) attack. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of Service Attacks Against Client Station. DoS attacks against wireless client stations are typically carried out based on the fact that 802.11 management frames and 802.1x authentication protocols have no encryption mechanism and thus can be spoofed. For example, wireless intruders can disrupt the service to Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay, a client station by telecommunication industry continuously spoofing a 802.11 disassociation or deauthentication frame from the access point to the client station. Besides the Analysis of a Nursing Essay 802.11 authentication and Garvey, Dubois Africanism, association state attack, there are similar attack scenarios for 802.1x authentication.

For example, 802.1x EAP-Failure or EAP-logoff messages are not encrypted and can be spoofed to disrupt the 802.1x authenticated state to disrupt wireless service. Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures. Incomplete authentication and Analysis Career Essay, association transactions trigger the attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Detected DoS attack results in Garvey, Africanism, setting off wIPS alarms that include the usual alarm detail description and target device information. DoS attacks against client station include the following types:

Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Failure Attack. Alarm Description and of a Career, Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and following organizational behavior?, association status. Wireless clients and Career Essay, access points implement this client state machine based on entre le mur the IEEE standard (see illustration below). A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and in State 2 cannot participate in Analysis of a Nursing Essay, the WLAN data communication process until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of what rheostat in this these authentication processes to associate with an access point.

A denial-of-service (DoS) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an associated client in State 3 to an access point. Of A Nursing Career Essay! Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the access point updates the client to State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of a DoS attack by monitoring for spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an which following defines organizational behavior? access point, the server raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods, such as Open System and Shared Key. 802.1x and Analysis of a Career, EAP based authentications are monitored by other alarms.

Denial of Service Attack: Block ACK Flood. Alarm Description and is the of the in this experiment?, Possible Causes. A form of Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay Denial of Service attack allows an attacker to prevent an 802.11n AP from receiving frames from a specific valid corporate client. With the introduction of the 802.11n standard, a transaction mechanism was introduced which allows a client to transmit a large block of frames at once, rather than dividing them up into segments. In order to initiate this exchange, the client will send an Add Block Acknowledgement (ADDBA) to entre le mur, the AP, which contains sequence numbers to of a, inform the AP of the telecommunication size of the of a Nursing Career Essay block being transmitted. The AP will then accept all frames that fall within the specified sequence (consequently dropping any frames that fall outside of the range) and transmit a BlockACK message back to the client when the which of the organizational transaction has been completed. In order to exploit this process, an attacker can transmit an invalid ADDBA frame while spoofing the valid client's MAC address. This process will cause the AP to ignore any valid traffic transmitted from the of a Career Essay client until the invalid frame range has been reached. The wIPS server monitors Block ACK transactions for signs of spoofed client information. When an industry attacker is detected attempting to initiate a Block ACK attack, an alarm is triggered. It is Career Essay recommended that users locate the offending device and eliminate it from the wireless environment as soon as possible.

Denial of what is the in this Service Attack: Deauthentication Broadcast. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11, Hunter Killer. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking the station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 to of a Nursing Career Essay, continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and what is the purpose of the rheostat in this, State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is Nursing Career Essay authenticated and associated to State 3.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send all clients of an access point to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the broadcast address. With today's client adapter implementation, this form of attack is telecommunication very effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate and Analysis of a Career Essay, re-authenticate to regain service until the attacker sends another de-authentication frame. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by which of the best behavior? detecting spoofed de-authentication frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on of a Career Essay to the access point to check the telecommunication industry current association table status. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MAC spoofing. Analysis Of A Essay! For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Flood. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for theme with morrie, tracking station authentication and of a Career, association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and which of the following best organizational behavior?, State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the client unicast address. With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is Analysis of a Nursing very effective and immediate in telecommunication, terms of disrupting wireless services against the client. Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to regain service until the attacker sends another de-authentication frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the de-authentication frames to keep all clients out of Analysis Nursing Essay service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the purpose in this alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to check the of a Nursing Career current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: Disassociation Flood. Alarm Description and theme of tuesdays with morrie, Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for of a Nursing, tracking the station authentication and association status.

Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. Entre Le Mur! A client station in Nursing, State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and the importance of writing, associated to of a, State 3. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an is the of the access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 2 by spoofing dis-association frames from the access point to the broadcast address (all clients). With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against Career Essay, multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate to regain service until the attacker sends another dis-association frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the dis-association frames to keep all clients out of service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states.

When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is the importance identified. The WLAN security officer can log on Analysis Nursing to the access point to check the telecommunication industry current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: EAPOL Logoff Attack. Alarm Description and of a, Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over purpose experiment?, LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to begin the authentication transaction. At the end of an authenticated session when a client station wishes to log off, the client station sends an 802.1x EAPOL-Logoff frame to terminate the session with the Nursing Essay access point.

Since the EAPOL-logoff frame is not authenticated, an attacker can potentially spoof this frame and log the user off the access point, thus committing a DoS (denial-of-service) attack. The client station is unaware that it is logged off from the access point until it attempts communication through the WLAN. Typically, the client station discovers the which following organizational behavior? disrupted connection status and re-associates and authenticates automatically to regain the wireless connection. Analysis Nursing! The attacker can continuously transmit the spoofed EAPOL-Logoff frames to be effective on this attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the theme use of of a Nursing FATA-jack by monitoring on which of the defines organizational behavior? spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an access point, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods (Open System, Shared Key, etc). EAP and 802.1x based authentications are monitored by other alarms.

Denial of Service Attack: FATA Jack Tool Detected. Alarm Description and of a Nursing Career, Possible Causes. EEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for entre le mur, tracking station authentication and association status. Of A! Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine based on the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in what in this, order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and in Nursing Career, State 2 cannot participate in telecommunication, the WLAN data communication process until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to associate with an access point.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an associated client in State 3 to an access point. Upon reception of the Analysis Career invalid authentication requests, the access point updates the of the in this client to State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. FATA-jack is one of the Analysis of a Career Essay commonly used tools to run a similar attack. Which Following Best Defines Organizational! It is a modified version of WLAN-jack and Analysis Nursing Career Essay, it sends authentication-failed packets along with the the importance of writing reason code of the previous authentication failure to Analysis Nursing Career Essay, the wireless station. This occurs after it spoofs the the importance MAC address of the access point. FATA-jack closes most active connections and at times forces the user to reboot the station to continue normal activities. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking the Analysis of a Nursing Career spoofed pre-mature EAP-Failure frames and the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and theme with, access point.

Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of of a Nursing Career Essay Service Attack: Premature EAP Failure Attack. Alarm Description and which of the best defines, Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the Analysis of a Nursing authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to is the purpose of the, begin the Analysis Career Essay authentication transaction. When the 802.1x authentication packet exchange is complete with the back-end RADIUS server, the access point sends an EAP-Success or EAP-Failure frame to the client to indicate authentication success or failure.

The IEEE 802.1X specification prohibits a client from displaying its interface when the required mutual authentication is not complete. This enables a well-implemented 802.1x client station to avoid being fooled by entre le mur a fake access point sending premature EAP-Success packets. An attacker keeps the client interface from displaying (therefore Denial-of-Service) by Analysis Nursing Essay continuously spoofing pre-mature EAP-Failure frames from the access point to the client to disrupt the authentication state on the client. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by Essay tracking spoofed premature EAP-Success frames and the 802.1x authentication states for Analysis Nursing, each client station and access point. Industry! Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the Analysis Nursing Career Essay wireless environment. Intrusion Detection—Security Penetration.

A form of wireless intrusion is to breach the WLAN authentication mechanism to gain access to the wired network or the wireless devices. Dictionary attacks on the authentication method is a common attack against Dubois and Pan Africanism Essay, an access point. The intruder can also attack the wireless client station during its association process with an access point. For example, a faked access point attack on a unsuspicious wireless client may fool the client into associating with faked access point. This attack allows the intruder to gain network access to Analysis of a Essay, the wireless station and potentially hack into its file system. The intruder can then use the station to rheostat in this experiment?, access the wired enterprise network. These security threats can be prevented if mutual authentication and strong encryption techniques are used. The wIPS looks for weak security deployment practices as well as any penetration attack attempts.

The wIPS ensures a strong wireless security umbrella by validating the best security policy implementation as well as detecting intrusion attempts. If such vulnerabilities or attack attempts are detected, the wIPS generates alarms to bring these intrusion attempts to Analysis of a Nursing Career, the administrator's notice. Security penetration attacks include the following types: Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN devices using static WEP key for encryption are vulnerable to industry, the WEP key cracking attack. Cisco Systems introduced LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) to Analysis of a Nursing, leverage the existing 802.1x framework to avoid such WEP key attacks.

The Cisco LEAP solution provides mutual authentication, dynamic per session and per user keys, and configurable WEP session key time out. The LEAP solution was considered a stable security solution and is easy to configure. There are hacking tools that compromise wireless LAN networks running LEAP by using off-line dictionary attacks to entre le mur, break LEAP passwords After detecting WLAN networks that use LEAP, this tool de-authenticates users which forces them to reconnect and provide their user name and Career, password credentials. The hacker captures packets of legitimate users trying to re-access the network. The attacker can then analyze the traffic off-line and guess the password by testing values from a dictionary. The main features of the ASLEAP tool include: Reading live from any wireless interface in RFMON mode with libpcap Monitoring a single channel or performing channel hopping to look for target networks running LEAP.

Actively deauthenticating users on LEAP networks, forcing them to reauthenticate. This allows quick LEAP password captures. Only de-authenticating users who have not already been seen rather than users who are not running LEAP. Reading from stored libpcap files. Using a dynamic database table and index to allow quick lookups on large files.

This reduces the worst-case search time to .0015% as opposed to lookups in a flat file. Writing only the LEAP exchange information to a libpcap file. This could be used to capture LEAP credentials with a device short on disk space (like an purpose of the rheostat experiment? iPaq); the of a LEAP credentials are then stored in the libpcap file on a system with more storage resources to mount the dictionary attack. The source and of tuesdays morrie, Win32 binary distribution for the tool are available at Analysis of a Career Essay, http://asleap.sourceforge.net. Cisco Systems has developed the Extensible Authentication Protocol-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling (EAP-FAST) protocol which stops these dictionary attacks. The Importance Of Writing! EAP-FAST helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, dictionary attacks, and packet and Analysis Nursing Career Essay, authentication forgery attacks.

In EAP-FAST, a tunnel is created between the client and the server using a PAC (Protected Access Credential) to authenticate each other. After the tunnel establishment process, the client is then authenticated using the user-name and password credentials. Some advantages of EAP-FAST include: It is the importance not proprietary. Of A Career! It is compliant with the IEEE 802.11i standard. It supports TKIP and WPA. It does not use certificates and avoids complex PKI infrastructures. Which Of The! It supports multiple Operating Systems on PCs and Pocket PCs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the de-authentication signature of the ASLEAP tool.

Once detected, the server alerts the wireless administrator. The user of the attacked station should reset the password. The best solution to counter the ASLEAP tool is to Nursing, replace LEAP with EAP-FAST in the corporate WLAN environment. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to Cisco WCS online help. Starting with Apple OSX Lion, Apple has a new feature called AirDrop. Garvey, And Pan! This new feature is supported on newer MacBook, MacBook Pro and Nursing, iMac.

What this new feature allows users to of the behavior?, do is quickly setup a wireless file transfer system. To achieve this, both of the users that want to share files need to open their finder and Analysis Nursing Career, click on the AirDrop link. Once both of the systems are in range of of the rheostat experiment? each other and the link is setup, the users will see the other user's login icon in the AirDrop window. Analysis Of A Career! They can then drag-and-drop files onto the other users icon to begin a file transfer. This could potentially create a security risk due to telecommunication industry, unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks being dynamically created in your WLAN environment. Analysis Nursing! File sharing is of tuesdays morrie also a concern here. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with an AirDrop session. Cisco recommends that you locate users creating AirDrop sessions and inform them of your company policies regarding unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Airpwn is a framework for 802.11 packet injection. Airpwn listens to incoming wireless packets, and if the Analysis of a Nursing Essay data matches a pattern specified in the config files, custom content is injected (spoofed) from the wireless access point. Airpwn utilizes the inherent delay when a client sends a request to telecommunication, the internet. Since the Airpwn attacker is closer, it will be able to quickly respond.

As an example, the hacker might replace all images on a website that the visitor is trying to Analysis of a, view, showing only what the hacker wants the visitor to see. Airpwn only works on open wireless networks and WEP encrypted networks when the attacker knows the industry WEP key. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for potential traffic that is consistent with an Airpwn attack against Open or WEP decrypted Access Points and notifies the WLAN administrator. It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the Analysis of a Nursing Career Floor Plan screen. What Rheostat In This! The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the wireless device running the AirSnarf tool. Appropriate action must be taken by the administrator to remove the Nursing Essay AirSnarf tool from the WLAN environment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Certain frame transmissions from a valid corporate client to an AP can cause a crash in some AP models due to insufficient or invalid data. What Is The Of The Rheostat In This Experiment?! A wireless attacker can take advantage of this vulnerability by of a Nursing Career Essay transmitting the defective frames in order to bring down a corporate AP.

By sending EAP-TLS packets with flags set to the importance of writing, 'c0' and no TLS message length or data, APs from some vendors can be rendered inoperable until they are rebooted. During this reboot process, attackers may have a brief opportunity to gain access to the corporate network, resulting in a potential security leak. The wIPS server monitors EAP-TLS transmissions and triggers an alarm if defective or invalid frames are detected. Although this issue may not always represent a wireless attack, it is an issue that should be remedied in order to Career, maintain the health of the overall wireless deployment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into which of the best behavior?, the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air.

This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on Analysis of a Career 802.11 frames. The system inspects each beacon frame looking for the importance, signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of beacon fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and Analysis of a Nursing Career, changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Beacon Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with Beacon Fuzzing. It is purpose in this experiment? recommended to of a Nursing Career, locate the device and take it offline. Alarm Description and the importance, Possible Causes. A common practice amongst WLAN Administrators is to disable broadcasting of the SSID for Nursing Essay, an Access Point. The idea behind this is that if people scanning for wireless networks can't see you, then you are safe. Basically you would need to know the SSID in order to the importance of writing, connect to Analysis of a Nursing Career, that wireless network.

This protects your wireless network from entre le mur, casual drive by users who don't have the tools to extract the SSID from hidden networks. But hackers are a different story. They have the tools, the time and energy to extract the SSID from hidden networks. Of A! There are many tools to perform this type of snooping. If a hidden SSID is entre le mur not found through normal methods, hackers can use a brute force method using the tool mdk3. With the Analysis Nursing tool mdk3, they can perform a Dictionary attack or a word list attack on the hidden network to of tuesdays with, extract the of a Nursing Career SSID. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for potential traffic that is consistent with a brute force attack against a hidden SSID and notifies the of tuesdays morrie WLAN administrator. Nursing Career Essay! It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the Floor Plan screen. The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and of the following best organizational behavior?, Possible Causes. This attack takes advantage of an Analysis of a Essay insecure redundancy checking algorithm implemented in the WEP protocol.

By compromising a few known properties, an attacker is able to take an encrypted packet and decrypt it while retrieving the keystream used to encrypt the theme with packet. The way the attack works, is the attacker captures a packet and chops one byte off the Analysis of a Nursing Essay end of the packet before the ICV. The attacker will then append a guess to the decrypted value of the byte. What Of The Rheostat Experiment?! The packet is fixed by recalculating the ICV then injects this packet to the target AP. If the target AP, re-broadcasts this frame back out, the attacker knows he has correctly guessed the value of the decrypted byte. The attacker then moves onto the next byte. As the guesses become successful, the Analysis Career Essay packet being injected actually gets smaller and industry, smaller. If the packet doesn't get re-broadcasted, then the attacker changes the guess and Analysis of a Nursing, repeats the process, he or she has 256 possible choices to try and guess. Below is an example of the tool running trying the various possible guesses.

Once complete, the attacker will have decrypted the entire WEP packet byte by byte, which can then be XORed with the original encrypted packet to produce the Garvey, and Pan Essay plaintext data. The ChopChop Attack is targeted at WEP based Access Points to break the WEP key and Nursing Essay, gain direct access to the wireless network. Since this particular attack can take less than 5 minutes to perform, there is the importance of writing a good chance the attacker has already gained access to your wireless network. If possible, migrate your WLAN off WEP. WPA2-AES is recommended. If that's not an option, here are some steps to help troubleshoot the Analysis of a Nursing Essay situation.

Turn off the radios for the affected AP. This will disconnect all clients that are currently connected. Change the WEP key Turn the radios back on theme with You will need to Analysis of a, change the WEP key on all of the devices that were currently connected to the new WEP key that was just set. Monitor NCS to see if the ChopChop alarm happens again. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. DHCP Starvation is an attack where a malicious user broadcasts large amounts of entre le mur DHCP requests with spoofed MAC addresses. If enough DHCP request frames flood the network, the attacker could use up all of the remaining DHCP IP addresses that are available for valid users. Analysis Essay! This would create a DoS condition on Essay the network. There are two tools that can do this fairly easily: Gobbler and Yersinia are publicly available tools that can perform this type of attack.

This type of attack is especially harmful on guest networks or hotspot networks where the user is allowed to get an IP address before the authentication happens. Mitigation options for this type of attack can be handled at the switch level. For Cisco IOS switches, enable DHCP Snooping. For Cisco CatOS, enable port security. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with a DHCP Starvation attack. Cisco recommends that you locate the user running the attack or implement tighter switch security. Day-0 Attack by WLAN Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS has detected a single Security IDS/IPS policy violation on a large number of devices in the wireless network. Either the number of devices violating the specific policy in the time period specified are observed or there is a sudden percentage increase in the number of devices as specified in the threshold settings for the alarm.

Depending on the Security IDS/IPS violation, it is suggested that the violation be monitored individually to determine the Nursing Essay source and destination of this attack. If this is an increase in the number of with rogue devices, it may indicate an attack against the network. If there is a sudden increase in the number of client devices with encryption disabled, it may be necessary to revisit the Corporate Security Policy and enforce users to use the highest level of encryption and authentication according to the policy rules. Day-0 Attack by Device Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a device violating a large number of Nursing Career Security IDS/IPS policies. This device has either generated a number of Security IDS/IPS violations in the time period specified or there is a sudden percentage increase as specified in the threshold settings for the various alarms. The device should be monitored and telecommunication industry, located to carry out further analysis to check if this device is compromising the Enterprise Wireless Network in any way (attack or vulnerability).

If this is a rogue device, the Analysis Career WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find it. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Cross-Site scripting vulnerabilities are well known and consist of publicized attacks that target web applications to gain access to telecommunication, the underlying server or the web application itself. It does this by injecting a client-side script into web pages viewed by the user. This attack is performed using a device to broadcast the client-side code as the SSID. Of A Nursing! Once a WLAN monitoring system picks up the malicious SSID and records it, if the system is Garvey, and Pan Essay web based and there are Cross-Site Scripting vulnerabilities, then that system will be exploited once the device with the malicious SSID is clicked. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for Access Points and Ad-hoc devices broadcasting malicious Cross-site scripting (XSS) traffic. It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the floor plan screen. The device should then be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Some commonly used scan tools include: NetStumbler (newer versions), MiniStumbler (newer versions), MACStumbler, WaveStumbler, PrismStumbler, dStumbler, iStumbler, Aerosol, Boingo Scans, WiNc, AP Hopper, NetChaser, Microsoft Windows XP scans. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects wireless devices probing the WLAN and attempting association (i.e. association request for of a Essay, an access point with any SSID). Such devices could pose potential security threats in one of the following ways: War-driving, WiLDing (Wireless LAN Discovery), war-chalking, war-walking, war cycling, war-lightrailing, war-busing, and war-flying. Legitimate wireless client attempting risky promiscuous association. War-driving, war-chalking, war-walking, and war-flying activities include: War-driving- A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and publishes information such as MAC address, SSID, and security implemented on the Internet with the telecommunication industry access points' geographical location information. War-chalking- War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols War-flying-War-flying refers to sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas.

It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet relay chat sessions from an altitude of Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your the access points to not broadcast SSIDs. Use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access points are broadcasting (announcing) their SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.1x provides an EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) framework for wired or wireless LAN authentication. An EAP framework allows flexible authentication protocol implementation. Some implementations of telecommunication 802.1x or WPA use authentication protocols such as LEAP, MD5, OTP (one-time-password), TLS, and TTLS. Some of these authentication protocols are based upon the user name and password mechanism, where the Nursing Career Essay user name is entre le mur transmitted clear without encryption and the password is used to answer authentication challenges. Most password-based authentication algorithms are susceptible to dictionary attacks. Analysis Nursing! During a dictionary attack, an attacker gains the user name from the unencrypted 802.1x identifier protocol exchange. The attacker then tries to guess a user's password to gain network access by using every word in a dictionary of common passwords or possible combinations of passwords.

A dictionary attack relies on the fact that a password is often a common word, name, or combination of both with a minor modification such as a trailing digit or two. A dictionary attack can take place actively online, where an attacker repeatedly tries all the possible password combinations. Online dictionary attacks can be prevented using lock-out mechanisms available on which defines organizational behavior? the authentication server (RADIUS servers) to lock out the user after a certain number of invalid login attempts. A dictionary attack can also take place off-line, where an Analysis of a Essay attacker captures a successful authentication challenge protocol exchange and then tries to is the purpose experiment?, match the challenge response with all possible password combinations off-line. Analysis Essay! Unlike online attacks, off-line attacks are not easily detected. Using a strong password policy and periodically expiring user passwords significantly reduces an off-line attack tool's success. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects online dictionary attacks by tracking 802.1x authentication protocol exchange and the user identifier usages. Dubois And Pan Essay! Upon detection of a dictionary attack, the alarm message identifies the user name and attacking station's MAC address.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS advises switching user name and password based authentication methods to Analysis of a Nursing, encrypted tunnel based authentication methods such as PEAP and EAP-FAST, which are supported by many vendors including Cisco. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Fake AP tool is meant to protect your WLAN acting as a decoy to confuse war-drivers using NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, MiniStumbler, Kismet, etc. Garvey, Dubois And Pan Essay! The tool generates beacon frames imitating thousands of counterfeit 802.11b access points. War-drivers encountering a large amount of access points are not able to identify the real access points deployed by the user. This tool, although very effective in fending off war-drivers, poses other disadvantages such as bandwidth consumption, misleading legitimate client stations, and interference with the Analysis of a Career Essay WLAN management tools. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS does not recommend running the Fake AP tool in your WLAN.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends that the administrator locate the device running the Fake AP tool and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is the importance identified and reported, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the device. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and of a Career, providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is identified and reported, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to telecommunication industry, find the device. Fast WEP Crack (ARP Replay) Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. It is well publicized that WLAN devices using static WEP key for encryption are vulnerable to WEP key cracking attack (Refer to Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of Nursing Career RC4 - I by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir).

The WEP secret key that has been cracked by following organizational behavior? any intruder results in no encryption protection, thus leading to compromised data privacy. The WEP key that is in most cases 64-bit or 128-bit (few vendors also offer 152-bit encryption) consists of the Career secret key specified by the user linked with the 24-bit IV (Initialization Vector). Of The Best Organizational Behavior?! The IV that is determined by the transmitting station can be reused frequently or in consecutive frames, thus increasing the possibility of the secret key to be recovered by wireless intruders. The most important factor in Nursing Career Essay, any attack against what purpose of the rheostat in this experiment?, the WEP key is the of a Career key size. For 64-bit WEP keys, around 150K unique IVs and for 128-bit WEP keys around 500k to a million unique IVs should be enough. With insufficient traffic, hackers have created a unique way of generating sufficient traffic to perform such an attack. This is called the replay attack based on which of the following best defines organizational behavior? arp-request packets. Analysis Nursing Career! Such packets have a fixed length and can be spotted easily. By capturing one legitimate arp-request packet and resending them repeatedly, the other host responds with encrypted replies, providing new and possibly weak IVs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on weak WEP implementations and recommends a device firmware upgrade if available from the entre le mur device vendor to correct the IV usage problem.

Ideally, enterprise WLAN networks can protect against WEP vulnerability by Career using the TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption mechanism, which is now supported by most enterprise level wireless equipment. TKIP enabled devices are not subject to any such WEP key attacks. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the Cisco WCS online help. Alarm Description and what is the rheostat, Possible Causes.

It is well publicized that a WLAN device using a static WEP key for encryption is vulnerable to various WEP cracking attacks. Refer to Analysis of a Nursing Essay, Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 - I, by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and which of the following best defines organizational behavior?, Adi Shamir for more information. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on detecting a potential fragmentation attack in progress, and recommends that WEP not be used in the corporate environment and that appropriate measures be taken to avoid any security holes in the network and of a Career, upgrade the wireless network infrastructure and devices to use the and Pan Essay more secure IEEE 802.11i standard. HT Intolerant Degradation Services. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for Analysis of a Nursing, dramatically increased wireless range and what purpose rheostat, speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. To help prevent this situation, the wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at Analysis of a Career, sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for dramatically increased wireless range and speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. Garvey, Dubois And Pan! To help prevent this situation, the wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The addition of WLANs in Analysis of a Essay, the corporate environment introduces a whole new class of what purpose of the rheostat threats for network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to unauthorized users. A rogue access point can put the entire corporate network at risk for outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the threat of the rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and intrusions such as mis-configured access points, unconfigured access points, and Nursing, DoS (denial-of-service) attacks. One of the most effective attacks facing enterprise networks implementing wireless is the use of a honey pot access point. An intruder uses tools such as NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, and MiniStumbler to discover the SSID of the corporate access point. Then the intruder sets up an of the access point outside the building premises or, if possible, within the premises and Analysis of a Nursing Essay, broadcasts the of tuesdays morrie discovered corporate SSID. Career Essay! An unsuspecting client then connects to this honey pot access point with a higher signal strength. Once associated, the intruder performs attacks against the client station because traffic is diverted through the honey pot access point.

Once a honey pot access point is identified and reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the what purpose rheostat in this WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on of a Nursing the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the rogue device. Hot-Spotter Tool Detected (Potential Wireless Phishing) Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for the general public. Hotspots are often found in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to congregate. It is currently one of the with morrie most important network access service for business travelers. Career Essay! The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to connect to the legitimate access point and to receive service. Most hotspots do not require the user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for of tuesdays with, entry is Nursing Career Essay only dependent on Garvey, Dubois and Pan Africanism Essay whether or not the subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else. Due to current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the user.

The four components of a basic hotspot network are: Hotspot Subscribers-Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid login for accessing the hotspot network. Of A Career! WLAN Access Points-SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers-Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions, etc. This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in the access point itself.

Authentication Server-Contains the login credentials for what of the, the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server. Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against Analysis of a Nursing Career, wireless clients, independent of the entre le mur encryption mechanism used. Using the Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitors the wireless network for probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the intruder compares the Analysis Nursing network name (SSID) to a supplied list of Garvey, Africanism commonly used hotspot network names. Of A Nursing Career! Once a match is found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to this fake access point. Once the client gets associated, the Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to telecommunication industry, this kind of attack when they are operating in different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the hotspot SSID in the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out Analysis of a Career, probe requests using that SSID and experiment?, make themselves vulnerable to Analysis Nursing Career, the tool. Once the which of the defines organizational rogue access point is identified and reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the Nursing WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the rogue device.

Identical Send and Receive Address. Alarm Description and Garvey, Dubois and Pan Essay, Possible Causes. In order to inhibit wireless activity in a corporate network, attackers will often modify wireless packets to emulate various different characteristics, including changes to the packets' Source and Destination MAC information. Of A Nursing! In cases where these fields are identical, the entre le mur Identical Send and Receive Address alarm will be triggered in order to alert IT personnel of a potential attack. In a normal network environment, a packet's Source and Career Essay, Destination will never be identical.

As such, the enterprise administrators should take immediate steps to locate the root cause of the modified packets. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Standard 802.11 deployments allow for certain frames to be transmitted to individual destinations (also known as unicast frames, such as an ACK) and other frames to be 'broadcast' to all recipients in the wireless deployment. In general, these two categories should not overlap, e.g., an Association Request frame should not be sent out as a broadcast to all listening devices. Which Of The Following Behavior?! In this scenario, the wIPS server will trigger an Improper Broadcast Frames alarm to alert staff of a potential problem. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Karma tool allows a wireless attacker to configure a client as a soft AP that will respond to any probe request detected. This implementation is Analysis of a Nursing Career designed to respond to queries from stations configured to connect to of tuesdays with, multiple different networks, e.g., SSID Corporate for work and SSID Home for of a Nursing Essay, home use. In this example, the soft AP may be configured to respond to the probe for Home when the client is at work. In this manner, the attacker tricks the corporate client to route potentially sensitive network traffic to the false AP. The wIPS server will trigger a Karma Tool alarm if a wireless station is discovered using the tool within the corporate environment.

Users should locate the attacking device and and Pan Africanism Essay, eliminate it immediately. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack is one of the most common 802.11 attacks that can lead to confidential corporate and private information being leaked to hackers. Career! In a MITM attack, the hacker can use a 802.11 wireless analyzer and monitor 802.11 frames sent over the WLAN. By capturing the wireless frames during the association phase, the hacker gets IP and MAC address information about the wireless client card and access point, association ID for the client, and the SSID of the wireless network. A commonly used method for performing the MITM attack involves the hacker sending spoofed dis-association or de-authentication frames. The hacker station then spoofs the best defines MAC address of the Nursing client to continue an Garvey, association with the access point. At the same time, the hacker sets up a spoofed access point in another channel to keep the client associated. This allows all traffic between the valid client and Analysis, access point to pass through the hacker's station.

One of the most commonly used MITM attack tools is Monkey-Jack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends the of writing use of strong encryption and authentication mechanisms to Nursing Career, thwart any MITM attacks by hackers. One way to Africanism, avoid such an attack is to prevent MAC spoofing by Nursing Essay using MAC address exclusion lists and monitoring the entre le mur RF channel environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MITM attacks. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide or the WCS online help. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (such as an Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay association request for entre le mur, an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for Access Point alarm is of a Career Essay generated when hackers use recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm.

NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for which of the defines organizational, war-driving and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. War-walking is similiar to war-driving, but the hacker is on foot instead of a car. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or better. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers like to use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores.

War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas. Analysis Essay! It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up email and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from theme of tuesdays with, being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which of your access points is Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay broadcasting an SSID in industry, the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to broadcast their SSIDs.

For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to Analysis of a Nursing Career, the WCS online help. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access point is is the purpose experiment? broadcasting its SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and Analysis Nursing Career, Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for theme with, an anonymous association (i.e., association request for an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for access point alarm is Analysis of a Career Essay generated when hackers more recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the theme Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm. NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for war-driving, war-walking, and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the of a Career access points' geographical location information. With Morrie! War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above.

War-walking is similar to war-driving, but the hacker conducts the illegal operation on foot instead of by car. The NetStumbler web site (http://www.netstumbler.com/) offers MiniStumbler software for use on Pocket PC hardware, saving war-walkers from carrying heavy laptops. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or later. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers typically use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores. War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used, but from a low-flying private plane with high-power antennas. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an Analysis altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts the user when it observes that a station running Netstumbler is associated to a corporate access point.

Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) Violation. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) is a feature implemented on Dubois and Pan Essay WLAN access points to block wireless clients from communicating with other wireless clients. With PSPF enabled, client devices cannot communicate with other client devices on the wireless network. For most WLAN environments, wireless clients communicate only with devices such as web servers on the wired network. By enabling PSPF it protects wireless clients from being hacked by a wireless intruder. PSPF is of a Career Essay effective in protecting wireless clients especially at the importance, wireless public networks (hotspots) such as airports, hotels, coffee shops, and of a Nursing Career, college campuses where authentication is null and anyone can associate with the access points.

The PSPF feature prevents client devices from rheostat in this, inadvertently sharing files with other client devices on the wireless network. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects PSPF violations. If a wireless client attempts to communicate with another wireless client, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises an alarm for a potential intrusion attack. This alarm does not apply if your WLAN deploys wireless printers or VoWLAN applications because these applications rely on wireless client-to-client communication. Probe Request Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and Analysis of a Career Essay, then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each Probe Request frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Entre Le Mur! Most common forms of Probe Request fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the limit of Nursing Career 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for Garvey, Dubois and Pan Essay, these anomalies and will generate the Probe Request Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification.

Probe Response Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 Fuzzing is the Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames.

The system inspects each Probe Response frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Response fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the what purpose rheostat in this limit of 32 bytes and Analysis, changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for which, these anomalies and will generate the Probe Response Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with Probe Response Fuzzing. Analysis Nursing Essay! It is recommended to locate the which defines organizational device and take it offline.

Host AP tools: Cqure AP. Alarm Description and of a Nursing Essay, Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for of writing, the general public. Of A Career Essay! Hotspots are often found in which of the defines behavior?, airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to congregate. It is Analysis of a Career Essay currently one of the most important network access service for business travelers. The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to connect to the legitimate access point and to receive service. Most hotspots do not require the user to which of the following best defines organizational, have an advanced authentication mechanism to connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for Analysis Nursing, entry is only dependent on whether or not the of writing subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else.

Due to current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to of a Nursing, validate the identity of the which of the best defines behavior? user. Basic components of a WLAN Hotspot network. The four components of a basic hotspot network are as follows: Hotspot Subscribers—Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid log in for Analysis of a Nursing Career Essay, accessing the hotspot network. WLAN Access Points—SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers—Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions. This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in theme of tuesdays with morrie, the access point itself. Authentication Server—Contains the log in credentials for the subscribers. Analysis Of A Nursing Career Essay! In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server.

Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against wireless clients, independent of the Garvey, Africanism Essay encryption mechanism used. Using the Analysis Hotspotter tool, the telecommunication industry intruder can passively monitor the wireless network for probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the Nursing intruder compares the network name (SSID) to a supplied list of commonly used hotspot network names. Entre Le Mur! When a match is found, the Analysis Nursing Career Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to this fake access point. When the client gets associated, the theme with Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to this kind of attack when they are operating in different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the hotspot SSID in the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out probe requests using that SSID and make themselves vulnerable to the tool. Soft APs or Software Access points should be treated as a Rogue device. The following steps should help eliminate this threat. Use integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities to locate the Rogue device Wireless Containment to prevent any devices from connecting to the Soft AP Trace the device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switch port tracing to find the rogue device.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Spoofed mac address detected is a type of attack where a hacker will change their factory assigned wireless mac address to Nursing, either gain access to a restricted wireless network by impersonating a valid connected user or to hide their presence on the wireless network. There are two types of Spoofed MAC address attacks, Client based and AP based. For client based Spoofed MAC address attacks, the what is the purpose of the in this client could be trying to impersonate a valid user. An example of this would be a wireless hacker trying to get onto an access controlled hotspot by spoofing their wireless mac address of a client that is already connected, in effect piggybacking on Analysis of a Career Essay the connection. Another popular example would be in a hotel environment where a hacker bypasses the payment process to get on the wireless network by spoofing their wireless mac address of a paid user. Another type of Spoofed MAC address attack is AP based. In this case, the theme of tuesdays hacker is of a trying to hide their presence on the wireless network by spoofing the mac address of a corporate access point. This is a typical rogue scenario. Suspicious After Hours Traffic Detected.

Alarm Description and entre le mur, Possible Causes. One way to detect a wireless security penetration attempt is to match wireless usage against Analysis Career Essay, the time when there is not supposed to be any wireless traffic. The wIPS server monitors traffic patterns against the office-hours configured for this alarm to generate alerts when an abnormality is found. Specific suspicious wireless usage sought after by the wIPS server during after-office hours include the following: Client station initiating authentication or association requests to the importance of writing, the office WLAN that may indicate security breach attempts.

Wireless data traffic that may indicate suspicious download or upload over the wireless network. For global wIPS deployment, the configurable office-hour range is defined in local time. The access point or sensor can be configured with a time zone to facilitate management. For the office and manufacturing floor mixed WLAN, one can define one set of office hours for the office WLAN SSID and another (for example, 6am to 9pm) for the manufacturing floor WLAN SSID. If this alarm is triggered, the administrator should look for devices responsible for the suspicious traffic and take appropriate steps to Nursing Career, locate it and remove it from the wireless environment. Unauthorized Association By Vendor List. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS enables network administrators to include vendor information in a policy profile to which best behavior?, allow the system to effectively detect stations on Analysis of a Nursing Essay the WLAN that are not made by approved vendors. Once such a policy profile is created, the purpose of the rheostat system generates an of a Career Essay alarm whenever an access point is associating with a station by an unapproved vendor. See the diagram below. As the diagram shows, the access points in the importance, ACL-1 should only associate with stations made by Cisco and the access points in ACL-2 can only associate with stations manufactured by Intel.

This information is entered in the wIPS system's policy profile. Any association between the access points and non-Cisco or non-Intel stations is unauthorized and triggers an alarm. In the of a enterprise WLAN environment, rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. Telecommunication! They take up air space and compete for network bandwidth. Since an of a Essay access point can only accommodate a limited number of stations, it rejects association requests from stations once its capacity is reached. An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations the the importance access to the network. Analysis Of A Essay! Common problems caused by rogue stations include connectivity problems and degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS automatically alerts network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association involving non-conforming stations using this alarm. Once the alarm has been triggered, the unauthorized station must be identified and actions must be taken to entre le mur, resolve the issue. One way is to block it using the rogue containment.

Unauthorized Association Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. In an enterprise network environment, rogue access points installed by employees do not usually follow the network's standard deployment practice and therefore compromise the of a Career Essay integrity of the network. They are loopholes in network security and make it easy for intruders to hack into of writing, the enterprise wired network. One of the major concerns that most wireless network administrators face is unauthorized associations between stations in an ACL and a rogue access point. Since data to and from the stations flows through the rogue access point, it leaves the door open for hackers to obtain sensitive information. Rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. They take up air space and Analysis of a Nursing, compete for Garvey, Dubois Africanism Essay, bandwidths on the network. Since an access point can only of a Essay, serve a certain number of stations, it rejects association requests from theme with morrie, stations once its capacity is reached.

An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations access to the network. Of A Nursing! Common problems caused by which best defines rogue stations include disrupted connections and degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can automatically alert network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association it has detected on the network through this alarm. Analysis Of A Essay! The WLC new feature MAC Address Learning will prevent this violation from happening, it is which of the following best defines behavior? recommended to enable this feature. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e. association request for an access point with any SSID) using the Wellenreiter tool.

Wellenreiter is a commonly used tool for war-driving and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. War-walking is of a Nursing similar to war-driving, but the hacker is on foot instead of a car. War-walkers like to use Wellenreiter and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores. War-flying is sniffing for entre le mur, wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used, but from a low flying private plane with high power antennas.

It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of Analysis of a Essay 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. The tool supports Prism2, Lucent, and entre le mur, Cisco based cards. Career Essay! The tool can discover infrastructure and ad-hoc networks that are broadcasting SSIDs, their WEP capabilities, and can provide vendor information automatically. It also creates an ethereal/tcpdump-compatible dumpfile and an Application savefile. It also has GPS support. Users can download the tool from Wellenreiter website.

To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to Garvey, Africanism, see which of Analysis Essay your access points is broadcasting an SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to following best defines organizational behavior?, broadcast their SSIDs. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the WCS online help. WiFi Protected Setup Pin Brute Force. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

WiFi Protected Setup is a feature on most consumer grade Access Points that allows for easy device setup without the Analysis of a Nursing Career need for complex passwords. The feature allows the user to either use the push button method or enter in the pin found on the bottom of the Access Point to of writing, connect. A vulnerability was announced in December 2011 by Stefan Viehböck and independently discovered by Craig Heffner. The vulnerability is with the external registrar that only requires the devices pin. This mode is susceptible to brute force attacks against the pin. There are currently 2 active tools in the wild exploiting this. The basic idea behind the attack is when a pin authentication fails, the access point sends back an EAP-NACK message to the client. With this EAP-NACK message, the attacker is able to determine if the first half of the pin is correct.

The last digit of the pin is known since it is a checksum for the pin. This reduces the of a Nursing Career attempts to which of the following best defines, brute force the pin down to 11,000. It is recommended to disable the external registrar feature of WiFi Protected Setup on your Access Point. Most manufacturers have this feature on by default. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with WiFi Protected Setup Pin brute force. It is recommended to locate the device and take it offline. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The WiFiTap tool allows a wireless attacker to Analysis of a Nursing Career, configure a client to communicate directly with another client, without connecting to entre le mur, a corporate AP.

This implementation allows the intruder to Nursing Essay, target an attack against the individual client, bypassing any security measures configured on the corporate network. Of Tuesdays With Morrie! The attacker then has access to all files and information stored on the victim client station. The wIPS server monitors for use of the Essay WiFiTap tool and triggers an alarm if it is detected. Users should attempt to and Pan Essay, locate the attacking device and remove it from the wireless environment.